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Little Shop of Horrors: A Moving Plot of an other-world's unmanned land...
This post is a psy-optic pilot-projected plot to plant a farm on Mars.

[Image: little-shop-of-horror-poster-1.jpg]

To Hell with Planetary-Protection.
Time for a new Mars resurrection.
With a massive life-form injection.
Biospheric total internal reflection.

Farm eye see and Pharmacy and Biofuel generator on wheels.
Follows the sun directly right in itz gaze the energy face reels.

It will supplant our biosphere directly where and when needed.
Considered Conceded concerning Mars / Earth like is re-seeded.

Quote:What is the difference between a farm, plot, and plant in the app?
By Elizabeth Schiller|April 16, 2017
Farm: Think of this space as the area that holds all of your plots and plants. If you are a comercial grower, you would likely name this your growing facility’s name. If you are a home-grower, you would likely call this your house. If you are an educator, you would call this your school. Each user account has one farm.
Plot: Think of this space as a specific area within your “farm” that holds some or all of your plants. If you have multiple growing rooms or garden beds, you would have multiple “plots”. Plot name examples include: Grow Room A, 5th Grade Garden Bed, etc.
Plant: Think of this as your cohort of plants that you’d like to monitor/track together – just like a testing group! This is a group that you treat the same way (e.g., this group of plants receives the same amount of water, light, nutrients, etc). When you log information about any of the plants within your cohort, this data represents that entire cohort of plants. The plants in a plant group are the same species. Examples could include Garlic Chives, Sunflowers, and Basil.
  • IMPORTANT: If you’d like to conduct tests/experiments with plants that are the same species, please separate them into various “testing groups/plants” so that you have properly segmented data. You could differentiate them by calling them slightly different group names, such as: Garlic Chives 1a, Garlic Chives 1b, etc.

Understanding how plants use sunlight
December 5, 2018 by Nancy W. Stauffer, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

[Image: 58-understandin.jpg]
Professor Gabriela S. Schlau-Cohen (center) and graduate students Raymundo Moya (left) and Wei Jia Chen worked with collaborators at the University of Verona, Italy, to develop a new understanding of the mechanisms by which plants reject …more
Plants rely on the energy in sunlight to produce the nutrients they need. But sometimes they absorb more energy than they can use, and that excess can damage critical proteins. To protect themselves, they convert the excess energy into heat and send it back out. Under some conditions, they may reject as much as 70 percent of all the solar energy they absorb.

"If plants didn't waste so much of the sun's energy unnecessarily, they could be producing more biomass," says Gabriela S. Schlau-Cohen, the Cabot Career Development Assistant Professor of Chemistry.

Quote:Arrow  or Fueling one of these on mars...

Indeed, scientists estimate that algae could grow as much as 30 percent more material for use as biofuel. More importantly, the world could increase crop yields—a change needed to prevent the significant shortfall between agricultural output and demand for food expected by 2050.

The challenge has been to figure out exactly how the photoprotection system in plants works at the molecular level, in the first 250 picoseconds of the photosynthesis process. (A picosecond is a trillionth of a second.)

"If we could understand how absorbed energy is converted to heat, we might be able to rewire that process to optimize the overall production of biomass and crops," says Schlau-Cohen. "We could control that switch to make plants less hesitant to shut off the protection. They could still be protected to some extent, and even if a few individuals died, there'd be an increase in the productivity of the remaining population."

First steps of photosynthesis

Critical to the first steps of photosynthesis are proteins called light-harvesting complexes, or LHCs. When sunlight strikes a leaf, each photon (particle of light) delivers energy that excites an LHC. That excitation passes from one LHC to another until it reaches a so-called reaction center, where it drives chemical reactions that split water into oxygen gas, which is released, and positively charged particles called protons, which remain. The protons activate the production of an enzyme that drives the formation of energy-rich carbohydrates needed to fuel the plant's metabolism.

[Image: 59-understandin.jpg]
The left and middle figures illustrate fluorescence behavior of Vio-enriched and Zea-enriched LHCSR proteins These figures show probability distributions of fluorescence intensity and lifetime from experiments with hundreds of individual …more
But in bright sunlight, protons may form more quickly than the enzyme can use them, and the accumulating protons signal that excess energy is being absorbed and may damage critical components of the plant's molecular machinery. So some plants have a special type of LHC—called a light-harvesting complex stress-related, or LHCSR—whose job is to intervene. If proton buildup indicates that too much sunlight is being harvested, the LHCSR flips the switch, and some of the energy is dissipated as heat.

It's a highly effective form of sunscreen for plants—but the LHCSR is reluctant to switch off that quenching setting. When the sun is shining brightly, the LHCSR has quenching turned on. When a passing cloud or flock of birds blocks the sun, it could switch it off and soak up all the available sunlight. But instead, the LHCSR leaves it on—just in case the sun suddenly comes back. As a result, plants reject a lot of energy that they could be using to build more plant material.

An evolutionary success

Much research has focused on the quenching mechanism that regulates the flow of energy within a leaf to prevent damage. Optimized by 3.5 billion years of evolution, its capabilities are impressive. First, it can deal with wildly varying energy inputs. In a single day, the sun's intensity can increase and decrease by a factor of 100 or even 1,000. And it can react to changes that occur slowly over time—say, at sunrise—and those that happen in just seconds, for example, due to a passing cloud.

Researchers agree that one key to quenching is a pigment within the LHCSR—called a carotenoid—that can take two forms: violaxanthin (Vio) and zeaxanthin (Zea). They've observed that LHCSR samples are dominated by Vio molecules under low-light conditions and Zea molecules under high-light conditions. Conversion from Vio to Zea would change various electronic properties of the carotenoids, which could explain the activation of quenching. However, it doesn't happen quickly enough to respond to a passing cloud. That type of fast change could be a direct response to the buildup of protons, which causes a difference in pH from one region of the LHCSR to another.

Clarifying those photoprotection mechanisms experimentally has proved difficult. Examining the behavior of samples containing thousands of proteins doesn't provide insights into the molecular-level behavior because various quenching mechanisms occur simultaneously and on different time scales—and in some cases, so quickly that they're difficult or impossible to observe experimentally.

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This specially designed microscope is capable of detecting fluorescence from single LHCSR proteins attached to a glass coverslip. Credit: Stuart DarschTesting the behavior of proteins one at a time

Schlau-Cohen and her MIT chemistry colleagues, postdoc Toru Kondo and graduate student Wei Jia Chen, decided to take another tack. Focusing on the LHCSR found in green algae and moss, they examined what was different about the way that stress-related proteins rich in Vio and those rich in Zea respond to light—and they did it one protein at a time.

According to Schlau-Cohen, their approach was made possible by the work of her collaborator Roberto Bassi and his colleagues Alberta Pinnola and Luca Dall'Osto at the University of Verona, in Italy. In earlier research, they had figured out how to purify the individual proteins known to play key roles in quenching. They thus were able to provide samples of individual LHCSRs, some enriched with Vio carotenoids and some with Zea carotenoids.

To test the response to light exposure, Schlau-Cohen's team uses a laser to shine picosecond light pulses onto a single LHCSR. Using a highly sensitive microscope, they can then detect the fluorescence emitted in response. If the LHCSR is in quench-on mode, it will turn much of the incoming energy into heat and expel it. Little or no energy will be left to be reemitted as fluorescence. But if the LHCSR is in quench-off mode, all of the incoming light will come out as fluorescence.

"So we're not measuring the quenching directly," says Schlau-Cohen. "We're using decreases in fluorescence as a signature of quenching. As the fluorescence goes down, the quenching goes up."

Using that technique, the MIT researchers examined the two proposed quenching mechanisms: the conversion of Vio to Zea and a direct response to a high proton concentration.

To address the first mechanism, they characterized the response of the Vio-rich and Zea-rich LHCSRs to the pulsed laser light using two measures: the intensity of the fluorescence (based on how many photons they detect in one millisecond) and its lifetime (based on the arrival time of the individual photons).

Explore further: Study reveals the mechanisms of a protein that helps moss and green algae defend against too much light

More information: John I. Ogren et al. Impact of the lipid bilayer on energy transfer kinetics in the photosynthetic protein LH2, Chemical Science (2018). DOI: 10.1039/C7SC04814A

Toru Kondo et al. Single-molecule spectroscopy of LHCSR1 protein dynamics identifies two distinct states responsible for multi-timescale photosynthetic photoprotection, Nature Chemistry (2017). DOI: 10.1038/nchem.2818 

Journal reference: Chemical Science Nature Chemistry
Provided by: Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Read more at:

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Plant cyborg able to move itself to a preferred light source

by Bob Yirka , Tech Xplore
[Image: plantcyborga.jpg]Credit: Elbert Tiao, MIT Media Lab
A team of researchers at the MIT Media Lab built a cyborg that combines a plant with electronics and ultimately allows the plant to choose when it would like to move to a brighter spot. The cyborg is the brainchild of team leader Harpreet Sareen, and he has named it Elowan.

Plants have the ability to detect light—if you watch really carefully, for example, you can actually see a sunflower move to face directly into the sun as it moves across the sky. Prior research has shown that plants have many natural sensors and response systems—they respond to humidity and temperature levels, for example, or the amount of water in the soil in which they are planted. In this new effort, the researchers sought to give one plant more autonomy by putting its potted base on wheels fitted with electronics and an electric motor.
The idea is reasonably simple—place sensors that listen to the electrical signals generated by a plant and then convert those signals to commands carried out by the motorized wheels. The result is a plant that can respond to changes in light direction by moving itself closer to the source. The researchers proved this by placing the cyborg between two table lamps and then turned them on or off. The plant moved itself, with no prodding, toward the light that was turned on.
The work was not meant as a project to make plants "happier" by giving them more autonomy. Instead, it was geared toward harnessing the processing power of nature. For example,Elowan could be modified in a way that allows it to move solar panels on a house to make sure they get the most sunlight possible. Or office plants outfitted with sensors and controllers could ensure temperature and humidity levels are optimized not just for the plant, but for the workers sharing its space. The team plans to continue its research, hoping to capture the natural processing power of plants to create hybrid devices that might benefit humans in a variety of ways.

Microscopic 'sunflowers' for better solar panels
December 4, 2018 by Lindsay Brownell, Harvard University

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Liquid crystal elastomers deform in response to heat, and the shape they take depends on the alignment of their internal crystalline elements, which can be determined by exposing them to different magnetic fields during formation. Credit: Wyss Institute at Harvard University
The pads of geckos' notoriously sticky feet are covered with setae—microscopic, hairlike structures whose chemical and physical composition and high flexibility allow the lizard to grip walls and ceilings with ease. Scientists have tried to replicate such dynamic microstructures in the lab with a variety of materials, including liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs), which are rubbery networks with attached liquid crystalline groups that dictate the directions in which the LCEs can move and stretch. So far, synthetic LCEs have mostly been able to deform in only one or two dimensions, limiting the structures' ability to move throughout space and take on different shapes.

Now, a group of scientists from Harvard's Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering and John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) has harnessed magnetic fields to control the molecular structure of LCEs and create microscopic three-dimensional polymer shapes that can be programmed to move in any direction in response to multiple types of stimuli. The work, reported in PNAS, could lead to the creation of a number of useful devices, including solar panels that turn to follow the sun for improved energy capture.

"What's critical about this project is that we are able to control the molecular structure by aligning liquid crystals in an arbitrary direction in 3-D space, allowing us to program nearly any shape into the geometry of the material itself," said first author Yuxing Yao, who is a graduate student in the lab of Wyss Founding Core Faculty Member Joanna Aizenberg, Ph.D.

The microstructures created by Yao and Aizenberg's team are made of LCEs cast into arbitrary shapes that can deform in response to heat, light, and humidity, and whose specific reconfiguration is controlled by their own chemical and material properties.The researchers found that by exposing the LCE precursors to a magnetic field while they were being synthesized, all the liquid crystalline elements inside the LCEs lined up along the magnetic field and retained this molecular alignment after the polymer solidified. By varying the direction of the magnetic field during this process, the scientists could dictate how the resulting LCE shapes would deform when heated to a temperature that disrupted the orientation of their liquid crystalline structures. When returned to ambient temperature, the deformed structures resumed their initial, internally oriented shape.

Such programmed shape changes could be used to create encrypted messages that are only revealed when heated to a specific temperature, actuators for tiny soft robots, or adhesive materials whose stickiness can be switched on and off. The system can also cause shapes to autonomously bend in directions that would usually require the input of some energy to achieve. For example, an LCE plate was shown to not only undergo "traditional" out-of-plane bending, but also in-plane bending or twisting, elongation, and contraction. Additionally, unique motions could be achieved by exposing different regions of an LCE structure to multiple magnetic fields during polymerization, which then deformed in different directions when heated.

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Micropillars made of a light-responsive liquid crystal elastomer (LCE) re-orient themselves to follow light coming from different directions, which could lead to more efficient solar panels. Credit: Wyss Institute at Harvard University
The team was also able to program their LCE shapes to reconfigure themselves in response to light by incorporating light-sensitive cross-linking molecules into the structure during polymerization. Then, when the structure was illuminated from a certain direction, the side facing the light contracted, causing the entire shapeto bend toward the light. This type of self-regulated motion allows LCEs to deform in response to their environment and continuously reorient themselves to autonomously follow the light.

Additionally, LCEs can be created with both heat- and light-responsive properties, such that a single-material structure is now capable of multiple forms of movement and response mechanisms.

One exciting application of these multiresponsive LCEs is the creation of solar panels covered with microstructures that turn to follow the sun as it moves across the sky like a sunflower, thus resulting in more efficient light capture. The technology could also form the basis of autonomous source-following radios, multilevel encryption, sensors, and smart buildings.

"Our lab currently has several ongoing projects in which we're working on controlling the chemistry of these LCEs to enable unique, previously unseen deformation behaviors, as we believe these dynamic bioinspired structures have the potential to find use in a number of fields," said Aizenberg, who is also the Amy Smith Berylson Professor of Material Science at SEAS.

"Asking fundamental questions about how Nature works and whether it is possible to replicate biological structures and processes in the lab is at the core of the Wyss Institute's values, and can often lead to innovations that not only match Nature's abilities, but improve on them to create new materials and devices that would not exist otherwise," said Wyss Institute Founding Director Donald Ingber, M.D., Ph.D., who is also the Judah Folkman Professor of Vascular Biology at Harvard Medical School and the Vascular Biology Program at Boston Children's Hospital, as well as Professor of Bioengineering at SEAS.

Explore further: Shape-shifting material can morph, reverse itself using heat, light

More information: Yuxing Yao el al., "Multiresponsive polymeric microstructures with encoded predetermined and self-regulated deformability," PNAS (2018). 

Journal reference: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Provided by:  Harvard University

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A self propelled smart farm that could start with lichen and fungi  and later grasses herbs shrubs bushes trees etc.

Infecting mars with seeds and spores that will awake when we start geo-engineering and terra-forming.

CO2 and sunlight as well as condensation electrolysed fuels will make these Mars Seeders autonomous.

[Image: audreyiionbridge.jpg]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...

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Little Shop of Horrors: A Moving Plot of an other-world's unmanned land... - by EA - 12-06-2018, 12:12 AM
RE: Little Shop of Horrors - by EA - 12-07-2018, 10:35 PM
RE: Little Shop of Horrors - by EA - 12-22-2018, 10:00 PM

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