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Thumbs Up The Dark(S)Eye'd: GEODEs or a Singularity of The Darkside.
Posted by: EA - 09-14-2019, 01:58 AM - Forum: Hidden Mission Review - Replies (1)

SEPTEMBER 10, 2019

Are black holes made of dark energy?
[Image: areblackhole.jpg]Objects like Powehi, the recently imaged supermassive compact object at the center of galaxy M87, might actually be GEODEs. The Powehi GEODE, shown to scale, would be approximately 2/3 the radius of the dark region imaged by the Event Horizon Telescope. This is nearly the same size expected for a black hole. The region containing Dark Energy (green) is slightly larger than a black hole of the same mass. The properties of any crust (purple), if present, depend on the particular GEODE model. Credit: EHT collaboration; NASA/CXC/Villanova University
Two University of Hawaii at Manoa researchers have identified and corrected a subtle error that was made when applying Einstein's equations to model the growth of the universe.

Physicists usually assume that a cosmologically large system, such as the universe, is insensitive to details of the small systems contained within it. Kevin Croker, a postdoctoral research fellow in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Joel Weiner, a faculty member in the Department of Mathematics, have shown that this assumption can fail for the compact objects that remain after the collapse and explosion of very large stars.
"For 80 years, we've generally operated under the assumption that the universe, in broad strokes, was not affected by the particular details of any small region," said Croker. "It is now clear that general relativity can observably connect collapsed stars—regions the size of Honolulu—to the behavior of the universe as a whole, over a thousand billion billion times larger."
Croker and Weiner demonstrated that the growth rate of the universe can become sensitive to the averaged contribution of such compact objects. Likewise, the objects themselves can become linked to the growth of the universe, gaining or losing energy depending on the objects' compositions. This result is significant since it reveals unexpected connections between cosmological and compact object physics, which in turn leads to many new observational predictions.
One consequence of this study is that the growth rate of the universe provides information about what happens to stars at the end of their lives. Astronomers typically assume that large stars form black holes when they die, but this is not the only possible outcome. In 1966, Erast Gliner, a young physicist at the Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute in Leningrad, proposed an alternative hypothesis that very large stars should collapse into what could now be called Generic Objects of Dark Energy (GEODEs). These appear to be black holes when viewed from the outside but, unlike black holes, they contain Dark Energy instead of a singularity.
In 1998, two independent teams of astronomers discovered that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, consistent with the presence of a uniform contribution of Dark Energy. It was not recognized, however, that GEODEs could contribute in this way. With the corrected formalism, Croker and Weiner showed that if a fraction of the oldest stars collapsed into GEODEs, instead of black holes, their averaged contribution today would naturally produce the required uniform Dark Energy.
The results of this study also apply to the colliding double star systems observable through gravitational waves by the LIGO-Virgo collaboration. In 2016, LIGO announced the first observation of what appeared to be a colliding double black hole system. Such systems were expected to exist, but the pair of objects was unexpectedly heavy—roughly 5 times larger than the black hole masses predicted in computer simulations. Using the corrected formalism, Croker and Weiner considered whether LIGO-Virgo is observing double GEODE collisions, instead of double black hole collisions. They found that GEODEs grow together with the universe during the time leading up to such collisions. When the collisions occur, the resulting GEODE masses become 4 to 8 times larger, in rough agreement with the LIGO-Virgo observations.
Croker and Weiner were careful to separate their theoretical result from observational support of a GEODE scenario, emphasizing that "black holes certainly aren't dead. What we have shown is that if GEODEs do exist, then they can easily give rise to observed phenomena that presently lack convincing explanations. We anticipate numerous other observational consequences of a GEODE scenario, including many ways to exclude it. We've barely begun to scratch the surface."
The study, Implications of Symmetry and Pressure in Friedmann Cosmology: I. Formalism, is published in the August 28, 2019 issue of The Astrophysical Journal and is available online.




Explore further
Where in the universe can you find a black hole nursery?



[b]More information:[/b] K. S. Croker et al. Implications of Symmetry and Pressure in Friedmann Cosmology. I. Formalism, The Astrophysical Journal (2019). DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab32da
[b]Journal information:[/b] Astrophysical Journal [/url]

Provided by 
University of Hawaii at Manoa 


Dark(S) Eye'd  Arrow

SEPTEMBER 13, 2019
Engineers develop 'blackest black' material to date
[Image: 2-mitengineers.jpg]MIT engineers have cooked up a material made of carbon nanotubes that is 10 times blacker than anything that has previously been reported. Credit: R. Capanna, A. Berlato, and A. Pinato
With apologies to "Spinal Tap," it appears that black can, indeed, get more black.

MIT engineers report today that they have cooked up a material that is 10 times blacker than anything that has previously been reported. The material is made from vertically aligned carbon nanotubes, or CNTs—microscopic filaments of carbon, like a fuzzy forest of tiny trees, that the team grew on a surface of chlorine-etched aluminum foil. The foil captures more than 99.96 percent of any incoming light, making it the blackest material on record.
The researchers have published their findings today in the journal ACS-Applied Materials and Interfaces. They are also showcasing the cloak-like material as part of a new exhibit today at the New York Stock Exchange, titled "The Redemption of Vanity."
The artwork, a collaboration between Brian Wardle, professor of aeronautics and astronautics at MIT, and his group, and MIT artist-in-residence Diemut Strebe, features a 16.78-carat natural yellow diamond, estimated to be worth $2 million, which the team coated with the new, ultrablack CNT material. The effect is arresting: The gem, normally brilliantly faceted, appears as a flat, black void.
Wardle says the CNT material, aside from making an artistic statement, may also be of practical use, for instance in optical blinders that reduce unwanted glare, to help space telescopes spot orbiting exoplanets.
"There are optical and space science applications for very black materials, and of course, artists have been interested in black, going back well before the Renaissance," Wardle says. "Our material is 10 times blacker than anything that's ever been reported, but I think the blackest black is a constantly moving target. Someone will find a blacker material, and eventually we'll understand all the underlying mechanisms, and will be able to properly engineer the ultimate black."
Wardle's co-author on the paper is former MIT postdoc Kehang Cui, now a professor at Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
[b]Into the void[/b]
Wardle and Cui didn't intend to engineer an ultrablack material. Instead, they were experimenting with ways to grow carbon nanotubes on electrically conducting materials such as aluminum, to boost their electrical and thermal properties.

But in attempting to grow CNTs on aluminum, Cui ran up against a barrier, literally: an ever-present layer of oxide that coats aluminum when it is exposed to air. This oxide layer acts as an insulator, blocking rather than conducting electricity and heat. As he cast about for ways to remove aluminum's oxide layer, Cui found a solution in salt, or sodium chloride.
At the time, Wardle's group was using salt and other pantry products, such as baking soda and detergent, to grow carbon nanotubes. In their tests with salt, Cui noticed that chloride ions were eating away at aluminum's surface and dissolving its oxide layer.
"This etching process is common for many metals," Cui says. "For instance, ships suffer from corrosion of chlorine-based ocean water. Now we're using this process to our advantage."
Cui found that if he soaked aluminum foil in saltwater, he could remove the oxide layer. He then transferred the foil to an oxygen-free environment to prevent reoxidation, and finally, placed the etched aluminum in an oven, where the group carried out techniques to grow carbon nanotubes via a process called chemical vapor deposition.
By removing the oxide layer, the researchers were able to grow carbon nanotubes on aluminum, at much lower temperatures than they otherwise would, by about 100 degrees Celsius. They also saw that the combination of CNTs on aluminum significantly enhanced the material's thermal and electrical properties—a finding that they expected.
What surprised them was the material's color.
"I remember noticing how black it was before growing carbon nanotubes on it, and then after growth, it looked even darker," Cui recalls. "So I thought I should measure the optical reflectance of the sample.
"Our group does not usually focus on optical properties of materials, but this work was going on at the same time as our art-science collaborations with Diemut, so art influenced science in this case," says Wardle.
Wardle and Cui, who have applied for a patent on the technology, are making the new CNT process freely available to any artist to use for a noncommercial art project.
[b]"Built to take abuse"[/b]
Cui measured the amount of light reflected by the material, not just from directly overhead, but also from every other possible angle. The results showed that the material absorbed greater than 99.995 percent of incoming light, from every angle. In essence, if the material contained bumps or ridges, or features of any kind, no matter what angle it was viewed from, these features would be invisible, obscured in a void of black.
The researchers aren't entirely sure of the mechanism contributing to the material's opacity, but they suspect that it may have something to do with the combination of etched aluminum, which is somewhat blackened, with the carbon nanotubes. Scientists believe that forests of carbon nanotubes can trap and convert most incoming light to heat, reflecting very little of it back out as light, thereby giving CNTs a particularly black shade.
"CNT forests of different varieties are known to be extremely black, but there is a lack of mechanistic understanding as to why this material is the blackest. That needs further study," Wardle says.




Explore further
Pantry ingredients can help grow carbon nanotubes



[b]More information:[/b] Kehang Cui et al. Breakdown of Native Oxide Enables Multifunctional, Free-Form Carbon Nanotube–Metal Hierarchical Architectures, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces (2019). DOI: 10.1021/acsami.9b08290
[b]Journal information:[/b] ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 

Provided by Massachusetts Institute of Technology 



https://phys.org/news/2019-09-blackest-b...-date.html

What if The Input was A Black Hole?
Would The output be a Black Whole?

GEODEs  Sheep Singularity.

Refusing to shed light on THE matter...Accepts that THE light doesn't matter


SEPTEMBER 6, 2019
Black hole movies coming soon, says leading astronomer
[Image: 5caded214d11e.jpg]Credit: NSF
By the time an international group of scientists stunned the world with the first ever image of a black hole, they were already planning a sequel: a movie showing how massive clouds of gas are forever sucked into the void.

The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration has already recorded the necessary observations and is processing the mountains of data to produce the first video, which will likely be a little jerky, in 2020.
"What I predict is that by the end of the next decade we will be making high quality real-time movies of black holes that reveal not just how they look, but how they act on the cosmic stage," Shep Doeleman, the project's director, told AFP in an interview.
The entire team, comprising 347 scientists from around the world, were honored Thursday with the Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics, winning $3 million for the so-called "Oscar of science" for the image they released on April 10.
"I've been working on this for 20 years. So my wife was finally convinced that what I was doing was worth it a little bit," joked the 52-year-old father of two, who is an astronomer at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.
Astronomers could previously detect the light that is being swallowed by black holes, but "we just didn't have the sharpness in our images to see what shape the light had."
That obstacle was ultimately overcome when the team linked multiple radio telescopes together, thus simulating an Earth-sized giant telescope capable of observing at an unprecedented resolution objects that appear microscopic in the night sky.
[b]Galactic explorers[/b]
Toward the end of the 2000s, the hard work began to pay off. The team obtained approval to use three telescopes to establish a proof of concept, and in 2008 published the first measurements of a black hole.
By April 2017, they had assembled eight radio telescopes in Chile, Spain, Mexico, the US, and the South Pole.
The giant instruments observe high frequency radio waves, allowing astronomers to see through the gas and dust of the galaxy, all the way through to the boundaries of black holes.
In addition to its observations of the black hole in the Messier 87 (M87) galaxy, the team also looked at the one at the center of our own Milky Way: Sagittarius-A*.
They took readings in 2018, and plan to repeat them next year.
Our own black hole is far more turbulent and therefore difficult to observe.
"Orbits of matter around M87 take about a month to circulate. Whereas orbits around Sagittarius-A* can take only half an hour, during one night of observing Sagittarius-A* can change before your eyes," explained Doeleman.
"It could be that maybe we will make the first crude movie" by 2020, he added. Ideally, scientists would need more telescopes, both on Earth and in orbit, to improve the resolution yet further.
But the manner in which the first image of M87 has captured people's imagination has left Doeleman optimistic about the prospect of future funding, both from governments and possibly private donors.
"The EHT has delivered more value than any other scientific project that I can think of in history," he said.
"We do see ourselves as explorers, we've taken a journey in our minds. And we are instruments at the edge of a black hole. And now we're coming back to report what we found."




Explore further
Team behind world's first black hole image wins 'Oscar of science





[Image: latest?cb=20140122145113]cb=20140122145113

RECALL: 


Quote:SEPTEMBER 10, 2019
Are black holes made of dark energy?
[Image: areblackhole.jpg]Objects like Powehi, the recently imaged supermassive compact object at the center of galaxy M87, might actually be GEODEs. The Powehi GEODE, shown to scale, would be approximately 2/3 the radius of the dark region imaged by the Event Horizon Telescope. This is nearly the same size expected for a black hole. The region containing Dark Energy (green) is slightly larger than a black hole of the same mass. The properties of any crust (purple), if present, depend on the particular GEODE model. Credit: EHT collaboration; NASA/CXC/Villanova University
Two University of Hawaii at Manoa researchers have identified and corrected a subtle error that was made when applying Einstein's equations to model the growth of the universe. Arrow



Arrow MAJOR RE-Writes Itself.



SEPTEMBER 12, 2019
Study finds the universe might be 2 billion years younger
by Seth Borenstein
[Image: 3-studyfindsth.jpg]This image made available by the European Space agency shows galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field 2012, an improved version of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field image. A study from the Max Planck Institute in Germany published Thursday, Sept. 12, 2019, in the journal Science uses a new technique to come up with a rate that the universe is expanding that is nearly 18% higher than the number scientists had been using since the year 2000. (NASA, ESA, R. Ellis (Caltech), HUDF 2012 Team via AP)
The universe is looking younger every day, it seems.

New calculations suggest the universe could be a couple billion years younger than scientists now estimate, and even younger than suggested by two other calculations published this year that trimmed hundreds of millions of years from the age of the cosmos.
The huge swings in scientists' estimates—even this new calculation could be off by billions of years—reflect different approaches to the tricky problem of figuring the universe's real age.
"We have large uncertainty for how the stars are moving in the galaxy," said Inh Jee, of the Max Plank Institute in Germany, lead author of the study in Thursday's journal Science .
Scientists estimate the age of the universe by using the movement of stars to measure how fast it is expanding. If the universe is expanding faster, that means it got to its current size more quickly, and therefore must be relatively younger.
The expansion rate, called the Hubble constant , is one of the most important numbers in cosmology. A larger Hubble Constant makes for a faster moving—and younger—universe.
The generally accepted age of the universe is 13.7 billion years, based on a Hubble Constant of 70.
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An animation of B1608+656 variability in radio observations. The top panel shows four lensed images of a background quasar, and the bottom panel shows the light curves of the four images. Credit: S.H. Suyu, C.D. Fassnacht, NRAO/AUI/NSF
Jee's team came up with a Hubble Constant of 82.4, which would put the age of the universe at around 11.4 billion years.
Jee used a concept called gravitational lensing—where gravity warps light and makes far away objects look closer. They rely on a special type of that effect called time delay lensing, using the changing brightness of distant objects to gather information for their calculations.
But Jee's approach is only one of a few new ones that have led to different numbers in recent years, reopening a simmering astronomical debate of the 1990s that had been seemingly settled.
In 2013, a team of European scientists looked at leftover radiation from the Big Bang and pronounced the expansion rate a slower 67, while earlier this year Nobel Prize winning astrophysicist Adam Riess of the Space Telescope Science Institute used NASA's super telescope and came up with a number of 74. And another team earlier this year came up with 73.3.
Jee and outside experts had big caveats for her number. She used only two gravitational lenses, which were all that were available, and so her margin of error is so large that it's possible the universe could be older than calculated, not dramatically younger.
Harvard astronomer Avi Loeb, who wasn't part of the study, said it an interesting and unique way to calculate the universe's expansion rate, but the large error margins limits its effectiveness until more information can be gathered.
"It is difficult to be certain of your conclusions if you use a ruler that you don't fully understand," Loeb said in an email.




[b]Explore further

Scientists debate the seriousness of problems with the value of the Hubble Constant
[/b]


[b][b]More information:[/b] I. Jee el al., "A measurement of the Hubble constant from angular diameter distances to two gravitational lenses," Science (2019). science.sciencemag.org/cgi/doi … 1126/science.aat7371

"An expanding controversy," Science (2019). science.sciencemag.org/cgi/doi … 1126/science.aay1331
[b]Journal information:[/b] Science

 [/b]

https://phys.org/news/2019-09-universe-b...unger.html

I'm Not Hawking Radiation...nope.
Eye'm selling Snake-Oil Y'all for free...


SEPTEMBER 11, 2019
Black hole at the center of our galaxy appears to be getting hungrier
[Image: blackholeatt.jpg]Rendering of a star called S0-2 orbiting the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way. It did not fall in, but its close approach could be one reason for the black hole's growing appetite. Credit: Artist's rendering by Nicolle Fuller/National Science Foundation
The enormous black hole at the center of our galaxy is having an unusually large meal of interstellar gas and dust, and researchers don't yet understand why.

"We have never seen anything like this in the 24 years we have studied the supermassive black hole," said Andrea Ghez, UCLA professor of physics and astronomy and a co-senior author of the research. "It's usually a pretty quiet, wimpy black hole on a diet. We don't know what is driving this big feast."
A paper about the study, led by the UCLA Galactic Center Group, which Ghez heads, is published today in Astrophysical Journal Letters.
The researchers analyzed more than 13,000 observations of the black hole from 133 nights since 2003. The images were gathered by the W.M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii and the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope in Chile. The team found that on May 13, the area just outside the black hole's "point of no return" (so called because once matter enters, it can never escape) was twice as bright as the next-brightest observation.
They also observed large changes on two other nights this year; all three of those changes were "unprecedented," Ghez said.
The brightness the scientists observed is caused by radiation from gas and dust falling into the black hole; the findings prompted them to ask whether this was an extraordinary singular event or a precursor to significantly increased activity.
"The big question is whether the black hole is entering a new phase—for example if the spigot has been turned up and the rate of gas falling down the black hole 'drain' has increased for an extended period—or whether we have just seen the fireworks from a few unusual blobs of gas falling in," said Mark Morris, UCLA professor of physics and astronomy and the paper's co-senior author.

The team has continued to observe the area and will try to settle that question based on what they see from new images.
"We want to know how black holes grow and affect the evolution of galaxies and the universe," said Ghez, UCLA's Lauren B. Leichtman and Arthur E. Levine Professor of Astrophysics. "We want to know why the supermassive hole gets brighter and how it gets brighter."

The new findings are based on observations of the black hole—which is called Sagittarius A*, or Sgr A*—during four nights in April and May at the Keck Observatory. The brightness surrounding the black hole always varies somewhat, but the scientists were stunned by the extreme variations in brightness during that timeframe, including their observations on May 13.
"The first image I saw that night, the black hole was so bright I initially mistook it for the star S0-2, because I had never seen Sagittarius A* that bright," said UCLA research scientist Tuan Do, the study's lead author. "But it quickly became clear the source had to be the black hole, which was really exciting."
One hypothesis about the increased activity is that when a star called S0-2 made its closest approach to the black hole during the summer 2018, it launched a large quantity of gas that reached the black hole this year.
Another possibility involves a bizarre object known as G2, which is most likely a pair of binary stars, which made its closest approach to the black hole in 2014. It's possible the black hole could have stripped off the outer layer of G2, Ghez said, which could help explain the increased brightness just outside the black hole.
Morris said another possibility is that the brightening corresponds to the demise of large asteroids that have been drawn in to the black hole.

[b]No danger to Earth[/b]
The black hole is some 26,000 light-years away and poses no danger to our planet. Do said the radiation would have to be 10 billion times as bright as what the astronomers detected to affect life on Earth.
Astrophysical Journal Letters also published a second article by the researchers, describing speckle holography, the technique that enabled them to extract and use very faint information from 24 years of data they recorded from near the black hole.
Ghez's research team reported July 25 in the journal Science the most comprehensive test of Einstein's iconic general theory of relativity near the black hole. Their conclusion that Einstein's theory passed the test and is correct, at least for now, was based on their study of S0-2 as it made a complete orbit around the black hole.
Ghez's team studies more than 3,000 stars that orbit the supermassive black hole. Since 2004, the scientists have used a powerful technology that Ghez helped pioneer, called adaptive optics, which corrects the distorting effects of the Earth's atmosphere in real time. But speckle holography enabled the researchers to improve the data from the decade before adaptive optics came into play. Reanalyzing data from those years helped the team conclude that they had not seen that level of brightness near the black hole in 24 years.
"It was like doing LASIK surgery on our early images," Ghez said. "We collected the data to answer one question and serendipitously unveiled other exciting scientific discoveries that we didn't anticipate."




Explore further
Einstein's general relativity theory is questioned but still stands for now



[b]More information:[/b] Tuan Do et al. Unprecedented Near-infrared Brightness and Variability of Sgr A*, The Astrophysical Journal (2019). DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab38c3

Zhuo Chen et al. Consistency of the Infrared Variability of SGR A* over 22 yr, The Astrophysical Journal (2019). DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab3c68
[b]Journal information:[/b] Astrophysical Journal Letters  Astrophysical Journal 

Provided by University of California, Los Angeles

https://phys.org/news/2019-09-black-hole...grier.html

Arrow

SEPTEMBER 11, 2019
Scientists detect the ringing of a newborn black hole for the first time
[Image: 4-blackhole.jpg]Credit: CC0 Public Domain
If Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity holds true, then a black hole, born from the cosmically quaking collisions of two massive black holes, should itself "ring" in the aftermath, producing gravitational waves much like a struck bell reverbates sound waves. Einstein predicted that the particular pitch and decay of these gravitational waves should be a direct signature of the newly formed black hole's mass and spin.

Now, physicists from MIT and elsewhere have "heard" the ringing of an infant black hole for the first time, and found that the pattern of this ringing does, in fact, predict the black hole's mass and spin—more evidence that Einstein was right all along.
The findings, published today in Physical Review Letters, also favor the idea that black holes lack any sort of "hair"—a metaphor referring to the idea that black holes, according to Einstein's theory, should exhibit just three observable properties: mass, spin, and electric charge. All other characteristics, which the physicist John Wheeler termed "hair," should be swallowed up by the black hole itself, and would therefore be unobservable.
The team's findings today support the idea that black holes are, in fact, hairless. The researchers were able to identify the pattern of a black hole's ringing, and, using Einstein's equations, calculated the mass and spin that the black hole should have, given its ringing pattern. These calculations matched measurements of the black hole's mass and spin made previously by others.
If the team's calculations deviated significantly from the measurements, it would have suggested that the black hole's ringing encodes properties other than mass, spin, and electric charge—tantalizing evidence of physics beyond what Einstein's theory can explain. But as it turns out, the black hole's ringing pattern is a direct signature of its mass and spin, giving support to the notion that black holes are bald-faced giants, lacking any extraneous, hair-like properties.
"We all expect general relativity to be correct, but this is the first time we have confirmed it in this way," says the study's lead author, Maximiliano Isi, a NASA Einstein Fellow in MIT's Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research. "This is the first experimental measurement that succeeds in directly testing the no-hair theorem. It doesn't mean black holes couldn't have hair. It means the picture of black holes with no hair lives for one more day."
[b]A chirp, decoded[/b]
On Sept. 9, 2015, scientists made the first-ever detection of gravitational waves—infinitesimal ripples in space-time, emanating from distant, violent cosmic phenomena. The detection, named GW150914, was made by LIGO, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory. Once scientists cleared away the noise and zoomed in on the signal, they observed a waveform that quickly crescendoed before fading away. When they translated the signal into sound, they heard something resembling a "chirp."

Scientists determined that the gravitational waves were set off by the rapid inspiraling of two massive black holes. The peak of the signal—the loudest part of the chirp—linked to the very moment when the black holes collided, merging into a single, new black hole. While this infant black hole likely gave off gravitational waves of its own, its signature ringing, physicists assumed, would be too faint to decipher amid the clamor of the initial collision.

This simulation shows how a black hole merger would appear to our eyes if we could somehow travel in a spaceship for a closer look. It was created by solving equations from Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity using LIGO data from the event called GW150914. Credit: SXS, the Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes (SXS) project
Isi and his colleagues, however, found a way to extract the black hole's reverberation from the moments immediately after the signal's peak. In previous work led by Isi's co-author, Matthew Giesler, the team showed through simulations that such a signal, and particularly the portion right after the peak, contains "overtones"—a family of loud, short-lived tones. When they reanalyzed the signal, taking overtones into account, the researchers discovered that they could successfully isolate a ringing pattern that was specific to a newly formed black hole.
In the team's new paper, the researchers applied this technique to actual data from the GW150914 detection, concentrating on the last few milliseconds of the signal, immediately following the chirp's peak. Taking into account the signal's overtones, they were able to discern a ringing coming from the new, infant black hole. Specifically, they identified two distinct tones, each with a pitch and decay rate that they were able to measure.
"We detect an overall gravitational wave signal that's made up of multiple frequencies, which fade away at different rates, like the different pitches that make up a sound," Isi says. "Each frequency or tone corresponds to a vibrational frequency of the new black hole."
[b]Listening beyond Einstein[/b]
Einstein's theory of general relativity predicts that the pitch and decay of a black hole's gravitational waves should be a direct product of its mass and spin. That is, a black hole of a given mass and spin can only produce tones of a certain pitch and decay. As a test of Einstein's theory, the team used the equations of general relativity to calculate the newly formed black hole's mass and spin, given the pitch and decay of the two tones they detected.
They found their calculations matched with measurements of the black hole's mass and spin previously made by others. Isi says the results demonstrate that researchers can, in fact, use the very loudest, most detectable parts of a gravitational wave signal to discern a new black hole's ringing, where before, scientists assumed that this ringing could only be detected within the much fainter end of the gravitational wave signal, and only with much more sensitive instruments than what currently exist.
"This is exciting for the community because it shows these kinds of studies are possible now, not in 20 years," Isi says.
As LIGO improves its resolution, and more sensitive instruments come online in the future, researchers will be able to use the group's methods to "hear" the ringing of other newly born black holes. And if they happen to pick up tones that don't quite match up with Einstein's predictions, that could be an even more exciting prospect.
"In the future, we'll have better detectors on Earth and in space, and will be able to see not just two, but tens of modes, and pin down their properties precisely," Isi says. "If these are not black holes as Einstein predicts, if they are more exotic objects like wormholes or boson stars, they may not ring in the same way, and we'll have a chance of seeing them."




Explore further
Shedding light on black holes



[b]More information:[/b] Testing the no-hair theorem with GW150914, arXiv:1905.00869 [gr-qc] arxiv.org/abs/1905.00869
[b]Journal information:[/b] Physical Review Letters 

Provided by Massachusetts Institute of Technology

https://phys.org/news/2019-09-scientists...-hole.html







SEPTEMBER 10, 2019
Mid-mass black hole hurls star across the Milky Way
[Image: midmassblack.jpg]Credit: A. Irrgang, Fau
An international team of astronomers has pinpointed the origin of a runaway high-velocity star named PG 1610+062 and determined that it was likely ejected from its birth cluster with the help of a mid-mass black hole (MMBH).

The findings are published in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics.
In order to put tight constraints on PG 1610+062's projected rotational velocity, its radial velocity, as well as measure its chemical composition accurately, the team needed spectral data of the star, but its distance and position in the sky made W. M. Keck Observatory's Echellette Spectrograph and Imager (ESI) the only tool for the job.
"In the northern hemisphere, only the combination of Keck Observatory and ESI gave us what we needed. The collecting area of Keck allowed us to gather enough photons for our object and ESI has exactly the right resolution, which is high enough to resolve all the spectral features," says co-author Thomas Kupfer, a Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics Postdoctoral Scholar at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
While formerly considered an old star with half a solar mass, typical for the galactic halo, the Keck Observatory data revealed that PG1610+062 is actually a surprisingly young star that's ten times more massive, ejected from the Galactic disk almost at the escape velocity from the Milky Way.
Some even faster stars, called hyper-velocity stars (HVSs), do exist—the first three were discovered in 2005. Among them is the unique star US 708, which was found from observations using the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (LRIS) on the Keck I telescope; it was going so fast it escaped the Milky Way's gravitational pull. To achieve such velocities requires an extremely dramatic slingshot event.

[Image: midmassblack.gif]
Young, massive stars like PG 1610+062 in the Milky Way’s galactic halo live far from our galaxy’s star-forming regions. Astronomers are trying to understand how these ‘runaway stars’ were forced to leave their birth place. New observations of PG 1610+062 suggest that a mid-sized black hole in the Milky Way may be responsible for evicting the star from its home cluster. Credit: A. Irrgang, Fau
Simulations carried out in 1988 suggested that a giant, 4 million solar mass black hole (SMBH) could do the trick. By disrupting a binary star system, i.e. swallowing one star and leaving its stellar partner with all the energy in the system, ejecting it far beyond the escape velocity of the Milky Way. Lacking other plausible explanations for the formation of HVSs, this scenario was readily accepted as the standard ejection mechanism, in particular after observational evidence for the existence of such a SMBH at the Galactic Center became overwhelming in the early 2000s.

By using the European Space Agency's Gaia spacecraft's unprecedented astrometric precision measurements, PG1610+062 has been traced back to nowhere near the Galactic Center, but to the Sagittarius spiral arm of our galaxy, therefore ruling out the idea that the Galactic Center SMBH slingshot the star.
Even more interesting is the derived extreme acceleration of PG1610+062, which excludes most likely all alternative scenarios except the interaction with a MMBH. Such objects have been predicted to exist in young stellar clusters in the spiral arms of the Milky Way, but none has been detected yet.
"Now, PG1610+062 may provide evidence that MMBHs could indeed exist in our galaxy. The race is on to actually find them," says lead author Andreas Irrgang of the Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg in Germany.
There is plenty more to learn about this star and its place of origin. As the Gaia mission proceeds, precision will improve and the place of origin will be narrowed down further, possibly allowing astronomers to search for the parent star cluster and ultimately for the black hole.
The team, which includes Felix Fürst of the European Space Astronomy Centre in Spain, Stephan Geier of the Institute of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Potsdam in Germany, and Ulrich Heber of the Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, is currently searching for additional candidates similar to PG1610+062 using Gaia and other large survey telescopes. The brighter, closer ones might be suitable for tracing back to cores of star clusters, which might provide evidence of intermediate mass black holes in their centers.




Explore further
Researchers confirm massive hyper-runaway star ejected from the Milky Way Disk



[b]More information:[/b] A. Irrgang et al. PG 1610+062: a runaway B star challenging classical ejection mechanisms, Astronomy & Astrophysics (2019). DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201935429
[b]Journal information:[/b] Astronomy & Astrophysics 

Provided by W. M. Keck Observatory

https://phys.org/news/2019-09-mid-mass-b...-star.html

GEODEs Sheep  Singularity

SEPTEMBER 12, 2019
Unexpected periodic flares may shed light on black hole accretion
[Image: unexpectedpe.gif]Black hole at the center of a distant galaxy periodically flares up. Credit: European Space Agency
ESA's X-ray space telescope XMM-Newton has detected never-before-seen periodic flares of X-ray radiation coming from a distant galaxy that could help explain some enigmatic behaviours of active black holes.

XMM-Newton, the most powerful X-ray observatory, discovered some mysterious flashes from the active black hole at the core of the galaxy GSN 069, about 250 million light years away. On 24 December 2018, the source was seen to suddenly increase its brightness by up to a factor 100, then dimmed back to its normal levels within one hour and lit up again nine hours later.
"It was completely unexpected," says Giovanni Miniutti, of the Centro de Astrobiología in Madrid, Spain, lead author of a new paper published in the journal Nature today.
"Giant black holes regularly flicker like a candle but the rapid, repeating changes seen in GSN 069 from December onwards are something completely new."
Further observations, performed with XMM-Newton as well as NASA's Chandra X-ray observatory in the following couple of months, confirmed that the distant black hole was still keeping the tempo, emitting nearly periodic bursts of X-rays every nine hours. The researchers are calling the new phenomenon 'quasi-periodic eruptions," or QPEs.
"The X-ray emission comes from material that is being accreted into the black hole and heats up in the process," explains Giovanni.
"There are various mechanisms in the accretion disc that could give rise to this type of quasi-periodic signal, potentially linked to instabilities in the accretion flow close to the central black hole.
"Alternatively, the eruptions could be due to the interaction of the disc material with a second body—another black hole or perhaps the remnant of a star previously disrupted by the black hole."

[Image: 1-unexpectedpe.gif]
Optical and X-ray view. Credit: European Space Agency
Although never before observed, Giovanni and colleagues think periodic flares like these might actually be quite common in the Universe.
It is possible that the phenomenon had not been identified before because most black holes at the cores of distant galaxies, with masses millions to billions of times the mass of our Sun, are much larger than the one in GSN 069, which is only about 400 000 times more massive than our Sun.
The bigger and more massive the black hole, the slower the fluctuations in brightness it can display, so a typical supermassive black hole would erupt not every nine hours, but every few months or years. This would make detection unlikely as observations rarely span such long periods of time.

And there is more. Quasi-periodic eruptions like those found in GSN 069 could provide a natural framework to interpret some puzzling patterns observed in a significant fraction of active black holes, whose brightness seems to vary too fast to be easily explained by current theoretical models.
"We know of many massive black holes whose brightness rises or decays by very large factors within days or months, while we would expect them to vary at a much slower pace," says Giovanni.
"But if some of this variability corresponds to the rise or decay phases of eruptions similar to those discovered in GSN 069, then the fast variability of these systems, which appears currently unfeasible, could naturally be accounted for. New data and further studies will tell if this analogy really holds."
The quasi-periodic eruptions spotted in GSN 069 could also explain another intriguing property observed in the X-ray emission from nearly all bright, accreting supermassive black holes: the so-called 'soft excess."
It consists in enhanced emission at low X-ray energies, and there is still no consensus on what causes it, with one leading theory invoking a cloud of electrons heated up near the accretion disc.

[Image: unexpectedpe.jpg]
Quasi-periodic eruptions in GSN 069. Credit: European Space Agency
Like similar black holes, GSN 069 exhibits such a soft X-ray excess during bursts, but not between eruptions.
"We may be witnessing the formation of the soft excess in real time, which could shed light on its physical origin," says co-author Richard Saxton from the XMM-Newton operation team at ESA's astronomy centre in Spain.
"How the cloud of electrons is created is currently unclear, but we are trying to identify the mechanism by studying the changes in the X-ray spectrum of GSN 069 during the eruptions."
The team is already trying to pinpoint the defining properties of GSN 069 at the time when the periodic eruptions were first detected to look for more cases to study.
"One of our immediate goals is to search for X-ray quasi-periodic eruptions in other galaxies, to further understand the physical origin of this new phenomenon," adds co-author Margherita Giustini of Madrid's Centro de Astrobiología.
"GSN 069 is an extremely fascinating source, with the potential to become a reference in the field of black hole accretion," says Norbert Schartel, ESA's XMM-Newton project scientist.
The discovery would not have been possible without XMM-Newton's capabilities.
"These bursts happen in the low energy part of the X-ray band, where XMM-Newton is unbeatable. We will certainly need to use the observatory again if we want to find more of these kinds of events in the future," concludes Norbert.
"Nine-hour X-ray quasi-periodic eruptions from a low-mass black hole galactic nucleus," by G. Miniutti et al., is published in Nature.




Explore further
How black holes shape galaxies



[b]More information:[/b] G. Miniutti et al. Nine-hour X-ray quasi-periodic eruptions from a low-mass black hole galactic nucleus, Nature (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1556-x
[b]Journal information:[/b] Nature 

Provided by [url=https://phys.org/partners/european-space-agency/]European Space Agency

https://phys.org/news/2019-09-unexpected...-hole.html

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  Alien Face in Antarctica
Posted by: The Watcher - 08-28-2019, 02:11 PM - Forum: Hidden Mission Review - Replies (13)

I saw an article on Earth Files about an apparent Alien face found in Antarctica, so I thought I would check it myself on Google Earth, there is something there, what do you guys think? Trick of light and shadow etc?

https://earth.google.com/web/@-72.009314...76936t,-0r

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  "wisdom" To The Moon. Chandrayaan 2 Vikram lander / Pragyaan rover.orbituary
Posted by: EA - 07-19-2019, 01:18 PM - Forum: Hidden Mission Review - Replies (8)

[Image: chandrayaan2_art1-326x245.jpg]
India seeks to join exclusive company with ambitious moon mission
July 13, 2019
India’s ambitious $142 million Chandrayaan 2 moon mission, comprising a orbiter, lander and rover, is set for liftoff Sunday to begin a nearly two-month transit culminating in a touchdown near the lunar south pole in September.



Indian moon launch rescheduled for Monday
July 18, 2019 Stephen Clark
[Image: D_bR-5wUcAALd_8.jpeg][img=719x0]https://mk0spaceflightnoa02a.kinstacdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/D_bR-5wUcAALd_8.jpeg[/img]The GSLV Mk.3 launcher awaiting liftoff with the Chandrayaan 2 lunar mission. Credit: ISRO
India’s robotic Chandrayaan 2 moon mission is set for liftoff Monday after a technical snag last weekend halted the launch from a spaceport on the Indian coast, ISRO said Thursday.
The three-piece moon mission, comprising an orbiter, lander and rover, was set for blastoff last Sunday aboard India’s GSLV Mk.3 rocket. But a technical problem on the GSLV Mk.3’s cryogenic upper stage forced officials to call off the launch in the final hour of the countdown.
Reports from Indian media suggested the problem, apparently related to the cryogenic stage’s helium pressurization system, proved relatively easy to fix.
The Indian Space Research Organization announced the new target launch date in a tweet early Thursday. ISRO faces a short launch window to get the Chandrayaan 2 mission off the ground, and still have time for the spacecraft to reach its planned landing site in early September.
Liftoff is set for 0913 GMT (5:13 a.m. EDT) Monday from the Satish Dhawan Space Center, located on Sriharikota Island on India’s southeastern coast around 50 miles (80 kilometers) north of Chennai.
Around 16 minutes after liftoff, the 142-foot-tall (43.4-meter) GSLV Mk.3 rocket will loft the Chandrayaan 2 spacecraft into an elliptical orbit around Earth, ranging as high as 24,000 miles (39,000 kilometers) at its farthest point.
[Image: chandrayaan2_diagram.jpg][img=719x0]https://mk0spaceflightnoa02a.kinstacdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/chandrayaan2_diagram.jpg[/img]The Chandrayaan 2 spacecraft will launch with its orbiter and lander sections attached together. Once in lunar orbit, the two segments will split apart to conduct their separate missions. Credit: ISRO
Chandrayaan 2 will use its own propulsion system to raise its orbit over the following weeks, eventually flying high enough to intercept the moon next month. The spacecraft will conduct a series of rocket burns to first slip into orbit around the moon, the lower its altitude to reach a 62-mile-high (100-kilometer) orbit before separating the lander module to begin a descent to the lunar surface.
For a July 14 launch, mission planners designed a transit lasting 53 or 54 days from liftoff until touchdown of Chandrayaan 2’s Vikram lander near the lunar south pole.
ISRO has not announced any change to Chandrayaan 2’s landing date, which was scheduled for Sept. 6 or 7. Officials could shorten the transit time by reducing the number of orbits during Chandrayaan 2’s orbit-raising phase around Earth, and the spacecraft could spend less time in lunar orbit before releasing the lander.
A landing in early September is required to ensure Chandrayaan 2’s Vikram lander touches down soon after sunrise at the landing site in the moon’s southern highlands. The solar-powered lander and its mobile rover are designed to function for about 14 days, the time the sun spends above the horizon on the moon.
The Chandrayaan 2 mission could target a landing date later this year, but that could require a launch delay of weeks or months.
The Chandrayaan 2 orbiter, fitted with its own scientific instruments, is designed for a mission of at least one year. Among other scientific tasks, the orbiter will take high-resolution images of the moon and use a dual-frequency radar to help identify water ice deposits inside the moon’s permanently-shadowed polar craters.
India is aiming to become the fourth nation to successful accomplish a soft-landing on the moon, after landings by the Soviet Union, the United States and China.


https://spaceflightnow.com/2019/07/18/in...or-monday/

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  AOC is at it again
Posted by: slidika - 06-29-2019, 10:01 PM - Forum: Tell us about it... - No Replies

Border trip

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  [NASA HQ News] Urban Air Mobility, Alternate Propulsion Among NASA Research at Aviati
Posted by: rhw007 - 06-18-2019, 09:07 AM - Forum: Tell us about it... - No Replies

 
June 18, 2019 
MEDIA ADVISORY M19-054
Urban Air Mobility, Alternate Propulsion Among NASA Research at Aviation Forum
[img=200x0]https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/side_image/public/thumbnails/image/m19-054.jpg[/img] 
A NASA researcher monitors the progress of a test of a drone traffic management system in the urban landscape of Reno, Nevada.
Credits: NASA/Dominic Hart

NASA’s cutting-edge aeronautics research continually delivers new concepts and technologies to the aviation industry, many of which will be the focus of agency discussions and demonstrations at this year’s American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) annual Aviation Forum and Exposition, otherwise known as Aviation 2019. The five-day conference takes place June 17-21 at the Hilton Anatole Hotel, 2201 N. Stemmons Freeway, in Dallas.
AIAA will livestream the Plenary and Forum 360 sessions, including some NASA events. NASA will tweet and post live updates throughout the conference. Follow social media conversations using the hashtag #AIAAAviation.
NASA-related events are listed below, and will be noted if they’re livestreamed by AIAA. All times CDT.
Tuesday, June 18
8 to 9 a.m. – NASA Associate Administrator Steve Jurczyk will deliver a keynote address on catalyzing and enabling transformation in aeronautics and space. Jurczyk will discuss NASA’s current efforts and future plans to enable transformational capabilities for the aeronautics and space sectors. Will be livestreamed.
9:30 to 11:30 a.m. Forum 360 presentation called NASA Aeronautics: Shaping the Future of Flight. Panelists will include senior leaders from NASA Aeronautics who will discuss strategic direction for sustainable growth in subsonic transports, the safe and efficient emergence of new small aircraft markets, the reemergence of the supersonic transport market, and the fully integrated airspace system in which they must coexist. Will be livestreamed.
3 to 3:30 p.m. A continuation of Jurczyk’s morning question-and-answer session with an opportunity to ask about NASA’s efforts in the aeronautics and space arena.
5:30 to 6:30 p.m. A presentation called Addressing Aviation and Education Challenges with NASA University Leadership Initiative (ULI): A dialog with Helen Reed. A professor in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at Texas A&M University, Reed will discuss the importance of the research freedom under the ULI philosophy, the opportunities created for undergraduate and graduate students, and the experiences within a multi-disciplinary team of academics and industrial partners.
Wednesday, June 19
9:30 to 11:30 a.m. A Forum 360 presentation called Innovation in Vertical Lift. Vertical lift missions are changing and the systems are becoming more complex. The requirements to go faster and further, and carry more payload with better efficiency and less noise are driving new designs. Discussion points will include performance, manufacturability, and affordability trade-offs, the remaining hurdles in this arena, and the future of vertical lift. Will be livestreamed.
12:30 to 2 p.m. – A focused presentation and question-and-answer session on automation. Panelists will examine the progress being made by several organizations to automate flight. This can include the manipulation of flight surfaces, rotors, or actuators, as well as the creation of routines to increase safety through automation in the cockpit, leading to the creation of remote-pilot and autonomous pilotage flights and tasks.
Friday, June 21
8 to 9 a.m. – NASA Chief Historian Bill Barry hosts a fireside chat with historian Jim Hansen about the influence of the Apollo Program on aeronautics.
9:30 to 11:30 a.m. – A Forum 360 presentation called Accelerating through the Technology Readiness Level Scale. This session will look at non-traditional configurations, system complexity and new transportation business models that are forcing the aerospace industry to rethink verification and validation, flight testing, and certification. Will be livestreamed.
In addition, NASA researchers representing the agency’s aeronautics field centers in Virginia, Ohio and California will serve as panelists during special sessions throughout the conference, and will present more than 90 technical papers. A list of all technical seminars is available on AIAA’s conference website.
Attendees also can visit the NASA exhibit at booth 214 in the Chantilly Ballroom, Tuesday, June 18, through Thursday, June 20. This year’s displays includes a four-foot model of the X-59 QueSST aircraft; several Urban Air Mobility and X-57 models; and several interactive displays highlighting many of NASA’s ongoing research projects.
For more information about NASA’s aeronautics research, visit:

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For more information about Aviation 2019, visit:[/size]

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---

Happening NOW:

Bob... Ninja Assimilated

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  Who goes first ?
Posted by: letosvet - 06-09-2019, 03:20 AM - Forum: Tell us about it... - Replies (6)

Nasa to open International Space Station to tourists 

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-48560874

Nasa is to allow tourists to visit the International Space Station from 2020, priced at $35,000 per night.
The US space agency said it would open the orbiting station to tourism and other business ventures.
There will be up to two short private astronaut missions per year, said Robyn Gatens, the deputy director of the ISS.
Nasa said that private astronauts would be permitted to travel to the ISS for up to 30 days, travelling on US spacecraft.

Wonder if drinks are included ?   Beer

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  Wook's girlfriend called
Posted by: Fsbirdhouse - 04-30-2019, 08:05 PM - Forum: Tell us about it... - Replies (3)

Nancy, Wook's significant other called a couple of days ago and Jan talked to her. Seems she had a tough time about the time of Wook's passing and had a stroke then as well, but is doing much better. Still dealing with his estate even now, but thinks it should all be cleared up before long. Hoping it comes out alright for her in the end.
Just for those of you who knew him, he being such a long time and integral piece of the puzzle here. Thought you might like to know the continuing saga as far as we have been alerted.
Gotta admit, there's days I feel like I may be next, but wife says it won't be in boat. She's making me sell it, but I'll be darned it she thinks that's gonna keep me out of the duck blind. I have friends who claim they'll have me there if it takes a wheelchair to get it done.......Ha!

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  Which one's on Mars?
Posted by: Keith - 04-28-2019, 03:04 AM - Forum: Hidden Mission Review - Replies (2)

[Image: GoatsheadPyramid.jpg]

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  Ain't this a peach
Posted by: Keith - 04-27-2019, 08:28 AM - Forum: Hidden Mission Review - Replies (21)

hello beautiful..

[Image: PSP_010289_1650_RED-LaReina-alone.jpg]

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  What is happening to our nation?
Posted by: Mayito7777 - 04-24-2019, 12:40 PM - Forum: Tell us about it... - Replies (3)

The report came out, no collusion, no obstruction of justice period, why would you obstruct justice when you know you are innocent of all these lies and fabrications?

But sadly to the demonrats and the socialist George Soros bought media seems oblivious to the truth, our socialist media sounds like a robot stuck in the middle of a damaged computer program, they scream and scream so they cant hear the truth, specially the bunch of women who think if they shout louder than men is going to make them right. They should go home and take care of their husbands and kids and stop pretending they know what they are doing.

When this madness is going to stop?

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