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Little Shop of Horrors: A Moving Plot of an other-world's unmanned land...
#18

Little Shop of Horrors: A Moving Plot of an other-world's unmanned land...
EA

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[/size]...quantum incoherence is Sheep  as improv was...

Quote:Associate Professor Levi Yant said: "Understanding how that strange state of having 'too much DNA', which clearly causes initial problems, can be overcome – and even turned into an evolutionary positive – is a big scientific question.
 It's almost always a bad thing to have too much DNA,
but we think that sometimes it makes for a 'hopeful monster' that just might flourish.

[Image: Finale+Theater+68.jpg]
Two genomes can be better than one for evolutionary adaptation, study finds
March 4, 2019 by Emma Rayner, University of Nottingham

[Image: 5c7d1da2198ce.jpg]
Thale cress. Credit: Wikimedia Commons
Scientists have revealed how certain wild plants with naturally doubled 'supergenomes' can stay ahead of the game when it comes to adapting to climate volatility and hostile environments.




This world-first study, published in Nature Ecology and Evolution,could have significant implications for plant and crop sustainability in the face of climate change.

The research team used a close relative of the native UK plant Arabidopsis, or thale cress, which can have either a single or a double genome. The findings provide the most solid evidence to date of the pervasive evolutionary effects of a doubled genome across an entire species range.

The study is also the first to comprehensively test a century of evolutionary theory using new technologies to sequence hundreds of genomes. The work was led by Associate Professor of Evolutionary Genomics Levi Yant, from the University of Nottingham's School of Life Sciences and Future Food Beacon.

Whole genome duplication (genome doubling or polyploidy) happens in all kingdoms of life and is most common in plants. It can occur during a type of cell division called 'meiosis' and is very common in crops that we eat including, wheat, apples, bananas, oats, strawberries, sugar and brassicas like cauliflower. It can also occur in the most aggressive cancers and is associated with cancer progression, so it is important to understand what factors stabilise genome duplication as well as how genome doubled populations evolve.

Associate Professor Levi Yant said: "Understanding how that strange state of having 'too much DNA', which clearly causes initial problems, can be overcome – and even turned into an evolutionary positive – is a big scientific question. It's almost always a bad thing to have too much DNA, but we think that sometimes it makes for a 'hopeful monster' that just might flourish.

"Our previous work over the past five years has been to figure out how these doubled genome populations stabilise in the first place. The initial issue is that when genome duplication first occurs, suddenly there are too many chromosomes for the cell machinery. These chromosomes literally become entangled and break when they separate during cell division. It can be a proper mess! This can also become a problem in some crops, especially in the elevated temperatures, and so global warming makes this problem worse.



"We figured out a few years ago how naturally-occurring whole genome duplications successfully evolve to be stable. We then wanted to follow this up with a broader-scale study looking at adaptations across an entire species range because we know that some of the genome doubled populations successfully invaded very hostile habitats such as toxic mines, railways and beach environments which are not generally plant-friendly. In fact, one of the species we are working on has a full six genome copies and is the most rapidly spreading plant in the U.K., growing specifically in salted roadsides since the practice became common in the 1970s!

"These tough little plants can become little genetic adaptation machines which allows them to invade hostile environments and even thrive where others can't. In fact, a large proportion of the most invasive plant species in the world are genome doubled, so we hypothesised that there are adaptations that occur as a result of genome duplication that we can focus on and find the genes responsible for the adaptations. To test this hypothesis in this study, we resequenced about 300 genomes of this little plant Arabidopsis arenosa,collected from 39 geographical areas across Europe, and looked for the little footprints of selection, a particular gene, that appeared helpful for adaptation to a particular area."

"In addition to particular genes, we found something even more significant – that in the genome doubled variants the fundamental processes governing how Darwinian selection operates appear a bit different to how they are in the single genome species. That is, we found broader reasons why genome doubled populations may adapt better that go beyond the fact that they simply have more DNA or might harbour new gene variants."

They found that in doubled genome versions of a species the linkages between neighbouring genes on the same strand of DNA are less strict. It was more common for two genes near one another on a particular piece of DNA to have different combinations of mutations than it was in single genome versions of the species. It may be that this process of 'linkage breaking' between neighbouring genes is more efficient in the doubled genome speciesbecause a greater variety of different combinations are present and the DNA recombines with additional partners, generating novel combinations of genes. This means that good versions of one gene can escape from bad versions of another genes in its 'DNA neighbourhood', allowing Darwinian selection to occur more efficiently, purging from a population the bad versions and selecting the good.

The recent results from their unique and large population-wide assessment add weight to the theory that these special plants with 'too much DNA' have a broad range of weapons to adapt to climate change and evolve to become even more hardy in the future. However, the researchers say a lot of work still needs to be done to understand what is driving the successful establishment and spread of newly-formed double genome lineages.

Explore further: Genome duplication drives evolution of species

More information: Patrick Monnahan et al. Pervasive population genomic consequences of genome duplication in Arabidopsis arenosa, Nature Ecology & Evolution (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41559-019-0807-4 

Journal reference: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Provided by: University of Nottingham



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2019-03-genomes-ev...y.html#jCp



To Hell with Planetary-Protection.

Time for a new Mars resurrection.
With a massive life-form injection.
Biospheric total internal reflection.


Farm eye see and Pharmacy and Biofuel generator on wheels.
Follows the sun directly right in itz gaze the energy face reels.

It will supplant our biosphere directly where and when needed.
Considered Conceded concerning Mars / Earth like is re-seeded.


[i]'...and Biofuel generator on wheels.'[/i]
[i]Engineers develop fast method to convert algae to biocrude
[/i]

March 4, 2019, University of Utah



[Image: turningalgae.jpg]
University of Utah chemical engineering assistant professor Swomitra Mohanty, pictured with beakers of algae, is part of a team that has developed a new kind of jet mixer for turning algae into biomass that extracts the lipids with much …more


Biofuel experts have long sought a more economically-viable way to turn algae into biocrude oil to power vehicles, ships and even jets. University of Utah researchers believe they have found an answer. They have developed an unusually rapid method to deliver cost-effective algal biocrude in large quantities using a specially-designed jet mixer.








Packed inside the microorganisms growing in ponds, lakes and rivers are lipids, which are fatty acid molecules containing oil that can be extracted to power diesel engines. When extracted the lipids are called biocrude. That makes organisms such as microalgae an attractive form of biomass, organic matter that can be used as a sustainable fuel source. These lipids are also found in a variety of other single-cell organisms such as yeasts used in cheese processing. But the problem with using algae for biomass has always been the amount of energy it takes to pull the lipids or biocrude from the watery plants. Under current methods, it takes more energy to turn algae into biocrude than the amount of energy you get back out of it.



A team of University of Utah chemical engineers have developed a new kind of jet mixer that extracts the lipids with much less energy than the older extraction method, a key discovery that now puts this form of energy closer to becoming a viable, cost-effective alternative fuel. The new mixer is fast, too, extracting lipids in seconds.



The team's results were published in a new peer-reviewed journal, Chemical Engineering Science X. The article, "Algal Lipid Extraction Using Confined Impinging Jet Mixers," can be downloaded here.



"The key piece here is trying to get energy parity. We're not there yet, but this is a really important step toward accomplishing it," says Dr. Leonard Pease, a co-author of the paper. "We have removed a significant development barrier to make algal biofuel production more efficient and smarter. Our method puts us much closer to creating biofuels energy parity than we were before."



Right now, in order to extract the oil-rich lipids from the algae, scientists have to pull the water from the algae first, leaving either a slurry or dry powder of the biomass. That is the most energy-intensive part of the process. That residue is then mixed with a solvent where the lipids are separated from the biomass. What's left is a precursor, the biocrude, used to produce algae-based biofuel. That fuel is then mixed with diesel fuel to power long-haul trucks, tractors and other large diesel-powered machinery. But because it requires so much energy to extract the water from the plants at the beginning of the process, turning algae into biofuel has thus far not been a practical, efficient or economical process.







"There have been many laudable research efforts to advance algal biofuel, but nothing has yet produced a price point capable of attracting commercial development. Our designs may change that equation and put algal biofuel back in play," says University of Utah chemical engineering assistant professor Swomitra "Bobby" Mohanty, a co-author on the paper. Other co-authors are former U chemical engineering doctoral student Yen-Hsun "Robert" Tseng and U chemical engineering associate professor John McLennan.



The team has created a new mixing extractor, a reactor that shoots jets of the solvent at jets of algae, creating a localized turbulence in which the lipids "jump" a short distance into the stream of solvent. The solvent then is taken out and can be recycled to be used again in the process. "Our designs ensure you don't have to expend all that energy in drying the algae and are much more rapid than competing technologies," notes Mohanty.



This technology could also be applied beyond algae and include a variety of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, or any microbial-derived oil, says Mohanty.



In 2017, about 5 percent of total primary energy use in the United States came from biomass, according to the U.S. Department of Energy. Other forms of biomass include burning wood for electricity, ethanol that is made from crops such as corn and sugar cane, and food and yard waste in garbage that is converted to biogas. The benefit of algae is that it can be grown in ponds, raceways or custom-designed bioreactors and then harvested to produce an abundance of fuel. Growing algae in such mass quantities also could positively affect the atmosphere by reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in the air.



"This is game-changing," Pease says of their work on algae research. "The breakthrough technologies we are creating could drive a revolution in algae and other cell-derived biofuels development. The dream may soon be within reach."



[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Feeding plants to this algae could fuel your car



Provided by: University of Utah




[i]Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2019-03-fast-method-algae-biocrude.html#jCp[/i]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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Messages In This Thread
RE: Little Shop of Horrors - by EA - 12-07-2018, 10:35 PM
RE: Little Shop of Horrors - by EA - 12-22-2018, 10:00 PM
RE: Little Shop of Horrors: A Moving Plot of an other-world's unmanned land... - by EA - 03-04-2019, 08:34 PM

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