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It seems that a lot of stuff is falling apart in my domain. I did a search to find right the adhesives for various mendings, and one thing lead to another...I got stuck on the history of glue, and who had a clue of the ancient history of goo? (I'm channelling Dr Seuss this morning)

History
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adhesive

The oldest known adhesive, dated to approximately 200,000 BC, is from spear stone flakes glued to a wood with birch-bark-tar, which was found in central Italy.[5] The use of compound glues to haft stone spears into wood dates back to round 70,000 BC. Evidence for this has been found in Sibudu Cave, South Africa and the compound glues used were made from plant gum and red ochre.[6] The Tyrolean Iceman had weapons fixed together with the aid of glue.[7]

6000-year-old ceramics show evidence of adhesives based upon animal glues made by rendering animal products such as horse teeth. During the times of Babylonia, tar-like glue was used for gluing statues. The Egyptians made much use of animal glues to adhere furniture, ivory, and papyrus. The Mongols also used adhesives to make their short bows, and the Native Americans of the eastern United States used a mixture of spruce gum and fat as adhesives to fashion waterproof seams in their birchbark canoes.

In medieval Europe, egg whites were used as glue to decorate parchments with gold leaf. The first actual glue factory was founded in Holland in the early 1700s. In the 1750s, the English introduced fish glue. As the modern world evolved, several other patented materials, such as bones, starch, fish, and casein, were introduced as alternative materials for glue manufacture. Modern glues have improved flexibility, toughness, curing rate, and chemical resistance.

In the late 1800s in Switzerland, casein was first used as a wood glue. Today, it is seen to be used to glue grocery bags.[8]
That brings back memories of high school. I was given the subject of adhesives to do a research paper on in one of my classes and my first thought was B-O-R-I-N-G.

Boy, was I surprised! By the time I was finished I was floored at how fascinating the subject was. I remember the challenges of getting a non-stick chemical like Teflon to stick to the pan (or course it doesn't stay there and makes its way into the food) and also the problem of getting the heat tiles to stick on the space shuttle they were building (hadn't flown yet - this was late 1970's) so this was a problem from the get-go.
My glue of choice for repairs is epoxy. It is stinky and messy because you have to mix the two compounds but it works on just about everything and holds good. But since you are researching you might turn up something better since epoxy is an old technology.

<img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/cheers.gif" alt="Cheers" title="cheers" />
They also make a ribbon epoxy consisting of 2 parallel strips of a kind of putty.
You tear off a length of this ribbon and knead it together
until the blue and yellow strips turn uniform green.
Then you mold it around the parts and let cure, forming a hard plastic.
It comes in different grades for different uses.

[Image: twist_n_fix.jpg]
Quote:They also make a ribbon epoxy consisting of 2 parallel strips of a kind of putty.
You tear off a length of this ribbon and knead it together
until the blue and yellow strips turn uniform green.
Then you mold it around the parts and let cure, forming a hard plastic.
It comes in different grades for different uses.

[Image: twist_n_fix.jpg]

Thanks! I like that idea and will look for it the next time I am in a hardware store.
Quote:My glue of choice for repairs is epoxy. It is stinky and messy because you have to mix the two compounds but it works on just about everything and holds good. But since you are researching you might turn up something better since epoxy is an old technology.

<img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/cheers.gif" alt="Cheers" title="cheers" />
Same here. I haven't found anything better than JB Weld for most repairs. But it's kind of ugly and brittle for patching clothes and shoes. For that I found some latex glue called Bish's Original Tear Mender for Fabric and Leather. It says "Since 1932" on the label, but I never knew it existed before last week.

I gave up on Superglue years ago. You might as well throw it away after one use because the entire tiny tube of it always dries up before you need it again.
Quote:[quote author="Kalter Rauch"]They also make a ribbon epoxy consisting of 2 parallel strips of a kind of putty.
You tear off a length of this ribbon and knead it together
until the blue and yellow strips turn uniform green.
Then you mold it around the parts and let cure, forming a hard plastic.
It comes in different grades for different uses.

[Image: twist_n_fix.jpg]

Thanks! I like that idea and will look for it the next time I am in a hardware store.[/quote]


I have a similar product but it is a white tube of it surrounded with black-packed in like a plastic cigar tube-used it to patch the plastic fluted top on my water pump and it has held and worked for a few seasons now.

THEN I have a stone/mortar pillar holding a heavy wood beam which my heavy wood sign attaches to-the wind grabbed my sign last year and just ripped the whole frame down. Thought I'd have to rebuild the rock column but found an epoxy dry mix-like epoxy Fix All and you can make it thick or thin to your need with water. Sets up in 15 minutes and is totally cured in a few hours. Worked!

Never heard of it before but I am hooked on this stuff now!
Quote:[quote author="sarafina"]My glue of choice for repairs is epoxy. It is stinky and messy because you have to mix the two compounds but it works on just about everything and holds good. But since you are researching you might turn up something better since epoxy is an old technology.

<img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/cheers.gif" alt="Cheers" title="cheers" />
Same here. I haven't found anything better than JB Weld for most repairs. But it's kind of ugly and brittle for patching clothes and shoes. For that I found some latex glue called Bish's Original Tear Mender for Fabric and Leather. It says "Since 1932" on the label, but I never knew it existed before last week.

I gave up on Superglue years ago. You might as well throw it away after one use because the entire tiny tube of it always dries up before you need it again.[/quote]


that tear mender sounds incredible! wonder if it would work for lawn chairs-stuff like that?
of the synthetics epoxy and jb weld are the kings, every summer for the past 5 years i have used epoxy to repair the radiator in my car(repair usually lasts about a year). used jb weld to repair an international truck with dt466 that threw a rod through the side of the block(ran for 6 more years without a problem), but my favorite of the "naturals" is pine sap, can be used for most anything and is especially good on flesh wounds
Quote:[quote author="Samurai Jane"][quote author="sarafina"]My glue of choice for repairs is epoxy. It is stinky and messy because you have to mix the two compounds but it works on just about everything and holds good. But since you are researching you might turn up something better since epoxy is an old technology.

<img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/cheers.gif" alt="Cheers" title="cheers" />
Same here. I haven't found anything better than JB Weld for most repairs. But it's kind of ugly and brittle for patching clothes and shoes. For that I found some latex glue called Bish's Original Tear Mender for Fabric and Leather. It says "Since 1932" on the label, but I never knew it existed before last week.

I gave up on Superglue years ago. You might as well throw it away after one use because the entire tiny tube of it always dries up before you need it again.[/quote]


that tear mender sounds incredible! wonder if it would work for lawn chairs-stuff like that?[/quote]
Yep, it's good for indoor and outdoor stuff. It bonds in 3 minutes and it's washable after 15 minutes. The grass bag that goes on my mower was coming apart at the seams and it's holding just fine after 3 or 4 loads of grass. Used it on a leather sandal strap and it's still fixed.

My dad used to bring home superglue from work about 10 years before it was available in stores. Back then it was called Eastman 910. We kept the little bottle of it in the refrigerator and it never dried up.
I was reading a '50s home & garden mag, and they had an article about "soil cement".
You basically mix dirt with cement for semi-hard paths or even simple lawn gargoyles, while retaining the look of dirt.
I've never heard of anyone trying it but there's a lot on the web......
Quote:I was reading a '50s home & garden mag, and they had an article about "soil cement".
You basically mix dirt with cement for semi-hard paths or even simple lawn gargoyles, while retaining the look of dirt.
I've never heard of anyone trying it but there's a lot on the web......


you just use dirt instead of sand then?
almon says

Quote:but my favorite of the "naturals" is pine sap, \
can be used for most anything and is especially good on flesh wounds

Probably an old Indian thing?
very cool.

Soil cement is bogus.
It just deteriorates and after years of reapplocations
the stuff builds up and gets dusty.
gardener asks..."you just use dirt instead of sand then?"
vianova says..."Soil cement is bogus."

Look...here's a place that has a more technical explanation...
http://www.cement.org/pavements/pv_sc.asp

I imagine it's not so much that dirt replaces sand (since most dirt already has a certain % of sand anyway) but in how portland cement crystallizes or not around other dirt components. For instance, I don't think a significant % of humous would work very well since it would continue decaying and lead to voids resulting in dust. On the other hand, a high clay % might bind with cement a lot better.
<img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/hmm2.gif" alt="Hmm2" title="hmm2" /> ...I dunno about using worm castings...because of the slime content......but bone meal might work.
It might be interesting to sprinkle the wet surface with iron filings, tempera paint powder, etc. to create staining/marbling effects.
<img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/hmm2.gif" alt="Hmm2" title="hmm2" /> ...I think spiderweb silk is the product of a binary glue.
If you consider the action of the spinnerets as the silk is formed
then I can see how that mixing may be mimicked by magnetic fields.
It might be possible to formulate an epoxy containing magnetic nano-particles.
Curing may then initially involve orienting these particles
by applying a strong magnetic field during the "setting" phase.
The complex organic chains would then find a scaffolding arrangement,
thus resulting in a much stronger bond.
Also, look at this... http://www.wix.com/ninushka/maxeh

Regarding superglue...
My Dad built R/C airplanes and he swore by a superglue accelerant called "Zip Kicker"...
http://www.micromark.com/ZIP-KICKER-SUP ... ,7577.html
There must be a trick to using it.
My efforts resulted in a weak sugary crystal structure......
Quote:Regarding superglue...
My Dad built R/C airplanes and he swore by a superglue accelerant called "Zip Kicker"...
http://www.micromark.com/ZIP-KICKER-SUP ... ,7577.html
There must be a trick to using it.
My efforts resulted in a weak sugary crystal structure......
My dad was an A & P mechanic at an airline. WTF? He never said what they used superglue for at work.
<img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/dunno.gif" alt="Dunno" title="dunno" />
Sorry, SJ...
"R/C airplanes" means radio-controlled model airplanes.

What is an "A&P mechanic" anyway???
<img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/hmm2.gif" alt="Hmm2" title="hmm2" /> I suppose on an airliner they might use superglue in the passenger compartment for knobs and stuff...
Do you think your Dad was covering up a huge maintenance scandal...that they use superglue to fix things like landing gear struts...cracked skin sections......emergency chute deployment handles ???
Quote:Sorry, SJ...
"R/C airplanes" means radio-controlled model airplanes.

What is an "A&P mechanic" anyway???
<img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/hmm2.gif" alt="Hmm2" title="hmm2" /> I suppose on an airliner they might use superglue in the passenger compartment for knobs and stuff...
Do you think your Dad was covering up a huge maintenance scandal...that they use superglue to fix things like landing gear struts...cracked skin sections......emergency chute deployment handles ???
A & P is airframe and power plant.

My pop wouldn't have been in on any coverups. Quite the opposite--they were always trying to promote him to management where he wouldn't cause so much trouble for being a by-the-book stickler for safety.