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Boom! A Cosmic Impact On Our History?
Problem solved: Carolina Bays are shock liquefaction impact features from hypersonic ice boulders launched from the glacial ice sheet by a cosmic impact at the Younger Dryas
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A. Zamora
The Tusk was absolutely thrilled to see the publication last week of a paper concerning Carolina Bays in the distinguished journal, Geomorphology. Other than a brief role for the Carolina bays in the early papers of theComet Research Group, and a much longer series of Geological Society of America posters laboriously researched and determindly published by Michael Davias et. al, Zamora’s A Model for the Geomorphology of Bays is the only peer-reviewed and published ‘ET origin’ work on bays in the last two decades — and it is a doozy.

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Zamora builds on the work of Willam Prouty and Melton and Schriver in the first half of the 20th century, with an assist from Eyton and Parkhurst in the 70’s, and finally Davias and Kimbel’s efforts in recent years. Each of the researchers maintained that the bays were formed at once by a barrage of material from the midwest. But, just as the early researchers ultimately decided, those around today also dismiss bays as the direct impacts of ET fragments of a comet or asteroid, and consider them to be the remnant features of secondary impacts from the ejecta and ballistic shockwaves of a northerly catastrophe. They are wise to do so.
The correct theory must account for ALL the easily observed, unique characteristics of bays. [See list of 16 from Eyton and Parkhurst here] The “wind and wave,” gradual formation, theories that continue to hold sway in classrooms, and publications from Ivestor and Brooks, fail miserably to account for all the observed phenomena. Zamora checks each off with ease. When time permits I hope to address them one by one.
Significantly, Zamora’s work is multidisciplinary and, like Davias, assisted by geometry as well as geology. Here is a sample:

Quote:Ellipses are mathematical conic sections formed by the intersection of a plane and a cone. The elliptical geomorphology of the Carolina Bays and the Nebraska Rainwater Basins can be explained if the bays originated from slanted conical cavities that were later remodeled into shallow depressions by geological processes. A width-to-length ratio of 0.58 corresponds to a cone inclined at 35° using the relationship sin(θ) = W/L. The proposed conical cavities could have been made by impacts of material ejected at approximately 35° in ballistic trajectories from the point of convergence in the Great Lakes Region. The small variations of the width-to-length ratio correspond to slightly different angles that are consistent with possible ballistic trajectories

The bay rims to Zamora are the result of a complex mathematical equation. They are the final surface expression of thousands of conical, inclined ballistic shock cones, each traveling with a giant ice fragment blown from the ice sheet in a nine-minute supersonic arc from the frigid north to the Carolina coast. (I will work on that sentence but you get the idea). These icebergs from space slammed into the supersaturated unconsolidated clayey sands of the coastal plain and left behind the shock “ripples” and “flaps” that we recognize today as bay rims. Zamora even provides an equation relating the perfection and ellipticity of bays to the degree of unconsolidated sediments encountered by the ice bullets:[/size]

Quote:The LiDAR images also reveal that some terrains do not have elliptical bays. Davias and Harris (2015) describe six archetype bay shapes that may be determined by the geological characteristics of the terrain. The thickness of the layer of unconsolidated material required to produce an elliptical bay can be estimated by the formula tan(θ) × L/2, where L is the length of the major axis and θ is the angle of inclination. A conical cavity inclined at 35° corresponding to a bay with a major axis of 400 m would require a layer of unconsolidated material with a depth of approximately 140 m.

That makes sense to me, and accounts for the “classes” of similar bays, an aspect unexplained by wind and water enthusiasts, but first investigated and catalogued by Davias.
In addition to the present journal publication, Zamora makes his case in detail in a recently published book available from Amazon: Killer Comet: What the Carolina Bays tell us. I am reading it now and will update this post accordingly.
On the shoulders of genius, Zamora has provided defensible and superior answers to the many questions provoked by the appearance and distribution of Carolina bays. The geological community will largely ignore this paper, of course, but some will take note. And there is always reason for hope as the class of geologists who reject recent catastrophic explanations out-of-hand continue their long march from the tenured defense of the known, to retirement, and finally to death. I note that in closing Zamora gives a shout-out to his editor, Professor Andrew J. Plater of the University of Liverpool, clearly an enlightened man, who tweets here as @GeomorphologyDr if you care to thank him.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Ancient Stone Carvings Show a Comet Swarm Hitting Earth Around 10,950 BCE
Around the time civilisation changed forever.

22 APR 2017

Researchers have translated famous ancient symbols in a temple in Turkey, and they tell the story of a devastating comet impact more than 13,000 years ago.
Cross-checking the event with computer simulations of the Solar System around that time, researchers suggest that the carvings could describe a comet impact that occurred around 10,950 BCE - about the same time a mini ice age started that changed civilisation forever.

This mini ice age, known as the Younger Dryas, lasted around 1,000 years, and it's considered a crucial period for humanity because it was around that time agriculture and the first Neolithic civilisations arose - potentially in response to the new colder climates. The period has also been linked to the extinction of the woolly mammoth.

But although the Younger Dryas has been thoroughly studied, it's not clearexactly what triggered the period. A comet strike is one of the leading hypotheses, but scientists haven't been able to find physical proof of comets from around that time.

The team from the University of Edinburgh in the UK say these carvings, found in what's believed to be the world's oldest known temple, Gobekli Tepe in southern Turkey, show further evidence that a comet triggered the Younger Dryas.

"I think this research, along with the recent finding of a widespread platinum anomaly across the North American continent virtually seal the case in favour of [a Younger Dryas comet impact]," lead researcher Martin Sweatman told Sarah Knapton from The Telegraph.

"Our work serves to reinforce that physical evidence. What is happening here is the process of paradigm change."
The translation of the symbols also suggests that Gobekli Tepe wasn't just another temple, as long assumed - it might have also been an ancient observatory.

"It appears Gobekli Tepe was, among other things, an observatory for monitoring the night sky," Sweatman told the Press Association.

"One of its pillars seems to have served as a memorial to this devastating event – probably the worst day in history since the end of the Ice Age."

The Gobekli Tepe is thought to have been built around 9,000 BCE - roughly 6,000 years before Stonehenge - but the symbols on the pillar date the event to around 2,000 years before that.

The carvings were found on a pillar known as the Vulture Stone (pictured below) and show different animals in specific positions around the stone.

[Image: Replica-of-pillar-43-the-Vulture-Stone-a...YQiDp0.jpg][img=700x0][/img]

Alistair Coombs

The symbols had long puzzled scientists, but Sweatman and his team of engineers discovered that they actually corresponded to astronomical constellations, and showed a swarm of comet fragments hitting the Earth.

An image of a headless man on the stone is also thought to symbolise human disaster and extensive loss of life following the impact. 

The carvings show signs of being cared for by the people of Gobekli Tepe for millennia, which indicates that the event they describe might have had long-lasting impacts on civilisation.

To try to figure out whether that comet strike actually happened or not, the researchers used computer models to match the patterns of the stars detailed on the Vulture Stone to a specific date - and they found evidence that the event in question would have occurred about 10,950 BCE, give or take 250 years.

Here's what the researchers suggest the sky would have looked like back then.

[Image: Position-of-the-sun-and-stars-on-the-sum...rSbKeU.png][img=700x0][/img]

Martin Sweatman and Stellarium

The dating of these carvings also matches an ice core taken from Greenland, which pinpoints the Younger Dryas period as beginning around 10,890 BCE .

According to Sweatman, this isn't the first time ancient archaeology has provided insight into civilisation's past.

"Many paleolithic cave paintings and artefacts with similar animal symbols and other repeated symbols suggest astronomy could be very ancient indeed," he told The Telegraph.

"If you consider that, according to astronomers, this giant comet probably arrived in the inner solar system some 20 to 30 thousand years ago, and it would have been a very visible and dominant feature of the night sky, it is hard to see how ancient people could have ignored this given the likely consequences."
The research has been published in Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry.

Discovery of widespread platinum may help solve Clovis people mystery

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA—No one knows for certain why the Clovis people and iconic beasts—mastodon, mammoth and saber-toothed tiger—living some 12,800 years ago suddenly disappeared. However, a discovery of widespread platinum at archaeological sites across the United States by three University of South Carolina archaeologists has provided an important clue in solving this enduring mystery.

The research findings are outlined in a new study released Thursday (March 9) in Scientific Reports, a publication of Nature. The study, authored by 10 researchers, builds on similar findings of platinum - an element associated with cosmic objects like asteroids or comets - found by Harvard University researchers in an ice-core from Greenland in 2013.

The South Carolina researchers found an abundance of platinum in soil layers that coincided with the "Younger-Dryas," a climatic period of extreme cooling that began around 12,800 ago and lasted about 1,400 years. While the brief return to ice-age conditions during the Younger-Dryas has been well-documented by scientists, the reasons for it and the demise of the Clovis people and animals have remained unclear.

"Platinum is very rare in the Earth's crust, but it is common in asteroids and comets," says Christopher Moore, the study's lead author. He calls the presence of platinum found in the soil layers at 11 archaeological sites in California, Arizona, New Mexico, Ohio, Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina an anomaly.

"The presence of elevated platinum in archaeological sites is a confirmation of data previously reported for the Younger-Dryas onset several years ago in a Greenland ice-core. The authors for that study concluded that the most likely source of such platinum enrichment was from the impact of an extraterrestrial object," Moore says.

"Our data show that this anomaly is present in sediments from U.S. archaeological sites that date to the start of the Younger-Dryas event. It is continental in scale—possibly global—and it's consistent with the hypothesis that an extraterrestrial impact took place."

He says the Younger-Dryas coincides with the end of Clovis culture and the extinction of more than 35 species of ice-age animals. Moore says while evidence has shown that some of the animals were on the decline before Younger-Dryas, virtually none are found after it.  

Moore says that would indicate an extinction event for North America.

He also says the platinum anomaly is similar to the well-documented finding of iridium, another element associated with cosmic objects, that scientists have found in the rock layers dated 65 million years ago from an impact that caused dinosaur extinction. That event is commonly known as Cretaceous-Tertiary or K-Pg by scientists.

"In both cases, the anomalies represent the atmospheric fallout of rare elements resulting from an extraterrestrial impact," Moore says.

He says the K-Pg dinosaur extinction was the result of a very large asteroid impact while the Younger-Dryas onset impact is likely the result of being hit by fragments of a much smaller sized comet or asteroid, possibly measuring up to two-thirds a mile in diameter.  

"Another difference is that the Younger-Dryas impact event is not yet associated with any known impact crater," Moore says. "This may be because the fragments of the large object struck the glacial ice-sheet or exploded in the atmosphere. Several candidate craters are under investigation but have not been confirmed."

Moore says while his team's data does not contradict the Young-Dryas impact hypothesis, it also does not explain the likely effects that such an impact could have had on the environment, Paleoindians or ice-age animals.

Contributing to the study is Moore's university colleagues Mark Brooks, a geo-archaeologist who conducts research and excavations at the Savannah River Site, and archaeologist Albert Goodyear, who has spent decades documenting Clovis culture at the famed Topper site. Topper, located in Allendale County, South Carolina, along the banks of the Savannah River, is considered one of the most pristine U.S. sites for research on Clovis, one of the earliest ancient people.

Goodyear's work with Moore builds on research in which he found traces of extraterrestrial elements, including iridium, at the Younger-Dryas layer at Topper that was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in 2012.

Moore, Goodyear and Brooks conduct research through the South Carolina Institute of Anthropology and Archaeology in the university's College of Arts and Sciences.

In addition to Topper, the remaining 10 archaeological sites that Moore, Goodyear and others on their team conducted research in 2016 included Arlington Canyon on Santa Rosa Island, California; Murray Springs, Arizona; Blackwater Draw, New Mexico; Sheriden Cave, Ohio; Squires Ridge and Barber Creek, North Carolina; and Kolb, Flamingo Bay, John Bay and Pen Point, South Carolina.


[Image: 33215610991_0e88bed904.jpg]

University of South Carolina archaeologists found an abundance of platinum - an element associated with cosmic objects like asteroids or comet - at 11 Clovis excavation sites across the United States.Credit: South Carolina Institute for Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina

Moore says the bottom line of the study and paper in the journal [i]Scientific Reports is the presence of an easily identifiable hemispheric marker (platinum) in sediment layers for the start of Younger-Dryas. That discovery contributes to the body of evidence that a potential cosmic impact event occurred and warrants further scientific investigation.[/i]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
What??  You mean it's not a trick of light and shadow?   Smile
Their is sum skepticism concerning the Gobekli Tepe Pillar theory from  Arrow  Carolina Bays


News & Notes from the Göbekli Tepe Research Staff

Archaeoastronomy, meteor showers, mass extinction: What does the fox say? (And what the crane? The aurochs?)
04/21/2017 / JENS
Recently a (peer-reviewed) paper published by two researchers of the University of Edinburgh’s School of Engineering has made headlines, suggesting that the Göbekli Tepe enclosures actually were space observatories and that some of the reliefs depict a catastrophic cosmic event (the original publication in Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry 17(1), 2017 is accessible online here[external link]).

A selection of the carved reliefs found on many of Göbekli Tepe’s T-shaped pillars is linked to and interpreted as depiction of actual stellar constellations. In particular Pillar 43, which is indeed an outstanding (but actually not exceptional) example of the site’s  rich and complex iconography, is interpreted as record of a meteor shower and collision – with quite serious consequences for life on earth 13,000 – 12,000 years ago (this whole ‘Younger Dryas Impact’ hypothesis [external link] actually is disputed itself [external link], so making Göbekli Tepe a ‘smoking gun’ in this argument should absolutely ask for a closer look).

[Image: 07_p43.jpg?w=1040]Pillar 43 in Göbekli Tepe’s Enclosure D. (Photo: K. Schmidt, DAI)

Debate regarding a possible astronomic link and interpretation of the architecture and the characteristic pillars in particular are as old as the history of research regarding Göbekli Tepe, but as of yet no convincing proof for an actual celestial orientation or observation of such phenomena could have been put forward. However, we always were and still are open to consider these discussions. So, of course we were looking into the new study with quite some interest, too. After all it is a new and fascinating interpretation. However, upon closer inspection we would like to raise a few points which may challenge this interpretation in our point of view:

1. There still is quite a significant probability that the older circular enclosures of Göbekli Tepe’s Layer III actually were subterranean buildings – possibly even covered by roof constructions. This then somehow would limit their usability as actual observatories a bit.

2. Even if we assume that the night sky 12,000 years ago looked exactly like today’s, the question at hand would be whether a prehistoric hunter really would have put together the very same asterisms and constellations we recognise today (most of them going back to ancient Egyptian, Babylonian, and Greek scholars and descriptions)?

3. Contrary to the article’s premise the unearthed features at Göbekli Tepe are not  shrouded in mystery. Published over the last years and decades, there is ample scientific literature available which unfortunately did not find its way into the study. The  specific animals depicted in each enclosure’s iconography for instance seems to follow a certain intention, emphasizing different species in different enclosures. A purely  substitutional interpretation ignores these more subtle but significant details. This also can be demonstrated for instance with the headless man on the shaft of Pillar 43, interpreted as symbol of death and mass extinction in the paper – however silently omitting the emphasised phallus in the same depiction which somehow contradicts the lifeless notion and implies a much more complex narrative behind these reliefs. There are even more reliefs on both narrow sides of P43 which went conpletely uncommented here.

4. It also seems a bit arbitrary to base this interpretation (and all its consequences as described in the paper) on what seems to be some randomly selected pillars and their iconography (the interpretation thus not covering “much of the symbolism of Göbekli Tepe” as stated in the paper, but merely the tip of that iceberg). In the meantime more than 60 monumental T-pillars could have been unearthed in the older Layer III – many of these showing similar reliefs of animals and abstract symbols, a few even as complex as Pillar 43 (likePillar 56 or Pillar 66 in enclosure H, for example). And it does not end there: the same iconography is prominently known also from other find groups like stone vessels, shaft straighteners, and plaquettes – not only from Göbekli Tepe, but a variety of contemporary sites in the wider vicinity.

So, with all due respect for the work and effort the Edinburgh colleagues obviously put into their research and this publication, there still are – at least from our perspective as excavators of this important site – some points worth a more thorough discussion.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Quote:Posted by slidika - Yesterday, 06:33 pm
What??  You mean it's not a trick of light and shadow?   [Image: smile.png]

Humans in America '115,000 years earlier than thought'
April 26, 2017

[Image: 5900db3e6ee2b.jpg]
A concentration of fossil bone and rock. The unusual positions of the femur heads, one up and one down, broken in the same manner next to each other is unusual. Mastodon molars are located in the lower right hand corner next to a large rock comprised of andesite which is in contact with a broken vertebra. Upper left is a rib angled upwards resting on a granitic pegmatite rock fragment. Credit: San Diego Natural History Museum
High-tech dating of mastodon remains found in southern California has shattered the timeline of human migration to America, pushing the presence of hominins back to 130,000 years ago rather than just 15,000 years, researchers said Wednesday.

Teeth and bones of the elephant-like creature unmistakably modified by human hands, along with stone hammers and anvils, leave no doubt that some species of early human feasted on its carcass, they reported in the journal Nature.
Discovered in 1992 during construction work to expand an expressway, the bone fragments "show clear signs of having been deliberately broken by humans with manual dexterity," said lead author Steve Holen, director of research at the Center for American Paleolithic Research.
Up to now, the earliest confirmed passage of our ancestors into North America took place about 15,000 years ago. These were modern humans—Homo sapiens—that probably crossed from Siberia into what is today Alaska, by land or along the coast.
There have been several other claims of an even earlier bipedal footprint on the continent, but none would take that timeline back further than 50,000 years, and all remain sharply contested.

The absence of human remains at the California site throws wide open the question of who these mysterious hunters were, as well as when—and how—they arrived on American shores.
A genetic link
One possibility that can be excluded with high confidence is that they were like us. Homo sapiens, experts say, did not exit Africa until about 80,000 to 100,000 years ago.
But that still leaves a wide range of candidates, including several other hominin species that roamed Eurasia 130,000 years ago, the authors said.
They include Homo erectus, whose earliest traces date back nearly two million years; Neanderthals, who fought and co-mingled with modern humans across Europe before dying out some 40,000 years ago; and an enigmatic species called Denisovans, whose DNA survives today in Australian aboriginals.

Dr. Steve Holen, director of research at the Center for American Paleolithic Research, and Adam Thomas, an undergraduate student of Steve’s, experimenting on how bones break under percussion using stones as hammers and anvils. The bone used for the experiment is a leg bone of a recently deceased modern elephant (died of natural causes), a mastodon relative. Video was shot in Tanzania. Credit: Kathleen Holen, co-director, Center for American Paleolithic Research
In a companion analysis, Holen and his team argue that—despite rising seas 130,000 years ago due to an inter-glacial period of warming—the overseas distances to the Americas were within the capacity of human populations at the time.
Intriguingly, in light of the new find, recent studies have also shown a genetic link between present-day Amazonian native Americans and some Asian and Australian peoples.

The picture that emerges "indicates a diverse set of founding populations of the Americas," said Erella Hovers, an anthropologist at Hebrew University of Jerusalem, who did not take part in the new study.
As for the early humans who carved up the bones at the Cerutti Mastodon site in San Diego, named for the paleontologist who discovered it, they likely died out, leaving no genetic trace in modern North Americans, the authors conjectured.

Credit: Dr. Tom Deméré, curator of paleontology and director of PaleoServices, San Diego Natural History Museum
Previous attempts to accurately date artefacts at the site fell short.
Then, in 2014, co-author James Paces, a researcher with the US Geological Survey, used state-of-the-art radiometric methods to measure traces of natural uranium and its decaying by-products in the mastodon bones, which were still fresh when broken by precise blows from stone hammers.
Not-so-new New World
The prehistoric butchery, he determined, took place 130,000 years ago, give or take 9,400 years, and was may have sought to extract nutritious marrow.
[Image: 5900db4c60138.jpg]
Unbroken mastodon ribs and vertebrae, including one vertebra with a large well preserved neural spine found in excavation unit J4. Credit: San Diego Natural History Museum
"Since the original discovery, dating technology has advanced to enable us to confirm with further certainty that early humans were here signficantly earlier than commonly accepted," said co-author Thomas Demere, a paleontologist at the San Diego Natural History Museum.
To strengthen the case, researchers set up an experiment to reproduce the stone-age food prep tableau unearthed from "Bed E" of the excavation site.
Using stone hammers and anvils similar to those found, they broke open large elephant bones much in the way pre-historic humans might have done. Certain blows yielded exactly the kind of strike marks, on both the hammers and the bones.
The same patterns, further tests showed, could not have emerged from natural wear-and-tear, or from the deliberate crafting of the tools, called flaking.
[Image: 5900db5ca86cb.jpg]
Mastodon skeleton schematic showing which bones and teeth of the animal were found at the site. Credit: Dan Fisher and Adam Rountrey, University of Michigan
"This is a very old technology," said Holen. "We have people in Africa 1.5 million years ago breaking up elephant limb bones in this pattern, and as humans moved out of Africa and across the world they took this type of technology with them."
There remain nonetheless big holes in the narrative of human migration to the Americas, Hovers said, commenting in Nature.
"Time will tell whether this evidence will bring a paradigm change in our understanding of hominin dispersal and colonisation throughout the world, including in what now seems to be a not-so-new New World," she wrote.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Tunisian remains prove 100,000-year human presence
More information: Steven R. Holen et al. A 130,000-year-old archaeological site in southern California, USA, Nature (2017). DOI: 10.1038/nature22065 
Journal reference: Nature

Read more at:[/url][url=]

Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...

super size image links

[Image: maxresdefault.jpg]
Nastapoka Arc Rconsidered???   
[Image: hudson-bay-annotated.jpg]

The Giant Canada Crater No One Can Explain

by Ken Jennings
July 6, 2015

[Image: Nastapoka-Arc-cr-alamy.jpg]
n this week's Maphead column, Ken Jennings looks into a Canadian phenomenon: The Nastapoka Arc, a crater on the Hudson Bay whose existence remains a mystery.

On June 26, 1611, one of the world's greatest explorers was having a really bad day. Henry Hudson's ship, Discovery, had spent the previous year mapping what is today northern Canada, but after a long winter spent trapped in ice, the men just wanted to go home. When Hudson insisted they press on to the west in hopes of finding passage to the Pacific, the crew mutinied. They marooned Hudson and a few of his more loyal crewmembers in an open boat, and sailed home to England. Hudson's remains have never been found, and it would probably be small consolation to him that the bay where he was set adrift to die is now named for him. On the shores of what we now call Hudson Bay, Discovery was also the first ship to map an anomaly that we still can't explain today: the Nastapoka Arc.

Nastapoka Arc is a near-perfect circle.

The southernmost projection of Hudson Bay, where Henry Hudson and company spent their last winter, is called James Bay, and reaches south to the top of the Ontario-Quebec border. But look just north of James Bay: the coast of northern Quebec forms a weirdly smooth curve there, fully 155 degrees of an imaginary circle about the size of Wisconsin. Canada, what is going on up there?

It came from outer space…

Since the 1950s, scientists have wondered if the eerily perfect curve of Nastapoka Arc could be a crater from an ancient meteorite impact. It's certainly reminiscent of the round craters we see on the moon, where airless conditions preserve meteor strikes much better than on Earth. According to this theory, the Belcher Islands, a squiggle of archipelago at the center of the arc, would be what's left of the crater's central peak.

…Or did it?

But in 1972, two American geophysicists traveled to Hudson Bay to investigate the crater theory. They and subsequent expeditions have been surprised to find none of the signs a prehistoric meteor strike would have left in Hudson Bay: no shatter cones, no melts, no fractures, no magnetic anomalies, no gravitational anomalies, nothing. If the Nastapoka Arc is a crater, it's deep in the closet.

Time is a flat circle.
So what could produce such uncanny geometry, besides a rock from space? Maybe it's an ancient depression caused by heavy glaciers. Most scientists, however, think the Nastapoka is an arcuate (bow-shaped) tectonic boundary, formed when one shelf of rock was pushed down under another one. If so, it would be the only one on Earth so round that it looks like it was made punched out a cookie cutter 280 miles across.

…Or did it?
But in 1972, two American geophysicists traveled to Hudson Bay to investigate the crater theory. They and subsequent expeditions have been surprised to find none of the signs a prehistoric meteor strike would have left in Hudson Bay: no shatter cones, no melts, no fractures, no magnetic anomalies, no gravitational anomalies, nothing. If the Nastapoka Arc is a crater, it's deep in the closet.

Time is a flat circle.
So what could produce such uncanny geometry, besides a rock from space? Maybe it's an ancient depression caused by heavy glaciers. Most scientists, however, think the Nastapoka is an arcuate (bow-shaped) tectonic boundary, formed when one shelf of rock was pushed down under another one. [Image: maxresdefault.jpg]If so, it would be the only one on Earth so round that it looks like it was made punched out a cookie cutter 280 miles across.

APRIL 1, 2016
Hudson Bay as a Comet Crater
© 2016 B. L. Freeborn
This is an excerpt from the full article: “A Planet Most Miraculous: The Mechanic’s of Earth’s Rotating Crust.”
[Image: giza-can-nearer.jpg?w=300&h=242][img=300x0][/img]
Hudson Bay showing the arcs of the bay.

It is possible to draw four large round circles in Hudson Bay. The largest scales to a diameter of 400 miles. The second largest scales to 230 miles. Hudson Bay is very shallow. Yet it was once compressed down 900 feet deeper than it is by the mass of the former ice sheet. The large appendage to the bay in the south is extremely shallow. References differ on the bay’s depth from 111 feet deep in the east to 768 to the northwest. Variations aside, this is a very shallow body of water when the size of it is considered.

This causes a problem if one wants to prove these are large craters. They are just not deep enough to be craters of this diametrical proportion. For example, Barringer Crater, Arizona is 4000 feet wide and 570 feet deep. Look at the other contraindications. Besides its shallowness, there is no impact ejecta. There may be central uplift in the bay as islands but for the size of it, and the age as required to have brought about the end of the ice age, a mere 14,000 years, there is no deep basin and no high well delineated edge as can be seen in the Pingualuit crater which is supposed to be vastly old by comparison. It does not seem possible that this is a crater. Yet it can be argued that it is.

Delving a bit further, it is known that there is a “large region of below-average gravity” in the area. The anomaly has not been explained. Suggested theories include the weight of the Laurentide Ice Sheet has influenced the area. Another theory suggests that convection in the underlying mantle may be a contributing factor. The 230 mile diameter arc to the southeast is known as the Nastapoka Arc of the bay. The geologists’ consensus explanation calls it an “arcuate boundary of tectonic origin.” In other words they think that millions of years ago the Earth folded in a perfect arc. Another theory, less popular, allows a Precambrian extraterrestrial impact. However, geologists do not feel there is any credible evidence for such an impact crater. There is no evidence from regional magnetic, Bouguer gravity, or geologic studies. That statement directly contradicts the “large region of below-average gravity” with which the paragraph started. (Wikipedia)
[Image: ice-age-crater.jpg?w=474&h=291][img=474x0][/img]
Formation of a crater within the two mile thick ice sheet that once overlaid Canada which resulted in Hudson Bay.

So, how does one explain Hudson Bay is a very recent comet crater 1000 miles by 300 to 400 miles across? Once again, let us just look at what we have. We have a nearly perfect arc in an area that is on average 330 feet deep. This same area was once overlain by an ice sheet two miles thick in certain parts. Two miles thick is 10,560 feet of hard frozen, compacted, heavy ice. This means that if we took a cross section of Hudson Bay when the ice sheet was there and scooped a crater out of it that only dips into the ground 330 feet, the crater was theoretically 10,890 feet deep with little imagination.  The bottom of the crater only remains then as the Nastapoka Arc which implies the upper rim, now long melted, was substantially larger in diameter. The ejecta was simply ice, and billions of tons of it which was spewed as far as Siberia to engulf herds of grazing mammoths. It was thrown as far as Scandinavia to leave glaciers there. There was no dust cloud that enveloped the Earth for decades, because water does not create dust. It creates rain. The elongated shape from the northwest to southeast then is either the sideways impact of a comet striking the surface at an angle or the successive impact of several portions of one comet. A sideways impact will add more torque to the reaction of the Earth and aid in turning the outer layers of the planet. The enumerable other craters listed above that dot the northern latitudes may have occurred at the same time or during later events which totally negates their vast ages.
[Image: cometbounce2.jpg?w=300&h=195][img=300x0][/img]
Successive crater formation as comet strikes Ice Sheet (future bay area) and blast material ricochet to form other impact sites.

The picture becomes clearer when we comprehend the velocity with which these mammoth projectiles struck the planet. They could not just strike and stick like an arrow in a target. They shattered on impact and bounced in very much the same manner as a stone skips across a lake, except in this case their velocity was unimaginably high. We see directly below Hudson Bay the five great lakes and upon close inspection we see several sections of each lake exhibit the same round cut out pattern as the Nastapoka Arc of Hudson Bay. Once impacting and forming the Great Lakes the debris shattered even further.  A rebound impact could not entirely expend the comets’ energy. The debris kept moving albeit at a slower yet still extremely high velocity. It fanned out to the west, southwest, south, east and southeast blanketing and smashing millions of square miles. The impacting debris formed what are called Carolina Bays. The name originates from the thousands of long elliptical, shallow structures that appear throughout the Carolinas. As Kelly and Dachille explained in 1953, they were formed by massive melting icebergs. In other words, they were debris from the shattered ice cap.
[Image: vesica-antartica.jpg?w=150&h=103][img=150x0][/img]
Overlapping polar circles creates a vesica shape where the thickest ice on the planet is found.

Indeed, almost the entire old polar ice cap was displaced from the bitter cold of the Arctic Circle. The ice that was outside the first circle was now -outside of the arctic circle- and prone to melting. We call these areas glaciers and their melting is what we call the ‘End of the Ice Age.’ It is proposed that the glaciers extended into Ohio, not because the weather patterns had changed allowing the Earth to cool but because this area was within the Arctic Circle when the ice formed. During this same period of time, half of Antarctica was dry land and ice free because it was outside the Antarctic Circle. The Earth had gone through a long period of stability and created these extremely large and thick ice layers at the then poles within the first circle. The sea level had dropped and man had happily moved out onto the vast plains left behind by the receding ocean. It was safe. It was beautiful and they were blessed, for a long while.

Continue reading …..full article posted here.
Possible remnants of the comet are seen in the next post.
See the Ancient Map of Hudson Bay in the Previous post[/size]

Jupiter and the theory of relativity blamed for course changes of celestial bodies
April 27, 2017

[Image: jupiterandth.jpg]
The famous Barringer meteor crater in Arizona, which was created by an impact about 50 000 years ago. Credit: D. Roddy, Lunar Planetary Institute, NASA
In the case of solar system bodies passing close to the sun, there are two important effects playing a crucial role in the orbital evolution. One of the effects is from the general relativity and the other effect is from Newtonian theory of gravitation.

The prediction of a periodic shift in the orbit (which is technically called precession in celestial mechanics) of Mercury and the subsequent confirmation of this additional shift in orbit from real observations, was one of the greatest triumphs of general relativity developed by Einstein about 102 years ago.
This is one of the important effects which occur in solar system bodies passing close to the sun because orbital velocities increase considerably when bodies come near the sun and when the velocities increase substantially, relativistic effects can become important (Figure 1).
The other effect is from the periodic gravitational influences of Jupiter (technically called the Kozai mechanism in celestial mechanics) from the Newtonian theory which make the orbit narrower and narrower (or in other words, more and more elliptical) and make the orbiting body come closer and closer to the sun after every subsequent revolution.
These gradual gravitational effects from Jupiter have led to the production of some exceptionally spectacular sungrazing comets (i.e. comets which come very close to the sun and hence very bright in appearance from our planet) in Earth's history.
[Image: 1-jupiterandth.jpg]
Figure 1. Simple schematic of the shift of orbit of planet Mercury due to general relativistic effects; the orbit itself rotates slowly. Credit: Cornell University
Previous works in solar system science have looked into these effects separately for some bodies, but in our present study, we look at the interesting scenarios when we have the combination of both these effects in solar system bodies.
Our calculations show that these periodic gravitational influences from Jupiter can lead to rapid enhancements in orbital shifts due to general relativity by virtue of the bodies coming closer to the sun after every passage around the sun. Sometimes the bodies can have extreme close approaches to the sun which eventually lead to collision with the sun, induced by these periodic effects from Jupiter.
A good example which shows this property in our studies is comet 96P/Machholz 1 which undergoes rapid sun approaching phases and eventually falls into the sun in about 9,000 years from present time.
[Image: 2-jupiterandth.jpg]
Figure 2. Map of known craters found on Earth due to impacts of bodies from space. Credit: Stephanie Werner
During its final journey just before the collision with sun, we find that the orbital shifts due to general relativity can peak to about 60 times that of the orbital shift of Mercury, which is a record high value in the context of solar system bodies observed so far.

Furthermore this comet undergoes a reversal in its reference orbital direction (technically called an inclination flip in celestial mechanics) due to Jupiter's systematic gravitational effects.
Our study shows for the first time an example of a solar system body which shows all these previously mentioned effects and traits overlapping in a neat way. This makes this study new and unique from previous orbit studies of similar solar system objects.
[Image: 3-jupiterandth.jpg]
The comet C/1965 S1 (Ikeya-Seki) was one of the most spectacular sungrazing comets in history. Credit: Maynard Pittendreigh
Moreover we find that the combination of both above-said effects have important consequences in the realm of impact studies on Earth from small solar system bodies. Our calculations show that even a small orbital shift due to general relativity can vary greatly the closest orbit distance between the solar system body and Earth.
Jupiter's periodic effects can enhance the general relativistic effects in some solar system orbits. This leads to close approach scenarios between solar system bodies changing significantly.
This in turn plays an important role in studying and assessing long term impact threat estimates on Earth, which can create interesting and remarkable features like craters and meteor storms on our Earth.
Our planet has been bombarded with different solar system bodies of different sizes throughout its orbital history (Figure 2) and these signatures in the form of craters act as a crucial tool to understand the evolution and dynamics of our Earth (which is the focus theme of CEED based at UiO).
[Image: 4-jupiterandth.jpg]
The Pan-STARRS PS1 telescope on Hawaii is currently the most active hunter for Near Earth Objects. Credit: Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii
The modern telescopic surveys are scanning the sky continuously to find solar system objects which could potentially come very close to the Earth and become a threat for our Earth in future.
Today's precise observations aided by large telescopes in different parts of the world and detailed theoretical calculations augmented by supercomputing facilities (like USIT NOTUR computing clusters) aim to come up with better models in the context of short term and long term impact hazard studies to make Earth a safer place in the larger picture of our existence.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Wrong-way asteroid plays 'chicken' with Jupiter
More information: A. Sekhar et al. Change in general relativistic precession rates due to Lidov–Kozai oscillations in Solar system, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017). DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx548 
Journal reference: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: University of Oslo

Read more at:[/url][url=]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
I watched this Epic Length video Last Night.

Michael Shermer will be retracting ad hominem attacks and other mistakes and fake news from his Skeptic magazine.

Graham Hancock is decisively the victor in this debate.

Shermer was a quibbling idiot. Ed doody-man couldn't save his pseudoskeptical reputation.
Backtracked and smacked-down like Rogan in non-moderation  Gangup

Watch the video...even if you have to watch it bite sized hours over the next few days because History may be in the making and a shift towards a catastrophic shake-up of humanity may have occured in our pre-"HISTORIC" past.

Shermer  Arrow debate loser.

Also... There is much more buried @ Puma Punka and Tiahaunaco ...  Holycowsmile Read on>>>

Hidden History Debated: Graham Hancock and Randall Carlson Go Head to Head with Skeptic Michael Shermer on the Joe Rogan Podcast

Late last year 'alternative history' author Graham Hancock and 'renegade scholar' Randall Carlson appeared on the Joe Rogan podcast discussing a major topic in Graham's recent book Magicians of the Gods (Amazon US/Amazon UK) - namely, evidence pointing to the possibility that there was a major global catastrophe at the end of the last Ice Age, caused by a comet impact. Noted skeptic Michael Shermer - who has also previously appeared on Joe's show - was moved to comment about the information presented on the podcast, questioning the validity of what was being said.
So Joe decided to bring them all together in the same room to debate the topic face-to-face - resulting in the three and a half hour dialogue (quadralogue?) above.
Related links:

Unexpected Finds Increase Mystery Surrounding Tiahuanaco Citadel

[Image: 12887223w.jpg]LA PAZ – Several unexpected archaeological finds at the ancient Tiahuanaco (or Tiwanaku) citadel, part of a project sponsored by Unesco and headed by Spanish archaeologist Jose Ignacio Gallegos, are enhancing the research into and the mystery surrounding that long-vanished western Bolivian culture.

The Unesco consultant explained to EFE that the preservation and conservation work being undertaken at the site, 70 kilometers (45 miles) from La Paz, took a surprising turn when studies using topographic imagery, satellite technology and a drone found that the archaeological complex is larger than previously thought.

Tiahuanaco, which came before the Inca civilization, started out as a village about 1580 BC but grew into an Andean empire that began to spread about 724 AD, although it then went into decline about 1187 AD, according to historians.

“The aim of the project was not scientific discovery. The aim is to provide a set of tools that later will allow us ... to create appropriate policies for work at the site,” Gallegos said.

Nevertheless, eight drone flights over the complex to gather imagery have shown that the site encompasses at least 650 hectares (1,675 acres), of which 411 hectares are included in the topographical study.

Among the key finds is that the Puma Punku area, one of the least-researched and most enigmatic portions of the complex because it includes extensive ruins and a terraced earthen mound faced with stone blocks, extends for at least 14 hectares.

Archaeologists have found that there is a large underground plaza and two platforms considered to be part of a pyramid, which Bolivian authorities want to excavate.

This is a find that could change the view of the archaeological site, the director of the CIAAAT research center at Tiahuanaco, Julio Condori, told EFE.

“It’s going to change the focus and many theories will be enriched or complemented, but mainly it will allow us to make a ... reinterpretation of what Tiahuanaco was,” he said.

The work being carried out also leads researchers to believe that near the Kalasasaya temple, there is another buried stone construction, possibly another temple.

Condori said that the work has also revealed signs of a network of water channels at the site.

Also, researchers have detected about 100 circular “domestic units” – or living quarters – underground at the site, and Condori said that excavations will possibly be launched in September to verify the topographic data.

Quote:According to Eirich-Rose, the stone is a “rare and very special discovery” since only about ten similar slabs from this period have been found. She claims that the finds indicate mankind’s relatively advanced pyrotechnic capabilities during this era when fires were made that reached very high temperatures and heat was used to turn limestone into plaster, for example.

Although the use of fire became much more prevalent about 10,000 years ago during the Neolithic period, evidence of the use of fire in the area in the form of ash and coal already exists from the Early Stone Age (about 800,000 years ago). For example, seeds and burnt flint have been found in the past at the site of the Daughters of Jacob Bridge on the upper Jordan River.

Rare Prehistoric Slab Discovered on Highway 38

 TPS / Tazpit News Agency

 20 Iyyar 5777 – May 15, 2017

[Image: RARE-PREHISTORIC-SLAB-FOUND-ON-HIGHWAY-38-IAA.jpg]Rare 'prehistoric slab' discovered in excavation on Highway 38

by Ilana Messika

Israeli archaeologists discovered a rare 9,000-year-old limestone slab used by inhabitants of the land during the Stone Age to light fire. LilD  The find was discovered as part of Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) excavations carried out prior to the expansion of Highway 38, a road that leads from Route 1 to Beit Shemesh in the Judean foothills.

Anna Eirich-Rose, an expert on the prehistoric era and the manager of the excavation, believed that the slab dated back to the Neolithic 2 period when mankind started to adopt a sedentary lifestyle and began to farm the land.

“The former inhabitants of the land devised a thick board made of limestone that contained two cavities linked by a chiseled conduit,” explained Eirich-Rose. “Some believe that this was an ancient game board, but according to researchers at Hebrew University of Jerusalem, such panels were used to light a fire and this mechanism permitted the rapid rotation of a piece of wood within the conduit, like a drilling machine. The kinetic energy was then transformed into heat and when it came into contact with a flammable substance placed within the cavities, it ignited a fire.”

According to Eirich-Rose, the stone is a “rare and very special discovery” since only about ten similar slabs from this period have been found. She claims that the finds indicate mankind’s relatively advanced pyrotechnic capabilities during this era when fires were made that reached very high temperatures and heat was used to turn limestone into plaster, for example.
Although the use of fire became much more prevalent about 10,000 years ago during the Neolithic period, evidence of the use of fire in the area in the form of ash and coal already exists from the Early Stone Age (about 800,000 years ago). For example, seeds and burnt flint have been found in the past at the site of the Daughters of Jacob Bridge on the upper Jordan River.

In this thread     
The beginning of the end Pope steps down (Pages: 1 2 3 4 5 )

FSB said:

(05-17-2017, 10:08 PM)Fsbirdhouse Wrote: Scientists are always above coming to conclusions they expect to reach, as they are above other people, excepting those who they rely on for tenure, or to be published.

We can always rest easy in the warm embrace dispensed by their all knowing intellects. They know what's best.

Who more perfect than one of our own can be taken out of context by an improvisal cut and paste.

Watch this video with the wise words around it in quotes. Although Jim never intended my post... eye couldn't have said it better myselfLilD

Material Provided by  youareaduck unlimited.

Redux provided by Shermer and doody-man
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Recall: Boom! A Cosmic Impact On Our History?

Beads made from meteorite reveal prehistoric culture's reach
Objects unearthed at Native American burial site are remnants of an ancient space rock. 15 May 2017
[Image: 021_Beadsweb.jpg]
Chris Maddaloni/Nature

The ancient Hopewell culture made these beads from iron in the meteorite they sit on.

Blackened and irregular, the prehistoric beads found in a centuries-old Illinois grave don’t look like anything special. But the latest analysis1 shows that they were fashioned from an exotic material: the shards of a meteorite that fell to Earth more than 700 kilometres from where the beads were found.
The link between the Anoka meteorite, which landed in central Minnesota, and the Illinois beads confirms that “2,000 years ago, goods and ideas were moved hundreds of miles across eastern North America”, says Timothy McCoy, co-author of the analysis and curator-in-charge of meteorites at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington DC.
The beads were made by people of the Hopewell culture, which flourished in the US Midwest from 100bc to 400 ad — spreading from its epicentre in Ohio to as far as Mississippi. The culture is known forsprawling ceremonial earthworks and for objects made of non-local materials such as mica. The iron beads were discovered in 1945 in a Hopewell grave near Havana, Illinois, alongside more than 1,000 shell and pearl beads. Together, they indicate that the grave’s occupant was of high rank, says archaeologist Bret Ruby of the Hopewell Culture National Historical Park in Chillicothe, Ohio, who was not involved with the analysis. “You’ve got to open a lot of clams to find 1,000 pearl beads.”
Scientists have known for decades that the grave’s 22 iron-nickel beads came from a meteorite, but they didn’t know which one. Earlier research23 had ruled out the Anoka, an iron-nickel meteorite found in 1961 during the digging of a cesspool near Anoka, Minnesota.
Meteorite match
Then a second chunk of the Anoka space rock was unearthed in 1983, and McCoy’s museum bought it. When they examined it under the microscope, McCoy and his colleagues could see that the meteorite contained micrometre-sized granules of iron enriched with nickel, just as the beads do. Analysis by mass spectroscopy and other techniques showed the beads’ chemical composition is a near-perfect match for the Anoka meteorite, the team reports in the Journal of Archaeological Science1.

[Image: GH0A2178-Bweb.jpg]
Chris Maddaloni/Nature

Timothy McCoy, a curator at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington DC, holds a chunk of the Anoka meteorite that was found in 1983.[/size]
The team also noticed that the Anoka meteorite is shot through with bands of a brittle mineral called schreibersite. Hopewell artisans could have broken up the lump of iron-nickel along the bands, McCoy says. He made his own bead by repeatedly heating a chunk of the Anoka in a wood fire to some 600 ºC, hammering it flat with a stone and then hammering the sheet into a cylindrical bead. Making the beads “probably took quite a while”, he says. “You wonder how many failed experiments there were.”
The study makes a strong case for the connection between the Anoka meteorite and the beads, says Diane Johnson of the Open University in Milton Keynes, UK, who has studied Egyptian meteoritic artefacts and is not part of McCoy’s team. She notes that the Hopewell techniques are similar to those of the ancient Egyptians, who manufactured almost identically designed tube-shaped beads some 3,000 years earlier.
The analysis is useful because it draws a path from one spot in the Hopewell world to another, says archaeologist Brad Lepper of the Ohio History Connection in Columbus, a non-profit historical and research group. “The more dots on the map we can identify, the clearer the sense of the networks of interaction,” he says.
Lepper and Ruby agree that the Havana Hopewell people probably didn’t engage in anything as mundane as trade to get their chunk of extraterrestrial object. It may have been a gift to cement an alliance, or an offering from religious pilgrims. Perhaps a shaman on a quest found it and transported it, by foot or boat, to Havana. Whatever its path, Ruby says, “it does point to complexity in their society that we tend not to attribute to people living 2,000 years ago” in the Americas.[/size]
Nature doi:10.1038/nature.2017.21990
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...

great posts, thanks.

Quote: ... says Diane Johnson of the Open University in Milton Keynes, UK,
who has studied Egyptian 
meteoritic artefacts --- and is not part of McCoy’s team.

She notes that the Hopewell techniques are similar to those of the ancient Egyptians,
who manufactured almost identically designed tube-shaped beads
 some 3,000 years earlier.

I had to pull that gem out of the rough.

looking much more like 'knocked back to the cave age'
wonder how many times that's happened, and the breadth of it all?

a comet swarm could wipe out a spacefaring civilization on multiple planets as easily as one
On a satellite I ride. Nothing down below can hide.
(05-19-2017, 11:36 AM)Keith Wrote: looking much more like 'knocked back to the cave age'
wonder how many times that's happened, and the breadth of it all?

a comet swarm could wipe out a spacefaring civilization on multiple planets as easily as one


Keith when I witnessed this  shocking event years ago...there is just no fantasy of preventing them with our present tech.
the "Marsden Meteor"

the "Marsden Meteor"
Buzzard Coulee( the "Marsden Meteor")meteorite
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Buzzard Coulee
[Image: 64.5_g_buzzard_coulee_resize.jpg]
64.5 gram Buzzard Coulee sample
Ordinary chondrite
Shock stage
Weathering grade
[Image: 17px-WMA_button2b.png]52°59′46″N 109°50′53″W

Observed fall
Fall date
November 20, 2008
Found date
November 27, 2008
41 kilograms (90 lb)[1]
Strewn field
[Image: 240px-Buzzard_Coulee_meteorite_12.3g.jpg]
Buzzard Coulee, 12.3g sample.[/size]

Buzzard Coulee[1] is the collective name of the meteorites fallen on November 20, 2008 over SaskatchewanCanada.[/size]


The fireball was first spotted at around 17:30 MST (00:30 UTC) (ISO 8601 format: 2008-11-21T00:30Z) and was reported by people living in AlbertaSaskatchewanManitoba, and even North Dakota.[2] It was five times as bright as a full moon.[3] Over 400 people reported seeing it.[4] There are several videos of the meteoroid on YouTube.[5] The object split into multiple pieces before widespread impact.[6] The meteoroid entered the atmosphere at approximately 14 kilometres per second and is estimated to have been about the size of a desk and have had a mass of approximately 10 tonnes.[7]
The village of Marsden, Saskatchewan became a hub of activity for meteorite hunters, being just south of the estimated 20 square kilometre debris field. Locals dubbed the object the "Marsden Meteor"; many of the residents reported seeing, hearing and even smelling the burning fragments as they fell.[8] The meteor was also referred to as the "Buzzard Coulee fireball", named after the area where searchers found the first fragments.[9] Buzzard Coulee is located approximately 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) from the Battle River valley.
The first pieces of the rock were found by Ellen Milley, a University of Calgary Master's student on November 27, 2008. Milley was a part of a team working with Dr. Alan Hildebrand, University of Calgary professor and Canadian Research Chair in Planetary Science in the ice of a fish pond about 40 kilometres (25 mi) south east of Lloydminster, Saskatchewan, near the hamlet of Lone Rock. Lone Rock, Battle River, Marsden and other names were possible candidates for the meteorite name, but the University of Calgary researchers followed the local residents' lead in officially calling the fall Buzzard Coulee, after the oldest-named geographic feature in the fall area. Ten pieces were initially found; the largest fragment weighed 380 grams (13 oz) and smallest was 10 grams (0.35 oz).[10][11][12]
In total, more than one thousand meteorite fragments have been collected from the 10-tonne fireball, among them are two 13 kilograms (29 lb) fragments.[13] This event has set a new Canadian record for the most number of pieces recovered from a single meteorite fall.[14]
Robert A. Haag, a famous American meteorite hunter, offered $10,000 to anyone who gave him the first one-kilogram chunk of the meteorite.[3]
"We can see on the videos that there were three big pieces that continue here. And those aren't found yet," said Alan Hildebrand on May 4, 2009. The meteorite hunters have, however, broken a world's record for collecting over 1,000 fragments, the most ever collected from a single meteor fall. The largest found to date was 13 kilograms (29 lb).[15][/size]

[size=undefined]NOW Arrow presents...[/size]

Comet V2 Johnson takes center stage
May 19, 2017 by David Dickinson, Universe Today

[Image: cometv2johns.jpg]
Comet V2 Johnson from February 21st, 2017. Credit: John Purvis
Had your fill of binocular comets? Turns out, 2017 may have saved the best for last. The past few months has seen a steady stream of dirty snowball visitations to the inner solar system, both short term periodic and long term hyperbolic. First, let's run through the cometary roll call for the first part of the year: There's 41P Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresák, 2P/Encke, 45P Honda-Markov-Padjudašáková, C/2015 ER61 PanSTARRS and finally, the latecomer to the party, C/2017 E4 Lovejoy.

Next up is a comet with a much easier to pronounce (and type) name, at least to the English-speaking tongue: C/2015 V2 Johnson.
It would seem that we're getting a year's worth of binocular comets right up front in the very first half.
Discovered by the Catalina Sky Survey by astronomer Jess Johnson on the night of November 3rd 2015 while it was still 6.17 astronomical units (AU) distant at +17th magnitude, Comet V2 Johnson is currently well-placed for mid-latitude northern hemisphere viewers after dusk. Currently shining at magnitude +8 as it glides through the umlaut-adorned constellation Boötes the Herdsman, Comet V2 Johnson is expected to top out at magnitude +6 in late June, post-perihelion.
Part of what's making Comet V2 Johnson favorable is its orbit. With a high inclination of 50 degrees relative to the ecliptic, it's headed down through high northern declinations for a perihelion just outside of Mars' orbit on June 12th. Though Mars is on the opposite side of the sun this summer, we're luckily on the correct side of the sun to enjoy the cometary view. Comet V2 Johnson passed opposition a few weeks ago on April 28th, and will become an exclusively southern hemisphere object in late July as it continues the plunge southward.
[Image: 1-cometv2johns.jpg]
The path of Comet C/2015 V2 Johnson through the inner solar system. Credit: NASA/JPL
This is likely Comet V2 Johnson's first and only journey through the inner solar system, as it's on an open ended, hyperbolic orbit and is likely slated to be ejected from the solar system after its brief summer fling with the sun.
This week sees Comet V2 Johnson 40 degrees above the eastern horizon in Boötes as seen from latitude 30 degrees north, one hour after sunset. The view reaches its climax on June 6th near the comet's closest approach to the Earth, with a maximum elevation of 63 degrees from latitude 30 degrees north, one hour after sunset.
The comet also sits just 5 degrees from the bright -0.05 magnitude star Arcturus on June 6th, providing a good guidepost to find the fuzzball comet. July sees the comet cross the ecliptic plane through Virgo, then head southward through Hydra and Centaurus. Another interesting pass occurs on the night of July 3rd, when the moon just misses occulting the comet.
[Image: 2-cometv2johns.jpg]
The path of Comet V2 Johnson as seen from latitude 30 degrees north, 45 minutes after sunset from mid-May to late June. The constellation positions are for the beginning date. Credit: Starry Night
Here are some key dates with destiny for Comet V2 Johnson through August 1st. Unless otherwise noted, all passes are less than one degree (two Full moon diameters) away:
  • May 19th: passes near +3.4 magnitude Delta Bootis.

  • June 5th: Closest approach to the Earth at 0.812 AU distant.

  • June 12th: Perihelion 1.64 AU from the sun.

  • June 15th: Crosses into the constellation Virgo.

  • June 21st: Crosses the celestial equator southward.

  • June 26th: Passes near the +4 magnitude star Syrma.

  • July 1st: Passes near (30″!) the +4.2 magnitude star Kappa Virginis

  • July 3rd: The waning gibbous moon passes two degrees north of the comet.

  • July 5th: Crosses the ecliptic southward.

  • July 17th: Crosses into the constellation Hydra.

  • July 22nd: Passes 2.5 degrees from the +3.3 magnitude star Pi Hydrae.

  • July 28th: Crosses into the constellation Centaurus.
Binoculars and a good finder chart are your friends hunting down a comet like V2 Johnson. We like to start our search from a nearby bright star, then slowly sweep the field with our trusty Canon 15×45 image-stabilized binoculars (hard to believe, we've had this amazing piece of astro-tech in our observing arsenal for nearly two decades now. They're so handy, picking up a pair of "old-tech" none stabilized binocs feels weird now!). An +8th magnitude comet will look like a fuzzy globular cluster which stubbornly refuses to resolve when focused. A wide-field DSLR shot should also tease V2 Johnson out of the background.
[Image: 3-cometv2johns.jpg]
Comet V2 Johnson vs Kappa Virginis and the Moon on July 3rd. Note: the graphic is a (very) idealized version of the comet! Credit: Starry Night
The next week is also ideal for evening comet-hunting for another reason, as the New moon (also marking the start of the Islamic month of Ramadan) occurs on May 25th, after which, the light-polluting moon will begin to hamper evening observations.

It's strange to think, there are no bright comets on tap for the remainder of 2017 after V2 Johnson, though that will likely change as the year wears on.
In the meantime, be sure to check out Comet V2 Johnson, as it makes its lonesome solitary passage through the inner solar system.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Comet U1 NEOWISE—a possible binocular comet?
Source:: Universe Today

Read more at:[url=]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
(05-19-2017, 03:38 AM)Vianova Wrote: ...

great posts, thanks.

Quote: ... says Diane Johnson of the Open University in Milton Keynes, UK,
who has studied Egyptian 
meteoritic artefacts --- and is not part of McCoy’s team.

She notes that the Hopewell techniques are similar to those of the ancient Egyptians,
who manufactured almost identically designed tube-shaped beads
 some 3,000 years earlier.

I had to pull that gem out of the rough.


Yeah! I caught that part too.

Now look at this Vic  Arrow

What does this article have to say in comparison to an Ice-Sheet Strike and or Oceanic Strike at the End of the Younger Dryas???

The Article below shows that A Glacial / Oceanic HIT is preferred  Cry for higher survival rates in such catastrophies.

Dinosaur asteroid hit 'worst possible place'
By Jonathan AmosBBC Science Correspondent
  • 15 May 2017
[Image: _96058720_bm_bm_eotd_02738323.jpg]
[img=646x0][/img][Image: _96058715_bm_bm_eotd_02738308.jpg]Image copyrightBARCROFT PRODUCTIONS/BBCImage captionArtwork: The impact hit with the energy equivalent to 10 billion Hiroshima bombs

Scientists who drilled into the impact crater associated with the demise of the dinosaurs summarise their findings so far in a BBC Two documentary on Monday.
The researchers recovered rocks from under the Gulf of Mexico that were hit by an asteroid 66 million years ago.
The nature of this material records the details of the event.
It is becoming clear that the 15km-wide asteroid could not have hit a worse place on Earth.
[img=616x0][/img][Image: _96058722_bm_bm_eotd_02738320.jpg]Image copyrightBARCROFT PRODUCTIONS/BBCImage captionThe drill rig was on station in the Gulf in April and May last year
The shallow sea covering the target site meant colossal volumes of sulphur (from the mineral gypsum) were injected into the atmosphere, extending the "global winter" period that followed the immediate firestorm.
Had the asteroid struck a different location, the outcome might have been very different.
"This is where we get to the great irony of the story – because in the end it wasn’t the size of the asteroid, the scale of blast, or even its global reach that made dinosaurs extinct – it was where the impact happened," said Ben Garrod, who presents The Day The Dinosaurs Died with Alice Roberts.
[img=616x0][/img][Image: _89796809__cx19487.jpg]Image copyrightBARCROFT PRODUCTIONS/BBCImage captionThe fractured rocks were subjected to immense pressures
"Had the asteroid struck a few moments earlier or later, rather than hitting shallow coastal waters it might have hit deep ocean.
"An impact in the nearby Atlantic or Pacific oceans would have meant much less vaporised rock – including the deadly gypsum. The cloud would have been less dense and sunlight could still have reached the planet’s surface, meaning what happened next might have been avoided.
"In this cold, dark world food ran out of the oceans within a week and shortly after on land. With nothing to eat anywhere on the planet, the mighty dinosaurs stood little chance of survival." Ben Garrod spent time on the drill rig that was stationed 30km off Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula in April/May last year, to better understand the aims of the project; Alice Roberts visited widely separated fossil beds in the Americas, to get a sense of how life was upended by the impact.
Rock cores from up to 1,300m beneath the Gulf were recovered.
The lowest sections of this material come from a feature within the crater called the peak ring.
This is made from rock that has been heavily fractured and altered by immense pressures.
By analysing its properties, the drill project team - led by Profs Jo Morgan and Sean Gulick - hope to reconstruct how the impact proceeded and the environmental changes it brought about.
[img=616x0][/img][Image: _89050728_drillsite.jpg]Image copyrightMAX ALEXANDER/B612/ASTEROID DAYImage captionCo-lead scientists Jo Morgan (Imperial College London) and Sean Gulick (University of Texas)

Chicxulub Crater - The impact that changed life on Earth
[img=616x0][/img]Image copyrightNASAImage captionThe outer rim (white arc) of the crater lies under the Yucatan Peninsula itself, but the inner peak ring is best accessed offshore
  • A 15km-wide object dug a hole in Earth's crust 100km across and 30km deep

  • This bowl then collapsed, leaving a crater 200km across and a few km deep

  • The crater's centre rebounded and collapsed again, producing an inner ring

  • Today, much of the crater is buried offshore, under 600m of sediments

  • On land, it is covered by limestone, but its rim is traced by an arc of sinkholes
[img=616x0][/img][Image: _89796817__cx18062.jpg]Image copyrightMAX ALEXANDER/B612/ASTEROID DAYImage captionMexico's famous sinkholes (cenotes) have formed in weakened limestone overlying the crater

They know now the energy that went into making the crater when the asteroid struck - equivalent to 10 billion Hiroshima A-bombs. And they also understand how the depression assumed the structure we observe today.
The team is also gaining insights into the return of life to the impact site in the years after the event.
One of the many fascinating sequences in the BBC Two programme sees Alice Roberts visit a quarry in New Jersey, US, where 25,000 fossil fragments have been recovered - evidence of a mass die-off of creatures that may have been among the casualties on the day of the impact itself.
"All these fossils occur in a layer no more than 10cm thick," palaeontologist Ken Lacovara tells Alice.
"They died suddenly and were buried quickly. It tells us this is a moment in geological time. That's days, weeks, maybe months. But this is not thousands of years; it's not hundreds of thousands of years. This is essentially an instantaneous event."
The Day The Dinosaurs Died is on BBC Two at 21:00, after which it will be available on the BBC iPlayer.
[img=616x0][/img][Image: _96058716_bm_bm_eotd_02738312.jpg]Image copyrightBARCROFT PRODUCTIONS/BBCImage captionAlice visited a New Jersey quarry with palaeontologist Ken Lacovara[img=616x0][/img][Image: _96058717_bm_bm_eotd_02738315.jpg]Image copyrightBARCROFT PRODUCTIONS/BBCImage captionSome of the 25,000 fossil fragments are laid out in a large room

"All these fossils occur in a layer no more than 10cm thick," palaeontologist Ken Lacovara tells Alice.
"They died suddenly and were buried quickly. It tells us this is a moment in geological time. That's days, weeks, maybe months. But this is not thousands of years; it's not hundreds of thousands of years. This is essentially an instantaneous event."
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
R.E.M. - It's The End Of The World

Trump Version:

Bob... Ninja  see you folks on Mars Angel
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
the sublink had an interesting quote

Quote:This describes the roughly 15km-wide stony asteroid 
instantly punching a cavity in the Earth's surface some 30km deep and 80-100km across.

Unstable, and under the pull of gravity, 
the sides of this depression promptly started to collapse inwards.

At the same time, the centre of the bowl rebounded, 
briefly lifting rock higher than the Himalayas, 
before also falling down to cover the inward-rushing sides of the initial hole.

Imagine a sugar cube dropped into a cup of tea. 
The drink's liquid first gets out of the way of the cube, 
moves back in and up, 
before finally slopping down.
When the asteroid struck the Earth, the rocks it hit also behaved like a fluid.

I think that the average solar system out there,
is not as prone to repetitive catastrophism as ours is.
Our planets get the crap punched out of them by asteroids and meteors and comets all the time.
As such,
it has no doubt happened on Earth often enough,
such that rapid evolutionary responses are somehow built into all the DNA.

15 km diameter asteroids do major global damage regardless of glacial or deep oceanic hits.
One of those could hit a caldera some day.
This is the shit happens solar system.


Quote:the only current response to this type of “surprise” comet or asteroid was to “pray.”-Charles Bolden NASA 2013


Keith when I witnessed this  shocking event years ago...there is just no fantasy of preventing them with our present tech.
the "Marsden Meteor"
Courtesy the Daily RE:Caller  Arrow  This is our current status:

NASA Can Probably Stop An Asteroid, But Wouldn’t Detect A Comet In Time, Study Finds
ANDREW FOLLETT 1:10 PM 05/20/2017

NASA would only be able to detect a comet on course to hit Earth 22 months in advance, but it would take five years to cobble together a mission to stop it. Those are the chilling results of a NASA study scientists presented to a conference in Tokyo, Japan Friday.

Researchers at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center based their study on the Siding Spring comet, which they thought would collide with Mars in October of 2014. Scientists only detected the comet 22 months before it nearly hit the Red Planet.
Scientists applied those observations to test NASA’s response time to a comet on a collision course with Earth. They determined humanity is woefully unprepared for a similar object approaching Earth.
“It is extremely difficult to detect a comet like Siding Spring much more in advance than was done,” Dr. Joseph A. Nuth, a senior scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center who co-authored the research, told The Daily Caller News Foundation. “The trick is to be able to react to such a threat quickly — and this is currently almost impossible.”

The best way to stop an asteroid or comet from hitting the Earth on such short notice may be to send a spacecraft up to intercept it. But even then, NASA would need at least five years to construct a reliable spacecraft and man it.

Nuth’s study suggests time could be saved by building several interceptor vehicles and keeping them on standby in the event of an impending collision. Such vehicles would sit in storage until needed to redirect an incoming asteroid or comet, eliminating the need to rush construct to meet a deadline.

“Spacecraft can be thrown together quickly if you don’t worry about reliability,” Nuth said. “However the 5 year schedule included in the paper is typical of schedules to build high reliability spacecraft such as OSIRIS-REx [a NASA asteroid probe]. Cutting corners can be done but it decreases reliability on what could potentially be the most important mission ever launched by mankind.”

When asked how NASA was working on detecting comets earlier, Nuth replied, “NASA is not.”

“Comets are not currently a priority in the Planetary Defense program,” Nuth said. “However, if a cometary hazard were detected by asteroid hunters (and they do discover comets) I am sure they would try to deal with the problem.”

NASA officials have spent years grappling with the issue of how to stop a comet from hitting the Earth. Former NASA administrator Charles Bolden told reporters in 2013 the only current response to this type of “surprise” comet or asteroid was to “pray.”

Comets are rarer than asteroids, but can carry more than 100 times the energy of a typical asteroid. Comets also hurdle through space at a higher speed than asteroid, usually traveling at a velocity of 20 kilometers per second. Potential damages would me much greater from a comet strike — though asteroid strikes are hardly desirable.

Asteroids are about 100 times more common than comets, but are smaller and can approach Earth undetected. Global asteroid detection programs have identified 16,214 near-Earth objects of all sizes, according to the International Astronomical Union. Of the 715 new near-Earth objects discovered so far this year, only 21 were comets.

“A comet is not necessarily a killer,” Nuth told TheDCNF. “There are larger and smaller ones as with asteroids and there are many parameters to consider such as exactly where & how it strikes the Earth, its composition, porosity, internal strength, density, etc.”

In 2016, NASA and other federal agencies simulated a response to an asteroid striking Earth. Officials were unable to deflect an asteroid on course to hit Earth with four years of warning.

The simulation’s “city-killer” asteroid ended up landing off the Southern California coast. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) personnel coordinated a simulated mass evacuation of the Los Angeles area to mitigate the damages of a potential tsunami.

In the event a real asteroid does hit Earth, NASA’s Planetary Defense Coordination Office would work with FEMA, the Department of Defense and other agencies to coordinate disaster responses.
Congress approved $50 million for near-earth object observations and planetary defense in 2016, up from just $4 million in 2010. This money will be spent improving NASA’s ability to detect asteroids, hopefully allowing for more warning.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
you got to wonder
about the motives
of TPTB ?
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
(05-20-2017, 10:26 PM)Wook Wrote: Sometimes
you got to wonder
about the motives
of TPTB ?

It's why I personally think there is enough evidence from whistle-blowers that nearly ALL of those Patents I listed in another thread are REAL, that they "released" to Google only several days ago; because only yesterday and today you are finding a variety of them being touted on various YouTube channels.  Especially the TR3B.

Earliest one is 2010, but no patent info:

Military Reference to it:
Nov 23, 2013 - It doesn't exist officially. It uses highly pressured mercury accelerated by nuclear energy to produce a plasma that creates a field of anti-gravity ...

Next to MENTION Patents was 3 days ago:[/url]

[Image: prglogob.gif]

[Image: PRGScript.jpg]

Stephen Bassett only registered "Lobbyist" in the Congress for UFO "Disclosure Matters" ; he has given up on the USA doing "Disclosure" anytime soon and has moved his focus to getting some European Country to do it on WORLD STAGE of the UN, that we've NEVER been alone and the "Deep State Swamp" already HAS the technology, the hardware, the troops via Gary McKinnon for "Off-Planet Personnel" in the hacked payroll on DOD NAVY pay logs.

So, tell me again, WHY are we STILL using rockets?

Especially if NASA says it would take 4 YEARS to save the planet, no wonder it cannot make the 2018 Moon shot for Orion, and even if it is manned, they will NOT be able to make a 2020 get back to a Manned Moon Orbit.

China will have someone there to greet them by then.

NASA = Never Achieve Swiftly Apologies

but they are under the DOD/DARPA/SWORD and likely to end up like Seth Rich if they used SWORD tech.

Bob... Ninja Alien2
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Earth is bombarded at random, crater study shows
by Brooks Hays
Zurich (UPI) Mar 7, 2017

[Image: deepimpact-spix-lg.jpg]

New analysis of Earth's myriad craters turned up no evidence of an impact pattern. Earth is bombarded at random, the research shows.
Some astronomers suggest the sun possesses a companion star, which makes its closest approach to the solar system every 26 million years, triggering a barrage of asteroids. But the sibling star, named Nemesis, has never been found, and the latest analysis suggests there is no order to Earth's impacts.
Scientists are aware of roughly 190 impact craters on Earth. Of the 190, scientists from ETH Zurich and Lund University identified 22 for which the impact dates are calculated with 99 percent certainty. Researchers used a data analysis method called circular spectral analysis to look for patterns among the impacts.
The data analysis suggests some crater clusters may be explained by periodic astronomical phenomena, but across larger timescales asteroid impacts are largely random.
"Some of these craters could have been formed by the collision of an asteroid accompanied by a moon," Matthias Meier, a researcher at ETH Zurich's Institute of Geochemistry and Petrology, said in a news release. "But in other cases, the impact sites are too far away from each other for this to be the explanation."
Meier and his colleagues detailed their findings in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. The newest results contradict the conclusions of a similar study published by Meier and company in 2015. Because the involved data sets are relatively small, the presence of just a few craters with the same age can trick statistical models.
"Our work has shown that just a few of these so-called impact clusters are enough to suggest a semblance of periodicity," Meier said.

Objective: To deflect asteroids, thus preventing their collision with Earth
by Staff Writers
Madrid, Spain (SPX) Jan 27, 2017

[Image: giant-fragment-chelyabinsk-meteorite-lg.jpg]
The Chelyabinsk meteorite belongs to a group known as ordinary chondrites. The CSIC researchers chose it because it was considered representative, in terms its component materials, of the most potentially dangerous asteroids. Potentially hazardous asteroids which threaten the Earth suffer many collisions before reaching our planet, therefore their consistency increases and their minerals appear battered.

An international project, led by Spain's National Research Council, (CSIC) provides information on the effects a projectile impact would have on an asteroid. The aim of the project is to work out how an asteroid might be deflected so as not to collide with the Earth. The research, published in The Astrophysical Journal, focuses on the study of the asteroid Chelyabinsk, which exploded over Russian skies in 2013 after passing through the atmosphere.
The probability that a kilometre-sized asteroid could have devastating consequences after impact with the Earth is statistically small. What is more frequent, and repeatedly discovered, is that objects a few tens of meters across reach the Earth's atmosphere.
The results of this study indicate that the composition, internal structure, density and other physical properties of the asteroid are "fundamental in determining the success of a mission in which a kinetic projectile would be launched to deflect the orbit of a dangerous asteroid."
On February 15, 2013, an asteroid with a diameter of approximately 18 metres exploded over the Russian town of Cheliabinsk producing thousands of meteorites which fell to Earth.
The fragmentation of this object in the atmosphere exemplified that Earth's atmosphere acts as an efficient shield, even though more than a thousand meteorites, each with a total mass exceeding one ton hit the ground. Despite being a small asteroid, the shock wave it produced when penetrating the atmosphere at hypersonic speed caused hundreds of injuries and considerable material damages.
"Studying the chemical and mineralogical composition of the Chelyabinsk meteorite allows us to grasp the importance of the collision compaction processes that asteroids suffer as they near the Earth. The results of this work are extremely relevant for a possible mission in which we want to efficiently deflect an asteroid which is close to Earth", says CSIC researcher Josep Maria Trigo of the Institute of Space Sciences.
Thus, following rigorous and systematic work, the new study has discovered the properties of the materials that the asteroid is made of. In particular, their hardness, elasticity and their fracture resistance which could all be determinant for the impact of a kinetic projectile attempting to deflect an asteroid's orbit.
The experiments
The Chelyabinsk meteorite belongs to a group known as ordinary chondrites. The CSIC researchers chose it because it was considered representative, in terms its component materials, of the most potentially dangerous asteroids. Potentially hazardous asteroids which threaten the Earth suffer many collisions before reaching our planet, therefore their consistency increases and their minerals appear battered.

These experiments have been carried out using an instrument known as a nanoindentor. This consists of a small piston tipped with in a diamond head which applies a predefined pressure on, and generates small notches in, the material, while measuring both the depth achieved and the material's elastic recovery time.
Therefore, it is possible to determine key parameters such as fracture strength, hardness, elastic recovery time, or Young's modulus. As the researcher Carles Moyano explains: "As ordinary chondrites are quite complex and heterogeneous rocks consisting of minerals with different properties, showing varying degrees of collision damage, a comprehensive study is required. In this case, the study required around two years of work".
The measurement of the mechanical properties of the Chelyabinsk meteorite was carried out at the nanoindentation laboratory which is led by the ICREA researcher Jordi Sort from Barcelona's Autonomous University. The study also included several European experts involved in the European Space Agency's proposed Asteroid Impact Mission. Thanks to these experiments being conducted by these meteorite pioneers, we are possibly closer to successfully facing any future encounter with asteroids.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Recall: back in 2008 I witnessed this fireball

Today is my 50th Orbit of SOL...

I thought about the present.

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All Sky Fireball Network

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Every night, a network of NASA all-sky cameras scans the skies above the United States for meteoritic fireballs. Automated software maintained by NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office calculates their orbits, velocity, penetration depth in Earth's atmosphere and many other characteristics. Daily results are presented here on
On May. 22, 2017, the network reported 24 fireballs.
(24 sporadics)

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In this diagram of the inner solar system, all of the fireball orbits intersect at a single point--Earth. The orbits are color-coded by velocity, from slow (red) to fast (blue). [Larger image] [movies]

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Near Earth Asteroids

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Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) are space rocks larger than approximately 100m that can come closer to Earth than 0.05 AU. None of the known PHAs is on a collision course with our planet, although astronomers are finding new ones all the time.
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On May 22, 2017 there were 1801 potentially hazardous asteroids.
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Recent & Upcoming Earth-asteroid encounters:


Miss Distance

Velocity (km/s)

Diameter (m)
2012 EC

19.5 LD


2017 KH3

18.7 LD


2017 CS

8 LD



8 LD


2017 KJ3

11.1 LD


2017 HV4

19.5 LD


2017 KF3

12.9 LD


2010 VB1

10.3 LD



19.1 LD



7.9 LD


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Notes: LD means "Lunar Distance." 1 LD = 384,401 km, the distance between Earth and the Moon. 1 LD also equals 0.00256 AU. MAG is the visual magnitude of the asteroid on the date of closest approach.[/size]

Moon And Venus Daytime Conjunction 
Taken by Leo Caldas on May 22, 2017 @ Brasília, Brasil
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Meeting on developing the space sector
Vladimir Putin held a meeting on developing Russia’s space sector. Implementing the Federal Space Programme, possibilities for using new types of rocket, and improving the Earth’s remote sensing system were the main items on the agenda.
May 22, 2017


4 of 5

At a meeting on developing the space sector.

President of Russia Vladimir Putin: Good afternoon, colleagues,
We examine the space sector’s development on a regular basis. Today, we agreed to look at ways to enhance the Earth’s remote sensing system.
As you know, the most advanced countries make broad use of this technology. Russia, too, should make more active use of the possibilities it offers for bolstering our national defence and security, and for developing the economy and social sector and raising the quality of governance.
The sensing data obtained are very important for effective work in sectors such as construction, infrastructure, forestry, agriculture, the environment, meteorology, mining, and for disaster prevention and relief.

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Experts forecast that demand for provision of data obtained through the Earth’s remote sensing systems will grow substantially over the coming years. In this respect, Russia has indisputable competitive advantages and we should put them to the best possible use.
To do this, we should build up our orbital constellation carrying out earth probing. It should have at least 15 satellites in operation by 2020. This will enable us to monitor Russia’s territory and the entire globe.
The priority task is to make the data obtained available for users in Russia and abroad. We therefore need to consolidate the resources in this sector and improve procedures for certifying data and the rules and regulations for their use in various areas.
Roscosmos is ready to provide these services and provide data from Russia’s Earth remote sensing satellites. We do not rule out the use of foreign satellites too.
At the same time, Roscosmos works primarily on state orders, and so we need to reflect on future commercialisation of services and expanding provision of information of this kind through services on the domestic and foreign markets.
I note in particular that the money earned from these services should be invested in developing our space sector, continued modernisation, and promising space-related research.
Finally, all innovations in developing and operating new digital services using the Earth’s remote sensing data should be tested first in pilot projects.
Let’s discuss these matters today. I would like to hear your proposals.

Today I present to you ANU Word:
Quote:More information: The structure of terrestrial bodies: Impact heating, corotation limits, and synestias, Journal of Geophysical ResearchDOI: 10.1002/2016JE005239 , 

Researchers propose new type of planetary object
May 22, 2017

[Image: 26-researchersp.jpg]
The structure of a planet, a planet with a disk and a synestia, all of the same mass. Credit: Simon Lock and Sarah Stewart.
Scientists suggest in a new study the existence of a planetary object called a "synestia," a huge, spinning, donut-shaped mass of hot, vaporized rock, formed as planet-sized objects smash into each other.

At one point early in its history, Earth was likely a synestia, said Sarah Stewart, a planetary scientist at the University of California Davis and co-author of the new study in the Journal of Geophysical ResearchPlanets, a journal of the American Geophysical Union.
Stewart and Simon Lock, a graduate student at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts and lead author of the new study, explore how planets can form from a series of giant impacts. Current theories of planet formation hold that rocky planets such as Earth, Mars and Venus formed early in the solar system when smaller objects smashed into each other.
These collisions were so violent that the resulting bodies melted and partially vaporized, eventually cooling and solidifying to the nearly spherical planets we know today.
Lock and Stewart are particularly interested in collisions between spinning objects. A rotating object has angular momentum, which must be conserved in a collision. Think of a skater spinning on ice: if she extends her arms, she slows her rate of spin. To spin faster, she holds her arms close by her side, but her angular momentum stays constant.
Now consider two skaters turning on ice: if they catch hold of each other, the angular momentum of each skater adds together so that their total angular momentum stays the same.
In the new study, Lock and Stewart modeled what happens when the "ice skaters" are Earth-sized rocky planets colliding with other large objects with both high energy and high angular momentum.
"We looked at the statistics of giant impacts, and we found that they can form a completely new structure," Stewart said.
Lock and Stewart found that over a range of high temperatures and high angular momenta, planet-sized bodies could form a new, much larger structure, an indented disk rather like a red blood cell or a donut with the center filled in. The object is mostly vaporized rock, with no solid or liquid surface.
They have dubbed the new object a "synestia," from "syn-," "together" and "Estia," Greek goddess of architecture and structures.
The key to synestia formation is that some of the structure's material goes into orbit. In a spinning, solid sphere, every point from the core to the surface is rotating at the same rate. But in a giant impact, the material of the planet can become molten or gaseous and expands in volume. If it gets big enough and is moving fast enough, parts of the object pass the velocity needed to keep a satellite in orbit, and that's when it forms a huge, disc-shaped synestia, according to the new study.
Previous theories had suggested that giant impacts might cause planets to form a disk of solid or molten material surrounding the planet. But for the same mass of planet, a synestia would be much larger than a solid planet with a disk.
Most planets likely experience collisions that could form a synestia at some point during their formation, Stewart said. For an object like Earth, the synestia would not last very long – perhaps a hundred years – before it lost enough heat to condense back into a solid object. But synestia formed from larger or hotter objects such as gas giant planets or stars could potentially last much longer, she said.
The synestia structure also suggests new ways to think about lunar formation. The moon is remarkably like Earth in composition, and most current theories about how the moon formed involve a giant impact that threw material into orbit. But such an impact could have instead formed a synestia from which the Earth and Moon both condensed, Stewart said.
No one has yet observed a synestia directly, but they might be found in other solar systems once astronomers start looking for them alongside rocky planets and gas giants, she said.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: New theory explains how the moon got there

More information: The structure of terrestrial bodies: Impact heating, corotation limits, and synestias, Journal of Geophysical ResearchDOI: 10.1002/2016JE005239 , 
Journal reference: Journal of Geophysical Research [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: American Geophysical Union

Read more at:[url=][/url]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
NASA's asteroid-hunting spacecraft a discovery machine
June 5, 2017

[Image: nasasasteroi.gif]
This movie shows the progression of NASA's Near-Earth Object Wide-field Survey Explorer (NEOWISE) investigation for the mission's first three years following its restart in December 2013. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA/JHU
NASA's Near-Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE) mission has released its third year of survey data, with the spacecraft discovering 97 previously unknown celestial objects in the last year. Of those, 28 were near-Earth objects, 64 were main belt asteroids and five were comets.

The spacecraft has now characterized a total of 693 near-Earth objects since the mission was re-started in December 2013. Of these, 114 are new. The NEOWISE team has released an animation depicting this solar system survey's discoveries and characterizations for its third year of operations.
"NEOWISE is not only discovering previously uncharted asteroids and comets, but it is providing excellent data on many of those already in our catalog," said Amy Mainzer, NEOWISE principal investigator from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. "It is also proving to be an invaluable tool in in the refining and perfecting of techniques for near-Earth object discovery and characterization by a space-based infrared observatory."
Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are comets and asteroids that have been nudged by the gravitational attraction of the planets in our solar system into orbits that allow them to enter Earth's neighborhood. Ten of the objects discovered by NEOWISE in the past year have been classified as potentially hazardous asteroids, based on their size and their orbits.

Credit: NASA
More than 2.6 million infrared images of the sky were collected in the third year of operations by NEOWISE. These data are combined with the Year 1 and 2 NEOWISE data into a single archive that contains approximately 7.7 million sets of images and a database of more than 57.7 billion source detections extracted from those images.
The NEOWISE images also contain glimpses of rare objects, like comet C/2010 L5 WISE. A new technique of modeling comet behavior called tail-fitting showed that this particular comet experienced a brief outburst as it swept through the inner-solar system.
"Comets that have abrupt outbursts are not commonly found, but this may be due more to the sudden nature of the activity rather than their inherent rarity," said Emily Kramer, a NASA Postdoctoral Program Fellow at JPL and lead author of paper on the NEOWISE study. "It is great for astronomers to view and collect cometary data when they find an outburst, but since the activity is so short-lived, we may simply miss them most of the time."

The tail-fitting technique identifies the size and quantity of dust particles in the vicinity of the comet, and when they were ejected from the comet's nucleus, revealing the history of the comet's activity. With tail-fitting, future all-sky surveys may be able to find and collect data on more cometary outburst activity when it happens. A paper detailing the tail-fitting technique and other results of the study was published in the March 20 volume of the Astrophysical Journal.
Originally called the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), the spacecraft was launched in December 2009. It was placed in hibernation in 2011 after its primary astrophysics mission was completed. In September 2013, it was reactivated, renamed NEOWISE and assigned a new mission: to assist NASA's efforts to identify the population of potentially hazardous near-Earth objects. NEOWISE also is characterizing more distant populations of asteroids and comets to provide information about their sizes and compositions.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Asteroid-hunting spacecraft delivers a second year of data
Journal reference: Astrophysical Journal [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: NASA


Earliest human impact on geological processes took place 11,500 years ago (Update)
June 5, 2017

[Image: earliestmanm.jpg]
Credit: Tel Aviv University
A new Tel Aviv University study has uncovered the earliest known geological indications of manmade impact on geological processes, in particular erosion of the surface, from 11,500 years ago. Within a core sample retrieved from the Dead Sea, researchers discovered basin-wide erosion rates dramatically incompatible with known tectonic and climatic regimes of the period recorded.

"Human impact on the natural environment is now endangering the entire planet," said Prof. Shmuel Marco, Head of TAU's School of Geosciences, who led the research team. "It is therefore crucial to understand these fundamental processes. Our discovery provides a quantitative assessment for the commencement of significant human impact on the Earth's geology and ecosystems." The results of the study were published in Global and Planetary Change.
The research was conducted by TAU post-doctoral student Dr. Yin Lu and in collaboration with Prof. Dani Nadel and Prof. Nicolas Waldman, both of the University of Haifa. It took place as part of the Dead Sea Deep Drilling project, which harnessed a 1,500-foot-deep drill core to delve into the Dead Sea basin. The core sample provided the team with a sediment record of the last 220,000 years.
The newly-discovered erosion occurred during the Neolithic Revolution, the wide-scale transition of human cultures from hunting and gathering to agriculture and settlement. The shift resulted in an exponentially larger human population on the planet.
"Natural vegetation was replaced by crops, animals were domesticated, grazing reduced the natural plant cover, and deforestation provided more area for grazing," said Prof. Marco. "All these resulted in the intensified erosion of the surface and increased sedimentation, which we discovered in the Dead Sea core sample."
A natural laboratory in the Dead Sea
The Dead Sea drainage basin serves as a natural laboratory for understanding how sedimentation rates in a deep basin are related to climate change, tectonics, and man-made impacts on the landscape.
"We noted a sharp threefold increase in the fine sand that was carried into the Dead Sea by seasonal floods," said Prof. Marco. "This intensified erosion is incompatible with tectonic and climatic regimes during the Holocene, the geological epoch that began after the Pleistocene some 11,700 years ago."
The researchers are currently in the process of recovering the record of earthquakes from the same drill core. "We have identified disturbances in the sediment layers that were triggered by the shaking of the lake bottom," Prof. Marco said. "It will provide us with a 220,000-year record—the most extensive earthquake record in the world."
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Back to the dead (sea, that is)
More information: Yin Lu et al. Increased sedimentation following the Neolithic Revolution in the Southern Levant, Global and Planetary Change (2017). DOI: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2017.04.003 , 
Provided by: Tel Aviv University

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Czech scientists see growing risk of asteroid hitting Earth
June 6, 2017

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The risk is growing that Earth will be hit by an asteroid from a meteor stream known as the Taurids, Czech astronomers said
The risk is growing that Earth will be hit by an asteroid from a meteor stream known as the Taurids, Czech astronomers said on Tuesday.

The astronomers, from the Czech Academy of Sciences, drew their conclusion after analysing 144 bolides—large meteors that explode in the atmosphere—from the Taurids and detecting a new branch with at least two asteroids measuring 200-300 metres (220-330 yards) in diameter.
"Most probably, the branch also includes many undetected asteroids which are dozens of metres in diameter or larger," the Czech academy said in a press release.
"Hence, the danger of a crash with an asteroid grows markedly once every few years that the Earth encounters this stream of inter-planetary material."
The new branch comprises objects moving together around the Sun, and the Earth encounters it once every few years for a period of about three weeks.
"During this period, the probability of a collision with a larger object (of about dozens of metres in diameter) is markedly higher," the Academy said.
The asteroids are very fragile, but when they are this large they may penetrate deep into the atmosphere and pose a real threat of collision with Earth, it added.
The study urges further research to obtain "a better description of this real source of potentially hazardous objects large enough to cause a local or even continental disaster."
The paper is available on the Astronomy & Astrophysics website pending publication in its renowned journal.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Close call: When asteroids whisk past Earth
More information: Astronomy & Astrophysics (2017). 
Journal reference: Astronomy & Astrophysics

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Solving the puzzle of when the first humans arrived in the Americas
May 29, 2017

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Photograph of Paisley Caves by Dr Lisa-Marie Shillito. Credit: Newcastle University
A Newcastle University expert is leading a new study which aims to resolve a longstanding debate about how and when people first came to the Americas.

Dr Lisa-Marie Shillito, a lecturer in landscape archaeology, is using a microscopic technique to analyse organic matter and sediment at the Paisley Cave archeological site in Oregon's Lake County, USA.
She is part of an international team including University of Oregon archeologist Dennis Jenkins, who is well known for his work in the caves.
He uncovered long-dried-out faeces, known as coprolites, that were later identified as being from humans based on the DNA they contained.
The coprolites, radiocarbon dated to as much as 14,300 years ago, distinguish the Paisley Caves as one of the earliest human occupation sites in North America—one that predates by at least 1,000 years the Clovis culture, long considered the continent's oldest cultural tradition.
However, questions remain, particularly among archaeologists who advocate for the 'Clovis First' model for the peopling of the Americas.
Answering questions
The new study, funded by the UK's Natural Environment Research Council, aims to find the answer to those questions.
Dr Shillito will analyse organic matter and sediment in the soil of Cave 2 to confirm the age of the coprolites. By examining the concentration of certain types of lipids—organic matter left by biological organisms—throughout the cave's sediment layers, Shillito and the team will assess how much movement has occurred over time in the archaeological deposits.
"Think of it as an archaeological excavation under the microscope," she said. "Intact blocks of sediments are set in resin and turned into slides for viewing under a microscope. This way we can visually examine the processes by which sediments have been deposited, and whether they have been subsequently altered. We can resolve the fine layers and establish precise sequences of events."
In addition to the lipid study, the team will take extensive sediment samples for additional analysis.
Well documented
Dr Shillito and project co-investigator Ian Bull, a chemist at the University of Bristol, have used this new combination of methods in past projects, including at the famous Catalhoyuk site in Turkey.
Shillito, Bull and Jenkins are joined on the project by University of Copenhagen geologist Thomas Stafford, who has been a key figure in developing the evidence for pre-Clovis North American settlement. Geoarcheology research associate Dr John Blong from Newcastle University's School of History, Classics and Archaeology, will be carrying out laboratory work.
"Thanks to years of detailed excavation data on the Paisley Caves' stratigraphy and archaeology—not to mention an archive of 1,800 coprolites curated by Jenkins at the Museum of Natural and Cultural History—we have a well-documented context for conducting this investigation," said Dr Shillito.
"Based on the site's stratigraphy, we know there were a lot of people visiting the caves between 12,600 and 12,000 years ago," Jenkins said. "Did some of their DNA get flushed to deeper sediments via water activity in the cave? Is the DNA as old as the 14,000-year-old layer we found it in? Did the human DNA enter the cave by some other means like animal activity? These are the kinds of questions we'll be able to answer as a result of this project."
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Cave containing earliest human DNA dubbed historic
Provided by: Newcastle University

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Scientists warn of asteroid danger
June 20, 2017

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Asteroid impact near the Russian city of Chelyabinsk in February 2013. Credit: Alan Fitzsimmons
A leading astrophysicist from Queen's University Belfast has warned that an asteroid strike is just a matter of time.

Professor Alan Fitzsimmons from the University's Astrophysics Research Centre has said it is a case of when an asteroid collision will happen, rather than if it will happen.

Joined by scientist Brian Cox and astronauts such as Apollo 9 astronaut Rusty Schweickart and International Space Station astronaut Nicole Stott, Professor Fitzsimmons is highlighting the threat for Asteroid Day, a global event next Friday (30 June).

On that day in 1908, a small asteroid exploded over Tunguska in Siberia and devastated 800 square miles. Professor Fitzsimmons is warning that a similar unexpected strike in today's world could easily destroy a major city and a larger asteroid could be more dangerous.

Professor Fitzsimmons commented: "It is important to know that scientists and engineers have made great strides in detecting Near-Earth Asteroids and understanding the threat posed by them. Over 1,800 potentially hazardous objects have been discovered so far, but there are many more waiting to be found.

"Astronomers find Near-Earth Asteroids every day and most are harmless. But it is still possible the next Tunguska would take us by surprise, and although we are much better at finding larger asteroids, that does us no good if we are not prepared to do something about them."

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Alan Fitzsimmons at the UK Telescopes on La Plama CREDIT ALAN FITZSIMMONS. Credit: Alan Fitzsimmons
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Czech scientists see growing risk of asteroid hitting Earth

More information: The discussions and presentations will be streamed live from Luxembourg on 30 June at and experts will be answering any questions from followers via social media. Hundreds of supporting events will be held in over 70 countries. 

Provided by: Queen's University Belfast

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Are asteroids humanity's 'greatest challenge'?
June 28, 2017 by Mariëtte Le Roux

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Close encounter: NASA graphic showing asteroid 1998 QE2, which caused a brief scare when it skimmed past Earth in 2013. But one day a space rock is bound to be on target, say worried scientists
Throughout its 4.5-billion-year history, Earth has been repeatedly pummelled by space rocks that have caused anything from an innocuous splash in the ocean to species annihilation.

When the next big impact will be, nobody knows.
But the pressure is on to predict—and intercept—its arrival.
"Sooner or later we will get... a minor or major impact," Rolf Densing, who heads the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany, told AFP ahead of International Asteroid Day on Friday.
It may not happen in our lifetime, he said, but "the risk that Earth will get hit in a devastating event one day is very high."
For now, there is little we can do.
And yet, the first-ever mission to crash a probe into a small space rock to alter its trajectory suffered a major setback when European ministers declined in December to fund part of the project.
"We are not ready to defend ourselves" against an Earth-bound object, said Densing. "We have no active planetary defence measures."
Hitherto relegated to the realms of science fiction, tactics could include nuking an incoming asteroid, using lasers to vaporise it, sending a space "tractor" to drag it off course, or bumping it into a new direction.
But first, we need to be able to spot the threat.
Astrophysicists monitoring the risk classify objects into sizes ranging from a few millimetres to behemoths 10 kilometres (6.2 miles) across—the size of rock that wiped out non-avian dinosaurs some 65 million years ago.
The smallest type enter Earth's atmosphere daily, burning up prettily as shooting stars.
End of days
The largest occur once every 100 million years, and the next impact could well ring in the end of human civilisation.
But when would it happen?
So far, experts have managed to list more than 90 percent of asteroids in the dino-killing range, and determined that none poses an immediate threat.
A much bigger concern is the whereabouts of millions of asteroids in the 15- to 140-metre (49- to 460-feet) range.
One such object, a 40-metre space rock, caused the largest impact in recent history when it exploded over Tunguska, Siberia, on June 30, 1908—the date on which Asteroid Day is marked.

The blast flattened some 80 million trees over 2,000 sparsely-populated square kilometres (772 square miles)—an area bigger than greater London.
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The shockwave from the 2013 Chelyabinsk impact damaged thousands of building—many people were hurt from flying glass
Tunguska-sized events happen, on average, every 300 years or so.
"Imagine that this type of asteroid would fall in a very populated area like... Paris or Germany, I mean this is something that would be really, really a catastrophe," said Nicolas Bobrinsky, programme manager of the European Space Agency's Space Situational Awareness project, which surveys asteroids.
At least the ones it knows of.
The Chelyabinsk impact in 2013, for example, caught everyone unawares.
A once-a-decade category rock of about 20m exploded in the atmosphere over central Russia with the kinetic energy of some 27 Hiroshima bombs.
The resulting shockwave blew out the windows of nearly 5,000 buildings and injured more than 1,200 people.
"Now that we have discovered most of the (asteroids) that are about a kilometre in size and larger, the goal is to discover most of the ones which are (up to) about 140 m," said Patrick Michel, an astrophysicist with France's CNRS research institute.
"This is the threshold—if an object of this size impacts the Earth—for regional damage at the scale of a country or a continent."
Another unknown is long-period comets: wanderers of the Solar System which can take centuries or millennia to orbit the Sun, and whose passage has never been recorded.
Eye on the sky
Europe is setting up a network of telescopes to provide us with a heads-up.
Scheduled for completion in about two years, it "will scan systematically the sky every night and any asteroid which is coming... would be detected with a warning time of approximately two to three weeks," said Bobrinsky.
This is admittedly "not much, but it's better than what we have now," he added.
At the very least, it would allow for cities to be evacuated, or a shockwave warning to be issued.
"Contrary to all other natural risks that we face on Earth, like tsunamis, earthquakes and things like that, this is the only one that we can predict," Michel said.
What is needed is cooperation between politicians and space agencies—and especially money.
An asteroid deflection system would require "something in the order of 300-400 million euros" (dollars), according to Bobrinsky—a minuscule amount compared to the cost of disaster.
The United Nations declared June 30 International Asteroid Day to raise public awareness about what event organisers describe as "humanity's greatest challenge".
It was initiated by astrophysicist and Queen guitarist Brian May, and moviemaker Grigorij Richters who directed the sci-fi film 51 Degrees North about an asteroid headed for London.
The initiative has the backing of dozens of scientists, astronauts, and celebrities, many of whom will take part in a special 24-hour live broadcast Friday, with round-the-clock asteroid programming by the European, Japanese and American space agencies.
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With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Skull fragments with carved long, deliberate lines found at Gobekli Tepe
June 29, 2017 by Bob Yirka report

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A pillar from Building D at Göbekli Tepe seen from the southeast. Credit: German Archaeological Institute (DAI)
(—A team of researchers with the German Archaeological Institute has found long, deliberate marks carved into ancient skulls found at the Göbekli Tepe dig site. In their paper published on the open access site Science Advances, the group describes the skull fragments they have been studying and offer some possible explanations for the markings they found.

Göbekli Tepe is the name given to an ancient temple in what is now southern Turkey—it was built approximately 11,000 years ago, during the Stone Age. Workers have been at the site for the past 20 years removing the soil covering the tall pieces of T-shaped limestone, some of which rise up to 18 feet from the ground. Thus far, researchers at the site report that it does not appear that the temple was used as living quarters, but was instead a temple where the locals gathered to perform rituals. One such ritual appears to have involved using human skulls—hundreds of them, broken into pieces, litter the areas between the limestone columns. These findings have caused researchers to label the site as evidence of one of the earliest skull cults. In this new effort, the researchers report that some of the skull pieces have been found to have lines cut into them.
The team determined that the skull fragments they found with the unique marks on them belonged to just three individuals—each had deep straight-line grooves carved into the bone and one of them also had a hole drilled through its top. The grooves were found to measure between 0.2 and 4 millimeters deep and were clearly made by a person using stone tools, rather than by another animal or other natural process. Also, it was determined that the grooves were made after the person had died—there was no bone growth suggesting natural repair. Also, it appeared likely that the grooves had been made shortly after the person had died, while the bone was still relatively elastic.
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Anthropomorphic depictions from Göbekli Tepe. (A) Intentionally decapitated human statue (height, 60 cm). Credit: Nico Becker, Göbekli Tepe Archive, DAI. (B) The gift bearer holds in his hands a human head (height, 26 cm). © Pillar 43 (building D) with low relief of an ithyphallic headless individual, one arm raised (bottom right). Credit: Dieter Johannes and Klaus Schmidt, Göbekli Tepe Archive, DAI
Because it is not clear why the grooves appeared only on three skulls, the researchers were left to generate theories—they believe one of the likeliest possibilities is that the grooves were made to hold cords in place while the skull was hoisted onto a pole using the drilled hole—possibly as a way to scare off enemies.
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Aerial view of Göbekli Tepe. Credit: German Archaeological Institute (DAI)

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Details of artificial skull modifications. A, C, D: carvings, B: drilled perforation. Credit:Julia Gresky, DAI
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Frontal bone fragment of skull 3 with carvings (1) and cut marks (2,3). Credit: Julia Gresky, Juliane Haelm, DAI.
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Skull fragments with cut marks. Credit: German Archaeological Institute
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Schematic drawings of Göbekli Tepe skulls. Gray, preserved elements; red, modifications. Credit: Julia Gresky, Juliane Haelm, DAI.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Ancient stone pillars offer clues of comet strike that changed human history
More information: Modified human crania from Göbekli Tepe provide evidence for a new form of Neolithic skull cult Science Advances  28 Jun 2017: Vol. 3, no. 6, e1700564, DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1700564
Archaeological excavations at Göbekli Tepe, a transitional Neolithic site in southeast Turkey, have revealed the earliest megalithic ritual architecture with characteristic T-shaped pillars. Although human burials are still absent from the site, a number of fragmented human bones have been recovered from fill deposits of buildings and from adjacent areas. We focus on three partially preserved human skulls, all of which carry artificial modifications of a type so far unknown from contemporaneous sites and the ethnographic record. As such, modified skull fragments from Göbekli Tepe could indicate a new, previously undocumented variation of skull cult in the Early Neolithic of Anatolia and the Levant. 

Journal reference: Science Advances

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Bizarro comet challenging researchers
June 29, 2017

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Credit: University of Central Florida
Scientists pursue research through observation, experimentation and modeling. They strive for all of these pieces to fit together, but sometimes finding the unexpected is even more exciting.

That's what happened to University of Central Florida's astrophysicist Gal Sarid, who studies comets, asteroids and planetary formation and earlier this year was part of a team that published a study focused on the comet 174P/Echeclus. It didn't behave the way the team was expecting.
"This is another clue that Echeclus is a bizarre solar system object," said University of South Florida physics research Professor Maria Womack, who leads the team.
Comets streak across the sky and as they get closer to the sun look like bright fuzz balls with extended luminous trails in their wake. However, comets are actually bulky spheres of mixed ice and rock, many of them also rich in other frozen volatile compounds, such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen cyanide and methanol.
Comets heat up as they get closer to the sun, losing their icy layers by sublimation and producing emission jets of water vapor, other gases and dust expelled from the comet nucleus, Sarid said. Once they move away from the sun, they cool off again. But some comets start showing emission activity while still very far from the sun, where heating is low.
That's what Sarid and Womack research as they study these kinds of distantly active comets. Womack and graduate student Kacper Wierzchos used the Arizona Radio Observatory Submillimeter telescope to observe Echeclus last year as it approached the sun. This work will be part of Wierzchos' doctoral dissertation in applied physics at USF. Sarid provided theoretical expertise for interpreting the observational results.
Echeclus is part of the population of objects called centaurs, which have orbits around the sun at distances between that of Jupiter and Neptune. It is also part of a special group within the centaurs, which sometimes exhibit comet-like activity. Previous research indicated that Echeclus might have been spewing carbon monoxide as its icy material changed phases.
The team found that the levels of carbon monoxide were nearly 40 times lower than typically expected from other comets at similar distances from the sun. This suggests that Echeclus and similar active Centaurs may be more fragile than other comets. Echeclus may have gone through a different physical process from most comets that caused it to lose a lot of its original carbon monoxide, or it may have had less of that substance to begin with.

Understanding the composition of comets and how they work will help researchers understand how our solar system was formed. It will also aid space explorers plan for their travels – things to avoid and perhaps hidden resources found within the nucleus of comets that may be useful on deep space missions.
"These are minor bodies that we are studying, but they can provide major insights," Sarid said. "We believe they are rich in organics and could provide important hints of how life originated."
Sarid is determined to solve the puzzle. This week he hosts a group of comet experts at UCF to discuss the mysterious activity of Echeclus and other similar bodies. The idea for the workshop is to capitalize on the local expertise in observation, laboratory and theoretical work that is required to fully understand the mysteries of active comets at great distances from the sun. The inaugural Florida Distant Comets workshop was held a year ago at USF.
"I guess I've always liked challenges," Sarid said from his office at the Florida Space Institute at UCF, where he spends his days trying to decipher the models and mathematical equations related to his work.
Sarid has a Ph.D. in geophysics and planetary Sciences from Tel Aviv University in Israel and completed postdoctoral work at the Institute for Astronomy and the NASA Astrobiology Institute in Hawaii, followed by a second postdoctoral research appointment at Harvard University. He was a part of a team that used the telescopes in Hawaii for several years chasing comets and asteroids for NASA observing campaigns and space missions before joining UCF in 2014.
He teamed up with Womack in 2016 and on this most recent study provided theoretical expertise for interpreting the observational results. The National Science Foundation funds the project, under a grant awarded to USF, with Womack as the principal investigator and Sarid as a co-investigator.
They will continue to look at centaur-type comets and measure the level of their carbon monoxide emission and related activity.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: NEOWISE identifies greenhouse gases in comets
More information: K. Wierzchos et al. Carbon Monoxide in the Distantly Active Centaur (60558) 174P/Echeclus at 6 au, The Astronomical Journal (2017). DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/aa689c ,
M. Womack et al. CO and Other Volatiles in Distantly Active Comets, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (2017). DOI: 10.1088/1538-3873/129/973/031001 , 
Journal reference: Astronomical Journal [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: University of Central Florida

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Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
The Gobekli Tepe "skull cult" is interesting.
My assumption is that the skulls are trophy heads.
The drilled hole in one skull  ...  Hmm2  ... ritual taste testers with a straw ?

I remember way back when this archaeological find first came out on gobekli tepe...
the information was that this site was purposely buried in it's ancient demise.
Seems fitting.
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What if it was a spear as an axis of Zenith in the trepann and the grooves were 
meridinal /hemispheric?

Skull 1 could have been actuated like a globe? 
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"SKULL #1" could possibly teach precession or perhaps simple earth geo-coordinates.
And they used these three dead-heads to demonstates the Heavens To  "Numb-skulls?

A College of Astronomy/Temple. 

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England’s first prehistoric stone ‘circles’ may have been square
It is believed to be the first prehistoric "stone square" ever discovered – in Britain or continental Europe [Image: avebury.jpg][img=788x0][/img]Stones at the Avebury stone circle PA Archive/PA Images

One of Britain’s most famous prehistoric monuments  - Avebury in Wiltshire – may be substantially more ancient than previously thought.

Investigations within the UNESCO World Heritage designated stone circle - the largest in Britain - have revealed a hitherto unknown, and probably very early, series of ancient standing stones, are arranged, not as a circle, but as a 30 metre by 30 metre square.

It is believed to be the first prehistoric "stone square" ever discovered – in Britain or continental Europe.  It is conceivable that the newly discovered monument, which would have originally consisted of around 17 standing stones, was built up to a thousand years before both Stonehenge’s  and Avebury’s surviving stone circles.

Most of the newly discovered stones (or in some cases the holes they had stood in) had been buried (or, in the case of stone holes, filled in) at some stage in prehistory – or, more probably, in mediaeval or early modern times.

What’s more, at the centre of the square, archaeologists, re-analysing pre-war archaeological records, have discovered the remains of a substantial Neolithic timber building – constructed in mid-fourth millennium BC style.

That would make the ten metre long, six metre wide building the oldest feature yet found at Avebury. It would also raise the possibility that the stone square, constructed around it, is equally old or was built slightly later but while the building was still standing (i.e., up to a few hundred years later). The sides of the building and the sides of the stone square are aligned with each other – so a relationship between the two is likely.

If the building does indeed date from some five and a half thousand years ago, the discovery helps push back the date of the origins of Avebury by up to a thousand years.

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The exact area where the archaeologists have found the prehistoric 'stone square' and timber building (National Trust)

If the newly discovered stone square also dates back to the fourth millennium BC, then it would potentially be the oldest standing stone complex in England – and around the same age as the oldest ones in Scotland.

What’s more, the square shape of the newly revealed early Avebury standing stone enclosure is totally unique – indeed without parallel anywhere. 

It is likely that both the rectangular building and the stone square surrounding it were of religious or ceremonial significance – but so far the archaeologists have found no clues as to the precise nature of any ritual or ceremonial activities that may have taken place there.

The early date for the stone square (and the building it appears to enclose) is also supported by two other pieces of evidence from Avebury. Both the site of the timber building and the stone square itself were located in the centre of a  100 metre diameter stone circle (in the southern half of Avebury) which was probably built at a later date – perhaps in or by the mid-third millennium BC.

A second identical stone circle was erected, presumably at around the same time, in the northern half of Avebury.


Man finds ancient medieval city on border of England and Wales

Significantly a group of three massive standing stones stood at the centre of that northern circle – and has been scientifically dated to somewhere between around 3500 and 2800BC.

The stylistic dating of the southern circle’s timber building and the scientific dating of the northern circle’s central standing stones both point to very early ceremonial activity at the centre of what would eventually become Avebury’s still surviving northern and southern stone circles.

Additional support for an early date for the newly discovered  timber building and stone square is also provided by fragments of pottery all dating from between 3600 BC and 2800 BC found many years ago in that specific area.

The discovery of a stone square, arguably pre-dating most British stone circles, raises the possibility that other similar monuments were built in the fourth millennium BC – but have simply not been discovered. The find therefore has the potential to completely rewrite the evolution of standing stone complexes in Britain.

The Avebury  UNESCO World Heritage Site, cared for by the National Trust, contains three stone circles – including Europe’s largest which is 330 metres across and originally comprised around 100 huge standing stones.

A research team led by the University of Leicester and the University of Southampton used a combination of electrical resistivity, ground-penetrating radar and archival research to investigate the site.
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Quote:30 by 30 meter square

It is conceivable that the newly discovered monument, 
which would have originally consisted 
of around 17 standing stones, 

a square ... with 17 stones ... something is either missing or wrong.

and I doubt that they used meters,
but they certainly used intended measurements to their best ability,
and positioned the stones to their own particular cultural art math.

the number count of the stones is important,
and the interpretation of a "square" is questionable.

3.2808399 is conversion factor  ... 
the "scientists" measured casually in meters ... neglected feet,
and could not make precise measures on those stone placements.

that "30 meter" measure is clearly quoted as approximate,
and makes much more sense from the ancient perspective as ---> 99 feet.

at 99 feet the ancient cubit 20.625 inches clearly comes into usage.
at 99 feet that is also exactly 90 of the ancient sumerian and saxon feet of 13.2 inches 

99 feet is about 6 inches longer than 30 meters

a better link perhaps


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more images at link
END OF WORLD WARNING: Watch biggest explosion EVER on Moon as NASA warns we could be next
A METEOR with the explosive power of TEN cruise missiles has struck the Moon – sparking a massive explosion visible with the naked eye.
PUBLISHED: 08:13, Fri, Jul 7, 2017 | UPDATED: 15:06, Fri, Jul 7, 2017

And terrifyingly the 56,000 mph collision – captured by NASA scientists highlighting the catastrophic danger planet earth faces from similar meteors – was caused by a space rock weighing no more than 88 lbs (40 kilos).

Despite the meteor’s tiny proportions – about the size of a small boulder and the weight of an average 10-year-old boy – the impact damage was colossal and the explosion shone with the brightness of a magnitude 4 star.

[Image: Moon-meteor-impact-strike-825642.jpg][img=590x0][/img]GETTY
The moon was struck by a meteor creating the an explosion visible with the naked eye

A similar strike against a city on earth would create a crater 65feet (20m) deep and create a devastating kill zone equivalent to TEN Tomahawk cruise missile striking in exactly the same place.

Experts fear the death toll would run into thousands.

Unlike the Moon the Earth has a protective atmosphere meaning most space debris burns up before it can impact. 
But bigger meteors sometimes get through – most recently at Chelyabinsk in Russia where a 20 metre asteroid travelling at 43,000 mph breached the atmosphere and exploded with the power of 33 Hiroshimas. 

Fortunately because of the speed and angle of entry the rock exploded while still in the air but 7,200 buildings were damaged and 1,500 people were injured seriously enough to seek medical treatment.

A spokesman for respected science website said: “For the past eight years NASA has been monitoring the Moon for signs of explosions caused by meteors.

“They’ve just seen the biggest explosion in the history of the programme.

[Image: Meteor-moon-992535.jpg][img=590x0][/img]SG

The explosive power of the meteor was the equivalent of ten cruise missiles

“It exploded in a flash 10 times as bright as anything we’ve seen before. Anyone looking at the Moon at the moment of impact could have seen the explosion – no telescope required.”

The Chelyabinsk meteor is the largest known natural object to have entered Earth's atmosphere since the 1908 Tunguska meteor, which destroyed a wide, remote, forested, and very sparsely populated area of Siberia.

Meteor weighing 570kg hits Russia at 43,000mph

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NASA is so concerned about the possibility of an asteroid strike ending all life on earth it has started the first design phase of a spacecraft known as the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) which will be used to redirect an asteroid’s path.

NASA is working in conjunction with the European Space Agency (ESA) on the craft and hope to have the first space tests underway by 2022 where it will attempt to move a “non-threatening” asteroid. 

[Image: Moon-meteor-Russia-992536.jpg][img=590x0][/img]GETTY

Experts fear a similar impact on earth could cause tens of thousands of deaths
Lindley Johnson, planetary defence officer at Nasa Headquarters in Washington, said: “DART would be NASA’s first mission to demonstrate what’s known as the kinetic impactor technique – striking the asteroid to shift its orbit – to defend against a potential future asteroid impact.

“This approval step advances the project toward an historic test with a non-threatening small asteroid.”
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
(07-01-2017, 02:54 AM)Vianova Wrote: ...

Quote:30 by 30 meter square

It is conceivable that the newly discovered monument, 
which would have originally consisted 
of around 17 standing stones, 

a square ... with 17 stones ... something is either missing or wrong.

and I doubt that they used meters, Arrow
but they certainly used intended measurements to their best ability,
and positioned the stones to their own particular cultural art math.

the number count of the stones is important,
and the interpretation of a "square" is questionable.

[Image: TELEMMGLPICT000133243122-large_trans_NvB...GNbO8.jpeg]

Was the metre invented by the Ancient Egyptians 4500 years ago?
Posted on 2013-06-07 by admin
One of our readers, John Frewen-Lord, speculates that the metre may be the modern version of a measure that was familiar to the Pharaohs.
While we think of today’s metric system (SI) as mostly a modern invention (1960), we have been led to believe for many years now that its most fundamental base unit, the metre, originated in France in 1793, and represented one ten-millionth of the earth’s quadrant (the distance from the earth’s equator to the North Pole, as measured at sea level) . Yet just a few years ago, the late Pat Naughtin discovered that the proposal for a universal standard of length very close to the metre may in fact have originated much earlier, via Bishop John Wilkins, an English cleric and philosopher, and a member of the Royal Society, in the mid-1600s. Recent comments on Metric Views now bring even that assertion into doubt, with the discovery of a measuring device called the wand having been around much longer still.
It is known that the wand, divided into ten segments, was almost exactly, to within a few millimetres, the same length as today’s metre, and that it was used as long as 1000 years ago. But what if all these versions of the metre were simply the rediscovery (or the handing down over time) of a standard measure, equating to the metre, that was invented in Egypt over 4500 years ago?
When we think of units of measure used in Biblical times, the cubit usually springs to mind. In fact, opponents of metric conversion have often referred to the cubit, in jest at least, as having as much validity as the metre. Such people should be careful for what they wish for, for, as we shall see, the cubit and the metre may in fact be directly related – and remarkably both are directly traceable to the Great Pyramid at Giza.
At first sight, such direct relationship may not be immediately apparent. There are a number of variations of the cubit, each different in length, but it is accepted that the Egyptian royal cubit is the definitive cubit, of which a physical example is on display in the Liverpool museum. Used to set out the Great Pyramid, its length measures 524 mm, or 0.524 m. For anyone hoping to see a nice round relationship between the cubit and the metre, I’m afraid the story is much more complicated than that! But keep in mind that number of 0.524 – for it will crop up again.
Let us look briefly at some of the mathematical properties of the Great Pyramid. Apart from the fact that it is just 3/60ths of a degree off an orientation of true north (the Prime Meridian through Greenwich is 9/60ths of a degree out of such an alignment), the Great Pyramid contains some quite stunning dimensional relationships between the numerical constants of pi (?), phi (?) and Phi (?) – and those relationships involve a dimension that is exactly equal to today’s metre. Let us explore this a bit further.
We all know what pi is. It is the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter, and is approximately equal to 3.1416 (another number to keep in mind). We are probably less familiar with Phi and phi. One is the reciprocal of the other, with values of 1.618 and 0.618 respectively. The value of 1.618 is known as Phi with a capital P (?), while the reciprocal 0.618 value is represented by the lower case phi (?), and the two collectively are known by many names, such as the Golden Ratio, the Golden Mean, the Golden Number, and others, but they are values that exist throughout nature. Their discovery is attributed to mathematician Fibonacci in the 13th century.
Fibonacci noted that much of nature – and indeed much of Roman architecture – encompassed relationships of 1.618 and 0.618 for various aspects of design, and that these relationships relate to what is known as the Fibonacci sequence, consisting of 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, and so on, where each number is the sum of the previous two numbers. What is not always realised is that if you take any two adjacent numbers, say 55 and 89, you can obtain two ratios – 1.618 if you divide the second by the first, and 0.618 if you divide the first by the second (the minor variations in the decimal places get smaller as the numbers get bigger, coinciding at infinity). The Golden Ratio has a few unique properties – in fact these equations work only with the Golden Ratio and nothing else:
? = 1 + ? (i.e. 1.618 = 1 + 0.618);
? = 1/? (i.e. 1.618 = 1 ÷ 0.618);
? + 1 = ?² (i.e. 1.618 + 1 = 1.618² = 2.618);
? – 1 = 1/? (i.e. 1.618 – 1 = 1 ÷ 1.618 =0.618).
If we skip alternate numbers in the Fibonacci sequence, we end up with the same result as either ?² or adding 1 to ? – e.g. 144 ÷ 55 = 2.618 = 1.618 + 1 = 1.618² (keep in mind also the number of 2.618). Now you may be saying that this is all very interesting, but what has it got to do with the Great Pyramid at Giza, let alone the origins of the metre? All will become clear!
It is well known and accepted that the Great Pyramid incorporates the value of ? in its geometry – this was discovered by Englishman John Taylor in 1859, when he found that if you divide half the length of the Pyramid’s base perimeter by its height, you end up with ?. The base length of one side is 230.3 m, while its original height is 146.6 m. Therefore (230.3 x 2) ÷ 146.6 = 3.1418 – not precisely ?, but then the height of 146.6 m is at best an estimate of just how high the Pyramid was 4500 years ago (the very top is now missing, as is part of its external cladding, and ground level has likely changed). Likewise, take a circle with the same circumference as the perimeter of the base of the Great Pyramid. Calculate the radius of this circle. It will be found to be exactly equal to the Great Pyramid’s height (230.3 x 4 = 921.2. 921.2 ÷ (2 x 3.1416) = 146.6).
We must note that these relationships, along with many other relationships embodied in the Great Pyramid, can be made using any measurement units – they are not exclusive to the metre.
The Golden Ratio ? is there as well. If we take the surface area of the four sides, and divide that by the area of the base, we come to the value of ? (4 x 0.5 x 230.3 x 186.4 ÷ 230.3² = 1.618). Again, that is purely a ratio, and is not dependent upon any particular unit of measure. But now let us do some more calculations involving the Great Pyramid’s geometry that are dependent upon the metre – and only the metre.
  • If we add two of the sides of the Pyramid’s base together, then subtract the height, we end up with a rounded value of 100 x ? (230.3 x 2 – 146.6 = 314.0).
  • The King’s Chamber measures 5.24 m x 10.47 m. The Chamber’s perimeter = 10 x ? (31.42 m). There are also many measurements in the King’s Chamber that relate to even multiples of ?, but only using metres.
  • If we draw two circles, one circumscribing the Pyramid’s base (i.e. intersecting the four corners) and one inside (i.e. touching the mid-point of each side), then subtract, in metres, the circumference of the inner circle from that of the outer circle, you end up with a figure of 299.71. This is almost exactly one millionth of the speed of light in metres per second (299 792 458 m/s – the slight discrepancy is due to rounding at various points along the way).
Hold on – the ancient Egyptians may have known about the metre, but surely they didn’t know about the second? Perhaps they did. The length of two sides of the base of the Great Pyramid is the distance a point on the equator moves through space in exactly one second.
I’m sure if you tried hard enough, the Great Pyramid may be found to contain some mathematics that support imperial measures, even though things like the foot and inch were not anywhere near close to existence 4500 years ago, and anyway are promoted as being based on human properties, not mathematical ones. But there is one thing that really does indicate that the ancient Egyptians were very familiar with the metre. I mentioned early on in this article that the cubit, which was used to build the Great Pyramid (each side has a length of 440 cubits), was 0.524 m long, an apparently odd relationship to the metre. Let us however look at three equations:[/size]
  • One sixth of ? is 0.5236 – to all intents and purposes exactly the length of the cubit in metres (to within 0.4 mm of the known physical example, and even that assumes that this example’s stated length has not been rounded to three decimal places); quite why one sixth is not clear, but the Great Pyramid is located exactly 30° above the equator – i.e. one sixth of the distance between the two poles.
  • One fifth of ?² (2.618) = 0.5236 – again, exactly the length of the cubit in metres. There are five increments of 72° in a circle of 360°. It is known that the earth wobbles slightly on its axis, at the rate of 1° every 72 years.
  • ? – ?² (3.1416 – 2.618) = 0.5236 – another relationship that yields the length of the cubit in metres, and ties together, by means of the cubit (and hence the metre), the two constants that are embedded in the Great Pyramid’s mathematical properties.
These equations cannot be pure chance or coincidence, but must have been created by a society that knew all about the metre 4500 years ago, and from which they derived the cubit. One thing is certain – no measurement unit can be more natural than the metre, based as it is on nature’s constants of ? and ? (not to mention the circumference of the earth). Clever people, those ancient Egyptians.
[Note: I claim little original material in this article, but have made extensive use of sources from Wikipedia, YouTube and others, all of which must be treated with the usual caution as to their absolute accuracy. J F-L][/size]

[Image: (16).PNG]
Use cylindrical coordinates for the Galactic plane to define the Sun’s motion w.r.t the Local Standard of Rest
The Sun (and most stars) are on slightly perturbed orbits that resemble rosettes making it difficult to measure relative motions of stars around the Sun.
Establish a reference frame that is a perfect circular orbit about the Galactic Center.
Local Standard of Rest - reference frame for measuring velocities in the Galaxy.
Position of the Sun if its motion were completely governed by circular motion around the Galaxy.
Local Standard of Rest

Slide 17
[Image: (17).PNG]
To determine the Suns motion wrt to LSR, we observe the average motions of all stars in the Sun’s vicinity and measure the following:

Π - Πo = U (speed away from GC) = -10.4 km/s [7.5 +/-1 km/s]

Z - Zo = W (speed towards NGP) = 7.3 km/s [6.8 (+/- 0.1) km/s]

Θ - Θo = V (speed in direction of motion) = V = 14.8 km/s [13.5 (+/- 3) km/s]

The Sun is moving toward the Galactic center, faster than the LSR, and northward toward the NGP. Net motion is 19.5 km/s in the direction of constellation Hercules

Quote:and I doubt that they used meters, Arrow 

but they certainly used intended measurements to their best ability,
and positioned the stones to their own particular cultural art math.



[Image: tumblr_mj0vvcqnZx1qdlh1io1_400.gif]

Nothing is standing or stationary. As you are reading this, the Earth spins around its own axis; it revolves around the sun, the sun is moving through space at a stunning 792,000 km/h around the gigantic center, and our universe is moving at a mind-boggling 2.1 million kilometers per hour.

You may contemplate that as you are reading this, your body in a stationary position. But, everything inside the universe travels, from our planet (Earth) –which revolves on its axis at a speed of approximately 1700 km/h— to the solar system and even the Milky Way Galaxy.

All the planets in the solar system and their personal moons also travel through space. Actually, in order to retain a stable orbit, it is essential for Earth to move around 30 km/s. The innermost planets in our system, Mercury and Venus travel faster while planet Mars and the external planets of our solar system fly through space at a sluggish pace.

But think superior and bigger. Even yet the Sun is at the heart of our solar system, it is also traveling at an unbelievable speed through space. If we consider even bigger, we will understand that even our gigantic Milky Way galaxy is in motion, and all continuing things that make up the universe such as stars, gas clouds, planets, black holes and even the mighty dark matter travel within the universe.

Just as Earth revolve around the Sun and our Sun revolves the galactic center –which from our vantage point is situated around 2500 light-years away— in an elliptic trajectory. It finishes a revolution every 225 million years roughly. This is known as a Galactic year.

It is predicted that since the Sun and Earth came into being, 20 galactic years have passed, which means that we ended 20 successful revolutions orbiting the galactic center. However, if we relate detailed human history to our movement through the universe, we would understand we hardly moved in our galactic path.

But what about the Speed? In order to finish a successful revolution around the galactic center, the Star (Sun) has to travel at a stunning speed of 792,000 km/h. Including Earth and all other objects in our complete solar system follow the sun at this obsessive speed.

In comparison, light-travels at a mesmerizing speed of 1.09 BILLION km/h.
Though, not only do moons, planets, and in this particular case, our sun travels through space, the galaxy also moves through space, pushed by the gravitation of other enormous objects in the universe.

As it turns out, our Galaxy is now being thrown, by other huge galaxies and clusters in the surrounding area — near a certain point in the universe.

But wait a minute, related to WHAT is we actually calculating the movement through the universe? Well, when arguing our speed around the Milky Way Galaxy, researchers are capable to measure it relative to the HEART of the Milky Way Galaxy.
[Image: The-universe.jpeg]
However, the Milky Way Galaxy isn’t motionless or stationary, and it also moves through the universe. So is there anything to which its motion can be compared?

For a long period time, astronomers and scientists were not able to answer any questions like this. We can compare our galaxy’s speed with other galaxies, but all the other galaxies travel through the universe just as the Milky Way Galaxy does.
In order to answer this mystery, astronomers and scientists point towards the CBR (Cosmic Background Radiation) and the Big Bang.

As stated by [url=]NASAThe Big Bang theory guesses that the early universe was an extremely hot place and that as it grows; the gas within it gets cooler. Therefore the universe should be packed with radiation that is exactly the remnant heat left from the Big Bang, called the “Cosmic Microwave Background,” or CMB. The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation was produced 13.7 billion years ago.

Theoretically speaking, the CBR suggests experts with a frame of reference for the entire universe, compared to which we can determine and calculate our motion.
In order to get knowledge of how fast we’re travelling through the universe, astronomers need to take away the motion of planet Earth around the Sun and the Sun around the center of the Milky Way from the movement measured compared to the Cosmic Microwave Background (CBR).

This means that the Milky Way Galaxy is travelling through space at an amazing speed of 2.1 million km/h, in the direction of the constellations of Virgo and Leo; exactly where the so-called Great Attractor is situated.

Maybe they did use an ancient form of the METER???

The Ancients have shown precision we only thought was possible in modern times.

Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...

It is quite doubtful that the Egyptians used the meter.
If they did, then they used both measures -- feet and meters.
Also their meter would have been dependent on their interpretation of the speed of light.
That math data used in all that profusity was all errant right from the get go,
because he used incorrect data.
He obviously tried to use Lehner data for the base length,
and didn't even get the data right at 230.3 meters Whip
It is 230.33 meters via Lehner.
It makes a major difference when you are extrapolating numbers out in equations. 

His Royal Cubit was nonsense at 0.524 meters,
which is 20.62992129 inches.

However just for fun,
we can do some backtrack with some well known royal cubit candidates
conversion factor 3.2808399
20.625 ----     = 165 / 8   =  0.523875 meters ---- 0.5238 749999 ....
20.618 18 18  =  1134 / 55  =  0.523701817~  meters

20.62648062 = {4 / Pi} x 16.2  =  {18 x 360} / 100 pi --- 0.523912607~ meters

when attempting to find a positive, or better worded,
a viable corraletion between a foot measure,
and a meter measure,
you see above that the cubit 20.625 offers the most viable meter measure.

This happens only when the prime 127 Whip  is a common multiple. 

0.523875  --->  523875 ---> = 4125 x 127

I was able to construct a Khafre style pyramid base with 3 of the 4 uneven base lengths,
having the 127 prime vectored cubit to meter conversion capacity in one case.
It was difficult,
I could not find a fourth cubit candidate on the remaining uneven base length  Hmm2


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