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Physicists Twist Light, Send 'Hello World' Message Between Islands
#1
Physicists Twist Light, Send 'Hello World' Message Between Islands

By Jesse Emspak, Live Science Contributor | November 21, 2016 06:10am ET

[Image: light-information.jpg?interpolation=lanc...ize=*:1400]

Physicists fired a green laser beam between two observatories on La Palma and Tenerife Islands. The receiver was able to detect how the light had been "twisted." Here, a twisted bit of light as it travels between the islands.
Credit: Copyright: University Vienna

When you make a phone call or browse the internet, chances are a lot of the communication happens over fiber-optic links transmitting billions of bits every second.
A recent experiment shows it may be possible to "twist" light waves, cram in more information than ever before, and send the signal over a practical distance. In this case, the physicists used twisted laser light to send the message "Hello World" between two islands. [The 9 Biggest Unsolved Mysteries in Physics]
Twisted photons
Light waves are used in communications all the time. Radio is a form of light, as are lasers that are common in  fiber optics. To get information in and out, one can use the amplitude of the wave (as in AM radio), the wave's frequency (used in FM radio) and even the phase and polarization (used in fiber optics along with the first two).
The fact that one can use just four features, or so-called degrees of freedom, to encode information into a single light wave limits how much can be communicated via a photon. An international team from the University of Vienna wanted to see if they could encode information into another feature, the angular momentum, of a light wave, and send it far enough to be useful — in this case, about 88 miles (142 kilometers) between two observatories in the Canary Islands.

[Image: light-beam.jpg?1479698658?interpolation=...ize=*:1400]
This false-color image of a laser beam reveals that when zoomed in twice, the light wave has amazing complexity.
Credit: Copyright: IQOQI Vienna / Robert Fickler

Counterintuitive as it sounds, light has angular momentum. This is because as the photon propagates it actually "twists" and makes a certain number of revolutions. In recent years, physicists have found ways to increase the number of those twists, altering the light's angular momentum.
"When we do an additional degree of freedom, you can use the same channel [in this case, a wavelength of light], and increase the amount of information by a factor of n," Mario Krenn, a doctoral student at the University of Vienna and the lead author of one of the two studies outlining the results, told Live Science. In this case, "n" is the number of "modes" in the light's angular momentum. Modes are integer multiples of angular momentum measurements. A transmission with five modes, for example, and 10 channels, would now have the capability of sending five times as much information as the original 10 channels could.
Light travel
Ordinarily, if one looked at the laser light in ths experiment hitting a blank screen, it would appear as a ring. Using a computer to superimpose the angular momentum measurement on the light signal creates distinct patterns that can be decoded. The researchers used this method to create a light pattern that resulted in the message "Hello World."
Encoding information was only part of the experiment, though. The next step was sending the information some distance away. Previously, most people in the photonics field didn't think a message could be transmitted well through the atmosphere, Krenn said. That's because they assumed that angular momentum was sensitive to light's refractive index, something that changes with air pressure, or humidity.
They were wrong. When the team fired a green laser beam between two observatories on the islands of La Palma and Tenerife, the receiver could still pick up the signal, detecting the changes in angular momentum the team had imparted to the twisted light. "We were actually surprised to get something more than 3 kilometers," Krenn said.
Why it works is still a little unclear. It could be that the assumptions about how much air interferes with these kind of measurements are simply incorrect.
With this success, the experiment opens the way for further work that could eventually be used in communications. Krenn said that the sender and receiver were relatively simple and off-the-shelf. The computational heavy lifting was processing the signal, but that, too, used well-worn mathematical technique. "We wanted to reduce the complexity," he said. 
The results were published in two studies in the Nov. 15 issue of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Original article on Live Science.

Bob... Ninja Alien2
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
Reply
#2
excellent post with unique info.


Quote:Counterintuitive as it sounds, ... light has angular momentum



My question is if there are going to be optimum angles to this angular momentum,
and the transfer of information via twisted light waves.

ie
tetrahedral square root 8 is the premier electron spin angle.

we shall see as time goes on.
One can go on google search with "angular momentum" and find lots of good info.
Reply
#3
Triple Slit Experiment  Holycowsmile



Physicists detect exotic looped trajectories of light in three-slit experiment
January 6, 2017 by Lisa Zyga feature

[Image: threeslitexp.jpg]
The red path shows an exotic looped trajectory of light through a three-slit structure, which was observed for the first time in the new study. Credit: Magaña-Loaiza et al. Nature Communications
(Phys.org)—Physicists have performed a variation of the famous 200-year-old double-slit experiment that, for the first time, involves "exotic looped trajectories" of photons. These photons travel forward through one slit, then loop around and travel back through another slit, and then sometimes loop around again and travel forward through a third slit.

Pennywise

Interestingly, the contribution of these looped trajectories to the overall interference pattern leads to an apparent deviation from the usual form of the superposition principle. This apparent deviation can be understood as an incorrect application of the superposition principle—once the additional interference between looped and straight trajectories is accounted for, the superposition can be correctly applied.
The team of physicists, led by Omar S. Magaña-Loaiza and Israel De Leon, has published a paper on the new experiment in a recent issue of Nature Communications.
Loops of light
"Our work is the first experimental observation of looped trajectories," De Leon told Phys.org. "Looped trajectories are extremely difficult to detect because of their low probability of occurrence. Previously, researchers had suggested that these exotic trajectories could exist but failed to observe them."
To increase the probability of the occurrence of looped trajectories, the researchers designed a three-slit structure that supports surface plasmons, which the scientists describe as "strongly confined electromagnetic fields that can exist at the surface of metals." The presence of these electromagnetic fields near the three slits increases the contribution of looped trajectories to the overall interference pattern by almost two orders of magnitude.
"We provided a physical explanation that links the probability of these exotic trajectories to the near fields around the slits," De Leon said. "As such, one can increase the strength of near fields around the slits to increase the probability of photons following looped trajectories."
Superposition principle accounting for looped trajectories
The new three-slit experiment with looped trajectories is just one of many variations of the original double-slit experiment, first performed by Thomas Young in 1801. Since then, researchers have been performing versions that use electrons, atoms, or molecules instead of photons.
One of the reasons why the double-slit experiment has attracted so much attention is that it represents a physical manifestation of the principle of quantum superposition. The observation that individual particles can create an interference pattern implies that the particles must travel through both slits at the same time. This ability to occupy two places, or states, at once, is the defining feature of quantum superposition.
[Image: 1-threeslitexp.jpg]
Straight trajectories (green) and exotic looped trajectories (red, dashed, dotted) of light, where the red cloud near the surface depicts the near fields, which increase the probability of photons to follow looped trajectories. The graphs at left show simulations (top) and experimental results (bottom) of the large difference in interference patterns created by illuminating only one slit being treated independently (gray line) and the actual coupled system (blue line). The remarkable difference between the gray and blue lines is caused by the looped trajectories. Credit: Magaña-Loaiza et al. Nature Communications
So far, all previous versions of the experiment have produced results that appear to be accurately described by the principle of superposition. This is because looped trajectories are so rare under normal conditions that their contribution to the overall interference pattern is typically negligible, and so applying the superposition principle to those cases results in a very good approximation.


It is when the contribution of the looped trajectories becomes non-negligible that it becomes apparent that the total interference is not simply the superposition of individual wavefunctions of photons with straight trajectories, and so the interference pattern is not correctly described by the usual form of the superposition principle.
Magaña-Loaiza explained this apparent deviation in more detail:
"The superposition principle is always valid—what is not valid is the inaccurate application of the superposition principle to a system with two or three slits," he said.
"For the past two centuries, scientists have assumed that one cannot observe interference if only one slit is illuminated in a two- or three-slit interferometer, and this is because this scenario represents the usual or typical case.
"However, in our paper we demonstrate that this is true only if the probability of photons to follow looped trajectories is negligible. Surprisingly, interference fringes are formed when photons following looped trajectories interfere with photons following straight (direct) trajectories, even when only one of the three slits is illuminated.
"The superposition principle can be applied to this surprising scenario by using the sum or 'superposition' of two wavefunctions; one describing a straight trajectory and the other describing looped trajectories. Not taking into account looped trajectories would represent an incorrect application of the superposition principle.
"To some extent, this effect is strange because scientists know that Thomas Young observed interference when he illuminated both slits and not only one. This is true only if the probability of photons following looped trajectories is negligible."
In addition to impacting physicists' understanding of the superposition principle as it is applied to these experiments, the results also reveal new properties of light that could have applications for quantum simulators and other technologies that rely on interference effects.
"We believe that exotic looped paths can have important implications in the study of decoherence mechanisms in interferometry or to increase the complexity of certain protocols for quantum random walks, quantum simulators, and other doink-head used in quantum computation," De Leon said.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Superposition revisited: Proposed resolution of double-slit experiment paradox using Feynman path integral formalism
More information: Omar S. Magaña-Loaiza, Israel De Leon et al. "Exotic looped trajectories of photons in three-slit interference." Nature Communications. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13987 
Journal reference: Nature Communications


Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2017-01-physicists-exotic-looped-trajectories-three-slit.html#jCp[/url][url=http://phys.org/news/2017-01-physicists-exotic-looped-trajectories-three-slit.html#jCp]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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#4
Quote:"It shows that we should always keep an open mind and question even very basic assumptions." -Dino Jaroszynski


Light source discovery 'challenges basic assumption' of physics
January 16, 2017

A widely held understanding of electromagnetic radiation has been challenged in newly published research led at the University of Strathclyde.


The study found that the normal direct correspondence between the bandwidths of the current source and emitted radiation can be broken. This was achieved by extracting narrowband radiation with high efficiency, without making the oscillation of the current narrowband.
The finding produced narrowband light sources in media where electromagnetic radiation would not normally be possible. It makes for a powerful tool for scientists that enables them to understand the intricacies of how materials, or even biological molecules, behave under different conditions, which has a major impact on people's lives through the development of new products and medical treatments.
The research, published in Scientific Reports, also involved researchers at the Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) and the Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), both in South Korea.
Professor Dino Jaroszynski, of Strathclyde's Department of Physics, led the study. He said: "Coherent light sources such as lasers have many uses, from communication to probing the structure of matter. The simplest source of coherent electromagnetic radiation is an oscillating electric current in an antenna. However, there are many other devices are based on these basic laws of physics, such as the free-electron laser, which produces coherent X-ray radiation, or magnetrons found in microwave ovens.

"Our study has shown that some common media with interesting optical properties can be taken advantage of if we imbed, or bury, an oscillating current source in them. Media such as plasma, semiconductors and photonic structures have a 'cut-off', where propagation of electromagnetic radiation with frequencies lower than the 'cut-off' frequency is not possible; we noticed that the radiation impedance is increased at the cut-off.

"One consequence of this is that, for a broadband current source immersed in this type of dispersive medium, the cut-off frequency 'mode' is selectively enhanced due to Ohm's law, resulting in narrow bandwidth emission. What is curious is that novel physics should still be hidden in the classical cut-off behaviour; in our research, we uncovered a hidden face of the cut-off and realised a new paradigm of narrowband light sources in media that would not usually allow electromagnetic radiation to propagate. This is a remarkably simple idea based on straightforward physics theory that seems to have been overlooked.


"This is a very exciting theoretical discovery that comes out of a very fruitful cross-continental collaboration. It shows that we should always keep an open mind and question even very basic assumptions. We hope to demonstrate this phenomenon at the Strathclyde-based Scottish Centre for the Application of Plasma-based Accelerators; there are numerous applications of electromagnetic radiation and the proposed source should have a large impact if we are able to demonstrate it experimentally."

Professor Min Sup Hur at UNIST, Republic of South Korea, who leads the work from UNIST, said: "This new discovery is scientifically interesting, because it leads us to see the phenomenon of electromagnetic radiation from a completely different viewpoint. We hope the fruitful international collaboration, which brought us to this theoretical discovery, will continue with the experimental demonstration of the idea."
Modern light sources, or, more generally, electromagnetic sources used as scientific tools require good coherency, monochromaticity, and high emission power. Coherency and narrow bandwidth - or monochromaticity - are important properties of electromagnetic radiation that allow it to be used to observe changes in the structure of materials subject to stimuli, such as a short intense laser pulse; material properties are deduced from changes that are made apparent in pump-probe studies. An analogy would be to making a movie by assembling many time lapse snapshots to animate the changes that are occurring in the material after it has been stimulated.
The main challenge is making high power sources of electromagnetic radiation monochromatic. This is often done by making the oscillating current narrowband or filtering the spectrum, which is extremely inefficient. It is complicated, and can be expensive, to reduce the bandwidth of a current source while maintaining or increasing its radiated power.
The Research Excellence Framework 2014, the comprehensive rating of UK universities' research, ranked the University of Strathclyde's Physics research first in the UK, with 96% of output assessed as world-leading or internationally excellent.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Terahertz radiation: A useful source for food safety
More information: M. S. Hur et al. Increased impedance near cut-off in plasma-like media leading to emission of high-power, narrow-bandwidth radiation, Scientific Reports (2017). DOI: 10.1038/srep40034 
Journal reference: Scientific Reports [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: University of Strathclyde, Glasgow



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-01-source-dis...s.html#jCp[/url][url=https://phys.org/news/2017-01-source-discovery-basic-assumption-physics.html#jCp]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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#5
[Image: QF_cover800.jpg]
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#6
[Image: light-information.jpg?interpolation=lanc...ize=*:1400]
 Vianova: we shall see as time goes on.

One can go on google search with
"angular momentum" and find lots of good info.

Speaking of light paul...

...that reminds me! blinds me

Paul Eastham of Trinity College
[Image: light-beam.jpg?1479698658?interpolation=...ize=*:1400]


eye can twist as an offworld physicist these very same properties and principles... 

[Image: _49639869_moel.jpg]

[Image: beaming-laser1.jpg]



[Image: 23665242626_01d721c9ed_o.jpg]
...to power another civilisation/colony[Image: 20012009123620@Jerusalem-Day-2006-5.jpg]

http://thehiddenmission.com/forum/showth...451&page=3

Thanx to Vianova for this link:
http://www.darpa.mil/program/high-energy...nse-system
High Energy Liquid Laser Area Defense System (HELLADS)  LilD

Quote: Wrote:Enemy surface-to-air threats to manned and unmanned aircraft have become increasingly sophisticated, 
creating a need for rapid and effective response to this growing category of threats. 
High power lasers can provide a solution to this challenge, 
as they harness the speed and power of light to counter multiple threats. 
Laser weapon systems provide additional capability for offensive missions as well—
adding precise targeting with low probability of collateral damage. 
For consideration as a weapon system on today’s air assets though, 
these laser weapon systems must be lighter and more compact than the state-of-the-art has produced.

The goal of the HELLADS program is to develop a 150 kilowatt (kW) laser weapon system 
that is ten times smaller and lighter than current lasers of similar power, 
enabling integration onto tactical aircraft to defend against and defeat ground threats. 
With a weight goal of less than five kilograms per kilowatt, 
and volume of three cubic meters for the laser system,
HELLADS seeks to enable high-energy lasers to be integrated onto tactical aircraft, 
significantly increasing engagement ranges compared to ground-based systems.

In May 2015, HELLADS demonstrated sufficient laser power and beam quality 
to advance to a series of field tests. 
The achievement of government acceptance for field trials marked the end 
of the program’s laboratory development phase 
and the beginning of a new and challenging set of tests 
against rockets, mortars, vehicles and surrogate surface-to-air missiles 
at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico.

Integration of the HELLADS laser into a ground-based laser weapons system demonstrator 

began in July 2015 as an effort jointly funded by DARPA and the Air Force Research Laboratory. 
Following the field-testing phase, the goal is to make the system available 
to the military Services for further refinement, testing or transition to operational use.

[Image: 23582485862_d61d37c9b7_o.jpg]

[Image: laser-aug14-web.jpg]

twisting light like a corksrew... 

Photons with half-integer angular momentum are the latest twist on light
May 16, 2016 14 comments
[Image: PW-2016-05-16-Cartlidge-spin.jpg]
Half-twists: light with half-integer angular momentum
Photons can have half-integer values of angular momentum when they are confined to fewer than three dimensions. That is the conclusion of physicists in Ireland, who have revived an experiment first done in the 1830s to show that photons are not limited to having just integer values of angular momentum. The discovery could have applications in quantum computing and could also boost the capacity of optical-fibre data transmission.
The angular momentum of light comes in two varieties: spin and orbital. Spin is associated with optical polarization, which is the orientation of light's electric-field oscillations. Orbital angular momentum rotates a light beam's wavefront around its propagation axis, giving it a corkscrew shape.
Individually, the two types of angular momentum come in multiples of the reduced Planck's constant, ħ. For spin, those multiples are either +1 or –1, while the orbital variety can take any integer value. To date, physicists have assumed that a photon's total angular momentum is simply the sum of these two parts and that it therefore comes in integer multiples of ħ. But in the latest research, Paul Eastham of Trinity College Dublin and colleagues have shown that the total angular momentum can in fact take on half-integer values.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#7
With all this twisting, angular momentum, splitting and even going backward then forward again through a different split...

Does this effect the "Light Speed Limit" ???

Bob... Ninja Alien2
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
Reply
#8
Quote:With all this twisting, angular momentum, splitting and even going backward then forward again through a different split...

Does this effect the "Light Speed Limit" ???

Bob... [Image: ninja.gif] [Image: alien2.gif]

 This spacetime discreteness could have led to either an increase or decrease in energy that may have begun contributing to the cosmological constant starting when photons decoupled from electrons in the early universe, during the period known as recombination.

Violations of energy conservation in the early universe may explain dark energy

[Image: medium]

Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-01-violations...k.html#jCp



RHW007 recall: Holycowsmile
Quote:With these results, the researchers from the field of ultrafast phenomena and photonics build on their earlier findings, published in October 2015 in the scientific journal Science, where they have demonstrated direct detection of signals from pure nothingness.



Traffic jam in empty space
Physicists study the quantum vacuum

January 18, 2017

[Image: 170118132244_1_540x360.jpg]
Schematic sketch of the spatio-temporal deviations from the level of bare vacuum fluctuations of the electric field which are generated by deforming space-time and sampled in the time domain. The color-coded hypersurface combines a longitudinal time trace (red line) with the transverse mode function.
[i]Credit: University of Konstanz[/i]



An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by Professor Alfred Leitenstorfer has now shown how to manipulate the electric vacuum field and thus generate deviations from the ground state of empty space which can only be understood in the context of the quantum theory of light.
With these results, the researchers from the field of ultrafast phenomena and photonics build on their earlier findings, published in October 2015 in the scientific journal Science, where they have demonstrated direct detection of signals from pure nothingness. This essential scientific progress might make it possible to solve problems that physicists have grappled with for a long time, ranging from a deeper understanding of the quantum nature of radiation to research on attractive material properties such as high-temperature superconductivity.
The new results are published on 19 January 2017 in the current online issue of the scientific journal Nature.
A world-leading optical measurement technique, developed by Alfred Leitenstorfer's team, made this fundamental insight possible. A special laser system generates ultrashort light pulses that last only a few femtoseconds and are thus shorter than half a cycle of light in the investigated spectral range. One femtosecond corresponds to the millionth of a billionth of a second. The extreme sensitivity of the method enables detection of electromagnetic fluctuations even in the absence of intensity, that is, in complete darkness. Theoretically, the existence of these "vacuum fluctuations" follows from Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle. Alfred Leitenstorfer and his team succeeded in directly observing these fluctuations for the first time and in the mid-infrared frequency range, where even conventional approaches to quantum physics have not worked previously.
The conceptual novelty of the experiments is that instead of the frequency-domain techniques used so far, the physicists from Konstanz accessed quantum statistics of light directly in the time domain. At a chosen point in time, electric field amplitudes are directly measured instead of analysing light in a narrow frequency band. Studying different points in time results in characteristic noise patterns that allow for detailed conclusions about the temporal quantum state of light. As the laser pulse propagates together with the quantum field under study, the Konstanz physicists can, so to speak, bring time to a stop. Ultimately, space and time, that is "space-time," behave absolutely equivalently in these experiments -- an indication of the inherently relativistic nature of electromagnetic radiation.
As the new measurement technique neither has to absorb the photons to be measured nor amplify them, it is possible to directly detect the electromagnetic background noise of the vacuum and thus also the controlled deviations from this ground state, created by the researchers. "We can analyse quantum states without changing them in the first approximation," says Alfred Leitenstorfer. The high stability of the Konstanz technology is an important factor for the quantum measurements, as the background noise of their ultrashort laser pulses is extremely low.
By manipulating the vacuum with strongly focused femtosecond pulses, the researchers come up with a new strategy to generate "squeezed light," a highly nonclassical state of a radiation field. The speed of light in a certain segment of space-time is deliberately changed with an intense pulse of the femtosecond laser. This local modulation of the velocity of propagation "squeezes" the vacuum field, which is tantamount to a redistribution of vacuum fluctuations. Alfred Leitenstorfer compares this mechanism of quantum physics graphically with a traffic jam on the motorway: from a certain point on, some cars are going slower. As a result, traffic congestion sets in behind these cars, while the traffic density will decrease in front of that point. That means: when fluctuation amplitudes decrease in one place, they increase in another.
While the fluctuation amplitudes positively deviate from the vacuum noise at temporally increasing speed of light, a slowing down results in an astonishing phenomenon: the level of measured noise is lower than in the vacuum state -- that is, the ground state of empty space.
The simple illustration with the traffic on a motorway, however, quickly reaches its limits: in contrast to this "classical physics" picture, where the number of cars remains constant, the noise amplitudes change completely differently with increasing acceleration and deceleration of space-time. In case of a moderate "squeezing," the noise pattern is distributed around the vacuum level fairly symmetrically. With increasing intensity, however, the decrease inevitably saturates toward zero. The excess noise that is accumulated a few femtoseconds later, in contrast, increases non-linearly -- a direct consequence of the Uncertainty Principle's character as an algebraic product. This phenomenon can be equated with the generation of a highly nonclassical state of the light field, in which, for example, always two photons emerge simultaneously in the same volume of space and time.
The experiment conducted in Konstanz raises numerous new questions and promises exciting studies to come. Next, the physicists aim at understanding the fundamental limits of their sensitive detection method which leaves the quantum state seemingly intact. In principle, every experimental analysis of a quantum system would ultimately perturb its state. Currently, still a high number of individual measurements needs to be performed in order to obtain a result: 20 million repetitions per second. The physicists can not yet say with certainty whether it is a so-called "weak measurement" in conventional terms of quantum theory.
The new experimental approach to quantum electrodynamics is only the third method to study the quantum state of light. Now fundamental questions arise: What exactly is the quantum character of light? What actually is a photon? Concerning the last question, that much is clear to the Konstanz physicists: instead of a quantized packet of energy it is rather a measure for the local quantum statistics of electromagnetic fields in space-time.


Journal References:
  1. C. Riek, P. Sulzer, M. Seeger, A. S. Moskalenko, G. Burkard, D. V. Seletskiy, A. Leitenstorfer. Subcycle quantum electrodynamicsNature, 2017; 541 (7637): 376 DOI:10.1038/nature21024
  2. C. Riek, D. V. Seletskiy, A. S. Moskalenko, J. F. Schmidt, P. Krauspe, S. Eckart, S. Eggert, G. Burkard, A. Leitenstorfer.Direct sampling of electric-field vacuum fluctuations.Science, 2015; 350 (6259): 420 DOI:10.1126/science.aac9788
University of Konstanz. "Traffic jam in empty space: Physicists study the quantum vacuum." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 18 January 2017. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/01/170118132244.htm>.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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#9
EA thanx for finding an example that specifically states that the LIGHT speed in space-time, does indeed CHANGE.  As to whether that speed is faster or slower seems undefinable and uncertain without further tests.

This might be similar to the "Ansible" instantaneous to the IMMEDIATE communication technology espoused in the Ender's Was series of books, or even the Movie itself if you have not read the books. Both are good sci-fi time spenders.

SO since at the quantum level, not only is light and space itself, "movable" with correct technology, not just 'warp drive' from Star Wars but also travel through INSTANT travel through DUNE's "preciousness" of the Navigator's ability to "see" safe paths through Space-Time that did NOT bring the ships through a star, planet or any other large obstacle like a black hole.

Thus arriving almost instantly from one planet in one universe to another planet in another universe.

Science Fiction is becoming more Science Fact FASTER in these early years of the 21st Century than ANY other "remembered" century in "recorded" history.

Thanx again.  You ALWAYS come up with existing science to mere whimsical whims from this humble servant in my effort to get this soul back to my Cydonia Home.

With some help I hope to start a NEW form of PUSHING both Musk, Bigelow, NASA/JPL/ ESA, China, or ANYONE to land in CYDONIA or not go at all.

Bob... Ninja Alien2
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
Reply
#10
I look forward to that endeavor @ Musk, Bigelow, NASA/JPL/ ESA, China, or ANYONE.

Quote:Thanx again.  You ALWAYS come up with existing science to mere whimsical whims

Actually your initial posts constantly imbue me with gnosis.

Arrow  I thank you.


...and the rest of y'all too.

Smilies-21813

Light is one of my favorite subjects.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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#11
Camera able to capture imagery of an optical Mach cone
January 23, 2017 by Bob Yirka report

[Image: 5885f5b5b5953.jpg]
A graphic depicting the capture of a superluminal photonic Mach cone using loss-less encoding compressed ultrafast photography. Credit: Jinyang Liang and Lihong V. Wang
(Phys.org)—A team of researchers at Washington University in St. Louis has built a camera apparatus capable of capturing moving imagery of an optical Mach cone. In their paper published in the journal Science Advances, the team describes their image capturing system and other possible applications of the technology.




Most everyone knows that when an object like a jet moves faster than the speed of sound, an acoustic cone is created in its wake that can be heard as a sonic boom. Scientists have theorized that the same type of phenomenon could occur with light, but until now, have not be able to prove it by capturing images of it in action. In this new effort, the researchers have done just that, and have developed an image capturing system capable of taking images of other ultrafast events, as well.
To capture imagery of an optical Mach cone, the researchers approached the problem from both sides—by developing a superfast imaging system and by slowing down light.
The second part was easy; all they had to do was shine a laser through a medium—in this case, a tunnel with dry ice particles that was placed between plates made of aluminum oxide powder and silicone rubber. The light from the laser subsequently traveled faster as it moved through the tunnel compared to the plates, allowing for the formation of an optical Mach cone.

Video: https://phys.org/news/2017-01-camera-cap...-mach.html
Narration and animation of the LLE-CUP system. Credit: Jinyang Liang and Lihong V. Wang
To capture imagery of the cone, the researchers installed three CCD cameras next to the cone-generating apparatus, one of which was a streak camera (it works by converting photons to electrons and bending the path they take). The streak camera was also fitted with patterned filters that allowed for capturing still 2-D sequences of images, each of which was assigned a code—after a cone was created and imaged, a 3-D image of it was created by combining the 2-D pieces in ways reminiscent of a CT scanner. The other two cameras were used to provide more perspective and to improve resolution.
The result of the effort was the first ever video of the cone-shaped wake of light known as a photonic or optical Mach cone. The researchers suggest the same technique could be used to capture imagery of other events such as individual neurons firing—they note it is capable of capturing images at speeds up to 100 billion fps.

Video: https://phys.org/news/2017-01-camera-cap...-mach.html
Experimentally imaged laser pulse propagation under a subluminal condition. Credit: Liang et al. Sci. Adv.2017;3:e1601814

Video: https://phys.org/news/2017-01-camera-capture-imagery-optical-mach.html#jCp
First author Jinyang Liang discussing why the loss-less encoding compressed ultrafast photography system is novel. Credit: Jinyang Liang and Lihong V. Wang
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Imaging at the speed of light
More information: Jinyang Liang et al. Single-shot real-time video recording of a photonic Mach cone induced by a scattered light pulse, Science Advances (2017). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1601814
Abstract 
Ultrafast video recording of spatiotemporal light distribution in a scattering medium has a significant impact in biomedicine. Although many simulation tools have been implemented to model light propagation in scattering media, existing experimental instruments still lack sufficient imaging speed to record transient light-scattering events in real time. We report single-shot ultrafast video recording of a light-induced photonic Mach cone propagating in an engineered scattering plate assembly. This dynamic light-scattering event was captured in a single camera exposure by lossless-encoding compressed ultrafast photography at 100 billion frames per second. Our experimental results are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions by time-resolved Monte Carlo simulation. This technology holds great promise for next-generation biomedical imaging instrumentation. 

Journal reference: Science Advances


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-01-camera-capture-imagery-optical-mach.html#jCp[url=https://phys.org/news/2017-01-camera-capture-imagery-optical-mach.html#jCp][/url]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#12
high peak power  Holycowsmile Holycowsmile Holycowsmile

[Image: 23582485862_d61d37c9b7_o.jpg]

Brits, Czechs claim world's most powerful 'super laser'
January 24, 2017

[Image: 1-laser.jpg]
Image credit: Credit: ORNL.gov
A team of British and Czech scientists on Tuesday said they had successfully tested a "super laser" they claim is 10 times more powerful than any other of its kind on the planet.


The so-called "high peak power laser" has a 1,000-watt average power output, a benchmark of sustained, high-energy pulses.
It has revolutionary potential in engineering, for hardening metal surfaces, processing semiconductors and micro-machining material.
The device was developed by Britain's Central Laser Facility (CLF) and HiLASE (High average power pulsed laser), a Czech state research and development project.
"It is a world record which is important," CLF director John Collier told AFP.
"It is good for putting things on the map, but the more important point is that the underlying technology that has been developed here is going to transform the application of these high power, high energy lasers," Collier added.
Named "Bivoj" after a mythical Czech strongman, the laser is "10 times as powerful" as any other of its type currently in use, HiLASE physicist Martin Divoky told AFP at the testing facility in Dolni Brezany near Prague.
HiLASE director Tomas Mocek told AFP that Bivoj broke the "magical barrier" of 1,000 watts in output on December 16, setting a world record for lasers of its type.
"It's a huge step forward, like an Olympic victory," he added.
Weighing in at around 20 tonnes and costing 44 million euros ($48 million), Bivoj will have applications in the aeronautics, automotive and power sectors, according to the CLF and HiLASE specialists.
Mocek told AFP that Bivoj was fundamentally different from so-called peak power lasers.
There are two behemoths of this kind—the one-petawatt Texas Petawatt Laser in Austin and the two-petawatt Laser for Fast Ignition Experiments (LFEX) in Osaka, Japan. One petawatt equals one million billion watts
Those lasers "have a very high peak power, but they can only reach it several times a day," Mocek said.
"They do not have so-called 'average power'. This is a combination of the repetition rate and the energy. Our laser has the highest average power, which is important. The repetition rate in Osaka and Austin is significantly lower."
Its creators say they hope to explore the laser's potential during tests planned at the Dolni Brezany facility later this month.
Mocek told AFP that there are also plans to commercialise the laser in the second half of the year.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: World-largest petawatt laser completed, delivering 2,000 trillion watts output


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-01-brits-czec...r.html#jCp[url=https://phys.org/news/2017-01-brits-czechs-world-powerful-super.html#jCp][/url]


The so-called "high peak power laser"

A perfect Capstone for the D&M

360 degree Power!  LilD  Cydonia In-Situ
[Image: 23665242626_01d721c9ed_o.jpg]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#13
check this out 007!!!
Quote:"Finding a new beam pattern is a like finding a new element. It doesn't happen very often."

New 'needle-pulse' beam pattern packs a punch
January 27, 2017

[Image: newneedlepul.jpg]
Three representations of the 'needle pulse' beam, showing how the circular wave fronts collapse into a needle-like thin power distribution with no side lobes. Credit: Kevin Parker/Miguel Alonso
A new beam pattern devised by University of Rochester researchers could bring unprecedented sharpness to ultrasound and radar images, burn precise holes in manufactured materials at a nano scale—even etch new properties onto their surfaces.



These are just a few of the items on the "Christmas tree" of possible applications for the beam pattern that Miguel Alonso, professor of optics, and Kevin Parker, the William F. May Professor of Engineering, describe in a recent paper in Optics Express.
The pattern results from what Parker calls "an analytically beautiful mathematical solution" that Alonso devised. It causes a light or sound wave to collapse inward, forming—during a mere nanosecond or less—an incredibly thin, intense beam before the wave expands outward again.
"All the energy fits together in time and space so it comes together—BAM!—like a crescendo," says Parker, explosively clapping his hands for emphasis. "It can be done with an optical light wave, with ultrasound, radar, sonar—it will work for all of them."
Most traditional beam patterns maintain a persistent shape as long as the source is operating. However, they are not as intense as the beam created by Parker and Alonso, which the researchers call a "needle pulse beam." "It is very localized, with no extensions or side lobes that would carry energy away from the main beam," says Alonso.
Side lobes, radiating off a beam like the halos sometimes seen around a car headlight, are especially problematic in ultrasound. "Side lobes are the enemy," Alonso says. "You want to direct all of your ultrasound wave to the one thing you want to image, so then, whatever is reflected back will tell you about that one thing. If you're also getting a diffusion of waves elsewhere, it blurs the image."
Because it is incredibly narrow, the new beam "makes it possible to resolve things at exquisite resolutions, where you need to separate tiny things that are close together," Parker says, adding that the beam could have applications not only for ultrasound, but microscopy, radar, and sonar.
[Image: newneedlepul.gif]
A representation of the ‘needle pulse’ beam, showing how the circular wave fronts collapse into a needle-like thin power distribution with no side lobes. Credit: University of Rochester
According to Alonso, industrial applications might include any form of laser materials processing that involves putting as much light as possible on a given line.
The idea for the needle pulse beam originated with Parker, an expert in ultrasound, who for inspiration often peruses mathematical functions from a century or more ago in the "ancient texts."


"I could see a general form of the solution; but I couldn't get past the equation," he says "So I went to the person (Alonso) who I consider the world's leading expert on optical theory and mathematics."
They came up with various expressions that were "mathematically correct," Alonso says, but corresponded to beams requiring an infinite amount of energy. The solution—"a particular mathematical trick" that could apply to a beam with finite energy—came to him while swimming with his wife in Lake Ontario.
"Many of the ideas I have do not happen at my desk," Alonso says. "It happens while I'm riding my bicycle, or in the shower, or swimming, or doing something else—away from all the paperwork."
Parker says this discovery continues an international quest that began at the University of Rochester. In 1986—in the face of worldwide skepticism—a University team including Joseph Eberly, the Andrew Carnegie Professor of Physics and professor of optics, offered evidence of an unexpected new, diffraction-free light form. The so-called Bessel beam is now widely used.
Read the 1986 study, "Diffraction-free beams"
"It had been decades since anyone formulated a new type of beam," Parker says. "Then, as soon as the Bessel beam was announced, people were thinking there may be other new beams out there. The race was on.
"Finding a new beam pattern is a like finding a new element. It doesn't happen very often."

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: From unconventional laser beams to a more robust imaging wave
More information: Kevin J. Parker et al. Longitudinal iso-phase condition and needle pulses, Optics Express (2016). DOI: 10.1364/OE.24.028669 
Journal reference: Optics Express [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: University of Rochester



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-01-needle-pulse-pattern.html#jCp[/url][url=https://phys.org/news/2017-01-needle-pulse-pattern.html#jCp]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#14
Radar images have been taken of the Moon, etc.
Can those images also benefit?
Reply
#15
Not at all sure...email this guy  Arrow  (Alonso) who I consider the world's leading expert on optical theory and mathematics."



KR , I was thinking more along the lines of:

Can this be a needle pulsed thruster beam like an ion thruster for spacecraft?

Possibly good for far-flung missions beyond pluto anyway. Cry
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#16
Probably...if the collapsing "circular wavefronts" occurred at
an emission frequency of whatever source.
Yogis might be sending super-luminal thought beams across the universe.
...like if what's being recorded on an EEG were to do this.
Reply
#17
What I find fascinating is in another article, or maybe it's implied in one of the articles in this thread is that "time" is not as "linear" in a multiverse outlook as it appears to be in each of our own 'universe'.  From The Light: "if we can remember the past why can't we remember the future?"

This was the basic THEME of the movie "Arrival" I was recently pleased to be viewed.

And as a new euphemism from Alonso's "The solution—"a particular mathematical trick" that could apply to a beam with finite energy—came to him while swimming with his wife in Lake Ontario."

"Sometimes the Universe turns your own light bulb on when you least expect it." - rhw007

Bob... Ninja Alien2
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
Reply
#18
Nootropics Are Standard Above
Reply
#19
(01-30-2017, 02:18 AM)rhw007 Wrote: What I find fascinating is in another article, or maybe it's implied in one of the articles in this thread is that "time" is not as "linear" in a multiverse outlook as it appears to be in each of our own 'universe'.  From The Light: "if we can remember the past why can't we remember the future?"

This was the basic THEME of the movie "Arrival" I was recently pleased to be viewed.

And as a new euphemism from Alonso's "The solution—"a particular mathematical trick" that could apply to a beam with finite energy—came to him while swimming with his wife in Lake Ontario."

"Sometimes the Universe turns your own light bulb on when you least expect it." - rhw007

Bob... Ninja Alien2

Answers  Arrow  ???


Quote:"Imagine that everything you see, feel and hear in three dimensions (and your perception of time) in fact emanates from a flat two-dimensional field.
God-damn! Am I a hologram ? Are you too?
[/url]
Physicists unveil new form of matter—time crystals

January 26, 2017



[Image: scientistsun.jpg]
Following a blueprint created by UC Berkeley physicist Norman Yao, physicists at the University of Maryland made the first time crystal using a one-dimensional chain of ytterbium ions. Each ion behaves like an electron spin and exhibits long-range interactions indicated by the arrows. Credit: Chris Monroe, University of Maryland

Normal crystals, likes diamond, are an atomic lattice that repeats in space, but physicists recently suggested making materials that repeat in time. Last year, UC Berkeley's Norman Yao sketched out the phases surrounding a time crystal and what to measure in order to confirm that this new material is actually a stable phase of matter. This stimulated two teams to build a time crystal, the first examples of a non-equilibrium form of matter.



To most people, crystals mean diamond bling, semiprecious gems or perhaps the jagged amethyst or quartz crystals beloved by collectors.
To Norman Yao, these inert crystals are the tip of the iceberg.
If crystals have an atomic structure that repeats in space, like the carbon lattice of a diamond, why can't crystals also have a structure that repeats in time? That is, a time crystal?
In a paper published online last week in the journal Physical Review Letters, the University of California, Berkeley assistant professor of physics describes exactly how to make and measure the properties of such a crystal, and even predicts what the various phases surrounding the time crystal should be—akin to the liquid and gas phases of ice.
This is not mere speculation. Two groups followed Yao's blueprint and have already created the first-ever time crystals. The groups at the University of Maryland and Harvard University reported their successes, using two totally different setups, in papers posted online last year, and have submitted the results for publication. Yao is a co-author on both papers.
Time crystals repeat in time because they are kicked periodically, sort of like tapping Jell-O repeatedly to get it to jiggle, Yao said. The big breakthrough, he argues, is less that these particular crystals repeat in time than that they are the first of a large class of new materials that are intrinsically out of equilibrium, unable to settle down to the motionless equilibrium of, for example, a diamond or ruby.
"This is a new phase of matter, period, but it is also really cool because it is one of the first examples of non-equilibrium matter," Yao said. "For the last half-century, we have been exploring equilibrium matter, like metals and insulators. We are just now starting to explore a whole new landscape of non-equilibrium matter."
While Yao is hard put to imagine a use for a time crystal, other proposed phases of non-equilibrium matter theoretically hold promise as nearly perfect memories and may be useful in quantum computers.
[Image: 1-scientistsun.jpg]
This phase diagram shows how changing the experimental parameters can 'melt' a time crystal into a normal insulator or heat up a time crystal to a high temperature thermal state. Credit: Norman Yao, UC Berkeley
An ytterbium chain


The time crystal created by Chris Monroe and his colleagues at the University of Maryland employs a conga line of 10 ytterbium ions whose electron spins interact, similar to the qubit systems being tested as quantum computers. To keep the ions out of equilibrium, the researchers alternately hit them with one laser to create an effective magnetic field and a second laser to partially flip the spins of the atoms, repeating the sequence many times. Because the spins interacted, the atoms settled into a stable, repetitive pattern of spin flipping that defines a crystal.
Time crystals were first proposed in 2012 by Nobel laureate Frank Wilczek, and last year theoretical physicists at Princeton University and UC Santa Barbara's Station Q independently proved that such a crystal could be made. According to Yao, the UC Berkeley group was "the bridge between the theoretical idea and the experimental implementation."
From the perspective of quantum mechanics, electrons can form crystals that do not match the underlying spatial translation symmetry of the orderly, three-dimensional array of atoms, Yao said. This breaks the symmetry of the material and leads to unique and stable properties we define as a crystal.
A time crystal breaks time symmetry. In this particular case, the magnetic field and laser periodically driving the ytterbium atoms produce a repetition in the system at twice the period of the drivers, something that would not occur in a normal system.
"Wouldn't it be super weird if you jiggled the Jell-O and found that somehow it responded at a different period?" Yao said. "But that is the essence of the time crystal. You have some periodic driver that has a period 'T', but the system somehow synchronizes so that you observe the system oscillating with a period that is larger than 'T'."
Yao worked closely with Monroe as his Maryland team made the new material, helping them focus on the important properties to measure to confirm that the material was in fact a stable or rigid time crystal. Yao also described how the time crystal would change phase, like an ice cube melting, under different magnetic fields and laser pulsing.
The Harvard team, led by Mikhail Lukin, set up its time crystal using densely packed nitrogen vacancy centers in diamonds.
"Such similar results achieved in two wildly disparate systems underscore that time crystals are a broad new phase of matter, not simply a curiosity relegated to small or narrowly specific systems," wrote Phil Richerme, of Indiana University, in a perspective piece accompanying the paper published in Physical Review Letters. "Observation of the discrete time crystal... confirms that symmetry breaking can occur in essentially all natural realms, and clears the way to several new avenues of research."
Yao is continuing his own work on time crystals as he explores the theory behind other novel but not-yet-realized non-equilibrium materials.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Time crystals might exist after all (Update)
Journal reference: Physical Review Letters [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: University of California - Berkeley



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-01-physicists...s.html#jCp[url=https://phys.org/news/2017-01-physicists-unveil-mattertime-crystals.html#jCp]
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With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#20
Yes the "time crystals" CAN be the answer to "remembering" the future IF they can put to useful purpose in actual in the actual HOLOGRAM that our Universe seems to be as we look closer and closer at the fabric of the space, time, matter, energy, intelligence and ego or self-awareness.

Bob... Ninja Alien2
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
Reply
#21
According to the "needle pulse beam, " "Side lobes, radiating off a beam like the halos
 sometimes seen around a car headlight, are especially problematic in ultrasound.",
 along with a "mathematical trick" mentioned,
 might have to do with the resonant frequency and the lower side band peaks on either side of the
main spike. The "Q(quality) factor" is theoretically open ended, and resonance is likewise.
Reply
#22
(01-31-2017, 02:39 AM)Kalter Rauch Wrote: According to the "needle pulse beam, " "Side lobes, radiating off a beam like the halos
 sometimes seen around a car headlight, are especially problematic in ultrasound.",
 along with a "mathematical trick" mentioned,
 might have to do with the resonant frequency and the lower side band peaks on either side of the
main spike. The "Q(quality) factor" is theoretically open ended, and resonance is likewise.


Which is why I haven't mentioned in the other thread that since this Earthling with a Martian "Soul" lives my quantum, dark matter, following the sparks across one neuron to another across a gap in space-time that I 'run my beat to heartbeat to heartbeat'.  Knowing that since quantum entanglement exists I think the ringing in my ears in the tone of the Universe that draws me home and I don't need a "fix" for this "Tinnitus".  I walk through life knowing that it ALWAYS is a following flowing Random Theme with a Specific Purpose I have not yet been made aware of its end.

Mellow


Bob... Ninja Bong7bp Alien2
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
Reply
#23
The angel voices are enhanced greatly with a good cannabis edible (..."cannable"...)
Reply
#24
(02-01-2017, 02:50 AM)Kalter Rauch Wrote: The angel voices are enhanced greatly with a good cannabis edible (..."cannable"...)

These are pretty good:

[Image: ?format=500w]

I don't recommend eating the whole thing in one sitting. Well, I guess you could. I did.
Lines join in faint discord and the Stormwatch brews a concert of kings as the white sea snaps at the heels of a soft prayer whispered.
Reply
#25
...
I never eat MJ edibles 

No

Way

but I have been mixing Sour Diesel 78% THC  from CO2 extract into 30% THC Jack Diesel weed.

I always liked the scene from Predator II,
when Danny Glover exits King Willie's limo and clouds of MJ smoke emerge.

I would not get into this limo and smoke with King Willie's voodudes Nonono

[Image: pdvd215.2154.jpg]



Rofl


King Willie ... about to run out of weed


[Image: CnF7sAsWAAA_8pk.jpg]

...
Reply
#26
I'm looking for any Cthulhu Dream strains if they exist...
like a seed from Ponape.
I know I get dream stimulating effects from purple
so that would be a good genetic addition.

[Image: il_570xN.250273202.jpg]
Reply
#27
Physicists show that real-time error correction in quantum communications is possible
January 23, 2017

[Image: bigbrotherwi.jpg]
First author and PhD student, Bienvenu Ndagano, in the Structured Lab at Wits University in Johannesburg. Credit: Wits University
Nature Physics today, Monday, 23 January 2017, published online the research by a team led by physicists from the School of Physics at Wits University. In their paper titled: Characterising quantum channels with non-separable states of classical light the researchers demonstrate the startling result that sometimes Nature cannot tell the difference between particular types of laser beams and quantum entangled photons.



In essence, the research show that sometimes Nature cannot tell the difference between the quantum and the classical (or real) worlds, and that a grey area does exist between the two worlds called classical entanglement.
Classical and quantum worlds
Present communication systems are very fast, but not fundamentally secure. To make them secure researchers use the laws of Nature for encoding by exploiting the quirky properties of the quantum world, such as in the case of the use of Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) for secure communication.
"Quantum" refers to the small, and in the photonics world this means one photon - a single particle of light. The rules of the quantum world are vastly different from that of the classical world, and experiments are traditionally much harder due to the difficulty in handling just a few photons.
"In the classical world our intuition holds true. There are no surprises and experiments can be done with many photons (billions and billions of them), such as laser light," explains Professor Andrew Forbes, team leader of the collaboration and Distinguished Professor in the School of Physics where he heads up the Wits Structured Light Laboratory.
"But not so in the quantum world, where things are never quite as they seem. Here waves sometimes look like particles, particles like waves, and measurements change the properties of the very thing you are trying to measure."
Real-time quantum error correction is possible
Now researchers have shown that there is a grey area where Nature cannot tell the difference between the classical and the quantum. This opens the possibility of first performing quantum experiments with a type of classical light called "classically entangled" light.
[Image: bigbrotherwi.gif]
Atmospheric turbulence is displayed here as a grayscale image for simulation on a spatial light modulator. Credit: Credit: Wits University
For example, establishing a secure quantum communication link over long distance is very challenging: "Quantum links (as in fibre optics) using patterns of light languish at short distances precisely because there is no way to protect the link against noise (interference from, for instance, fog or a bend in a cable) without detecting the photons. Yet, once they are detected their usefulness is destroyed," says Forbes.


This catch 22 situation has been a seemingly insurmountable obstacle. Now the team has shown that this can be overcome using classical (many photon) light fields, enabling real-time quantum error correction.
By preparing and sending a so-called "classically entangled" beam the team could show that this was identical to sending a quantum state. This means that the observed quantum entanglement decay due to noise in the link can be reversed, paving the way for major advances in secure quantum links in fibre and free-space.
"We showed for the first time that classical light can be used to analyse a quantum link, acting as a direct equivalent to the behavior of the quantum state," says Bienvenu Ndagano, lead author and PhD student at Wits University.
"Not similar, or mimicking, but equivalent. To show this, we exploited a particular type of laser beam, called vector beams, that have the property of being non-separable and sometimes called 'classically entangled'."
Ndagano explains that the quintessential property of quantum entanglement is the non-separability of the state, meaning that one part of the system cannot be separated from the other. "But non-separability is not unique to the quantum world: you can find it in weather maps where the locations on the map and the temperatures at those locations can't be separated."
Classically entangled light
More intriguingly, classical vector beams have this property too, which the team calls "classically entangled" light.
Says Forbes, "What we asked was: does this mean that classical light can be used in quantum systems - a grey area between the two worlds that we call classical entanglement?".
[Image: 1-bigbrotherwi.gif]
Animation of the effects of turbulence on various patterns of light. Credit: Wits University
"The notion of classical entanglement is hotly contested in the physics community with some arguing that it is merely a mathematical construct," says Thomas Konrad (UKZN), co-author on the paper. "This work shows that there is physical meaning to it too, and we offer the first side-by-side data of the equivalence of classical and quantum entanglement".
Previously, to fix an error in the quantum state used for secure communication would mean measuring the photon sent, which in turn would mean losing the information that one was trying to send.
This work allows for long distance quantum links to be established and tested with classically entangled light: as there is no shortage of photons in the classical light, all the measurements needed to fix the errors in the quantum state can be done in real-time without destroying the quantum information.
Thus, real-time error correction is possible as you can run experiments in the classical world that will tell you how to fix the error in the quantum world.
Fast and secure data transfer over real-world link
The team are working on packing as much information into photons using patterns of light as a means to encode the information. Since there are an unlimited number of patterns, the amount of information that can be sent securely is also in principle at least, unlimited.
While all patterns are equivalent in terms of information capacity, this work suggests that the choice of pattern also plays an important role in analysing and correcting the errors experienced by passing over the link.
"By working in this grey area between the classical and the quantum we can show fast and secure data transfer over real-world links," says Forbes.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Bridging the gap between the quantum and classical worlds
More information: Characterizing quantum channels with non-separable states of classical light, Nature Physicsnature.com/articles/doi:10.1038/nphys4003 
Journal reference: Nature Physics [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: Wits University



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-01-physicists-real-time-error-quantum.html#jCp[/url][url=https://phys.org/news/2017-01-physicists-real-time-error-quantum.html#jCp]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#28
...
It is amazing to see all the new technology develop and change science so quickly.
Innovation and ingenuity.

Applause


Quote:"But not so in the quantum world, 
where things are never quite as they seem. 

Here waves sometimes look like particles, particles like waves, 
and measurements change the properties of the very thing you are trying to measure."

This opens the possibility of first performing quantum experiments with a type of classical light
called 
"classically entangled" light.  Reefer


I see so much progress right on the edge of major science discovery,
but one group is glaringly still stuck in the mud ... by choice!
That would be the one and only NASA.
The master of self entanglement.
...
Reply
#29
(01-30-2017, 05:13 PM)EA Wrote:
(01-30-2017, 02:18 AM)rhw007 Wrote: What I find fascinating is in another article, or maybe it's implied in one of the articles in this thread is that "time" is not as "linear" in a multiverse outlook as it appears to be in each of our own 'universe'.  From The Light: "if we can remember the past why can't we remember the future?"

This was the basic THEME of the movie "Arrival" I was recently pleased to be viewed.

And as a new euphemism from Alonso's "The solution—"a particular mathematical trick" that could apply to a beam with finite energy—came to him while swimming with his wife in Lake Ontario."

"Sometimes the Universe turns your own light bulb on when you least expect it." - rhw007

Bob...

Answers  Arrow  ???


Quote:"Imagine that everything you see, feel and hear in three dimensions (and your perception of time) in fact emanates from a flat two-dimensional field.
God-damn! Am I a hologram ? Are you too?
[/url]
Physicists unveil new form of matter—time crystals

January 26, 2017



[Image: scientistsun.jpg]
Following a blueprint created by UC Berkeley physicist Norman Yao, physicists at the University of Maryland made the first time crystal using a one-dimensional chain of ytterbium ions. Each ion behaves like an electron spin and exhibits long-range interactions indicated by the arrows. Credit: Chris Monroe, University of Maryland

Normal crystals, likes diamond, are an atomic lattice that repeats in space, but physicists recently suggested making materials that repeat in time. Last year, UC Berkeley's Norman Yao sketched out the phases surrounding a time crystal and what to measure in order to confirm that this new material is actually a stable phase of matter. This stimulated two teams to build a time crystal, the first examples of a non-equilibrium form of matter.


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-01-physicists...s.html#jCp


Such an object would have an intrinsic time regularity, equivalent to the crystal's regular pattern in space. For a time crystal, the pattern would be a continuous change back and forth in one of its physical properties, a kind of heartbeat that repeats forever,  [Image: heart.png] a bit like a perpetual motion machine. 


Time crystals—how scientists created a new state of matter
February 22, 2017 by Rodrigo Ledesma-Aguilar, The Conversation

[Image: timecrystals.jpg]
Credit: Shutterstock/CatyArte
Some of the most profound predictions in theoretical physics, such as Einstein's gravitational waves or Higgs' boson, have taken decades to prove with experiments. But every now and then, a prediction can become established fact in an astonishingly short time. This is what happened with "time crystals", a new and strange state of matter that was theorised, disproved, revamped and finally created in just five years since it was first predicted in 2012. Cry


[Image: 51TK2ARF0yL._SX321_BO1,204,203,200_.jpg] Naughty

Arrow ...
Crystals, such as diamond and quartz, are made of atoms arranged in a repeating pattern in space. In these new crystals, atoms also follow a repeating pattern, but in time. Because of this weird property, time crystals could one day find applications in revolutionary technologies such as quantum computing.
The story of time crystals begins in 2012 with Nobel Prize winner Frank Wilczek from MIT. As a theoretical physicist and a mathematician, Wilczek made a crucial step in transferring a key property of regular crystals – called symmetry breaking – to create the idea of time crystals.
To understand what symmetry breaking is, think of liquid water. In a water droplet, molecules are free to move about and can be anywhere within the liquid. The liquid looks the same in any direction, meaning that it has a high degree of symmetry. If the water freezes to form ice, attractive forces between the molecules force them to rearrange into a crystal, where molecules are spaced at regular intervals. But this regularity means that the crystal isn't as symmetrical as the liquid, so we say the symmetry of the liquid has been broken when freezing into ice.
Symmetry breaking is one of the most profound concepts in physics. It is behind the formation of crystals, but also appears in many other fundamental processes. For example, the famous Higgs mechanism, which explains how subatomic particles come to acquire mass, is a symmetry breaking process.
Back in 2012, Wilczek came up with a tantalising idea. He wondered if, in the same way that a crystal breaks symmetry in space, it would be possible to create a crystal breaking an equivalent symmetry in time. This was the first time the idea of a time crystal was theorised.
Such an object would have an intrinsic time regularity, equivalent to the crystal's regular pattern in space. For a time crystal, the pattern would be a continuous change back and forth in one of its physical properties, a kind of heartbeat that repeats forever, a bit like a perpetual motion machine.


Perpetual motion machines, which are machines that can work indefinitely without an energy source, are forbidden by the laws of physics. Wilczek recognised this oddity of his time crystal theory and, in 2015, another group of theoretical physicists showed a perpetual motion crystal would indeed be impossible.
[Image: 1-timecrystals.jpg]
Crystals have regular but asymmetrical atomic arrangements. Credit: Shutterstock/SmirkDingo
But this was not the end of the story. In 2016, new research showed that time crystals could still exist in theory, but only if there was some external driving force. The idea was that the time regularity would be somehow dormant, hidden from view, and that adding a little energy would bring it to life and unveil it. This solved the paradox of perpetual motion, and brought new hopes for the existence of time crystals.
Then, in the summer of 2016, the conditions to create and observe time crystals were laid out in an article in the online arXiv repository, and later published in the peer-reviewed journal Physical Review Letters. The researchers studied how a special property of particles known as quantum spin could be repeatedly reversed by an external force at regular intervals. They predicted that if they did this to a set of particles, the interactions between the particles would produce their own oscillations in the spin, creating a "driven" time crystal.
In a matter of months, two different experimental groups had taken on the challenge to create the time crystals in the laboratory. One of the teams fired laser pulses at a train of ytterbium atoms that produced oscillations in the atoms' properties, at different intervals from the pulses. This meant that the ytterbium atoms were behaving as a time crystal.
The other team focused on an entirely different system, consisting of impurities in a diamond crystal. They used microwaves to disturb the impurities at well-defined intervals, and observed the same type of time-crystal oscillations as the first team. At last, time crystals had been created and Wilczek's main ideas proven true.
Crystal future
The prediction, realisation and discovery of time crystals opens a new chapter in quantum mechanics, with questions about the properties of this newly found state of matter and whether time crystals might occur in nature.
The symmetry-breaking properties of ordinary crystals have lead to the creation of phononic and photonic metamaterials, deliberately designed materials that selectively control acoustic vibrations and light that can be used to boost the performance of prosthetics, or to increase the efficiency of lasers and fibre-optics. So the time symmetry-breaking properties of time crystals will likely find their way into equally novel fields, such as chrono-metamaterials for quantum computing, which uses the inherent properties of atoms to store and process data.
The story of time crystals started with a beautiful idea by a theoretical physicist, and now has culminated its first chapter with conclusive experimental evidence after a mere five years. Far from coming to an end as scientists prove their big theories, it seems physics is more alive than ever.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Physicists unveil new form of matter—time crystals
Provided by: The Conversation


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-02-crystalshow-scientists-state.html#jCp[url=https://phys.org/news/2017-02-crystalshow-scientists-state.html#jCp]
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#30
Scientists find evidence for light-by-light scattering, long standing prediction of the Standard Model
February 28, 2017

[Image: 1-scientistsfi.jpg]
As the result of light-by-light scattering, two low-energy photons are observed in the ATLAS detector. Credit: CERN/ATLAS experiment
Scientists from the ATLAS collaboration at the LHC have found evidence for light-by-light scattering, in which two photons interact and change their trajectory. Researchers from DESY, the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz and the AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow performed the study.


"According to classical electrodynamics, beams of light pass each other without being scattered. But if we take quantum physics into account, light can be scattered by light, even though this phenomenon seems very improbable", explains Mateusz Dyndal, a DESY scientist who played a major role in the data analysis. One of the oldest predictions of quantum electrodynamics says that photons, the carrier particles of the electromagnetic force, can interact and scatter off of each other. This process has been tested in different environments, but a direct observation of light-by-light scattering has not previously been achieved.
In 2012, physicists proposed that light-by-light scattering could be observed in collisions at the LHC. Protons that are accelerated to nearly the speed of light produce a very strong electromagnetic field. The generated field is even stronger when Lead ions are used rather than protons . When two such ions pass each other in a so-called ultra-peripheral collision, two photons can scatter off one another while the ions themselves stay intact. The scientists then observe two low-energy photons with specific kinematic properties and no additional activity in the detector. Based on the data taken in 2015 at the LHC, physicists at the ATLAS experiment conducted a search for light-by-light scattering and found 4.4σ evidence for the phenomenon. The σ-value describes the statistical significance of a scientific result. Physicists usually speak of a "discovery" if they find a 5σ result and call a 3σ result "evidence" for something new. Light-by-light scattering has a very small cross-section, which means that it happens very rarely. Thus in four billionanalysed events, only 13 candidates for such diphoton events were observed.
Because the scientists observed only a few events attributed to light-by-light scattering, the statistical accuracy of their results is limited. When the next lead-lead run at the LHC starts (end of 2018), they hope to collect more data to test this phenomenon more precisely. Further studies could also provide an additional window into new physics at the LHC. "Maybe we can find evidence for physics beyond the standard model of particle physics, for example axion-like particles that are a possible candidate for dark matter. Different theoretical concepts predict that light-by-light scattering can be sensitive to such particles", says Dyndal.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Researchers explore the billiard dynamics of photon collisions
More information: Evidence for light-by-light scattering in heavy-ion collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. arxiv.org/pdf/1702.01625.pdf 
Provided by: Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-02-scientists...d.html#jCp[url=https://phys.org/news/2017-02-scientists-evidence-light-by-light-standard.html#jCp][/url]
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#31
Researchers demonstrate new type of laser
March 3, 2017

[Image: 29-researchersd.jpg]
Researchers at QuTech have built an on-chip microwave laser based on a fundamental aspect of superconductivity, the AC Josephson effect. The device is made from a single nanoscale Josephson junction strongly coupled to a superconducting cavity. When a small DC voltage is applied across the junction by a battery, the difference in energy causes microwaves to be released when a Cooper pair tunnels across the junction. The cavity then provides amplification, resulting in a beam of coherent microwave light to be emitted from the cavity. The device may have applications in building a scalable quantum computer.  Credit: Delft University of Technology
Lasers are everywhere nowadays: Doctors use them to correct eyesight, cashiers to scan your groceries, and quantum scientist to control qubits in the future quantum computer. For most applications, the current bulky, energy-inefficient lasers are fine, but quantum scientist work at extremely low temperatures and on very small scales. For over 40 years, they have been searching for efficient and precise microwave lasers that will not disturb the very cold environment in which quantum technology works.



A team of researchers led by Leo Kouwenhoven at TU Delft has demonstrated an on-chip microwave laser based on a fundamental property of superconductivity, the ac Josephson effect. They embedded a small section of an interrupted superconductor, a Josephson junction, in a carefully engineered on-chip cavity. Such a device opens the door to many applications in which microwave radiation with minimal dissipation is key, for example in controlling qubits in a scalable quantum computer.


The scientists have published their work in Science on the 3rd of March.
Lasers have the unique ability to emit perfectly synchronized, coherent light. This means that the linewidth (corresponding to the color) is very narrow. Typically lasers are made from a large number of emitters (atoms, molecules, or semiconducting carriers) inside a cavity. These conventional lasers are often inefficient, and dissipate a lot of heat while lasing. This makes them difficult to operate in cryogenic environments, such as what is required for operating a quantum computer.
Superconducting Josephson junction
In 1911, the Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discovered that some materials transition to a superconducting state at very low temperatures, allowing electrical current to flow without any loss of energy. One of the most important applications of superconductivity is the Josephson effect: if a very short barrier interrupts a piece of superconductor, the electrical carriers tunnel through this non-superconducting material by the laws of quantum mechanics. Moreover, they do so at a very characteristic frequency, which can be varied by an externally applied DC voltage. The Josephson junction is therefore a perfect voltage to light (frequency) converter.
Josephson junction laser
The scientists at QuTech coupled such a single Josephson junction to a high-quality factor superconducting micro-cavity, no bigger than an ant. The Josephson junction acts like a single atom, while the cavity can be seen as two mirrors for microwave light. When a small DC voltage is applied to this Josephson junction, it emits microwave photons that are on resonance with the cavity frequency. The photons bounce back and forth between two superconducting mirrors, and force the Josephson junction to emit more photons synchronized with the photons in the cavity. By cooling the device down to ultra-low temperatures (< 1 Kelvin) and applying a small DC voltage to the Josephson junction, the researchers observe a coherent beam of microwave photons emitted at the output of the cavity. Because the on-chip laser is made entirely from superconductors, it is very energy efficient and more stable than previously demonstrated semiconductor-based lasers. It uses less than a picoWatt of power to run, more than 100 billion times less than a light globe.
Low-loss quantum control
Efficient sources of high quality coherent microwave light are essential in all current designs of the future quantum computer. Microwave bursts are used to read out and transfer information, correct errors and access and control the individual quantum components. While current microwave sources are expensive and inefficient, the Josephson junction laser created at QuTech is energy efficient and offers an on-chip solution that is easy to control and modify. The group is extending their design to use tunable Josephson junctions made from nanowires to allow for microwave burst for fast control of multiple quantum components. In the future, such a device may be able to generate so-called "amplitude-squeezed" light with has smaller intensity fluctuations compared to conventional lasers, this is essential in most quantum communication protocols. This work marks an important step towards the control of large quantum systems for quantum computing.

More information: M. C. Cassidy et al. Demonstration of an ac Josephson junction laser, Science (2017). DOI: 10.1126/science.aah6640 
Journal reference: Science [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: Delft University of Technology



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-03-laser.html#jCp[url=https://phys.org/news/2017-03-laser.html#jCp][/url]
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#32
Vianova
Quote:Saturday, June 23rd, 2007, 09:01 pm
http://thehiddenmission.com/forum/showth...t#pid16586

Science Friction !
LOL
From the chronicles of Confucious in the future

The Stargate within the 12 mounds and the pentad
was also for planetary as well as star travel.
Travel between Earth and Mars was allocated for indigenous 
as well as alien counterparts from other star systems 
existing on both planets.
The Stargate is a lens of light when activated,
almost a liquid behaving light plasma of sorts, 
an interdimensional interface between the 3 & 4th dimensions
possibly even the fifth,
correspondingly coincidental to the positions of Earth Mars and Jupiter,
and thus as an interface of these dimensional tangencies or overlaps,
the stargate lens is a state of concentrated "liquid light" 
to be attuned by
acoustic resonances for translocative adjustments.. 
Acoustic resonances are lined up auitomatically 
at both ends of the travel vector when one side is attuned.
All that enter the stargate 
are immediately transmutated into a Light source of Being,
for interdimensional travel vectors thru the timeless portal
and upon the exit at the other end,
one is transmutated back into 3rd dimensional form.
The time period between transfer and arrival is zero,
but within the transport vector itself
a state of endless consciousness is preceived 
such as Eternity exists. .
The lens of liquid light exists simultaneously connected 
at both ends of the spectrum of Connection, 
as the lens of liquid light 
exists within the Eternal Now due to the Interdimensional Interfaces, 
and the speed of light is irrelevant,
as interdimensional collective alignments exceed light speed and time, 
but only a function of Light can travel this bridge of Eternal Now transport.
The acoustic frequencies needed for transport 
within this Solar space were mathematically concurrent to....

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oh Well it was fun to ..fictionalize the de-frictioanlized light travel !!!
Slipping thru the slipstream of Eternal Nowness! 
Arrow http://thehiddenmission.com/forum/showth...quid+light


A stream of superfluid light
June 5, 2017

[Image: astreamofsup.png]
The flow of polaritons encounters an obstacle in the supersonic (top) and superfluid (bottom) regime. Credit: Polytechnique Montreal
Scientists have known for centuries that light is composed of waves. The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. The "liquid" properties of light emerge under special circumstances, when the photons that form the light wave are able to interact with each other.



Researchers from CNR NANOTEC of Lecce in Italy, in collaboration with Polytechnique Montreal in Canada have shown that for light "dressed" with electrons, an even more dramatic effect occurs. Light become superfluid, showing frictionless flow when flowing across an obstacle and reconnecting behind it without any ripples.
Daniele Sanvitto, leading the experimental research group that observed this phenomenon, states that "Superfluidity is an impressive effect, normally observed only at temperatures close to absolute zero (-273 degrees Celsius), such as in liquid Helium and ultracold atomic gasses. The extraordinary observation in our work is that we have demonstrated that superfluidity can also occur at room-temperature, under ambient conditions, using light-matter particles called polaritons."

"Superfluidity, which allows a fluid in the absence of viscosity to literally leak out of its container", adds Sanvitto, "is linked to the ability of all the particles to condense in a state called a Bose-Einstein condensate, also known as the fifth state of matter, in which particles behave like a single macroscopic wave, oscillating all at the same frequency.
[Image: astreamofsup.jpg]
Scientists have known for centuries that light is composed of waves. The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. The 'liquid' properties of light emerge under special circumstances, when the photons that form the light wave are able to interact with each other. Credit: Polytechnique Montreal
Something similar happens, for example, in superconductors: electrons, in pairs, condense, giving rise to superfluids or super-currents able to conduct electricity without losses."
These experiments have shown that it is possible to obtain superfluidity at room-temperature, whereas until now this property was achievable only at temperatures close to absolute zero. This could allow for its use in future photonic devices.
Stéphane Kéna-Cohen, the coordinator of the Montreal team, states: "To achieve superfluidity at room temperature, we sandwiched an ultrathin film of organic molecules between two highly reflective mirrors. Light interacts very strongly with the molecules as it bounces back and forth between the mirrors and this allowed us to form the hybrid light-matter fluid. In this way, we can combine the properties of photons such as their light effective mass and fast velocity, with strong interactions due to the electrons within the molecules. Under normal conditions, a fluid ripples and whirls around anything that interferes with its flow. In a superfluid, this turbulence is suppressed around obstacles, causing the flow to continue on its way unaltered".
"The fact that such an effect is observed under ambient conditions", says the research team, "can spark an enormous amount of future work, not only to study fundamental phenomena related to Bose-Einstein condensates with table-top experiments, but also to conceive and design future photonic superfluid-based devices where losses are completely suppressed and new unexpected phenomena can be exploited".
The study is published in Nature Physics.

Science Friction !

LOL

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Team demonstrates wavelike quantum behaviour of polariton condensate on macroscopic scale and at room temperature
More information: Room-temperature superfluidity in a polariton condensate, Nature Physicsnature.com/articles/doi:10.1038/nphys4147 
Journal reference: Nature Physics [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: Polytechnique Montréal



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-06-stream-superfluid.html#jCp[/url]

Einstein's key prediction has been observed for the first time

NASA, ESA, and J. Lowenthal (Smith College)



[Image: F1.large.jpg?width=800&height=600&carousel=1]
Fig. 1 Hubble Space Telescope image showing the close passage of the nearby white dwarf Stein 2051 B in front of a distant source star.

This color image was made by combining the F814W (orange) and F606W (blue) frames, obtained at epoch E1. The path of Stein 2051 B across the field due to its proper motion toward southeast, combined with its parallax due to the motion of Earth around the Sun, is shown by the wavy cyan line. The small blue squares mark the position of Stein 2051 B at each of our eight observing epochs, E1 through E8. Its proper motion in 1 year is shown by an arrow. Labels give the observation date at each epoch. The source is also labeled; the motion of the source is too small to be visible on this scale. Linear features are diffraction spikes from Stein 2051 B and the red dwarf star Stein 2051 A, which falls outside the lower right of the image. Stein 2051 B passed 0.103 arcsec from the source star on 5 March 2014. Individual images taken at all the eight epochs, and an animated video showing the images at all epochs are shown in fig. S1 and movie S1 ([url=http://science.sciencemag.org/content/early/2017/06/06/science.aal2879.full#ref-24]24
).

Scientists have observed what Albert Einstein once said was impossible to see — distant starlight bending around a massive star outside our solar system. The discovery with the Hubble Space Telescope is the first direct detection of a key prediction of Einstein's general theory of relativity.
Go deeper: When Einstein was developing the general theory of relativity 100 years ago, he predicted that gravity would act like a magnifying lens when a distant star passed by a closer object, brightening and bending the starlight. But "there is no hope of observing this phenomenon directly" because stars are so far apart, he wrote in Science in 1936.

What's new: Scientists have been able to detect the bending of light around our own sun. (They first confirmed the effect, for instance, in a 1919 eclipse.) But, until now, they have not been able to observe the phenomenon known as gravitational microlensing directly.
In the new study, astronomers were able to pinpoint a moment in time when a white dwarf star and a second star were being observed in such a fashion that lensing could be seen for the first time. They were able to then determine the mass of the white dwarf star – which had only been possible in theory until now.
Why it matters: Because the majority of all stars are destined to become white dwarfs at some point, the ability to determine their mass (and, thus, their fate) gives scientists more information on the makeup of our galaxy and allows them to better understand the history and evolution of galaxies like our own.
The details: Einstein predicted a ray of light passing near a massive star like a white dwarf to be deflected by twice the amount that would ordinarily be expected based on what we know of gravity. He also posited that, if we were able to observe distant starlight from two stars in the foreground and background, the gravitational microlensing would result in a perfect circle of light – known as an "Einstein ring." Scientists didn't observe a perfect circle in the new study, but in searching through 5,000 stars they found two that were out of alignment – essentially resulting in an asymmetrical Einstein ring. That, in turn, allowed them to measure the mass of the white dwarf star.


http://science.sciencemag.org/content/ea...l2879.full

Relativistic deflection of background starlight measures the mass of a nearby white dwarf star
Abstract

Gravitational deflection of starlight around the Sun during the 1919 total solar eclipse provided measurements that confirmed Einstein’s general theory of relativity. We have used the Hubble Space Telescope to measure the analogous process of astrometric microlensing caused by a nearby star, the white dwarf Stein 2051 B. As Stein 2051 B passed closely in front of a background star, the background star’s position was deflected. Measurement of this deflection at multiple epochs allowed us to determine the mass of Stein 2051 B —the sixth-nearest white dwarf to the Sun—as 0.675 ± 0.051 solar masses. This mass determination provides confirmation of the physics of degenerate matter and lends support to white dwarf evolutionary theory.

http://science.sciencemag.org/content/ea...l2879.full
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#33
One billion suns: World's brightest laser sparks new behavior in light
June 26, 2017

[Image: onebillionsu.jpg]
A scientist at work in the Extreme Light Laboratory at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, where physicists using the brightest light ever produced were able to change the way photons scatter from electrons. Credit: University Communication|University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Physicists from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln are seeing an everyday phenomenon in a new/ANU light.



By focusing laser light to a brightness one billion times greater than the surface of the sun - the brightest light ever produced on Earth - the physicists have observed changes in a vision-enabling interaction between light and matter.
Those changes yielded unique X-ray pulses with the potential to generate extremely high-resolution imagery useful for medical, engineering, scientific and security purposes. The team's findings, detailed June 26 in the journal Nature Photonics, should also help inform future experiments involving high-intensity lasers.
Donald Umstadter and colleagues at the university's Extreme Light Laboratory fired their Diocles Laser at helium-suspended electrons to measure how the laser's photons - considered both particles and waves of light - scattered from a single electron after striking it.
Under typical conditions, as when light from a bulb or the sun strikes a surface, that scattering phenomenon makes vision possible. But an electron - the negatively charged particle present in matter-forming atoms - normally scatters just one photon of light at a time. And the average electron rarely enjoys even that privilege, Umstadter said, getting struck only once every four months or so.
[Image: 1-onebillionsu.jpg]
Using the brightest light ever produced, University of Nebraska-Lincoln physicists obtained this high-resolution X-ray of a USB drive. The image reveals details not visible with ordinary X-ray imaging Credit: Extreme Light Laboratory|University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Though previous laser-based experiments had scattered a few photons from the same electron, Umstadter's team managed to scatter nearly 1,000 photons at a time. At the ultra-high intensities produced by the laser, both the photons and electron behaved much differently than usual.
"When we have this unimaginably bright light, it turns out that the scattering - this fundamental thing that makes everything visible - fundamentally changes in nature," said Umstadter, the Leland and Dorothy Olson Professor of physics and astronomy.
A photon from standard light will typically scatter at the same angle and energy it featured before striking the electron, regardless of how bright its light might be. Yet Umstadter's team found that, above a certain threshold, the laser's brightness altered the angle, shape and wavelength of that scattered light.

"So it's as if things appear differently as you turn up the brightness of the light, which is not something you normally would experience," Umstadter said. "(An object) normally becomes brighter, but otherwise, it looks just like it did with a lower light level. But here, the light is changing (the object's) appearance. The light's coming off at different angles, with different colors, depending on how bright it is."
That phenomenon stemmed partly from a change in the electron, which abandoned its usual up-and-down motion in favor of a figure-8 flight pattern. As it would under normal conditions, the electron also ejected its own photon, which was jarred loose by the energy of the incoming photons. But the researchers found that the ejected photonabsorbed the collective energy of all the scattered photons, granting it the energy and wavelength of an X-ray.
[Image: onebillionsu.png]
A rendering of how changes in an electron's motion (bottom view) alter the scattering of light (top view), as measured in a new experiment that scattered more than 500 photons of light from a single electron. Previous experiments had managed to scatter no more than a few photons at a time. Credit: Extreme Light Laboratory|University of Nebraska-Lincoln

[Image: METISFLAG_3388835.JPG]
Flag Of The Metis.
[size=undefined]
May 22, 2012 -   The Metis flag is the oldest Canadian patriotic flag indigenous to Canada. LilD
[/size]


The unique properties of that X-ray might be applied in multiple ways, Umstadter said. Its extreme but narrow range of energy, combined with its extraordinarily short duration, could help generate three-dimensional images on the nanoscopic scale while reducing the dose necessary to produce them.

[Image: nphoton.2017.100-f1.jpg]

Those qualities might qualify it to hunt for tumors or microfractures that elude conventional X-rays, map the molecular landscapes of nanoscopic materials now finding their way into semiconductor technology, or detect increasingly sophisticated threats at security checkpoints. Atomic and molecular physicists could also employ the X-ray as a form of ultrafast camera to capture snapshots of electron motion or chemical reactions.

[Image: nphoton.2017.100-f2.jpg]

As physicists themselves, Umstadter and his colleagues also expressed excitement for the scientific implications of their experiment. By establishing a relationship between the laser's brightness and the properties of its scattered light, the team confirmed a recently proposed method for measuring a laser's peak intensity. The study also supported several longstanding hypotheses that technological limitations had kept physicists from directly testing.

[Image: nphoton.2017.100-f4.jpg]

"There were many theories, for many years, that had never been tested in the lab, because we never had a bright-enough light source to actually do the experiment," Umstadter said. "There were various predictions for what would happen, and we have confirmed some of those predictions.

[Image: nphoton.2017.100-f6.jpg]

"It's all part of what we call electrodynamics. There are textbooks on classical electrodynamics that all physicists learn. So this, in a sense, was really a textbook experiment."
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Scientists find evidence for light-by-light scattering, long standing prediction of the Standard Model
More information: High-order multiphoton Thomson scattering, Nature Photonics (2017). DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2017.100 


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