The Hidden Mission Forum

Full Version: Recall: We are geometricians
You're currently viewing a stripped down version of our content. View the full version with proper formatting.
Need your Geometrics Fix? Nurse 

Scientists find advanced geometry no secret to prehistoric architects in US Southwest
January 23, 2017

[Image: asuscientist.jpg]
A satellite photo of Pueblo Bonito archaeological site with illustrations demonstrating its geometrical properties. Credit: Dr. Sherry Towers
Imagine you are about to plan and construct a building that involves several complicated geometrical shapes, but you aren't allowed to write down any numbers or notes as you do it. For most of us, this would be impossible.


Yet, new research from Arizona State University has revealed that the ancient Southwestern Pueblo people, who had no written language or written number system, were able to do just that - and used these skills to build sophisticated architectural complexes.
Dr. Sherry Towers, a professor with the ASU Simon A. Levin Mathematical, Computational and Modeling Sciences Center, uncovered these findings while spending several years studying the Sun Temple archaeological site in Mesa Verde National Park in Colorado, constructed around A.D. 1200.
"The site is known to have been an important focus of ceremony in the region for the ancestral Pueblo peoples, including solstice observations," Towers says. "My original interest in the site involved looking at whether it was used for observing stars as well."
However, as Towers delved deeper into the site's layout and architecture, interesting patterns began to emerge.
"I noticed in my site survey that the same measurements kept popping up over and over again," she says. "When I saw that the layout of the site's key features also involved many geometrical shapes, I decided to take a closer look."
[Image: 1-asuscientist.jpg]
A satellite photo of Sun Temple archaeological site with illustrations demonstrating its geometrical properties. Credit: Dr. Sherry Towers
The geometrical shapes used within this location would be familiar to any high school student: equilateral triangles, squares, 45-degree right triangles, Pythagorean triangles, and the "Golden rectangle," which was well known to architects in ancient Greece and Egypt and is often used in Western art due to its pleasing proportions.
With some geometrical know-how, a straight-edge, a compass or cord, and a unit of measurement, all of the shapes are fairly easy to construct. But, unlike the ancient Greeks, Egyptians and Maya, the ancestral Pueblo people had no written language or number system to aid them when they built the site. Incredibly, their measurements were still near-perfect, with a relative error of less than one percent.
"This is what I find especially amazing," Towers says. "The genius of the site's architects cannot be underestimated. If you asked someone today to try to reconstruct this site and achieve the same precision that they had using just a stick and a piece of cord, it's highly unlikely they'd be able to do it, especially if they couldn't write anything down as they were working."


During her research, Towers discovered that the site was laid out using a common unit of measurement just over 30 centimeters in length - equal to about one modern-day foot. She also found evidence that some of the same geometrical constructs from Sun Temple were used in at least one other ancestral Puebloan ceremonial site, Pueblo Bonito, located in New Mexico's Chaco Culture National Historic Park.


"Further study is needed to see if that site also has the same common unit of measurement," she says. "It's a task that will keep us busy for some years to come."

The study "Advanced geometrical constructs in a Pueblo ceremonial site, c. 1200 CE" will appear in the Journal of Archaeological ScienceReports.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Ancient Chaco Canyon population likely relied on imported food
More information: S. Towers, Advanced geometrical constructs in a Pueblo ceremonial site, c 1200CE, Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports (2017). DOI: 10.1016/j.jasrep.2017.01.009 
Journal reference: Journal of Archaeological Science [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: Arizona State University



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-01-scientists...c.html#jCp[/url][url=https://phys.org/news/2017-01-scientists-advanced-geometry-secret-prehistoric.html#jCp]

A B & C remind me of sum thing???
[Image: 1-asuscientist.jpg]
[Image: id_fig2.jpg] Not quite sure  Cry  one is just slightly offset from the others...
Solstice Alignments Spotted in Washington, D.C., Garden

Friday, June 03, 2016
[Image: garden-solstice-alignment.jpg]
(Courtesy Amelia Sparavigna)
TURIN, ITALY—The statues and walkways in a symmetrical nineteenth-century garden in Washington D.C. are aligned to the rising and setting sun on the summer and winter solstices, according to physicist Amelia Sparavigna of Politecnico di Torino. Live Science reports that, using satellite imagery and astronomical software, Sparavigna found that the solstice sun aligns with the statue of President Andrew Jackson that stands in the center of the Lafayette Square garden. Four walkways radiate out from this statue. Standing near the statue of Andrew Jackson, it would appear that on the summer solstice, the sun rises at the northeast end of one path, and sets at the northwest end of the opposite path. On the winter solstice, the sun would appear to rise at the southeast end of another path and set at the southwest end of its opposite. Sparavigna says it is unclear why designer Andrew Jackson Downing aligned the ends of the walkways to the solstice sun. For more, go to "Letter from England: The Scientist's Garden."


http://www.archaeology.org/news/4511-160...-alignment
...
All that ancient geometry was ... spiritual ancient geometry.
All cultures partook in varying degrees of such sacred geometry expression, to different proficiencies.
The author may be stretching on some of the triangles proposed, but no doubt is correct about others.
He also may be correct about all of them,
and he may be missing one he should look for.

From my perspective of having performed a lot of geometry and sacred geometry,
the only thing missing there is the square root two tetrahedral rectangle or triangles.
It seems to me that if the golden rectangle is there,
the tetrahedral should be as well,
and most importantly seen is the 3-4-5 triangle in that image.

It is because that 3-4-5 triangle is there, that you should expect the tetrahedral as well,
because the 3-4-5 triangle is the bridge between the golden rectangle,
and the tetrahedral square root two rectangle {or triangle}.
The 3-4-5 triangle is also the building block of the Khafre Pyramid standard geometry.



Quote:"The site is known to have been an important focus of ceremony in the region 
for the ancestral Pueblo peoples, 
including solstice observations," Towers says. 

"My original interest in the site involved looking at whether it was used for observing stars as well."


They watched and accounted for all known planetary movements and especially the Moon.
There is a shitload more than just geometry triangles in the cosmology of that geometric structuring.
Entire cities were sometimes aligned to unusual geometries,
such as the Teotihuacan city grid layout.



Quote:If you asked someone today to try to reconstruct this site 
and achieve the same precision that they had 
using just a stick and a piece of cord, 
it's highly unlikely they'd be able to do it, 
especially if they couldn't write anything down as they were working."



I do not agree with his "stick and cord" or his assessment on measurement accounting while working.


Ancient cultures all over the world were building and designing sacred geometry.
They had their own cultural methods of accomplishing the math.
Highly convergent Pi was found in a very simple fraction tens of thousands of years ago at 355 / 113,
which well exceeds 6 sigma accuracy.

Ancient mankind became sophisticated at his well practiced and handed down geometry,
because it was a spiritual mathematical attachement to, and expression of the universe.
Spiritual geometry was the spiritual science of the ancient cultures.

There is just as much of that sprirtual science information encoded, 
{if not more}  at Teotihuacan,
as there is at Giza.

And then there was the Masonic Code, but then maybe the ancients were all always Masons. Hmm2

Hi
...
Unparalleled work Vic! Holycowsmile

Notice that ancient Mayan number systems are employed:
Seen are the Mayan tzlokin 260 day spiritual calendar,
and even the Mayan Calendar Round 18980 days.
The absolutely wild part of this triangle is the equation with the angle cosine,
that reveals the ancient calendar count for the Venus synod to Earth of 584 days.
This triangle proves that the Mayan system of count using the 13 prime,
can produce a highly convergent Pi value.
In this case, 6 sigma accuracy was greatly exceeded!

[Image: T0cXMhW.jpg]

Ancient cultures all over the world were building and designing sacred geometry.
They had their own cultural methods of accomplishing the math.
Highly convergent Pi was found in a very simple fraction tens of thousands of years ago at 355 / 113,
which well exceeds 6 sigma accuracy.

Notice that ancient Mayan number systems are employed:

They found the cradle of the Maya Arrow

You just may yet see your current constructs anciently articulated.

Especially if they uncover a calander stone or Sarcophagus Lid or wall frieze.

Using these nearly identicle to egyptian metrics you've backwards engineered with deduction.
...
A bit of a left turn into ancient Peru,
a very sophisticated artistic culture around 6th century
called Huari or Wari.
I have a good Huari vessel and was doing some research and came across some great images.

[Image: a7df1a4f286134dff5a3101797f4ab54.jpg]



Always take notice to count the number of head dress symbols seen.
At Teohuanaco in Bolivia,
the Sun God on the main stone gate has 19 head dress symbols for the ancient Lunar Month,
in what are called the Metonic cycles in a close very short term cycle.
"close" is only good in short term cycles
Metonic: 235 Lunar Months = 19 Tropical Earth years

Now in the Huari vessel above, the head dress has 17 symbols,
and that is not an artists coincidental choice.

You see the 17 pointed arch in ancient Sumeria as well in earlier Sumerian iconography.
Astronomically, 17 has to do with the ancient calendar count cycle between Mars sidereal 687 days,
and the Venus to Earth synod,
aligned at 583.95 days.

17 x Mars sidereal  = 20 x Venus Earth synod

I cannot say for certian that the Huari iconography is precisely this interpretation,
but it most likely is at least a part of that head dress iconography.

That is a great Huari vessel.

Here is another Huari oddity :

[Image: b5bc6af80b7a82bdbbf16cd38d64c1ae.jpg]


that is not a toy,
that is not a fake,
that is not a reproduction,
it is an almost  mint condition ancient polychrome pottery artifact.

they are often found so pristine in ancient tombs in the very dry desert
...
(02-01-2017, 04:28 AM)Vianova Wrote: [ -> ]...
A bit of a left turn into ancient Peru,
Expedition Peru
Dig deeper into 5,000 years of Peruvian culture below. Then take to the sky to help preserve Peru’s rich past for future generations.
More about Peru

they are often found so pristine in ancient tombs in the very dry desert
...https://www.globalxplorer.org/expedition

Our human story is being lost.

With your help, GlobalXplorer° will strive to discover and protect our shared human story. Using satellite imagery, we can fight the loss of our cultural heritage.
Explore NowLearn More

We are at a tipping point.
“We're not just losing objects, we're losing opportunities to discover who we are. The last five years have been horrific for archaeology. My colleagues and I have spent countless hours surveying the destruction, and the bad news trickles out in the press. Every day, we read reports of stolen ancient treasures sold at major auction houses, of incredible ancient sites bulldozed in Central America, of revered ancient sites in the Middle East blown up by ISIL.”
— Dr. Sarah Parcak, National Geographic Fellow and 2016 TED Prize Winner


Amateurs can hunt relics with modern 'Indiana Jones'

January 31, 2017 by Glenn Chapman



[Image: atechnologyw.jpg]
A technology-wielding archeologist billed as a real-world "Indiana Jones" has launched an online platform that lets anyone help discover archeological wonders and fight looting
A technology-wielding archeologist billed as a real-world "Indiana Jones" on Monday launched an online platform that lets anyone help discover archeological wonders and fight looting.





A "citizen science" platform that space archaeologist Sarah Parcak wished for a year ago as part of a coveted TED prize went live at GlobalXplorer.org .
"The world's hidden heritage contains clues to humankind's collective resilience and creativity," Parcak said in a release.
"With GlobalXplorer we are empowering a 21st century army of global explorers to discover and protect our shared history."
A video of Parcak unveiling the wish was posted online Monday at ted.com.
GlobalXplorer blends satellite imagery with pattern-hunting of a sort to make a game of spotting clues to the whereabouts of antiquities or looting.
Visitors to the website are invited to sign in and take a quick tutorial before virtually hunting relics and thieves.
Spending time scrutinizing satellite imagery lets people "level up" as in video games and earn rewards such as a chance to virtually join archeologists on actual digs.

"Parcak's wish has put the tools in everyone's hands to discover and protect humanity's rich history, effectively opening up a traditionally closed discipline," said TED prize director Anna Verghese.
"Now our stories are safeguarded by millions rather than just a handful."
Eye on Peru
Only tiny sections of imagery are shown, along with broad location data such as what country is involved, to avoid being a resource for looters seeking tips of where to search.
DigitalGlobe, which specializes in capturing high-resolution pictures of the Earth from space, said that it provided more than 200,000 square kilometers of satellite imagery of Peru and a customized version of an online crowdsourcing tool.
National Geographic and Sustainable Preservation Initiative were listed among collaborators on the project.
Archeologists will follow up on sites pinpointed by the "crowd," paving the way for protection from governments or law enforcement agencies
"As soon as they see new or destroyed sites from space, we will be there on the ground to investigate and protect them," said SPI founder and executive director Larry Coben.
Sarah Parcak envisions a 21st century army of citizen scientists discovering and defending relics.
Parcak condemned destruction of antiquities by the likes of violent extremists from the Islamic State group and saw looting done by the desperately poor as "heartbreaking."
The TED Prize provides a million dollars to kickstart a big vision and opens a door to call on the nonprofit organization's innovative, influential and ingenious community of "tedsters" for help.
The TED community includes scientists, celebrities, politicians, artists, and entrepreneurs.
Her work has caused some to refer to Parcak as a real-world version of the Indiana Jones character made famous in films starring Harrison Ford.
Parcak is a professor at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, where she founded the Laboratory for Global Observation.
She has won attention for her work satellite mapping Egypt and uncovering hidden pyramids, tombs and settlements.
The annual TED Prize has grown from $100,000 to a million dollars since it was first awarded in the year 2005, to U2 band leader Bono and his vision of fighting poverty and disease.
Since its inception in 1984, TED has grown into a global forum for "ideas worth spreading" and has won a worldwide following for trademark "talks" during which accomplished speakers deliver thought-sparking presentations.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Modern 'Indiana Jones' on mission to save antiquities


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-01-amateurs-relics-modern-indiana-jones.html#jCp[url=https://phys.org/news/2017-01-amateurs-relics-modern-indiana-jones.html#jCp][/url]

[Image: b5bc6af80b7a82bdbbf16cd38d64c1ae.jpg]
The Three creatures in a row look like the three seed-purses below...are they really animorphs?
The yellow creature in the middle looks a lot like the seed-purse on the right @ gobekli.
Do eye see 'teeth' etched into that seed-purse and is it a creature NOT a handbag?
[Image: gc3b6bekli_zora_abb-23.jpg]
...
What they are calling "looting" and artifact hunting,
is the only thing bringing out enough new material for possible ancient cultural discoveries.
You see what happened in Egypt with Hawass.
Anything that might change history ... and that dirtbag will bury it.

The Mexican govt. buried half an Olmec cultural site under an oil refinery.

Where are all these science and archaeology expeditions to unearth ancient Olmec civilization,
of which only 5% is exposed?
They don't exist and probably never will in any form to make a difference.
Only the artifact hunters are bringing out the ancient history,
and if you leave it for the universities and the archaoelogists almost all of it will remain buried.  

If you leave it all for the scientists from mostly US and European universities,
or for the university researchers in the country the artifacts come from,
almost nothing will emerge due to funding constraints with needed manpower,
and when much of the material is found by archaeologists or sceintists,
it ends up catalogued and buried away in a museum basement ... most to never be seen again.
...
I got in an argument with a Mexican in the old NYT forum
who didn't know about the Mayan books the Spanish Inquisition burnt in big bonfires.
...
They burned all the Aztec material as well.
Now there is a great time travel story.
Expeditionary force is sent back in time to torch Whip the Spanish Inquisition,
that burned all the ancient cultural history and heritage in Mexico.

Time Travel Intervention


Hmm2

That return trip is a major necessity.

You know things are really bad and totally convoluted,
when you have to travel into the future to change the past.  Doh
lol
...
Origin and Etymology of Geometry

Middle English geometrie, from Anglo-French, from Latin geometria, from Greekgeōmetria, from geōmetrein to measure the earth, from geō- ge- + metron measure — 

Quote:"A physical 3-dimensional sphere with meridians and parallels was invented around the era of Hipparhcus in the 2nd Century BC"



Cartography expert: Ancient Greeks in Ionia first used GPS method to navigate
08.02.2017 | 18:23

[Image: 800px_Bronnikov_gimnpifagoreizev_pythago...340081.jpg]
Profesor explains their contribution to geography

Professor Emeritus of the Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki Cartography Department Evangelos Livieratos revealed that ancient Greeks living off the coast of Ionia - known nowadays as Asia Minor - from the city of Melitus were the first to use stars and their relationship with the earth’s surface like a GPS system to aid them in navigating around the Earth.

According to the professor's presentation at the Gerovasili Museum, these ancient Ionian Greeks were essentially the first to adopt a form of GPS system in global history during the 7th Century BC since they utilized the position of the stars as satellites through their relationship to the earth’s surface.

Mr. Livieratos explained that the first known depiction of a map dates back to30,000 BC and was discovered in northern Italy as a rock inscription.

"The rock inscriptions possibly portray some shacks, a curve which might be a natural barrier (mountain, forest or river) and on the other side of the curve animals”, the professor noted adding that. "Before the satellites, for thousands of years people were doing roughly the same thing as satellites do today, using the stars. They not only used the stars, but their relationship with the earth’s surface, much like satellites do today.

He also underlined that a couple of centuries after the Ionian Greeks used this method to navigate, ancient people described and understood the sphere.
"A physical 3-dimensional sphere with meridians and parallels was invented around the era of Hipparhcus in the 2nd Century BC" according to the professor who also related that "Ptolemy, the Greek mathematician, astronomer and geographer was the first to compile a detailed map/book of the 7,000 known places of his time and that is why he is considered the father of Geography.

http://www.tornosnews.gr/en/greek-news/c...igate.html
Quote:The ditched enclosures, in Acre state in the western Brazilian Amazon, were concealed for centuries by trees. Modern deforestation has allowed the discovery of more than 450 of these large geometrical geoglyphs.

The function of these mysterious sites is still little understood - they are unlikely to be villages, since archaeologists recover very few artefacts during excavation. The layout doesn't suggest they were built for defensive reasons. It is thought they were used only sporadically, perhaps as ritual gathering places.



Hundreds of ancient earthworks built in the Amazon
February 6, 2017

[Image: hundredsofan.jpg]
Geoglyph photo. Credit: Jenny Watling
The Amazonian rainforest was transformed over two thousand years ago by ancient people who built hundreds of large, mysterious earthworks.



Findings by Brazilian and UK experts provide new evidence for how indigenous people lived in the Amazon before European people arrived in the region.
The ditched enclosures, in Acre state in the western Brazilian Amazon, were concealed for centuries by trees. Modern deforestation has allowed the discovery of more than 450 of these large geometrical geoglyphs.
The function of these mysterious sites is still little understood - they are unlikely to be villages, since archaeologists recover very few artefacts during excavation. The layout doesn't suggest they were built for defensive reasons. It is thought they were used only sporadically, perhaps as ritual gathering places.
The structures are ditched enclosures that occupy roughly 13,000 km2. Their discovery challenges assumptions that the rainforest ecosystem has been untouched by humans.
The research was carried out by Jennifer Watling, post-doctoral researcher at the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography, University of São Paulo, when she was studying for a PhD at the University of Exeter.
Dr Watling said: "The fact that these sites lay hidden for centuries beneath mature rainforest really challenges the idea that Amazonian forests are 'pristine ecosystems`.
[Image: 1-hundredsofan.jpg]
Geoglyph photo. Credit: Jenny Watling
"We immediately wanted to know whether the region was already forested when the geoglyphs were built, and to what extent people impacted the landscape to build these earthworks."
Using state-of-the-art methods, the team members were able to reconstruct 6000 years of vegetation and fire history around two geoglyph sites. They found that humans heavily altered bamboo forests for millennia and small, temporary clearings were made to build the geoglyphs.
Instead of burning large tracts of forest - either for geoglyph construction or agricultural practices - people transformed their environment by concentrating on economically valuable tree species such as palms, creating a kind of 'prehistoric supermarket' of useful forest products. The team found tantalizing evidence to suggest that the biodiversity of some of Acre's remaining forests may have a strong legacy of these ancient 'agroforestry' practices.

Dr. Watling said: "Despite the huge number and density of geoglyph sites in the region, we can be certain that Acre's forests were never cleared as extensively, or for as long, as they have been in recent years.
"Our evidence that Amazonian forests have been managed by indigenous peoples long before European Contact should not be cited as justification for the destructive, unsustainable land-use practiced today. It should instead serve to highlight the ingenuity of past subsistence regimes that did not lead to forest degradation, and the importance of indigenous knowledge for finding more sustainable land-use alternatives".
The full article will be released in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA and involved researchers from the universities of Exeter, Reading and Swansea (UK), São Paulo, Belém and Acre (Brazil). The research was funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council, National Geographic, and the Natural Environment Research Council Radiocarbon Facility.
To conduct the study, the team extracted soil samples from a series of pits dug within and outside of the geoglyphs. From these soils, they analysed 'phytoliths', a type of microscopic plant fossil made of silica, to reconstruct ancient vegetation; charcoal quantities, to assess the amount of ancient forest burning; and carbon stable isotopes, to indicate how 'open' the vegetation was in the past.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Ancient human disturbances may skew understanding of Amazon and its impact (Update)
More information: Impact of pre-Columbian "geoglyph" builders on Amazonian forests, PNASwww.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1614359114 
Journal reference: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: University of Exeter



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-02-hundreds-ancient-earthworks-built-amazon.html#jCp[/url][url=https://phys.org/news/2017-02-hundreds-ancient-earthworks-built-amazon.html#jCp]
Figuratively:
https://www.space.com/38561-oldest-astro...found.html
and Literally:
https://phys.org/news/2017-10-geometry-i...s.html#jCp
RE: Recall: We are geometricians

It's Official: Earliest Known Marine Astrolabe Found in Shipwreck

By Laura Geggel, Live Science Senior Writer | October 25, 2017 12:16pm ET

[Image: aHR0cDovL3d3dy5zcGFjZS5jb20vaW1hZ2VzL2kv...xhYi5qcGc=]
A scan of the astrolabe revealed etchings on it.

Credit: University of Warwick


More than 500 years ago, a fierce storm sank a ship carrying the earliest known marine astrolabe — a device that helped sailors navigate at sea, new research finds.

Divers found the artifact in 2014, but were unsure exactly what it was at the time. Now, thanks to a 3D-imaging scanner, scientists were able to find etchings on the bronze disc that confirmed it was an astrolabe.
"It was fantastic to apply our 3D scanning technology to such an exciting project and help with the identification of such a rare and fascinating item," Mark Williams, a professorial fellow at the Warwick Manufacturing Group at the University of Warwick, in the United Kingdom, said in a statement. Williams and his team did the scan.

[Image: MTUwODk0ODM0NQ==]
A researcher examines a scan of the astrolabe.

Credit: University of Warwick

The marine astrolabe likely dates to between 1495 and 1500, and was aboard a ship known as the Esmeralda, which sank in 1503. The Esmeralda was part of a fleet led by Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama, the first known person to sail directly from Europe to India. [The 25 Most Mysterious Archaeological Finds on Earth]

In 2014, an expedition led by Blue Water Recoveries excavated the Esmeralda shipwreck and recovered the astrolabe. But because researchers couldn't discern any navigational markings on the almost 7-inch-diameter (17.5 centimeters) disc, they were cautious about labeling it without further evidence.
Now, the new scan reveals etchings around the edge of the disc, each separated by five degrees, Williams found. This detail proves it's an astrolabe, as these markings would have helped mariners measure the height of the sun above the horizon at noon — a strategy that helped them figure out their location while at sea, Williams said.

[Image: aHR0cDovL3d3dy5zcGFjZS5jb20vaW1hZ2VzL2kv...g5NDg0MTg=]
One side of the astrolabe has the Portuguese coat of arms, and the personal emblem of Portuguese King Dom Manuel I.

Credit: University of Warwick


The disc is also engraved with the Portuguese coat of arms and the personal emblem of Dom Manuel I, Portugal's king from 1495 to1521.

"Usually we are working on engineering-related challenges, so to be able to take our expertise and transfer that to something totally different and so historically significant was a really interesting opportunity," Williams said.
Originally published on Live Science.

https://www.space.com/38561-oldest-astro...found.html

RE: Recall: We are geometricians
Geometry plays an important role in how cells behave, researchers report


October 25, 2017 by Ali Sundermier And Evan Lerner







[Image: geometryplay.jpg]
Credit: University of Pennsylvania
Inspired by how geometry influences physical systems such as soft matter, researchers at the University of Pennsylvania have revealed surprising insights into how the physics of molecules within a cell affect how the cell behaves.






"Cells have a skeleton just like we have a skeleton," said Nathan Bade, a graduate student in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering in the School of Engineering and Applied Science, "and, just like our skeleton, it's stiff. We wanted to understand how that stiff skeleton would respond to geometry."

The researchers focused on vascular smooth muscle cells, which are the types of cells that make up a large portion of large blood vessels in mammals. According to Bade, scientists might expect the cell to try to avoid bending. However, the researchers found that on a cylindrical surface the cells actually form very bent skeletons. They also found that, by manipulating the skeleton of the cells, they could recapitulate the alignment pattern of the skeleton that they saw in vivo.

"The most exciting thing we found is that geometry really matters when it comes to cell behaviors," Bade said. "I think it's something that has been somewhat overlooked compared to stiffness and other important environmental factors."

The research was led by Bade, working under the guidance of Kathleen Stebe, the Richer & Elizabeth Goodwin Professor in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and deputy dean for research and innovation; Randall Kamien, the Vicki and William Abrams Professor in the Natural Sciences in the Department of Physics and Astronomy in the School of Arts and Sciences; and Richard K. Assoian, professor of pharmacology in Penn's Perelman School of Medicine. Their paper was published in Science Advances.

"We already know that mammalian cells interact with boundaries," Stebe said. "For example, if cells are grown on surfaces of different stiffness, they organize differently. That made us become interested in this question of geometry: Can a cell see the shape of its boundary? And we focused our initial work on cylindrical-like structures because they're so common in biology."

To investigate this, Bade coated cylinders with molecules that make them adhere to cells and then watched and gathered information about how the cells behaved when they grew on a curved boundary. The researchers used a powerful confocal microscope that provided them with three-dimensional information about the systems.

[Image: 1-geometryplay.jpg]

Credit: University of Pennsylvania

The researchers were able to treat the stress fibers, the active cytoskeleton within the cells, so that they would fluoresce. Using a laser to collect light from very small sections of a sample, the confocal microscope eliminated all the out-of-focus light. This produced a high-resolution image from a narrow plane which allowed the researchers to see that the population of stress fibers sitting on top of the cell was aligned differently from another population beneath.

They found that the size of the cylinder affected the cell's response: The larger the cylinder, which results in a more planar geometry, the less the stress fibers align. Since smaller cylinders have larger curvature, the stress fibers aligned more strongly around them.

"One population of stress fibers aligns along the axis, and the other one wraps around the cylinder," Stebe said. "There's a very distinct pattern; it's not subtle. So then we asked why this was happening."

Using a drug specifically designed to activate Rho within cells and make the stress fibers thicker and potentially stiffer, the researchers set out to see if this increase in stiffness would discourage the stress fibers from wrapping around the cylinder. But, to their surprise, the researchers found that this treatment completely eliminated the fibers aligned along the axis and thickened the wrapped fibers.

"The reorganization is very striking," said Stebe. "We think of it as the cells doing calculus; the cells sense and respond to the underlying curvature. Apparently, curvature is a cue that is playing a very strong role both in the organization of the cell itself and of the microstructure within the cell. These stress-fiber populations can be manipulated using drugs that change the stiffness, among other things. And, after these manipulations, the stress fibers maintain very strong alignments. This is not the usual argument for pattern formation in biology."

To follow up on these results, the team is conducting further investigations into curvature cues and more complex geometries and boundaries.

"The results from this paper are really interesting," Bade said, "but it left a ton of open questions for us. One of them is really understanding the mechanistic details. What exactly is going on with the cell to cause one population to be very bent and the other to be very straight is still a mystery to us. Additionally, we're in the process now of making more complex curved surfaces to see how the cells respond when faced with a much more challenging curvature field."

[Image: 2-geometryplay.jpg]

Credit: University of Pennsylvania

According to Bade, this research has produced a fundamental finding that sheds light on how cells are interacting with their environment, which is crucial in understanding what cells are doing within human bodies.

"There has been pioneering work at the University of Pennsylvania on understanding how cells sense stiffness," Bade said, "which is an environmental stimulus that's not a soluble chemical signal. And that turns out to be very important in cancer and all sorts of disease states. I think understanding how cells sense and respond to geometry is also important."

The researchers have also shown that, at the most basic level, they can pattern the internal structure of the cell. The patterns in those structures have important implications in downstream cell behaviors like migration and proliferation. The ability of these cells to divide and migrate quickly may be influenced by geometry and curvature.

"From the ability to organize comes the ability to interrogate," Assoian said. "This might be a nice tool that allows us to organize the cell and its substructure for other interrogation. It's also an interesting question of, if you're building up structures from cells, does this organization of the cell and its sub-structures give some new response in otherwise identical cells? It would be very interesting to team with people who are thinking about how to exploit cells in wound healing, or cell-boundary interactions for implants.

"In addition to the new insight into the fundamental principles that cells use to interpret surface geometries, this research could be far reaching in understanding how smooth muscle cells and their cytoskeletons contribute to blood-vessel formation during development and perhaps even how they remodel their vessels in vascular disease. And because we find this response to geometry is not limited to smooth muscle cells, geometry-sensing could become a new frontier in a wide range of biologies."

Stebe said, "That's the fun of science and engineering: a small new tool can touch everything else. And this finding is a dramatic reorganization. So what else does it touch?"

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Curved substrates restrict spreading and induce differentiation of stem cells

More information: Nathan D. Bade et al. Curvature and Rho activation differentially control the alignment of cells and stress fibers, Science Advances (2017). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1700150 




Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-10-geometry-important-role-cells.html#jCp[/url][url=https://phys.org/news/2017-10-geometry-important-role-cells.html#jCp]

HUNDREDS OF 7000-YEAR-OLD STONE STRUCTURES DISCOVERED IN SAUDI ARABIA
[url=https://www.dailygrail.com/author/greg/][img=20x0]https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/f5e580f12aa98e9e55e662b574b872ac?s=20&d=mm&r=g[/img]GREG
THURSDAY, OCTOBER 19TH




Stuff keeps getting older: an upcoming article in the journal Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy will discuss the discovery of almost 400 mysterious stone structures at Harrat Khaybar, in west-central Saudi Arabia. The structures are believed to be around 7000 years old (that’s more than 2000 years older than the pyramids of Egypt).
Dubbed ‘gates’ by those studying them, as they look like fence gates when viewed from above, the structures are actually low, stone walls that “appear to be the oldest man-made structures in the landscape”,according to the author of the paper, Professor David Kennedy. “No obvious explanation of their purpose can be discerned.”
Quote:The smallest of the gates extends about 43 feet (13 meters), while the longest is 1,699 feet (518 m) long, or longer than an NFL football field. Many have multiple stone walls that, in some instances, form a rectangular design; some of the others, called “I” type gates, have only one stone wall with heaps of stone at each end.
“Gates are found almost exclusively in bleak, inhospitable lava fields with scant water or vegetation, places seemingly amongst the most unwelcoming to our species,” Kennedy wrote.
Some of the rock structures are even built on the side of old lava domes, and are partially covered by lava flows, indicating they are older than those flows.
[Image: volcano-gate.jpg?resize=962%2C549&ssl=1]
Though many of the recent discoveries have been made through satellite surveys, the gates were noticed way back in the 1980s by volcanologists mapping the area. And some of the primary investigative work on the structures has been done by a group of Saudi Arabian citizens known as Desert Team. I highly recommend heading over to their site and browsing their webpage – they have posted an amazing number of photos showing these sites – and other, even more bizarre shaped structures – both from the sky, and on the ground. While most of the content is in Arabic, you can use Google Translate to get a good idea of the original text. And it’s worth noting, despite this being a ‘breaking’ story in the English world, these photos are from 2008.
For instance, here are a few other structures, which they’ve dubbed ‘comets’ and ‘triangles’, which range from tens to hundreds of metres in length (credit for all photos below to alsahra.org):
[img=626x0]https://i1.wp.com/www.dailygrail.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/saudi-arabian-comet-and-triangle.jpg?resize=626%2C430&ssl=1[/img]
[Image: saudi-arabian-comet-and-triangle.jpg?w=626&ssl=1]And the ground photos give a different perspective entirely, such as this photo showing one of the ‘triangles’ above:
[Image: gates-ground-level-credital-sahra-3.jpg?w=1024&ssl=1][img=750x0]https://i2.wp.com/www.dailygrail.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/gates-ground-level-credital-sahra-3.jpg?resize=1024%2C681&ssl=1[/img]
Interestingly, other ground-level photos appear to show some rocks that are a lot more regular in shape, perhaps suggesting that they were tooled into the rectangular shape?
[Image: gates-ground-level-credital-sahra-4.jpg?w=1024&ssl=1]

No formal archaeological fieldwork has yet been conducted on the gates, so no doubt there is still much to learn about them. Could they be a variation on desert kites, similar structures in the area that are known to have been used for trapping animals? Or are they burial monuments similar ancient stone structures in other parts of the world? Another site for Graham Hancock to investigate perhaps?
Read more about the structures at Live Science, and as I said, be sure to check out the amazing images and information at the alsahra.org website. And if you want to ‘fly’ around the area taking a look at the structures, check out the Google Maps embed below. Arrow https://www.dailygrail.com/2017/10/hundr...di-arabia/
...
I get a kick out of university professors and researchers trying to dictate:
who and who should not unearth tombs and acquire artifacts.

Leave it to the universities and those fucked up professors who try and dictate international laws,
concerning "looting"
and we will never see any progress in unearthing the true ancient past.

Universities have limited budgets and then take the artifacts they unearth and re-bury them,
in the tombs of university basements and storage facilities they own.
Artifacts end up in labeled sealed plastic buckets and cardboard boxes.

Zahi Hawass has buried more artifacts into storage oblivion than any "looter" or collector.

The governments of countries like Honduras and Guatemala and Mexico,
are the most flagrant offenders to unearthing the past.

One oil refinery in Mexico covers over 50% of an important Olmec site.

Only 5% of the Omec history has ever been unearthed.
That will not change any time soon unless "looters" dig up the past.

So we wait for stupid American professors and their student chipmunkies to squirrel about old ruins,
and make many faulty conclusions about the ancient history.

Linda Shele is a prime example of western American university scholars,
that got the most important interpretations of Mayan iconography -- completely wrong.

Archeaologists and university professors have used her work as license to teach complete lies.

It has been proven by recent finds of unearthed stele at Izapa,
that the sarcophagus lid of Pakal,
does NOT portray Pakal -- descending -- into the Underworld like Shele interpreted,
on the contrary,
it is now known that the exact opposite is portrayed,
that Pakal is rising from the underworld --- to take his place in the heavens.
Shele's own co author -- Friedl -- has disproven his own mentor in this case.

Yet, Shele's work is still used on the net to label Pakal .. descending into the Underworld.

This is why anal archaelology American university professors and such are so full of shit.
For decades they had it all wrong.
Yet is was taught as archeaology gospel in the universities.
And these are the people that want to control who digs, and what gets dug up.

This is why these rabid professors need to be grounded and put to pasture.
Nothing will ever be learned of ancient human history tthat is still buried,
in any framework of tangible time,
if you leave it to the Zahi Hawass's and the Linda Shele's of this world.

The "looters" unfortunately are an asset bringing out the truly revealing artifacts,
that don't end up getting buried in a university storage archive,
or a museum basement,
or misinterpreted by anal and half blind professors and PhD research students etc.

This is especially so in Central and South American artifacts.

...