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Ceres Dawn (rebuild)
...
{see gallery at Ceres Dawn}
They have shown 6 images of Occator's rim so far,
at low altitudes such as 30 miles,
and most LAMO image resolution has these equaled or beat thus far.


Must be the speed they are flying by ... in the FBAMO --  Fly  Naughty  Bye Altitude Mapping Orbit.

6 images of Occator's crater rim,
means that they have the central dome and adjacent areas imaged already as well. 
They appear to be focusing in on boulder clusters in side walls and craters,
with less than desirable image resolution,
as the distraction du jour.
Stalling and procrastinating Whip 
...
Reply
I have been fascinated with this crater for a few months, only just worked out how to process the raw data from the small 
body imaging browser - and boy is there a lot of data to trawl through! 

Please forgive my not so great images lol these are not the best quality since looking at the raw data theres so much more to get out of them  Cry





[Image: dawn%201%20occator_zpslzgr5d84.jpg]


[Image: occator%20dome%20mining%20site_zpsdjr8muxb.png]


[Image: dawn%202%20occt_zpstuhtt8in.jpg]

http://www.gigapan.com/galleries/13649  - Dawn Gallery - it's a tad sparse at the mo!
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...
Soon you will be able to produce a gigapan of the dome from an image at altitude 30 miles.
It will be interesting to see the image resolution they release,
and if that lends itself to a competent gigapan.
It appears that they scheduled the FBAMO Whip
to go right over Occator, here at the get go.
They have the Dome and adjacent areas imaged already.
We will know immediately from image resolution of the Occator Dome,
how good the images of Ahuna will be.
...
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Vianova,

this set of data will be mouthwatering for sure, a 30 mile (aprox) height would give some clarity on the LAMO images..

I know the bright spots are "bright" - but some images seem to have had all the detail washed out with exposure and contrast fiddles at source.

Nasa seem to enjoy manipulation - there are quite a few images from MSL in which the Dust/Sand/Regolith just seems so questionable - I do love a good conspiracy mind :)

(manipulated if you ask me, heavily)
Reply
Dawn's latest orbit reveals dramatic new views of Occator crater
July 2, 2018, Jet Propulsion Laboratory


[Image: dawnslatesto.jpg]
This mosaic of a prominent mound located on the western side of Cerealia Facula was obtained by NASA's Dawn spacecraft on June 22, 2018 from an altitude of about 21 miles (34 kilometers). Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA/MPS/DLR/IDA

NASA's Dawn spacecraft reached its lowest-ever and final orbit around dwarf planet Ceres on June 6 and has been returning thousands of stunning images and other data.


The flight team maneuvered the spacecraft into an orbit that dives 22 miles (35 kilometers) above the surface of Ceres and viewed Occator Crater, site of the famous bright deposits, and other intriguing regions. In more than three years of orbiting Ceres, Dawn's lowest altitude before this month was 240 miles (385 kilometers), so the data from this current orbit bring the dwarf planet into much sharper focus.

These low orbits have revealed unprecedented details of the relationships between bright and dark materials in the region of Vinalia Faculae. Dawn's visible and infrared mapping spectrometer had previously found the bright deposits to be made of sodium carbonate, a material commonly found in evaporite deposits on Earth. Last week Dawn fired its ion engine, possibly for the final time, to fly nearer Cerealia Facula, the large deposit of sodium carbonate in the center of Occator Crater.

"Acquiring these spectacular pictures has been one of the greatest challenges in Dawn's extraordinary extraterrestrial expedition, and the results are better than we had ever hoped," said Dawn's chief engineer and project manager, Marc Rayman, of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. "Dawn is like a master artist, adding rich details to the otherworldly beauty in its intimate portrait of Ceres."

[Image: 1-dawnslatesto.jpg]
This close-up image of the Vinalia Faculae in Occator Crater was obtained by NASA's Dawn spacecraft on June 14, 2018 from an altitude of about 24 miles (39 kilometers). Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA/MPS/DLR/IDA

The wealth of information contained in these images, and more that are planned in the coming weeks, will help address key, open questions about the origin of the faculae, the largest deposits of carbonates observed thus far outside Earth, and possibly Mars. In particular, scientists have been wondering how that material was exposed, either from a shallow, sub-surface reservoir of mineral-laden water, or from a deeper source of brines (liquid water enriched in salts) percolating upward through fractures.

And the low-altitude observations obtained with Dawn's other instruments, a gamma ray and neutron detector and a visible and infrared mapping spectrometer, will reveal the composition of Ceres at finer scale, shedding new light on the origin of the materials found across Ceres' surface. New gravity measurements also may reveal details of the subsurface.

"The first views of Ceres obtained by Dawn beckoned us with a single, blinding bright spot," said Carol Raymond of JPL, Dawn's principal investigator. "Unraveling the nature and history of this fascinating dwarf planet during the course of Dawn's extended stay at Ceres has been thrilling, and it is especially fitting that Dawn's last act will provide rich new data sets to test those theories."

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Dawn mission: new orbit, new opportunities

Provided by: Jet Propulsion Laboratory


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-07-dawn-lates...s.html#jCp
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
...
The second image is definitely better quality than the first, which is just plain lousy,
and both aren't good enough,
to be better than the image resolution we had at LAMO.

The second image did offer an interesting view.
We will probably get better resolution images from orbital imaging at higher latitudes,
when those images come in.

All I can say is this:
Crappy resolution or not,
they had better have images of Ahuna from close in.
If they failed that, then there is only one remedy Giljotina
 
We know that the Occator central dome images are coming.
I would hope that they got a close up of Oxo crater as well.

...
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(07-03-2018, 03:01 AM)Vianova Wrote: ...
The second image is definitely better quality than the first, which is just plain lousy,
and both aren't good enough,
to be better than the image resolution we had at LAMO.

The second image did offer an interesting view.
We will probably get better resolution images from orbital imaging at higher latitudes,
when those images come in.

All I can say is this:
Crappy resolution or not,
they had better have images of Ahuna from close in.
If they failed that, then there is only one remedy Giljotina
 
We know that the Occator central dome images are coming.
I would hope that they got a close up of Oxo crater as well.

...

You know they will attain these images, It's more a case of; Do they release them for us without the bad focus effect to dull down some finer detail, or release a low quality inferior image and try to pass it off as the real McCoy.  I do hope I'm wrong on both counts, and they release the full unfettled images. 

I must admit, I have enjoyed searching Ceres using the Small Body Image Browser - It's taken a lot of foot work out of locating image sets - the Pds node isn't my forte yet, I get lost searching at times (ashamedly  Nonono lol) 
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Or use the "pasted material" explanation why the Ares Face went from the Catbox:

[Image: catbox-april-1998-image.jpg]

to this:

[Image: mjcFace.gif]

and with the "pasted materials"

[Image: ?u=https%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2F...ce.jpg&f=1]

Never Allways Staying Accurate / Just Pasting Longtime

Sheep Horsepoop



Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Reply
Lightbulb 
Ceres Dawn is about to run out of FUEL between August and October 2018 !!!


Where are the images ???


[Image: PIA21919_hires.jpg]

Well it seems JPL just sent an email out with a LINK to where they are actually putting their LOW ORBIT acquisitions.

Whether they are putting ALL of them there or not is Nonono

here is email:

[Image: PIA21924-16.jpg] Dusk for Dawn: Mission of Many Firsts to Gather More Data in Home Stretch

Pasadena Conference to Include New Insight into Dwarf Planet Ceres

As NASA's Dawn spacecraft prepares to wrap up its groundbreaking 11-year mission, which has included two successful extended missions at Ceres, it will continue to explore -- collecting images and other data.

Within a few months, Dawn is expected to run out of a key fuel, hydrazine, which feeds thrusters that control its orientation and keeps it communicating with Earth. When that happens, sometime between August and October, the spacecraft will stop operating, but it will remain in orbit around dwarf planet Ceres.

Dawn is the only spacecraft to orbit two deep-space destinations. It has given us new, up-close views of Ceres and Vesta, the largest bodies between Mars and Jupiter. During 14 months in orbit from 2011 to 2012, Dawn studied Vesta from its surface to its core. It then pulled off an unprecedented maneuver by leaving orbit and traveling through the main asteroid belt for more than two years to reach and orbit Ceres, which it has been investigating since 2015.

At Ceres, the spacecraft discovered brilliant, salty deposits decorating the dwarf planet like a smattering of diamonds. The science behind these bright spots is even more compelling: they are mainly sodium carbonate and ammonium chloride that somehow made their way to the surface in a slushy brine from within or below the crust.

These discoveries were fueled by the tremendous efficiency of ion propulsion. Dawn wasn't the first spacecraft to use ion propulsion, familiar to science-fiction fans as well as space enthusiasts, but it pushed the limits of this advanced propulsion's capabilities and stamina.

"Dawn's unique mission to orbit and explore two strange new worlds would have been impossible without ion propulsion," said Marc Rayman of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, who has served as Dawn's mission director, chief engineer and project manager. "Dawn is truly an interplanetary spaceship, and it has been outstandingly productive as it introduced these fascinating and mysterious worlds to Earth."

These days, near the end of Dawn's second extended mission at Ceres, the spacecraft continues to wow us week after week, with very close photos shot from only 22 miles (35 kilometers) above the dwarf planet -- about three times the altitude of a passenger jet.

But Wait, There's More: New Science to Come

Although the Dawn mission is winding down, the science is not. Besides the high-resolution images, the spacecraft is collecting gamma ray and neutron spectra, infrared and visible spectra, and gravity data. The observations focus on the area around Occator and Urvara craters, with the main goal of understanding the evolution of Ceres, and testing for possible ongoing geology.

"The new images of Occator Crater and the surrounding areas have exceeded expectations, revealing beautiful, alien landscapes," said Carol Raymond of JPL, principal investigator of the Dawn mission. "Ceres' unique surface appears to be shaped by impacts into its volatile-rich crust, resulting in intriguing, complex geology, as we can see in the new high-resolution mosaics of Cerealia Facula and Vinalia Faculae."

The first results of this mission phase, which started in early June, are being presented this week at the Committee on SPAce Research (COSPAR) meeting in Pasadena. Raymond and JPL scientist Jennifer Scully will offer new information on the relationships between bright and dark materials on the floor of Occator Crater, which show impact processes, landslides and cryovolcanism.

Dawn scientists are using new high-resolution data from Dawn to test and refine hypotheses about Occator crater's formation and evolution."Observations, modeling and laboratory studies helped us conclude that the bright spots are either formed by impacts interacting with the crust, or that a reservoir of briny melt contributed to their formation," said Scully.

The new images so far support the hypothesis that exposure of subsurface material in that region is ongoing, and that it is geologically active, feeding from a deep reservoir. Eleonora Ammannito of the Italian Space Agency, deputy lead for the Dawn visible and infrared mapping spectrometer, will present updated maps at the conference showing the distribution of briny materials across Ceres' surface.

Also at COSPAR, Dawn flight team member Dan Grebow of JPL will describe Dawn's final orbit, designed to abide by NASA's planetary protection protocols.

Low-altitude images collected by Dawn are posted regularly to the mission's web page here.   Hi

The Dawn mission is managed by JPL for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. Dawn is a project of the directorate's Discovery Program, managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. JPL is responsible for overall Dawn mission science. Orbital ATK Inc., in Dulles, Virginia, designed and built the spacecraft. The German Aerospace Center, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Italian Space Agency and Italian National Astrophysical Institute are international partners on the mission team.

For a complete list of mission participants, visit:
https://dawn.jpl.nasa.gov/mission

More information about Dawn is available at the following sites:
https://www.nasa.gov/dawn
https://dawn.jpl.nasa.gov

----

Quote:Also at COSPAR, Dawn flight team member Dan Grebow of JPL will describe Dawn's final orbit, designed to abide by NASA's planetary protection protocols.


Naughty 

You can dive Cassini into Saturn but can't even 'touch' Ceres with "ions" or ANY 'residual fuels' that might drift down onto the surface of Cere's where NO HUMAN will ever touch down again in at least a century or two !!!

Now Always Shifting Awareness / Just Playing Looser

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Reply
Quote:Raymond and JPL scientist Jennifer Scully will offer new information on the relationships between bright and dark materials on the floor of Occator Crater, which show impact processes, landslides and cryovolcanism.


Dawn scientists are using new high-resolution data from Dawn to test and refine hypotheses about Occator crater's formation and evolution."Observations, modeling and laboratory studies helped us conclude that the bright spots are either formed by impacts interacting with the crust, or that a reservoir of briny melt contributed to their formation," said Scully.

The new images so far support the hypothesis that exposure of subsurface material in that region is ongoing, and that it is geologically active, feeding from a deep reservoir.


I still hypothesise that Occator is a result of a Super-Cryo-Volcanic Eruption (SCVE) @ ~19.471 and not a giant impact crater.

And do further note in two articles below*

[Image: nasajunodata.jpg]
NASA Juno data indicate another possible volcano on Jupiter moon Io
Data collected by NASA's Juno spacecraft using its Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) instrument point to a new heat source close to the south pole of Io that could indicate a previously undiscovered volcano on the small ...
[Image: 1x1.gif]Jul 14, 2018 in Space Exploration 
Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-07-nasa-juno-...n.html#jCp



Quote:"The new Io hotspot JIRAM picked up is about 200 miles (300 kilometers) from the nearest previously mapped hotspot," said Alessandro Mura, a Juno co-investigator from the National Institute for Astrophysics in Rome. "We are not ruling out movement or modification of a previously discovered hot spot, but it is difficult to imagine one could travel such a distance and still be considered the same feature."
  support the hypothesis that exposure of subsurface material in that region is ongoing, 
Sheep and that it is geologically active, feeding from a deep reservoir
Scientists have confirmed for the first time that radical changes of one volcano in southern Japan was the direct result of an erupting volcano 22 kilometers (13.7 miles) away. The observations from the two volcanos—Aira caldera and Kirishima—show that the two were connected through a common subterranean magma source in the months leading up to the 2011 eruption of Kirishima.


[Image: studyfindsde.jpg]
Study finds deep subterranean connection between two Japan volcanoes
Scientists have confirmed for the first time that radical changes of one volcano in southern Japan was the direct result of an erupting volcano 22 kilometers (13.7 miles) away. The observations from the two volcanos—Aira ...
[Image: 1x1.gif]Jul 14, 2018 in Earth Sciences
Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-07-deep-subterranean-japan-volcanoes.html#jCp
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
...

Quote:Raymond ---> Slap2  <--- Scully -- and JPL scientist Jennifer Scully Whip
will offer new information on the relationships between bright and dark materials on the floor of Occator Crater,
which show impact processes, landslides and cryovolcanism.


The new images so far support the hypothesis that exposure of subsurface material in that region is ongoing, and that it is geologically active, feeding from a deep reservoir.


Those worthless clowns.
We said it was ongoing actively geologic,
and that material was emerging from a deep reservoir,
... way back at Day One of the first images.
The Occator impact may have further initiated some ongoing process from below,
but what is there now in the central dome has been happening a long time.



Either they are sandbagging the Ahuna images,
or they didn't get any.
They should have used the remaining fuel to realign into another orbit,
that would afford better quality images.


The Ceres Dawn team has put nothing new up for almost two weeks now.
Raymond and Scully Lol  ... the names sound like 1950's TV - X File astronomers ... 
well,
they must be busy blundering up more of their obvious if's, and's, maybe's, and but's,
for media release and public consumption on Ceres geology,
that everybody already figured out long ago,
anyways. 

...
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[Image: inyo_craters.jpg]

[size=undefined]The three Inyo Craters, part of the Mono-Inyo Craters volcanic chain, stretch northward across the floor of Long Valley Caldera, a large volcanic depression in eastern California. During the past 1,000 years there have been at least 12 volcanic eruptions along the chain, including those that formed the Inyo Craters and South Deadman Creek Dome (seen here just beyond the farthest Crater).[/size]

At the 10 O'clock position in this image of Cerealia Facula you may note a trail of craters/calderas that seem to indicate a south-eastern (5 O'clock) migration...to the central dome that exists now.
Itz on the move @~19.5?
[Image: dawnmissiont.jpg]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
12 new moons spotted around Jupiter – but one may destroy them all

[Image: 5b4e1102fc7e933d528b462c.jpg]
Hey, Jupiter - your new moons are showing. © NASA / NASA 

Astronomers have discovered a dozen new moons orbiting Jupiter, but one could spell disaster for the others - 1km-wide “oddball” moving in the opposite direction to the other 78 objects circling the gas giant.

A team led by Scott S. Sheppard from Washington DC’s Carnegie Institution for Science first spotted the moons in 2017 while on the hunt for a possible massive planet beyond Pluto. Sheppard’s discovery brought the total number of objects orbiting Jupiter to 79 – but he said one discovery stood out in particular.

“Our other discovery is a real oddball and has an orbit like no other known Jovian moon,” Sheppard explained. “It’s also likely Jupiter’s smallest-known moon, being less than 1km (0.6 of a mile) in diameter.”

This new “oddball” takes about one and a half years to orbit Jupiter. It also has an orbit that runs in the opposite direction and crosses the path of other moons, making head-on collisions between space rocks likely.

“This is an unstable situation,” said Sheppard. “Head-on collisions would quickly break apart and grind the objects down to dust.”

The team at the Carnegie Institution think that the oddball moon – potentially to be named Valetudo, after the Roman god Jupiter's great-granddaughter – may represent the leftovers of a former larger moon.

Gareth Williams at the International Astronomical Union’s Minor Planet Center used the team’s observations to calculate orbits for the newly-found moons. “It takes several observations to confirm an object actually orbits around Jupiter,” Williams said. “So, the whole process took a year.”

Source: https://www.rt.com/news/433520-jupiter-n...discovery/

The Ceres data would be nicer if they put the SPECTROSCOPY DATA imaging along with the minerals each color shows; but gee that's like " REAL WORK" you know?


Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Reply
Ceres takes life an ice volcano at a time
September 17, 2018, University of Arizona


[Image: 1-ceres.jpg]
Ceres. Credit: NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Every year throughout its 4.5-billion-year life, ice volcanoes on the dwarf planet Ceres generate enough material on average to fill a movie theater, according to a new study led by the University of Arizona.



The study, led by UA planetary scientist Michael Sori, marks the first time a rate of cryovolcanic activity has been calculated from observations, and its findings help solve a mystery about Ceres's missing mountains.

Discovered 2015 by NASA's Dawn spacecraft, the 3-mile-tall ice volcano Ahuna Mons rises in solitude over the surface of Ceres. Still geologically young, the mountain is at most 200 million years old, meaning that—though it is no longer erupting—it was active in the recent past.

Ahuna Mons' youth and loneliness presented a mystery. It seemed unlikely Ceres had lain dormant for eons and suddenly erupted in one place. But if other ice volcanoes had risen out of the Cerean surface in ages past, where are those volcanoes now? Why is Ahuna Mons so alone?

Sori and his co-authors, including fellow UA scientist Ali Bramson and professor of planetary science Shane Byrne, sought to answer these questions.

In a paper published last year, they theorized that evidence of older volcanoes on the dwarf planet had been erased over time by a natural process called "viscous relaxation." Viscous materials, like honey or putty, can begin as a thick blob, but the weight of the blob causes it to ooze into a flatter shape over time.

"Rocks don't do that under normal temperatures and timescales, but ice does," Sori said.

Because Ceres is made of both rock and ice, Sori pursued the theory that formations on the dwarf planet flow and move under their own weight, similar to how glaciers move on Earth. The formations' composition and temperature would affect how quickly they relax into the surrounding landscape. The more ice in a formation, the faster it flows; the lower the temperature, the slower it flows.

Though Ceres never grows warmer than -30 degrees Fahrenheit, the temperature varies across its surface.

"Ceres' poles are cold enough that if you start with a mountain of ice, it doesn't relax," Sori said. "But the equator is warm enough that a mountain of ice might relax over geological timescales."

Computer simulations showed that Sori's theory was viable. Model cryovolcanoes at the poles of Ceres remained frozen in place for eternity. At other latitudes on the dwarf planet, model volcanoes began life tall and steep, but grew shorter, wider and more rounded as time passed.

 

To prove the computer simulations had played out in reality, Sori scoured topographic observations from the Dawn spacecraft, which has been orbiting Ceres since 2015, to find landforms that matched the models.

Across the 1 million square miles of Cerean surface, Sori and his team found 22 mountains including Ahuna Mons that looked exactly like the simulation's predictions.

"The really exciting part that made us think this might be real is that we found only one mountain at the pole," Sori said.

Though it is old and battered by impacts, the polar mountain, dubbed Yamor Mons, has the same overall shape as Ahuna Mons. It is five times wider than it is tall, giving it an aspect ratio of 0.2. Mountains found elsewhere on Ceres have lower aspect ratios, just as the models predicted: they are much wider than they are tall.

By matching the real mountains to the model mountains, Sori was able to determine the age of many of them. The volume of the volcanoes was estimated by studying their topography, and by combining age and volume, Sori's team was able to calculate the rate at which cryovolcanoes form on Ceres.

"We found that one volcano forms every 50 million years," Sori said.

This amounts to an average of more than 13,000 cubic yards of cryovolcanic material each year—enough to fill a movie theater or four Olympic-sized swimming pools. This is much less volcanic activity than what is seen on Earth, where rocky volcanoes generate more than 1 billion cubic yards of material in a year.

In addition to being less productive, volcanic eruptions on Ceres are tamer than those on Earth. Instead of explosive eruptions, cryovolcanoes create the icy equivalent of a lava dome: the cryomagma—a salty mix of rocks, ice and other volatiles such as ammonia—oozes out of the volcano and freezes on the surface. Most of the once-mighty cryovolcanoes on Ceres likely formed this way before they relaxed away.

The causes of cryovolcanic eruptions on Ceres are still a mystery, but future research might yield answers, as signs of ice volcanoes have been spotted on other bodies in the solar system as probes have flown by. Ceres is the first cryovolcanic body a mission has orbited, but Europa and Enceladus, moons of Jupiter and Saturn, are likely candidates for cryovolcanism, as are Pluto and its moon Charon. Europa is of special interest because it is believed to have liquid oceans trapped below a thick icy shell, which some scientists believe to be dotted with ice volcanoes."There might be similarities between Europa and Ceres, but we need to send the next mission there before we can say for sure," Sori said.

As scientists explore other potentially cryovolcanic bodies in the solar system, it will be fun, Sori said, to see how Ceres compares.

The paper, "Cryovolcanic rates on Ceres revealed by topography," was recently published in Nature Astronomy.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: New research shows Ceres may have vanishing ice volcanoes

More information: Cryovolcanic rates on Ceres revealed by topography, Nature Astronomy (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41550-018-0574-1 , https://www.nature.com/articles/s41550-018-0574-1



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-09-ceres-life...o.html#jCp
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
...
They have put a few more images up finally ... 
Most of it is to bore you to death with bad resolution.
The Ceres mission management,
must have an image selection team that is either afflicted with overt stupidity,
or they are purposely selecting lackluster boredom inducing surface topographies,
to make us all go away and forget the mission even happened.

Has anybody been stimulated to go their link and browse the image selection ...
on a daily basis?
every two days?
three?
I am down to once every week or 10 days checking in there,
to see if anything new might save the mission from further mediocrity.

Still nothing on Ahuna.
Assholes Whip

This recent image at the Ceres mission site is worth the download in high mag.
https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/spaceimages/ima..._hires.jpg

Nice fracture pattern, note the distinct small white dot tucked down in a crevasse.
Active geology. 

[Image: PIA22761_hires.jpg]



...
Reply
Those are some awesome Cerean Spiders V...

there some reason we all missed this badass Ahuna Mons image?

https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20349

[Image: PIA20349.jpg]
On a satellite I ride. Nothing down below can hide.
Reply
Galactic Ghoul ends Dawn  Cry

Dawn mission to asteroid belt comes to end
November 1, 2018, NASA

Cryonic Supervolcano Caldera @ ~19.5  LilD
[Image: 2-dawnmissiont.jpg]
This photo of Ceres and the bright regions of Occator Crater was one of the last views NASA's Dawn spacecraft transmitted before it completed its mission. This view, which faces south, was captured on Sept. 1 at an altitude of 2,340 miles (3,370 kilometers) as the spacecraft was ascending in its elliptical orbit. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA/MPS/DLR/IDA
NASA's Dawn spacecraft has gone silent, ending a historic mission that studied time capsules from the solar system's earliest chapter.




Dawn missed scheduled communications sessions with NASA's Deep Space Network on Wednesday, Oct. 31, and Thursday, Nov. 1. After the flight team eliminated other possible causes for the missed communications, mission managers concluded that the spacecraft finally ran out of hydrazine, the fuel that enables the spacecraft to control its pointing. Dawn can no longer keep its antennae trained on Earth to communicate with mission control or turn its solar panels to the Sun to recharge.

The Dawn spacecraft launched 11 years ago to visit the two largest objects in the main asteroid belt. Currently, it's in orbit around the dwarf planet Ceres, where it will remain for decades.

"Today, we celebrate the end of our Dawn mission—its incredible technical achievements, the vital science it gave us, and the entire team who enabled the spacecraft to make these discoveries," said Thomas Zurbuchen, associate administrator of NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. "The astounding images and data that Dawn collected from Vesta and Ceres are critical to understanding the history and evolution of our solar system."



Dawn launched in 2007 on a journey that put about 4.3 billion miles (6.9 billion kilometers) on its odometer. Propelled by ion engines, the spacecraft achieved many firsts along the way. In 2011, when Dawn arrived at Vesta, the second largest world in the main asteroid belt, the spacecraft became the first to orbit a body in the region between Mars and Jupiter. In 2015, when Dawn went into orbit around Ceres, a dwarf planet that is also the largest world in the asteroid belt, the mission became the first to visit a dwarf planet and go into orbit around two destinations beyond Earth.

"The fact that my car's license plate frame proclaims, 'My other vehicle is in the main asteroid belt,' shows how much pride I take in Dawn," said Mission Director and Chief Engineer Marc Rayman at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. "The demands we put on Dawn were tremendous, but it met the challenge every time. It's hard to say goodbye to this amazing spaceship, but it's time."



The data Dawn beamed back to Earth from its four science experiments enabled scientists to compare two planet-like worlds that evolved very differently. Among its accomplishments, Dawn showed how important location was to the way objects in the early solar system formed and evolved. Dawn also reinforced the idea that dwarf planets could have hosted oceans over a significant part of their history—and potentially still do.


Great image! LilD  More active Cereology!
[Image: 3-dawnmissiont.jpg]
This photo of Ceres and one of its key landmarks, Ahuna Mons, was one of the last views Dawn transmitted before it completed its mission. This view, which faces south, was captured on Sept. 1 at an altitude of 2220 miles (3570 kilometers) as the spacecraft was ascending in its elliptical orbit. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA/MPS/DLR/IDA"In many ways, Dawn's legacy is just beginning," said Principal Investigator Carol Raymond at JPL. "Dawn's data sets will be deeply mined by scientists working on how planets grow and differentiate, and when and where life could have formed in our solar system. Ceres and Vesta are important to the study of distant planetary systems, too, as they provide a glimpse of the conditions that may exist around young stars."


Because Ceres has conditions of interest to scientists who study chemistry that leads to the development of life, NASA follows strict planetary protection protocols for the disposal of the Dawn spacecraft. Dawn will remain in orbit for at least 20 years, and engineers have more than 99 percent confidence the orbit will last for at least 50 years.

So, while the mission plan doesn't provide the closure of a final, fiery plunge—the way NASA's Cassini spacecraft ended last year, for example—at least this is certain: Dawn spent every last drop of hydrazine making science observations of Ceres and radioing them back so we could learn more about the solar system we call home.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: The coincidence between two overachieving NASA missions

Provided by: NASA

https://phys.org/news/2018-11-dawn-missi...-belt.html
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
...


Quote:Because Ceres has conditions of interest to scientists who study chemistry that leads to the development of life, 
NASA follows 
-- > strict planetary protection  Tp protocols for the disposal of the Dawn spacecraft.

Dawn will remain in orbit for at least 20 years
and engineers have more than 99 percent confidence Nonono  the orbit will last for at least 50 years.  Rofl



and there it is -- The Big Lie -- "strict planetary protection protocols"
and in 20 - 50 years,
it falls out of orbit and into the planet ANYWAYS !!!

Fuckers!
all that chit chat chump change about how they could not provide a circular orbit at  low altitude,
ie, much lower than LAMO ,
because,
they were worried the craft might have an accident and possibly crash into the planet and contaminate it.

but they plan on possibly contaminating the planet in 20 to 50 years.

Hypocrites, liars, varlets, rogues, scoundrels and imbeciles. -- NASA Underworld

but  Naughty    this is what really happened 

It has probably just crashed onto the surface after running out of hydrazine, 
and it is now a space relic as scattered wreckage,
half buried in the crater that Stu forgot to count.

NASA has no guarantee of 20 - 30 - 50 years "in orbit"
as a matter of fact,
they don't know shit about where that space craft is.

They also have great images of Ahuna, and they need to release them.

...
Reply
Trump said let the Private Competition (Musk,Bezos,Bigelow,Branson...etc.) Pioneer the new worlds.

He Quipped basically 'who cares about mars...'

Rent out Kennedy Space ports @ 25 million buck$ per launch.


Musk has the potential to land on Ceres before Dawn de-orbits.

Mark my words.

Fremason Buzz Aldrin threw bags of shit on the moon.

We will defecate all over the whole solar system. :tp:

And use that as biotech to secrete and excrete a concrete repeat bio-genesis.


The private sector will then one day...


Find a titanic astronaut in a derelict ship with a hole burst outward from itz chest.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
Team finds evidence for carbon-rich surface on Ceres
December 10, 2018, Southwest Research Institute

[Image: swriledteamf.jpg]
NASA's Dawn spacecraft captured this 12.5-mile-across close-up of the central peak of the 99-mile-wide Urvara impact crater on Ceres. The remarkable 6,500-foot central ridge is made from materials uplifted from depth, arising from terrains enriched with products of rock-water interactions, such as carbonates. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA/MPS/DLR/IDA
A team led by Southwest Research Institute has concluded that the surface of dwarf planet Ceres is rich in organic matter. Data from NASA's Dawn spacecraft indicate that Ceres's surface may contain several times the concentration of carbon than is present in the most carbon-rich, primitive meteorites found on Earth.




"Ceres is like a chemical factory," said SwRI's Dr. Simone Marchi, a principal scientist who was the lead author of research published in Nature Astronomy today. "Among inner solar system bodies, Ceres' has a unique mineralogy, which appears to contain up to 20 percent carbon by mass in its near surface. Our analysis shows that carbon-rich compounds are intimately mixed with products of rock-water interactions, such as clays."

Ceres is believed to have originated about 4.6 billion years ago at the dawn of our solar system. Dawn data previously revealed the presence of water and other volatiles, such as ammonium derived from ammonia, and now a high concentration of carbon. This chemistry suggests Ceres formed in a cold environment, perhaps outside the orbit of Jupiter. An ensuing shakeup in the orbits of the large planets would have pushed Ceres to its current location in the main asteroid belt, between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.

"With these findings, Ceres has gained a pivotal role in assessing the origin, evolution and distribution of organic species across the inner solar system," Marchi said. "One has to wonder about how this world may have driven organic chemistry pathways, and how these processes may have affected the make-up of larger planets like the Earth."

[Image: 1-swriledteamf.jpg]
SwRI scientists constructed a possible schematic path for the evolution of Ceres' upper crust. The figure shows the presence of carbonaceous chondrite-like materials (black) mixed with products of aqueous alteration such as phyllosilicates, carbonates and magnetite (green) and organics (orange). Shaded blue regions indicate water, and blue lines represent conduits for water migration. Organics may have formed in place during aqueous alteration or could have been concentrated by fluids ascending to the upper crust, resulting in the inferred higher-than-chondritic carbon concentration on Ceres' surface. Over time, the surface gets homogenized by mixing due to collisions and other processes. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA/MPS/DLR/IDA
Geophysical, compositional and collisional models based on Dawn data revealed that Ceres' partially differentiated interior has been altered by fluid processes. Dawn's Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer has shown that the overall low albedo of Ceres'' surface is a combination of rock-water interaction products such as phyllosilicates and carbonates and a significant amount of spectrally neutral darkening agents, such as an iron oxide called magnetite.

Because Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector limits magnetite to only a few percent by mass, the data point to the presence of an additional darkening agent, probably amorphous carbon, a carbon-rich organic material. Interestingly, specific organic compounds have also been detected near a 31-mile-wide impact crater named Ernutet, giving further support to the widespread presence of organics in Ceres' shallow subsurface.

The new study also finds that 50-60 percent of Ceres' upper crust may have a composition similar to primitive carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. This material is compatible with contamination from infalling carbonaceous asteroids, a possibility supported by Ceres' battered surface.

"Our results imply that either Ceres' accreted ultra-carbon-rich materials or that carbon was concentrated in its crust," said said Marchi. "Both potential scenarios are important, because Ceres' mineralogical composition indicates a global-scale event of rock-water alteration, which could provide conditions favorable to organic chemistry."

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Scientists dig into the origin of organics on Ceres

More information: An aqueously altered carbon-rich Ceres, Nature Astronomy (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41550-018-0656-0 , https://www.nature.com/articles/s41550-018-0656-0 

Journal reference: Nature Astronomy  
Provided by: Southwest Research Institute




Life in deep Earth totals 15 to 23 billion tons of carbon—hundreds of times more than humans
December 10, 2018, Deep Carbon Observatory

[Image: lifeindeepea.jpg]
A nematode (eukaryote) in a biofilm of microorganisms. This unidentified nematode (Poikilolaimus sp.) from Kopanang gold mine in South Africa, lives 1.4 km below the surface. Credit: Gaetan Borgonie, Extreme Life Isyensya, Belgium
Barely living "zombie" bacteria and other forms of life constitute an immense amount of carbon deep within Earth's subsurface—245 to 385 times greater than the carbon mass of all humans on the surface, according to scientists nearing the end of a 10-year international collaboration to reveal Earth's innermost secrets.




On the eve of the American Geophysical Union's annual meeting, scientists with the Deep Carbon Observatory today reported several transformational discoveries, including how much and what kinds of life exist in the deep subsurface under the greatest extremes of pressure, temperature, and low nutrient availability.

Drilling 2.5 kilometers into the seafloor, and sampling microbes from continental mines and boreholes more than 5 km deep, scientists have used the results to construct models of the ecosystem deep within the planet.

With insights from now hundreds of sites under the continents and seas, they have approximated the size of the deep biosphere—2 to 2.3 billion cubic km (almost twice the volume of all oceans) - as well as the carbon mass of deep life: 15 to 23 billion tonnes (an average of at least 7.5 tonnes of carbon per cu km subsurface).

The work also helps determine types of extraterrestrial environments that could support life.

Among many key discoveries and insights:
  • The deep biosphere constitutes a world that can be viewed as a sort of "subterranean Galapagos" and includes members of all three domains of life: bacteria and archaea (microbes with no membrane-bound nucleus), and eukarya (microbes or multicellular organisms with cells that contain a nucleus as well as membrane-bound organelles)

  • Two types of microbes—bacteria and archaea—dominate Deep Earth. Among them are millions of distinct types, most yet to be discovered or characterized. This so-called microbial "dark matter" dramatically expands our perspective on the tree of life. Deep Life scientists say about 70% of Earth's bacteria and archaea live in the subsurface

  • Deep microbes are often very different from their surface cousins, with life cycles on near-geologic timescales, dining in some cases on nothing more than energy from rocks

  • The genetic diversity of life below the surface is comparable to or exceeds that above the surface

  • While subsurface microbial communities differ greatly between environments, certain genera and higher taxonomic groups are ubiquitous—they appear planet-wide

  • Microbial community richness relates to the age of marine sediments where cells are found—suggesting that in older sediments, food energyhas declined over time, reducing the microbial community

  • The absolute limits of life on Earth in terms of temperature, pressure, and energy availability have yet to be found. The records continually get broken. A frontrunner for Earth's hottest organism in the natural world is Geogemma barossii, a single-celled organism thriving in hydrothermal vents on the seafloor. Its cells, tiny microscopic spheres, grow and replicate at 121 degrees Celsius (21 degrees hotter than the boiling point of water). Microbial life can survive up to 122°C, the record achieved in a lab culture (by comparison, the record-holding hottest place on Earth's surface, in an uninhabited Iranian desert, is about 71°C—the temperature of well-done steak)

  • The record depth at which life has been found in the continental subsurface is approximately 5 km; the record in marine waters is 10.5 km from the ocean surface, a depth of extreme pressure; at 4000 meters depth, for example, the pressure is approximately 400 times greater than at sea level

  • Scientists have a better understanding of the impact on life in subsurface locations manipulated by humans (e.g., fracked shales, carbon capture and storage)
Ever-increasing accuracy and the declining cost of DNA sequencing, coupled with breakthroughs in deep ocean drilling technologies (pioneered on the Japanese scientific vessel Chikyu, designed to ultimately drill far beneath the seabed in some of the planet's most seismically-active regions) made it possible for researchers to take their first detailed look at the composition of the deep biosphere.



There are comparable efforts to drill ever deeper beneath continental environments, using sampling devices that maintain pressure to preserve microbial life (none thought to pose any threat or benefit to human health).

[Image: 1-lifeindeepea.jpg]
Candidatus Desulforudis audaxviator(the purplish, blue rod-shaped cells straddling orange carbon spheres) is a species of bacteria that survives on hydrogen. Scientists found it living within a fluid and gas-filled fracture 2.8 km beneath Earth's surface at a mine near Johannesburg, South Africa. The genus name Desulforudis comes from the Latin for "from sulfur" and "rod," noting its shape and its ability to get energy from sulfates. And audaxviator? From Jules Verne's Journey to the Center of the Earth, and a message in Latin deciphered by Verne's protagonist, Professor Lidenbrock, which read in part: "descend, bold traveler, and attain the center of the Earth." Credit: Greg Wanger, California Institute of Technology, USA, and Gordon Southam University of Queensland, Australia
To estimate the total mass of Earth's subcontinental deep life, for example, scientists compiled data on cell concentration and microbial diversity from locations around the globe.

Led by Cara Magnabosco of the Flatiron Institute Center for Computational Biology, New York, and an international team of researchers, subsurface scientists factored in a suite of considerations, including global heat flow, surface temperature, depth and lithology—the physical characteristics of rocks in each location—to estimate that the continental subsurface hosts 2 to 6 × 10^29 cells.

Combined with estimates of subsurface life under the oceans, total global Deep Earth biomass is approximately 15 to 23 petagrams (15 to 23 billion tonnes) of carbon.

Says Mitch Sogin of the Marine Biological Laboratory Woods Hole, USA, co-chair of DCO's Deep Life community of more than 300 researchers in 34 countries: "Exploring the deep subsurface is akin to exploring the Amazon rainforest. There is life everywhere, and everywhere there's an awe-inspiring abundance of unexpected and unusual organisms.

"Molecular studies raise the likelihood that microbial dark matter is much more diverse than what we currently know it to be, and the deepest branching lineages challenge the three-domain concept introduced by Carl Woese in 1977. Perhaps we are approaching a nexus where the earliest possible branching patterns might be accessible through deep life investigation.

"Ten years ago, we knew far less about the physiologies of the bacteria and microbes that dominate the subsurface biosphere," says Karen Lloyd, University of Tennessee at Knoxville, USA. "Today, we know that, in many places, they invest most of their energy to simply maintaining their existence and little into growth, which is a fascinating way to live.

"Today too, we know that subsurface life is common. Ten years ago, we had sampled only a few sites—the kinds of places we'd expect to find life. Now, thanks to ultra-deep sampling, we know we can find them pretty much everywhere, albeit the sampling has obviously reached only an infinitesimally tiny part of the deep biosphere."

"Our studies of deep biosphere microbes have produced much new knowledge, but also a realization and far greater appreciation of how much we have yet to learn about subsurface life," says Rick Colwell, Oregon State University, USA. "For example, scientists do not yet know all the ways in which deep subsurface life affects surface life and vice versa. And, for now, we can only marvel at the nature of the metabolisms that allow life to survive under the extremely impoverished and forbidding conditions for life in deep Earth."

[Image: 2-lifeindeepea.jpg]
Species of Methanobacterium, which produces methane. Found in samples from a buried coal bed 2 km below the Pacific Ocean floor off the coast of Japan, this specimen was retrieved during an Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (now the International Ocean Discovery Program) expedition aboard the Drilling Vessel Chikyu. Bar represents 10 μm (micrometers, or 0.0004 inch). Credit: Hiroyuki Imachi (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC)
Among the many remaining enigmas of deep life on Earth:

Movement: How does deep life spread—laterally through cracks in rocks? Up, down? How can deep life be so similar in South Africa and Seattle, Washington? Did they have similar origins and were separated by plate tectonics, for example? Or do the communities themselves move? What roles do big geological events (such as plate tectonics, earthquakes; creation of large igneous provinces; meteoritic bombardments) play in deep life movements?

Origins: Did life start deep in Earth (either within the crust, near hydrothermal vents, or in subduction zones) then migrate up, toward the sun? Or did life start in a warm little surface pond and migrate down? How do subsurface microbial zombies reproduce, or live without dividing for millions to tens of millions of years?

Energy: Is methane, hydrogen, or natural radiation (from uranium and other elements) the most important energy source for deep life? Which sources of deep energy are most important in different settings? How do the absence of nutrients, and extreme temperatures and pressure, impact microbial distribution and diversity in the subsurface?

"Discoveries regarding the nature and extent of the deep microbial biosphere are among the crowning achievements of the Deep Carbon Observatory. Deep life researchers have opened our eyes to remarkable vistas—emerging views of life that we never knew existed."says Robert Hazen, senior staff scientist, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution for Science, and DCO Executive Director.

"They are not Christmas ornaments, but the tiny balls and tinsel of deep life look they could decorate a tree as well as Swarovski glass. Why would nature make deep life beautiful when there is no light, no mirrors?" says Jesse Ausubel of the Rockefeller University, a founder of the DCO.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Microorganisms in the subsurface seabed on evolutionary standby

Provided by: Deep Carbon Observatory





Image: Bright spots on Ceres
September 10, 2018, NASA

[Image: imagebrights.jpg]
Credit: NASA
Bright surface features on the dwarf planet Ceres known as faculae were first discovered by NASA's Dawn spacecraft in 2015. This mosaic of one such feature, Cerealia Facula, combines images obtained from altitudes as low as 22 miles (35 km) above Ceres' surface. The mosaic is overlain on a topography model based on images obtained during Dawn's low altitude mapping orbit (240 miles or 385 km altitude). No vertical exaggeration was applied. The center of Cerealia Facula is located at 19.7 degrees north latitude and 239.6 degrees south longitude.




During its mission of over a decade, the Dawn spacecraft has studied the asteroid Vesta and dwarf planet Ceres, celestial bodies believed to have formed early in the history of the solar system. The mission's goal is to characterize the early solar system and the processes that dominated its formation.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Dawn's latest orbit reveals dramatic new views of Occator crater

Provided by: NASA
Reply
Cry

Quote:The new calculations indicate that the cryomagma of Occator could last up to 10 million years—a value that doesn't close the time gap completely, but that indicates that the additional data helps make a more realistic cooling timeline.

"Now that we're accounting for all these negative feedbacks on cooling—the fact that you release latent heat, the fact that as you warm up the crust it becomes less conductive—you can begin to argue that if the ages are just off by a few million years you might get it," Naughty Hesse said.
Jennifer Scully, a planetary geologist at NASA's JPL who studies Ceres but was not involved with the study, said that the findings are a great contribution toward unpacking the geologic history of an alien world.
"They used more up-to-date data to create their model," said Scully. "This will help in the future to see if all of the material involved in the observed deposits can be explained by the impact,  
or does this require a connection to a deeper source of material. Arrow  It's a great step in the right direction of answering that question." LilD ~19.5


Insulating crust kept cryomagma liquid for millions of years on nearby dwarf planet
February 12, 2019, University of Texas at Austin

[Image: insulatingcr.jpg]
The bright spots of Occator Crater shine from the surface of Ceres. Research led by The University of Texas at Austin is helping reveal how the spots formed from cryomagma. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA/MPS/DLR/IDA
A recent NASA mission to the dwarf planet Ceres found brilliant, white spots of salts on its surface. New research led by The University of Texas at Austin in partnership with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) delved into the factors that influenced the volcanic activity that formed the distinctive spots and that could play a key role in mixing the ingredients for life on other worlds.




The volcanoes on Ceres are cryovolcanoes, a type of volcano that forms on planetary bodies with icy shells and that moves salty water known as cryomagma from underground reservoirs to the surface. Scientists think that cryovolcanoes on Jupiter's icy moon Europa could help foster chemical mixing that could make complex molecules needed for life. Learning more about how these volcanoes work on Ceres—which is a simpler geological environment than Europa—could help scientists get a handle on the primary forces that drive their activity.

"Cryovolcanism looks to be a really important system as we look for life," said lead author Marc Hesse, an associate professor at the UT Jackson School of Geosciences. "So we're trying to understand these ice shells and how they behave."

The final version of the research was published online on Feb.8 in the journal Geophysical Research Letters. The research was co-authored by Julie Castillo-Rogez, a planetary scientist at NASA's JPL.

At 585 miles across, Ceres is the largest planetary body in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. Forged billions of years ago from rock and ice and far enough from the influence of other planets, scientists had thought that Ceres' days of active geology had come to close. But the NASA Dawn mission changed that view when the space probe sent back pictures of bright, white spots at the bottom of impact craters. The spots turned out to be the remnants of cryomagma.

The location of the spots at or near the center of crater basins suggests that the heat and energy generated by asteroid impacts could jumpstart geology on Ceres, creating reservoirs of cryomagma that were then brought to the surface by conduits such as fractures.

The new research looked specifically at the deposits on the floor of the 90-mile-wide crater Occator, which was formed about 20 million years ago. However, the deposits here are as young as 4 million years old, indicating a relatively recent formation geologically speaking with respect to the crater itself. Earlier research conducted by other scientists found that the conditions on Ceres wouldn't allow for the cryomagma generated by the Occator impact to exist for more than about 400,000 years.

[Image: 1-insulatingcr.jpg]
Occator Crater on Ceres, with its central bright area called Cerealia Facula. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA/MPS/DLR/IDA/PSI
The age discrepancy between salt deposits and impact timing raises a question: How could a reservoir of melt stay in a liquid state for millions of years after impact on an otherwise geologically stagnant world?



In their new paper, Hesse and Castillo-Rogez were able to significantly extend the life of the cryomagma by including more up-to-date details on Ceres' crustal chemistry and physics.

"It's difficult to maintain liquid so close to the surface," said Castillo-Rogez. "But our new model includes materials inside the crust that tend to act as insulators consistent with the results from the Dawn observations."

The new calculations indicate that the cryomagma of Occator could last up to 10 million years—a value that doesn't close the time gap completely, but that indicates that the additional data helps make a more realistic cooling timeline.

"Now that we're accounting for all these negative feedbacks on cooling—the fact that you release latent heat, the fact that as you warm up the crust it becomes less conductive—you can begin to argue that if the ages are just off by a few million years you might get it," Hesse said.

Jennifer Scully, a planetary geologist at NASA's JPL who studies Ceres but was not involved with the study, said that the findings are a great contribution toward unpacking the geologic history of an alien world.

"They used more up-to-date data to create their model," said Scully. "This will help in the future to see if all of the material involved in the observed deposits can be explained by the impact, or does this require a connection to a deeper source of material. It's a great step in the right direction of answering that question."

 Explore further: Dawn mission to gather more data in home stretch

More information: M. A. Hesse et al, Thermal Evolution of the Impact-Induced Cryomagma Chamber Beneath Occator Crater on Ceres, Geophysical Research Letters (2018). DOI: 10.1029/2018GL080327 

Journal reference: Geophysical Research Letters 
Provided by: University of Texas at Austin



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2019-02-insulating...s.html#jCp


Quote:Arrow
Scientists monitoring rising magma at Yellowstone supervolcano...

The bright spots of Occator Crater shine from the surface of Ceres. Research led by The University of Texas at Austin is helping reveal how the spots formed from cryomagma.

Yeah...from a likely occasionally active Super-Cryo-Volcano @~19.5 


 New study suggests possibility of recent underground volcanism on Mars

February 12, 2019, American Geophysical Union



[Image: newstudysugg.jpg]
The Martian South Pole. A new study in Geophysical Research Letters argues there needs to be an underground source of heat for liquid water to exist underneath the polar ice cap. Credit: NASA.



A study published last year in the journal Science suggested liquid water is present beneath the south polar ice cap of Mars. Now, a new study in the AGU journal Geophysical Research Letters argues there needs to be an underground source of heat for liquid water to exist underneath the polar ice cap.

Doh






The new research does not take sides as to whether the liquid waterexists. Instead, the authors suggest recent magmatic activity—the formation of a magma chamber within the past few hundred thousand years—must have occurred underneath the surface of Mars for there to be enough heat to produce liquid water underneath the kilometer-and-a-half thick ice cap. On the flip side, the study's authors argue that if there was not recent magmatic activity underneath the surface of Mars, then there is not likely liquid water underneath the ice cap.



"Different people may go different ways with this, and we're really interested to see how the community reacts to it," said Michael Sori, an associate staff scientist in the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at the University of Arizona and a co-lead author of the new paper.



The potential presence of recent underground magmatic activity on Mars lends weight to the idea that Mars is an active planet, geologically speaking. That fact could give scientists a better understanding of how planets evolve over time.



The new study is intended to further the debate around the possibility of liquid water on Mars. The presence of liquid water on the Red Planet has implications for potentially finding life outside of Earth and could also serve as a resource for future human exploration of our neighboring planet.



"We think that if there is any life, it likely has to be protected in the subsurface from the radiation," said Ali Bramson, a postdoctoral research associate at the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at the University of Arizona and a co-lead author of the new paper. "If there are still magmatic processes active today, maybe they were more common in the recent past, and could supply more widespread basal melting. This could provide a more favorable environment for liquid water and thus, perhaps, life."



Examining the environment



Mars has two giant ice sheets at its poles, both a couple of kilometers thick. On Earth, it is common for liquid water to be present underneath thick ice sheets, with the planet's heat causing the ice to melt where it meets the Earth's crust.







In a paper published last year in Science, scientists said they detected a similar phenomenon on Mars. They claimed radar observations detected evidence of liquid water at the base of Mars's south polar ice cap. However, the Science study did not address how the liquid water could have gotten there.



Mars is much cooler than Earth so it was unclear what type of environment would be needed to melt the ice at the base of the ice cap. Although previous research has examined if liquid water could exist at the base of Mars's ice caps, no one had yet looked at the specific location where the Science study claimed to have detected water.







[Image: 1-newstudysugg.jpg]

Schematic of the case considered in the new study causing a local elevated heat flux beneath Mars’s south polar ice cap. The schematic shows a magma chamber of diameter D buried at a depth of H (to the center of the chamber) beneath the …more"We thought there was a lot of room to figure out if [the liquid water] is real, what sort of environment would you need to melt the ice in the first place, what sort of temperatures would you need, what sort of geological process would you need? Because under normal conditions, it should be too cold," Sori said.





Looking for the heat



The new study's authors first assumed the detection of liquid water underneath the ice cap was correct and then worked to figure out what parameters were needed for the water to exist. They performed physical modeling of Mars to understand how much heat is coming out of the interior of the planet and if there could be enough salt at the base of the ice cap to melt the ice. Salt lowers the melting point of ice significantly so it was thought that salt could have led to melting at the base of the ice cap.



The model showed salt alone would not raise the temperature high enough to melt the ice. Instead, the authors propose there needs to be additional heat coming from Mars's interior.



One plausible heat source would be volcanic activity in the planet's subsurface. The study's authors argue that magma from the deep interior of Mars rose towards the planet's surface about 300,000 years ago. It did not break the surface, like a volcanic eruption, but pooled in a magma chamber below the surface. As the magma chamber cooled, it released heat that melted the ice at the base of the ice sheet. The magma chamber is still providing heat to the ice sheet to generate liquid water today.



The idea of volcanic activity on Mars is not new—there is a lot of evidence of volcanism on the planet's surface. But most of the volcanic features on Mars are from millions of years ago, leading scientists to believe volcanic activity below and above the planet's surface stopped long ago.



The new study, however, proposes that there could have been more recent underground volcanic activity. And, if there was volcanic activity happening hundreds of thousands of years ago, there's a possibility it could be happening today, according to the study's authors.



"This would imply that there is still active magma chamber formation going on in the interior of Mars today and it is not just a cold, sort of dead place, internally," Bramson said.



Jack Holt, a professor at the at the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at the University of Arizona, said the question of how water could exist underneath the south polar ice cap immediately came to his mind after the Science paper was published, and the new paper adds an important constraint on the possibility of water being there. He said it will likely add to the debate in the planetary science community about the finding and point out that more research needs to be done to evaluate it.



"I think it was a great idea to do this type of modeling and analysis because you have to explain the water, if it's there, and so it's really a critical piece of the puzzle," said Holt, who was not involved in the new research but did talk to the study's authors before they submitted the paper. "The original paper just left it hanging. There could be water there, but you have to explain it, and these guys did a really nice job of saying what is required and that salt is not sufficient."


Explore further: Image: Radar footprints over buried Mars lake



More information: "Water on Mars, with a grain of salt: local heat anomalies are required for basal melting of ice at the south pole today" Geophysical Research Letters (2019). agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.co … 10.1029/2018GL080985 



Journal reference: Geophysical Research Letters 
Provided by: American Geophysical Union





Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2019-02-possibility-underground-volcanism-mars.html#jCp
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Previously place for Wook never forget about Mars up date here now

DAWN Data Release: Ceres Raw Gravity

Raw data and ancillary files from the Dawn mission during the Gravity
Science observations at Ceres are now available at:
 https://pds.nasa.gov/datasearch/subscrip...0331.shtml
or more directly from
 https://sbn.psi.edu/pds/resource/dawn/dwncgravL0.html

This version (2.0) of this dataset contains observations from all Ceres
phases of the mission, including the XM2 mission phase.

To access all data archived in the PDS:
 https://pds.nasa.gov

Thank you for subscribing to the PDS Notification Service,

The PDS Team
Mailto: pds_operator@jpl.nasa.gov
Phone:  (818) 393-7165

Bob... Ninja Assimilated


PS: Could NOT find the Gravity Map Itself.  Maybe somebody else can?
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
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JUNE 11, 2019 REPORT
Gravitational data from Dawn suggests dome on Ceres is made of volcanic mud
by Bob Yirka , Phys.org
[Image: 5cff9ab9be3eb.jpg]Colocation of volcanic dome and isostatic gravity anomaly. a, A false-colour mosaic (R, 0.97 µm; G, 0.75 µm; B, 0.44 µm) of the region of Ahuna Mons from Dawn Framing Camera observations. The dome of Ahuna Mons is close to the centre of the mosaic, and its high-reflectance areas are steep flanks rich in carbonates and phyllosilicates. b, The isostatic anomaly represented with spherical harmonic degrees l= 5–14 and showing about 50–60 mGal at approximately the same coordinates as Ahuna Mons for the same area as a. Credit: Nature Geoscience (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41561-019-0378-7
An international team of researchers has found evidence that suggests the large dome found on the surface of the dwarf planet Ceres is made of slurry—a mix of salty brine and solid particles. In their paper published in the journal Nature Geoscience, the group describes their study of data from the Dawn spacecraft and what it revealed.

Back in 2015, NASA's Dawn space probe showed that there was a domed-shaped mountain approximately four kilometers high and seventeen kilometers wide—since named Ahuna Mons—rising from the surface of Ceres, a dwarf planetresiding in our solar system's asteroid belt. Initial inspection suggested volcanism; the dome-shape streaked mountain with salt on its slope looked reminiscent of volcanoes here on Earth, or even the icy domes seen on some of the solar system's moons. But logic has suggested that the mechanics involved in creating volcanism on a dwarf planet would not work. Because of its small size, it would cool down and solidify, preventing any interior activity. But that logic appears not to apply to Ceres, the team found.
The researchers noted evidence that the dome was created relatively recently, perhaps just a couple hundred million years ago—it has very few craters. Also, prior study of data from Dawn by another team led to the discovery that Ceres had a mantle loaded with fluids. To learn more, the team looked at gravity field maps built using data from Dawn. They found evidence of a plume extending from the mantle to the dome above it. A closer look suggested that the plume had at some point carried a mud-like mix of water, salt and other particles up into the area where the dome had formed.
The researchers describe the plume as unlike any other documented to date, and thus is a novelty in the solar system. They also note that because of the composition of the plume, there is a possibility that Ceres' mantle is still churning, pushing material up into the dome making it grow.


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Dawn snaps its best-yet image of dwarf planet ceres[/size]

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More information: Ottaviano Ruesch et al. Slurry extrusion on Ceres from a convective mud-bearing mantle, Nature Geoscience (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41561-019-0378-7
Journal information: Nature Geoscience [/url]
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[url=https://phys.org/news/2019-06-gravitational-dawn-dome-ceres-volcanic.html]https://phys.org/news/2019-06-gravitational-dawn-dome-ceres-volcanic.html
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Quote:The researchers noted evidence that the dome was created relatively recently, 
perhaps Whip
just a couple hundred million years ago Nonono

it has very few craters.


That is down from:
perhaps -- 240 million years -- which was down from much more that that at the get go.

And it will continue to come down to well below 100 million years,
and 50 million years is just as, or more likely. 


Quote:A closer look suggested that the plume Hi 
had at some point carried a mud-like mix of water, 
salt and other particles up into the area where the dome had formed.




That is somewhat misleading ... the plume created the dome.
Without a persistent supply of mud like material,
the dome would not have gotten that large with that shape.
It is a salt water plume pressure pushing it's way up through the sediment muck above it.
They will find more plumes, or evidence of ancient plumes. 
Other smaller surface form varieties similar to Ahuna in structure are older,
and were decimated by meteor impacts.

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