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Boom! A Cosmic Impact On Our History?
Quote:Thread Review (Newest First)
Posted by Vianova - Today, 04:48 am

It is quite doubtful that the Egyptians used the meter.
If they did, then they used both measures -- feet and meters.
[Image: ss-sing.jpg]
Perhaps the meter was discovered audibly??? 

[Image: sh.jpg]
Sammy Snake & Harry Hat Man

Sammy Snake loves to hiss,
so he hisses a lot,
hisses a lot, hisses a lot.
Sammy Snake loves to hiss,
so he hisses a lot.
There aren't many hisses he misses.

But the Hat Man hates noise
and hushes him up.
The Hat Man hates noise
and hushes him up.
The Hat Man says 'sh'
as he hushes.
'Sh, sh, sh!'.

The Ether Model & The Hand of God - Page 51 - Google Books Result

Now, the speed of light is 300,000,000 meters per second (in vacuo)—huge in comparison with thespeed of sound (in air) at 333 meters per second.

I-physics Iv Tm' 2006 Ed. - Page 110 - Google Books Result

The speed of sound is equivalent to twice your distance from the wall divided by ... to this measurement is: 1000 meters = 333 1/3 meters per second 3 seconds.

Wireless telegraphy and wireless telephony an elementary treatise
A.E. Kennelly - History
Spireri of Electromagnetic W acres The speed of sound waves in air we have seen to be in the neighborhood of 333 meters per second, (1090 feet per second or ...

Would you take note if eye snap my finger but you saw it first there Sheep heard it second later here?

~333 meters per second because Many cultures seemed to know what a "Second" of time is.

Have you heard the word @ ~333???

If gobekli tepi is a form of the:  zep tepi

And an eye to the sky needed accute visionaries...

Two ducks with one ashalar

[Image: yyouareaduck.gif] 

A set of possibilities on Naked-eye accurate astronomy and how the Constellations were envisioned!!!

However, one of the most beautiful galaxies we can see with the naked eye isvisible in the night sky all this month (November). The nearby Andromeda Galaxy, also called M31, is bright enough to be seen by the naked eye on dark, moonless nights.

Can you see other galaxies without a telescope? - NASA

[Image: m31.gif]
Exposure to a common visual illusion may enhance your ability to read fine print
July 12, 2017

[Image: exposuretoac.jpg]
Our ability to discriminate fine detail isn’t solely governed by the optics of our eyes. Credit: Dr Rob Jenkins
Exposure to a common visual illusion may enhance your ability to read fine print, according to new research from psychologists at the Universities of York and Glasgow.

Synapses in the brain mirror the structure of the visual world
July 12, 2017

[Image: synapsesinth.jpg]
Our brain is especially good at perceiving lines and contours even if they do not actually exist, such as the blue triangle in the foreground of this optical illusion. The pattern of neuronal connections in the brain supports this ability. Credit: University of Basel, Biozentrum
The research team of Prof. Sonja Hofer at the Biozentrum, University of Basel, has discovered why our brain might be so good at perceiving edges and contours. Neurons that respond to different parts of elongated edges are connected and thus exchange information. This can make it easier for the brain to identify contours of objects. The results of the study are now published in the journal Nature.

plural noun: constellations

  1. a group of stars forming a recognizable pattern that is traditionally named after its apparent form or identified with a mythological figure. Modern astronomers divide the sky into eighty-eight constellations with defined boundaries.
    • a group or cluster of related things.
      "no two patients ever show exactly the same constellation of symptoms"

Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
House-sized near Earth objects rarer than we thought
August 30, 2017

[Image: housesizedne.jpg]
Observations with the Blanco Telescope (left) determined the number of house-sized objects in near-Earth orbit. Objects in this size range are responsible for Chelyabinsk-like bolide events (right). Credits: left – T. Abbott & NOAO/AURA/NSF; right – A. Alishevskikh
In 2013 a small meteoroid, the size of a house, hurtled through Earth's atmosphere and exploded over the Russian city of Chelyabinsk. The explosion shattered windows, and more than a thousand people were treated for injuries from flying debris. How many similar-sized rocks have orbits that bring them close to Earth? A new study has answered that question using the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the Blanco telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. The result lends new insights into the nature and origin of small meteoroids.

Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are asteroids or comets whose orbits bring them close to Earth's orbit. Their close approach makes them a potential Earth-impact hazard capable of causing widespread destruction.
While very large (10 kilometer-sized) impactors can induce mass extinction events like the event that led to the demise of the dinosaurs, much smaller impactors can also wreak havoc. The meteoroid that exploded in Chelyabinsk unleashed a powerful shock wave that destroyed buildings and blew people off their feet. Relatively petite at a 'mere' 17 meters in diameter, comparable to the size of a 6-story building, the impactor, when it exploded, released about ten times the energy of the Hiroshima atomic bomb.
A survey for NEOs being carried out with DECam on the 4-m Blanco telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory has now estimated the number of objects in near-Earth orbit that are similar in size to the Chelyabinsk impactor. Lori Allen, Director of the Kitt Peak National Observatory and the lead investigator on the study, explained, "There are around 3.5 million NEOs larger than 10 meters, a population ten times smaller than inferred in previous studies. About 90% of these NEOs are in the Chelyabinsk size range of 10-20 meters."
The study, to be published in the Astronomical Journal, is the first to derive, from a single observational data set with no external model assumptions, the size distribution of NEOs from 1 kilometer down to 10 meters. A similar result was obtained in an independent study that analyzed multiple data sets (Tricarico 2017).

What’s interesting about house-sized Near Earth Objects? This trailer video describes the motivation for the study. Credit: Pete Marenfeld
While the surprising results do not alter the impact threat from house-sized NEOs, which is constrained by the observed rate of Chelyabinsk-like bolide events, they do lend new insights into the nature and origin of small NEOs.
David Trilling (Northern Arizona University), the first author of the study, explained how the study reconciled the surprisingly small number of house-sized NEOs with the observed rate of Chelyabinsk-like events: "If house-sized NEOs are responsible for Chelyabinsk-like events, our results seem to say that the average impact probability of a house-sized NEO is actually ten times greater than the average impact probability of a large NEO. That sounds strange, but it may be telling us something interesting about the dynamical history of NEOs."

Trilling speculates that the orbital distributions of large and small NEOs differ, with small NEOs concentrated in bands of collisional debris that are more likely to impact Earth. Bands of debris could be produced when larger NEOs fragment into swarms of smaller boulders. Testing this hypothesis is an interesting problem for the future.
Estimating the study's detection efficiency was critical to the result. Frank Valdes (NOAO), who developed the data reduction and analysis pipeline for the project, pointed out that "The best way to measure detection efficiency is by implanting synthetic NEOs into the data stream and then detecting the fake ones in the same way real NEOs are detected."
Well-matched to the study of small, faint NEOs, the large aperture of the 4-meter Blanco telescope and the wide field-of-view of DECam were also vital to the study. Describing the broad science reach of DECam, Allen remarked, "DECam has the power to revolutionize many fields of astronomy, from our understanding of dark matter and dark energy, to the search for distant planets in our Solar System and our understanding of the near-Earth environment."
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Dead comets and near-earth encounters
More information: "The size distribution of Near Earth Objects larger than 10 meters," Trilling et al. 2017, Astronomical Journal, in press. Preprint: 
Journal reference: Astronomical Journal [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Read more at:[/url][url=]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...

Close Call!

[Image: nurse-arrest21.jpg]

Sept.1st Impact Improv goes with the Flo  Arrow

Florence Nightingale - Wikipedia

Florence Nightingale, OM, RRC, DStJ was an English social reformer and statistician, and the founder of modern nursing. She came to prominence while ...
Nightingale Pledge · ‎Florence Nightingale Faculty ... · ‎Florence Nightingale effect[/size]

Largest asteroid in a century to whiz by Sept 1
August 30, 2017

[Image: thelargestas.jpg]
The largest asteroid in more than a century will whiz safely past Earth on September 1 at a safe but unusually close distance of about 4.4 million miles (7 million kilometers), NASA said
The largest asteroid in more than a century will whiz safely past Earth on September 1 at a safe but unusually close distance of about 4.4 million miles (7 million kilometers), NASA said.

The asteroid was discovered in 1981, and is named Florence after the famed 19th century founder of modern nursing, Florence Nightingale.
"Florence is the largest asteroid to pass this close to our planet since the first near-Earth asteroid was discovered over a century ago," said a US space agency statement.
It is one of the biggest asteroids in the Earth's vicinity, and measures about 2.7 miles (4.4 kilometers) wide—or about the size of 30 Egyptian pyramids stuck together.
"While many known asteroids have passed by closer to Earth than Florence will on September 1, all of those were estimated to be smaller," said Paul Chodas, manager of NASA's Center for Near-Earth Object Studies.
Scientists plan to study the asteroid up close when it passes, using ground-based radar imaging in California and Puerto Rico.
"The resulting radar images will show the real size of Florence and also could reveal surface details as small as about 30 feet (10 meters)," said NASA.
This pass will be Florence's closest "since 1890 and the closest it will ever be until after 2500," added the US space agency.
Asteroids are small, natural rocky bodies that orbit the Sun.
Large asteroid collisions with Earth are rare.
A car-sized asteroid hits Earth's atmosphere about once a year and burns up before reaching the surface.
"About every 2,000 years or so, a meteoroid the size of a football field hits Earth and causes significant damage to the area," said NASA.
"Finally, only once every few million years, an object large enough to threaten Earth's civilization comes along."
Scientists are confident that Florence will not be one of them.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Large asteroid to safely pass earth on September 1

Read more at:

Florence Alex Wubbels Nightingale - Wikipedia

Florence Nightingale, OM, RRC, DStJ was an English social reformer and statistician, and the founder of modern nursing. She came to prominence while ...
‎[url=]Nightingale Pledge · ‎Florence Nightingale Faculty ... · ‎Florence Nightingale effect


Nurse was defending unconscious truck driver who had been injured in hit-and-run accident
Shepard Ambellas | - SEPTEMBER 1, 2017

[Image: nurse-arrest21.jpg]

A Salt Lake City nurse has released police body camera and hospital surveillance footage which she claims shows her being illegally arrested back in late July after refusing police orders to draw blood from an unconscious patient.

Utah University Hospital nurse Alex Wubbels was in charge on July 26th when law enforcement officials arrived and ordered her to extract the blood of an unconscious truck driver who had been injured in a hit-and-run accident earlier that day.
Wubbels says she was just doing her job and was protecting her patient’s privacy when she was arrested and dragged out of the hospital by a Salt Lake City police detective, who the nurse says illegally arrested and assaulted her.

An analysis of the video confirms that on the day of the incident Wubbels correctly informed Detective Jeff Payne of the hospital’s policy when she explained to him that only “three things” would allow her to draw blood from her patient.

You need an “electronic warrant, patient consent,” or a patient must be under arrest for the blood to be taken, the nurse explained to Payne with papers in hand.

That’s when the frustrated detective can be heard asking Wubbels, “So without those in place, I’m not going to get blood? Am I fair to surmise that?”

“We’re done. You’re under arrest,” the detective said.

The detective then grabbed the nurse and dragged her out of the building as she screamed at the top of her lungs and cried, “Help! Help! Somebody help me! Stop! Stop! I did nothing wrong!”

The nurse was then handcuffed and taken to the station where she was later released without any charges.

An internal police investigation into the matter is being conducted and Det. Payne has been suspended from the department’s blood draw program, but still remains on active duty with the force, as the Salt Lake City Tribune reported.
No lawsuit has been filed, but Wubbels is in touch with an attorney and hopes the footage will be used as a police educational tool for future situations.

The nurse was then handcuffed and taken to the station where she was later released without any charges.

[Image: sexy-nurse.jpg]
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Large asteroid to safely pass earth on September 1

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Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Close call! Impact!
Meteorite impact caused the highest temperature ever recorded on Earth's surface
September 18, 2017 by Bob Yirka report

[Image: earth.jpg]
Credit: CC0 Public Domain
An international team of researchers has found evidence of an ancient meteorite colliding with ground rock on Earth, producing the highest temperature ever recorded on the planet's surface. In their paper published in the journal Earth and Planetary Science Letters, the team describes their findings after studying an impact crater in Canada and how they were able to calculate the temperature for an impact that occurred so many years ago.

Planetary scientists believe that Earth was bombarded on a regular basis during its formative years—by meteorites and other space rocks. Some of those collisions left behind evidence that is still observable today in the form of craters. One of them is Mistastin Lake crater located in Labrador Canada, which is approximately 28 kilometers across, suggesting that the object that struck the Earth there was large. The researchers dated the collision that caused the crater back to approximately 38 million years ago.
Most craters, the researchers note, do not have much if any evidence of the object that caused them—they vaporize on impact. Likewise, most of the material struck by meteors tends to vaporize, as well. Because of this, it has been difficult to learn more about the nature of the space rocks and the conditions that occurred when they struck. One thing scientists do know, however, is that when collisions occur, a lot of energy is released in the form of heat—the question is how much. In this new effort, the researchers found a way to measure the heat produced when the object struck the ground in Canada.
In studying the crater, the researchers found evidence of zircon, a common mineral, being changed into cubic zirconia. Prior work with both minerals has shown that temperatures of 2370° C are required for that to take place. Thus, the heat generated by the impact had to have reached at least that temperature. The finding represents the hottest temperature ever found to exist naturally on the surface of the Earth. The researchers note that this is the first time zirconia has ever been used to calculate the heat of an impact and also shows that some rocks can get hotter naturally than has been thought.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Transformations to granular zircon revealed: Meteor Crater, Arizona
More information: Nicholas E. Timms et al. Cubic zirconia in >2370 °C impact melt records Earth's hottest crust, Earth and Planetary Science Letters (2017). DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2017.08.012 
Journal reference: Earth and Planetary Science Letters

Read more at:[/url]

Close calls  Arrow x 8 =  Cry

Possible Earth impact. On average, an asteroid with a diameter of 500 m (1,600 ft; 0.31 mi) can be expected to impact Earth about every 130,000 years or so. 

A 2010 dynamical study by Andrea Milani and collaborators predicted a series of eight potential Earth impacts by Bennu between 2169 and 2199.

[url=]101955 Bennu - Wikipedia
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Big 7.1 Mag Earthquake in Mexico:


Hurricane Heading West   Cry Spacecraft

Bob... Ninja Alien2
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Dino-killing asteroid sped up bird evolution
September 21, 2017 by Vicky Just

[Image: dinokillinga.jpg]
An average-sized bird from immediately before the K-Pg boundary weighed around 1kg, similar to a Yellow-billed Duck (left); an average-sized bird today is roughly 37g, the size of the Cape Weaver (right). Credit: Daniel J. Field
Human activities could change the pace of evolution, similar to what occurred 66 million years ago when a giant asteroid wiped out the dinosaurs, leaving modern birds as their only descendants. That's one conclusion drawn by the authors of a new study just published in Systematic Biology.

Read more at:

Dr Daniel Field from the Milner Centre for Evolution at the University of Bath and Cornell PhD candidate Jacob Berv suggest that the meteor-induced mass extinction (a.k.a. the K-Pg event) led to an acceleration in the rate of genetic evolution among its avian survivors. These survivors may have been much smaller than their pre-extinction relatives.
Lilliput effect
"There is good evidence that size reductions after mass extinctions have occurred in many groups of organisms," says Berv. Paleontologists have dubbed this phenomenon the "Lilliput Effect"—a nod to the classic tale Gulliver's Travels. "All of the new evidence we have reviewed is also consistent with a Lilliput Effect affecting birds across the K-Pg mass extinction."
"Smaller birds tend to have faster metabolic rates and shorter generation times," Field explains. "Our hypothesis is that these important biological characters, which affect the rate of DNA evolution, may have been influenced by the K-Pg event."
Rocks and clocks
The researchers jumped into this line of inquiry because of the long-running "rocks and clocks" debate. Different studies often report substantial discrepancies between age estimates for groups of organisms implied by the fossil record and estimates generated by molecular clocks. Molecular clocks use the rate at which DNA sequences change to estimate how long ago new species arose, assuming a relatively steady rate of genetic evolution. But if the K-Pg extinction caused avian molecular clocks to temporarily speed up, Berv and Field say this could explain at least some of the mismatch. "Size reductions across the K-Pg extinction would be predicted to do exactly that," says Berv.
[Image: 1-dinokillinga.jpg]
This study shows that evolution of birds sped up after the mass extinction caused by the asteroid hit. Credit: Jillian Ditner, Cornell Lab of Ornithology
"The bottom line is that, by speeding up avian genetic evolution, the K-Pg mass extinction may have substantially altered the rate of the avian molecular clock," says Field. "Similar processes may have influenced the evolution of many groups across this extinction event, like plants, mammals, and other forms of life."
The authors suggest that human activity may even be driving a similar Lilliput-like pattern in the modern world, as more and more large animals go extinct because of hunting, habitat destruction, and climate change.
"Right now, the planet's large animals are being decimated—the big cats, elephants, rhinos, and whales," notes Berv. "We need to start thinking about conservation not just in terms of functional biodiversity loss, but about how our actions will affect the future of evolution itself."
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Mass extinction may not cause all organisms to 'shrink'
More information: Jacob S. Berv et al. Genomic Signature of an Avian Lilliput Effect across the K-Pg Extinction, Systematic Biology (2017). DOI: 10.1093/sysbio/syx064 
Journal reference: Systematic Biology [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: University of Bath

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Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Asteroid that could’ve obliterated NYC skimmed past Earth – and NASA didn’t notice
A MASSIVE asteroid that could have destroyed New York City skimmed past Earth – and NASA had no clue.

By Rachel O'Donoghue / Published 8th December 2017
Asteroid 2017 VL2 moves dangerously close to Earth

The large space rock – dubbed 2017 VL2 – passed the planet on November 9 at an astonishing distance of just 73,000 miles, which is considered tiny in space terms.

Space boffins think that if the rock measuring between 16 and 32 metres had hit, it could’ve wiped a major city such as New York off the map.
The rock belongs to the Apollo group of asteroids and was first seen at ATLAS-MLO observatory in Hawaii a day later.
It was travelling at a speed of 8.73km/s and would have caused catastrophic damage if it had made impact.

[Image: 5a29dc619df73_as.jpg] GETTY
HUGE: The asteroid skimmed past Earth and NASA didn't notice until a day later

EPIC apocalyptic asteroid impact craters
Conspiracy theorists claim the Earth is due a direct hit with an asteroid. Here's some extraordinary impact craters caused by alien objects
1 / 14

[Image: 1163297.jpg] Getty Images

Eastern Russia's Lake El'gygytgyn, which sits inside a small asteroid impact crater Now the asteroid has flown past Earth, it is not set to make another flyby until 2125.
NASA recently revealed a space rock the size of a mountain could hit the planet in 2036.
When first discovered in 2014, Apophis had a record-breaking collision risk of four on the Torino scale.

Top Facts About Asteroids
Asteroids are small, rocky objects that orbit the Sun. The first asteroid was Ceres, discovered by Giuseppe Piazzi in 1801. There are currently over 600,000 known asteroids in our solar system. Most asteroids are found orbiting in the Asteroid Belt, a series of rings located between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
1 / 10

[Image: 567461.jpg] Getty Images

There are Millions of Asteroids in the solar system, usually found in the Asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, however those in that pass the Earth are called Near-Earth objects 

Steve Chesley, a NASA scientist, along with Paul Khodas from the space agency’s jet propulsion laboratory, predicted the collision will occur on April 13, 2036.
“Apophis has been one of those celestial bodies that has captured the public’s interest since it was discovered in 2004,” said Chesley.

“Updated computational techniques and newly available data indicate the probability of an Earth encounter on April 13, 2036, for Apophis has dropped from one-in-45,000 to about four-in-a million,” he added.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...

Quote:Asteroid that could’ve obliterated NYC skimmed past Earth – and NASA didn’t notice 

No, NASA just didn't say anything. <---
There were people at NASA that knew damn well this was coming.
And now you know,
that we will never get advance warning of an impending asteroid hit.

Quote:And now you know,

that we will never get advance warning of an impending asteroid hit.

Recall: Eye saw once an attempted strike.
Also,I saw it start to disintegrate.

Now I know why. Arrow

Research shows why meteroids explode before they reach Earth
December 11, 2017

[Image: 1-meteor.jpg]
Credit: CC0 Public Domain
Our atmosphere is a better shield from meteoroids than researchers thought, according to a new paper published in Meteoritics & Planetary Science.

When a meteor comes hurtling toward Earth, the high-pressure air in front of it seeps into its pores and cracks, pushing the body of the meteor apart and causing it to explode.
"There's a big gradient between high-pressure air in front of the meteor and the vacuum of air behind it," said Jay Melosh, a professor of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences at Purdue University and co-author of the paper. "If the air can move through the passages in the meteorite, it can easily get inside and blow off pieces."
Researchers knew that meteoroids often blew up before they reach the Earth's surface, but they didn't know why. Melosh's team looked to the 2013 Chelyabinsk event, when a meteoroid exploded over Chelyabinsk, Russia, to explain the phenomenon.
The explosion came as a surprise and brought in energy comparable to a small nuclear weapon. When it entered Earth's atmosphere, it created a bright fire ball. Minutes later, a shock wave blasted out nearby windows, injuring hundreds of people.
The meteoroid weighed around 10,000 tons, but only about 2,000 tons of debris were recovered, which meant something happened in the upper atmosphere that caused it to disintegrate. To solve the puzzle, the researchers used a unique computer code that allows both solid material from the meteor body and air to exist in any part of the calculation.
"I've been looking for something like this for a while," Melosh said. "Most of the computer codes we use for simulating impacts can tolerate multiple materials in a cell, but they average everything together. Different materials in the cell use their individual identity, which is not appropriate for this kind of calculation."
This new code allowed the researchers to push air into the meteoroid and let it percolate, which lowered the strength of the meteoroid significantly, even if it had been moderately strong to begin with.
While this mechanism may protect Earth's inhabitants from small meteoroids, large ones likely won't be bothered by it, he said. Iron meteoroids are much smaller and denser, and even relatively small ones tend to reach the surface.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: 100 full moons: Blazing fireball lights up Arctic sky
Provided by: Purdue University

Read more at:

Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
[*]Earthquake-causing meteor leaves southeast Michigan residents awestruck

By Karma Allen

Jan 17, 2018, 2:16 AM ET

Residents of southeast Michigan were left a bit shaken Tuesday night after a big bright flash lit up the sky and the ground beneath them shook.
A flying saucer? No. A shooting star? Not quite.
The National Weather Service eventually solved the mystery, tweeting "USGS confirms meteor occurred around 810 pm, causing a magnitude 2.0 earthquake."

[Image: HT_meteor_MI_180117KA_4x3_992.jpg]WWMT/Zack Lawler
A Michigan motorist shares dashcam footage of what appears to be a meteor flashing across the sky.

According to the United States Geological Survey, the earthquake was centered about five miles west-southwest of New Haven, Michigan, located about 40 miles northeast of Detroit.
Initially though, as curious residents took to social media by droves to share videos of the dazzling display, the National Weather Service wasn't so sure what these star-gazers had seen.

"After reviewing several observational datasets, the NWS can confirm the flash and boom was NOT thunder or lightning, but instead a likely meteor. We continue to monitor feeds from astronomical agencies for official confirmation of a meteor," read a tweet posted nearly two hours before the NWS confirmed it was a meteor.

The American Meteor Society's report map illustrated that the meteor was visible in six states and in Canada.
The sparkling display sent social media users into a frenzy, making "#meteor" a top 5 trending topic in the U.S. on Twitter. One Twitter user captured the entire display in a 10-second dashcam video.

Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...

‘Potentially hazardous’ asteroid the size of the Burj Khalifa is heading towards Earth at 67,000mph

[Image: 47B1C02500000578-0-image-a-10_1514896055566.jpg]
  • The 2002 AJ129 asteroid has been classed a 'potentially hazardous' by Nasa
  • It will fly past on 4th February at speeds of 67,000mph (107,826kmh) 
  • This makes it nearly 15 times faster than the world's quickest manned aircraft

Fortunately Nasa does not think this asteroid will collide with Earth.

Anything that flies closer than six million miles of our planet is a near earth asteroid and could cause severe damage were it ever to crash into Earth.
Deflecting an asteroid that is on an impact course with Earth requires changing the velocity of the object by less than an inch per second years in advance of the predicted impact.
Nasa is currently moving forward with a refrigerator-sized spacecraft capable of preventing asteroids from colliding with Earth. A test with a small, nonthreatening asteroid is planned for 2024.
This is the first-ever mission to demonstrate an asteroid deflection technique for planetary defence.
The Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) would use what is known as a kinetic impactor technique—striking the asteroid to shift its orbit. 

Read more:
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
The flash of the fireball over Michigan skies Tuesday night could be seen as far away as New York City. It shook houses and caused a 2.0 magnitude earthquake.

It was “definitely a meteoroid,” Bill Cooke of NASA’s meteoroid environment office in Alabama, told The Detroit News.

And it might have left pieces of itself behind on the ground.
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
Research suggests toward end of Ice Age, humans witnessed fires larger than dinosaur killer, thanks to a cosmic impact
February 1, 2018, University of Kansas

[Image: 1-researchsugg.jpg]
Credit: University of Kansas

On a ho-hum day some 12,800 years ago, the Earth had emerged from another ice age. Things were warming up, and the glaciers had retreated.

Out of nowhere, the sky was lit with fireballs. This was followed by shock waves.
Fires rushed across the landscape, and dust clogged the sky, cutting off the sunlight. As the climate rapidly cooled, plants died, food sources were snuffed out, and the glaciers advanced again. Ocean currents shifted, setting the climate into a colder, almost "ice age" state that lasted an additional thousand years.
Finally, the climate began to warm again, and people again emerged into a world with fewer large animals and a human culture in North America that left behind completely different kinds of spear points.
This is the story supported by a massive study of geochemical and isotopic markers just published in the Journal of Geology.
The results are so massive that the study had to be split into two papers.
"Extraordinary Biomass-Burning Episode and Impact Winter Triggered by the Younger Dryas Cosmic Cosmic Impact ~12,800 Years Ago" is divided into "Part I: Ice Cores and Glaciers" and "Part 2: Lake, Marine, and Terrestrial Sediments."
The paper's 24 authors include KU Emeritus Professor of Physics & Astronomy Adrian Melott and Professor Brian Thomas, a 2005 doctoral graduate from KU, now at Washburn University.
"The work includes measurements made at more than 170 different sites across the world," Melott said.
The KU researcher and his colleagues believe the data suggests the disaster was touched off when Earth collided with fragments of a disintegrating comet that was roughly 62 miles in diameter—the remnants of which persist within our solar system to this day.
"The hypothesis is that a large comet fragmented and the chunks impacted the Earth, causing this disaster," said Melott. "A number of different chemical signatures—carbon dioxide, nitrate, ammonia and others—all seem to indicate that an astonishing 10 percent of the Earth's land surface, or about 10 million square kilometers, was consumed by fires."
According to Melott, analysis of pollen suggests pine forests were probably burned off to be replaced by poplar, which is a species that colonizes cleared areas.
Indeed, the authors posit the cosmic impact could have touched off the Younger Dryas cool episode, biomass burning, late Pleistocene extinctions of larger species and "human cultural shifts and population declines."
"Computations suggest that the impact would have depleted the ozone layer, causing increases in skin cancer and other negative health effects," Melott said. "The impact hypothesis is still a hypothesis, but this study provides a massive amount of evidence, which we argue can only be all explained by a major cosmic impact."

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Kansas scientists probe mysterious possible comet strikes on Earth
More information: Wendy S. Wolbach et al, Extraordinary Biomass-Burning Episode and Impact Winter Triggered by the Younger Dryas Cosmic Impact ∼12,800 Years Ago. 1. Ice Cores and Glaciers, The Journal of Geology (2018). DOI: 10.1086/695703
Wendy S. Wolbach et al. Extraordinary Biomass-Burning Episode and Impact Winter Triggered by the Younger Dryas Cosmic Impact ∼12,800 Years Ago. 2. Lake, Marine, and Terrestrial Sediments, The Journal of Geology (2018). DOI: 10.1086/695704 ,

Provided by: University of Kansas

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With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
I think Graham Hancock said this first, and was ridiculed. Seems he was right all along.

Impacting the area is faster than the surround sound Totally Inaudible Mach1/@333.33mpsTM
Just like a zep-tepi sirius dog bark.

There was no Man nor domecile dog before chicxulub impactor

A dog bark is a universal alert to a human household that there is an aproacher.


verb: approach; 3rd person present: approaches; past tense: approached; past participle: approached; gerund or present participle: approaching
  1. 1.
    come near or nearer to (someone or something) in distance.
    "the train approached the main line"
    move toward, come/go toward, advance toward, inch toward, go/come/draw/move nearer, go/come/draw/move closer, near; More
    close in, gain on;
    reach, arrive at
    "she approached the altar"
    • come near or nearer to (a future time or event).
      "he was approaching retirement"

    • (of a future time) come nearer.
      "the time is approaching when you will be destroyed"

    • come close to (a number, level, or standard) in quality or quantity.
      "the population will approach 12 million by the end of the decade"
      border on, verge on, approximate, touch, nudge, near, come near to, come close to
      "the trade deficit is approaching $20 million"

    • archaic
      bring nearer.
      "all those changes shall serve to approach him the faster to the blest mansion"

  2. 2.
    speak to (someone) for the first time about something, typically with a proposal or request.
    "the department had been approached about funding"
    speak to, talk to; More
    make advances to, make overtures to, make a proposal to, sound out, proposition
    "she approached him about leaving his job"

  3. 3.
    start to deal with (something) in a certain way.
    "one must approach the matter with caution"
    tackle, set about, address oneself to, undertake, get down to, launch into, embark on, go about, come to grips with
    "he approached the problem in the best way"

noun: approach; plural noun: approaches
  1. 1.
    a way of dealing with something.
    "we need a whole new approach to the job"
    method, procedure, technique, modus operandi, MO, style, way, manner; More
    strategy, tactic, system, means
    "a typical male approach"

  2. 2.
    an act of speaking to someone for the first time about something, typically a proposal or request.
    "the landowner made an approach to the developer"
    • dated
      behavior intended to propose personal or sexual relations with someone.
      "feminine resistance to his approaches"

  3. 3.
    the action of coming near or nearer to someone or something in distance or time.
    "the approach of winter"
    advance, coming, nearing; More
    arrival, appearance;
    "the dog barked at the approach of any intruder"

    • an approximation to something.
      "the past is impossible to recall with any approach to accuracy"

    • the part of an aircraft's flight in which it descends gradually toward an airfield or runway for landing.
      "the aircraft completed the approach and touched down"

  4. 4.
    a road, sea passage, or other way leading to a place.
    "the eastern approach to the town"
    driveway, drive, access road, road, avenue;
    "the approach to the castle"

Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Two small asteroids safely  Sheep pass Earth this week
February 7, 2018 by Dc Agle, Jet Propulsion Laboratory

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Asteroid 2018 CB will pass closely by Earth on Friday, Feb. 9, at a distance of about 39,000 miles. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
Two small asteroids recently discovered by astronomers at the NASA-funded Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) near Tucson, Arizona, are safely passing by Earth within one lunar distance this week.

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Seafloor data point to global volcanism after Chicxulub meteor strike
February 7, 2018, University of Oregon

[Image: seafloordata.jpg]
The amount of seafloor exhibiting small structural anomalies is plotted as a function of the age of seafloor. Trends that persist over 10 million years have been subtracted to highlight transient features, and only high spreading rates are plotted here. The highest peak, which indicates the production of 8 percent more anomalous seafloor than on average, occurs at 66 million years ago and is coincident with the age of the Chicxulub meteorite impact. Credit: Joseph Byrnes
A record of volcanism preserved along ancient mid-ocean ridges provides evidence for heightened worldwide magmatic activity 66 million years ago just after the Chicxulub meteor struck Earth, according to University of Oregon scientists.

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[Image: esoobservati.jpg]
[Image: eckerphobos.jpg]
Quote:Dynamical effects

The dynamical effects of Planet Nine would explain five aspects of the Solar System: the clustering of the orbits of extreme trans-Neptunian objects (eTNOs); the high perihelia of objects like Sedna that are detached from Neptune's influence; the high inclinations of eTNOs with orbits roughly perpendicular to the plane of the Solar System, high inclination Kuiper belt objects with semi-major axis less than 100 AU, and the obliquity, or tilt, of the Sun's axis relative to the plane of the Solar System.[32] While other mechanisms have been offered for many of these peculiarities the gravitational influence of Planet Nine is the only one that explains all five. The dynamical effects of Planet Nine also excite the inclinations of scattering objects, which in numerical simulations leaves the inclination distribution of short-period comets with a broader distribution than is observed.[9]
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ESO observations show first interstellar asteroid is like nothing seen before
[Image: 1x1.gif] November 20, 2017
For the first time ever astronomers have studied an asteroid that has entered the Solar System from interstellar space. Observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile and other observatories around the world show that ...

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[Image: 1-discoveryofc.jpg]
Discovery of cigar-shaped asteroid from outer space could help unveil secrets of extrasolar worlds
[Image: 1x1.gif] November 22, 2017
It came from outer space … and went back there two weeks later, having astonished and excited astronomers and planetary scientists. A cigar-shaped object, less than half a kilometre long and barely bright enough to be detected ...
[Image: interstellar.jpg]
Interstellar visitor shaped like giant fire extinguisher (Update)
[Image: 1x1.gif] November 16, 2017
A newly discovered object from another star system that's passing through ours is shaped like a giant pink fire extinguisher.

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Astronomers capture first visiting object from outside our solar system
October 27, 2017

Credit: Queen's University Belfast
A Queen's University Belfast scientist is leading an international team in studying a new visitor to our solar system - the first known comet or asteroid to visit us from another star.

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[Image: 59f387a12e1db.jpg]

The close fly-by of this star 70,000 years ago did not disturb all the hyperbolic objects of the solar system, only those that were closest to it at that time. "For example, the radiant of the famous interstellar asteroid 'Oumuamua is in the constellation of Lyra (the Harp), very far from Gemini, therefore it is not part of the detected over-density," says De la Fuente Marcos. He is confident that new studies and observations will confirm the idea that a star passed close to us in a relatively recent period.

Evidence that a star disturbed prehistory solar system comets
March 21, 2018, Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology (FECYT)

[Image: astardisturb.jpg]
At a time when modern humans were beginning to leave Africa and the Neanderthals were living on our planet, Scholz's star approached less than a light-year. Credit: José A. Peñas/SINC
About 70,000 years ago, during human occupation of the planet, a small, reddish star approached our solar system and gravitationally disturbed comets and asteroids. Astronomers from the Complutense University of Madrid and the University of Cambridge have verified that the movement of some of these objects is still marked by that stellar encounter.

At a time when modern humans were beginning to leave Africa and the Neanderthals still thrived, Scholz's star—named after the German astronomer who discovered it—approached less than a light-year from the sun. Today, it is almost 20 light-years away, but 70,000 years ago, it entered the Oort cloud, a reservoir of trans-Neptunian objects located at the confines of the solar system.

This discovery was made public in 2015 by a team of astronomers led by Professor Eric Mamajek of the University of Rochester (USA). The details of that stellar flyby, the closest documented so far, were presented in The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

Now, two astronomers from the Complutense University of Madrid, the brothers Carlos and Raúl de la Fuente Marcos, together with the researcher Sverre J. Aarseth of the University of Cambridge (United Kingdom), have analyzed for the first time nearly 340 solar system objects with hyperbolic orbits (very open V-shaped, rather than elliptical) They have concluded that the trajectories of some of these were influenced by the passage of Scholz's star.

"Using numerical simulations, we have calculated the radiants or positions in the sky from which all these hyperbolic objects seem to come," explains Carlos de la Fuente Marcos, a co-author of the study now published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

"In principle," he adds, "one would expect those positions to be evenly distributed in the sky, particularly if these objects come from the Oort cloud. However, what we find is very different—a statistically significant accumulation of radiants. The pronounced over-density appears projected in the direction of the constellation of Gemini, which fits the close encounter with Scholz's star."

The period in which this star passed through the Oort Cloud and its position during prehistory coincide with the data of the new investigation and in those of Mamajek and his team. "It could be a coincidence, but it is unlikely that both location and time are compatible," says De la Fuente Marcos, who points out that their simulations suggest that Scholz's star approached even more than the 0.6 light-years pointed out in the 2015 study as the lower limit.

The close fly-by of this star 70,000 years ago did not disturb all the hyperbolic objects of the solar system, only those that were closest to it at that time. "For example, the radiant of the famous interstellar asteroid 'Oumuamua is in the constellation of Lyra (the Harp), very far from Gemini, therefore it is not part of the detected over-density," says De la Fuente Marcos. He is confident that new studies and observations will confirm the idea that a star passed close to us in a relatively recent period.

Scholz's star is actually a binary system formed by a small red dwarf with about 9 percent of the mass of the sun, around which a much less bright and smaller brown dwarf orbits. It is likely that human ancestors saw its faint reddish light during prehistorical nights.

 Explore further: 'Oumuamua likely came from a binary star system

More information: Carlos de la Fuente Marcos et al. Where the Solar system meets the solar neighbourhood: patterns in the distribution of radiants of observed hyperbolic minor bodies, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters (2018). DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/sly019

Journal reference: Astrophysical Journal Letters
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters
Provided by: Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology (FECYT)

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Glassy beads hint at site of mysterious missing crater
April 5, 2018 by Caroline Brogan, Imperial College London

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The sampling area at Larkman Nunatak. Credit: Imperial College London
Imperial experts have found a 'breadcrumb trail' of debris from an 800,000 year old meteor impact

Around 800,000 years ago, a 20 kilometre meteor collided with the earth, producing a zone of debris in Australasia which covers a tenth of the Earth's surface.

However, despite the impact's relatively young age in geological terms, and the meteor's size, the resulting crater's location eludes us.

It's a mystery. If a relatively young, 20 kilometre-wide crater can escape detection, how do we find impact craters that are many millions of years old?

Earth scientists Dr. Matthew Genge from Imperial College London and Dr. Matthias Van Ginneken from Vrije University in Belgium are on a mission to find the impact site.

Dr. Genge, from Imperial's Department of Earth Science & Engineering, said: "It's a mystery. If a relatively young, 20 kilometre-wide crater can escape detection, how do we find impact craters that are many millions of years old? And what hope do we have of predicting future collisions if older craters can just disappear?"

Cosmic crumb trail

Scientists have already found debris from the collision, in the form of glassy 'beads' a centimetre in diameter known as tektites, scattered from Australia to Vietnam.

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Following impact debris could help experts find mysterious crater. Credit: Imperial College London
The tektites are thought to begin as molten spray from the impact, and have settled over an area of more than 150 million square kilometres.

Now, Dr. Genge and Dr. Van Ginneken have found smaller versions from the same impact, called microtektites, as far south as Antarctica. They uncovered the tiny round structures, which are the width of a human hair, in the Larkman Nunatak in Antarctica's Grosvenor Mountains.

Dr. Genge said: "We found tiny yellow glass spherules within glacial debris in Antarctica, and our analysis of potassium and sodium suggests that these were thrown the farthest from the impact crater."


During and after an impact, levels of potassium and sodium in the resulting debris drop as they travel. The hottest debris end up farthest away, and end up carrying lower levels of potassium and sodium, which provides a 'fossil compass' that points to the area of impact.

[Image: 2-glassybeadsh.jpg]
A microtektite from Larkman Nunatak. It is the width of a human hair. Credit: Imperial College London
Dr. Van Ginneken explained: "There are some significant differences between the Antarctic microtektites and the larger tektites found closer to the impact site in Australasia. The microtektites contain less sodium and potassium, which are easily lost under hot conditions. Our microtektites appear to have been hotter, which means they are furthest from the initial impact.


"Following the breadcrumb trail of debris from hotter to cooler should lead us to the crater."

Finding hotter debris furthest from the collision site seems counter-intuitive, but Dr. Genge says this effect is to be expected.

He explained: "Imagine an asteroid several kilometres wide hitting the ground at a speed of ten kilometres per second. Initially, all that energy is focused at the point that the asteroid first touches the ground, which vaporises the rock. The energy then moves outwards and weakens melting rock as it spreads."

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Larkman Nunatak. Arrow indicates where the microtektites were collected. Credit: Imperial College London
Collision course

Meteors crash into Earth more often than one might think and yet, despite their sometimes catastrophic effects, their remains can be difficult to detect. Yet the experts' discovery has more significance than just one mysterious impact years ago—it might help them find other missing craters.

Dr. Genge and Dr. Van Ginneken believe their technique of testing levels of potassium and sodium among tektites and microtektites could help them trace more ancient impacts. Dr. Genge said: "Tiny impact debris are scattered over most of the globe, and are probably offering clues that we haven't tapped into yet."

Nonetheless, they say this is the best evidence yet that the collision occurred 800,000 years ago – but the ultimate proof lies in finding the crater itself. The team hopes these tiny new clues will help lead the way.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Meteorite impact caused the highest temperature ever recorded on Earth's surface

More information: M. Van Ginneken et al. A new type of highly-vaporized microtektite from the Transantarctic Mountains, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (2018). DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2018.02.041

Journal reference: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: Imperial College London

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Football field-sized asteroid to shave by Earth
May 16, 2018

[Image: 1-earth.jpg]
A composite image of the Western hemisphere of the Earth. Credit: NASA
An asteroid around the size of a football field is expected to zoom by Earth on Tuesday, but at a safe distance, the US space agency said.

The space rock was discovered in 2010, but only recently did astronomers determine it would not collide with our planet, instead passing at a distance about halfway between the Earth and Moon.

Asteroid 2010 WC9 will make a "close approach" to Earth at 2204 GMT, NASA said, noting its closest pass will be over the coast of Antarctica.

"At the time of closest approach, the asteroid will be no closer to Earth's surface than about 120,000 miles (193,000 kilometers)."

A good viewing spot for those equipped with a moderate, eight-inch (20-centimeter) telescope, might be Cape Town, South Africa.

The asteroid is believed to be about 200 to 400 feet (60 to 120 meters) across.

Its speed should clock in at about 29,000 miles per hour, or eight miles (12.9 kilometers) per second.

NASA said this approach will be the closest to Earth—for this particular asteroid—for at least two centuries.

Next year, on October 17, 2019, the asteroid will make a distant flyby of Earth at 26.6 million miles.

More than 10,000 asteroids are known to be orbiting near Earth, and scientists regularly keep track of them to monitor for potential strikes.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Small asteroid to shave safely by Earth Friday

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Asteroid headed straight for Earth burns up in sky
By Associated Press
June 4, 2018 | 7:00pm | Updated
CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. — A boulder-size asteroid disintegrated harmlessly over Africa, just hours after its weekend discovery.
It’s only the third time scientists have spotted an incoming asteroid on a direct collision course with Earth. The previous times were in 2008 and 2014.
The asteroid, dubbed 2018 LA, was discovered out near the moon’s orbit early Saturday morning, aiming straight for Earth. NASA reported the latest episode Sunday night.
Asteroid trackers at NASA and elsewhere quickly determined the rock — about 6 feet across — was too small to pose any danger. It burned up in the Saturday evening sky over Botswana, eight hours after first being noticed.
Video posted on YouTube, from a farm just across the border in South Africa, showed a fireball swiftly descending and getting bigger, and then a blinding flash in the sky. It burst apart several miles up, according to NASA.
Initial estimates had the impact zone stretching from southern Africa across the Indian Ocean into New Guinea. Tracking systems narrowed it down to southern Africa.
NASA officials said the scramble among scientists and asteroid observers was a good training exercise. Their ability to zoom in on likely impact areas bodes well for the future, if and when a bigger object heads our way.
“This was a much smaller object than we are tasked to detect and warn about,” NASA’s planetary defense officer, Lindley Johnson, said in a statement. “However, this real-world event allows us to exercise our capabilities and gives some confidence our impact prediction models are adequate to respond to the potential impact of a larger object.”
Paul Chodas, manager of the Center for Near-Earth Object Studies at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, said it’s only the second time the re-entry location was predicted well in advance.
The 2008 asteroid was spotted 19 hours in advance and measured 13 feet, or 4 meters. It came apart above Sudan, as predicted. The 2014 asteroid was discovered just a few hours before entering over the Atlantic, with little time for tracking.
All three asteroids were discovered through the Catalina Sky Survey near Tucson, Arizona, which is run by the University of Arizona and funded by NASA. The same asteroid hunter, Richard Kowalski, made all three discoveries.
“We search the night sky methodically nearly each clear night,” Kowalski said in an email Monday. “While it is good fortune that I happened on this object, it is what our program is designed to do.”
Objects this small “are quite faint and hard to detect until they are very close, which is why we did not see it sooner,” he said.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Quote:Vianova posted:
No, NASA just didn't say anything. <---
There were people at NASA that knew damn well this was coming.
And now you know,
that we will never get advance warning of an impending asteroid hit.

Agree -- and I think that goes for Yellowstone and perhaps other catastrophic events of which TPTB may be knowledgeable of the timing thereof.
Fragment of impacting asteroid recovered in Botswana
July 6, 2018, University of Helsinki

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Botswana meteorite. Credit: Peter Jenniskens
On Saturday, June 23, 2018, a team of experts from Botswana, South Africa, Finland and the United States of America recovered a fresh meteorite in Botswana's Central Kalahari Game Reserve (CKGR). The meteorite is one of the fragments of asteroid 2018 LA which collided with Earth on June 2, 2018 and turned into a meteor fireball that detonated over Botswana a few seconds after entering the atmosphere. The incident was witnessed by a number of spectators in Botswana and neighbouring countries and was captured on numerous security cameras.

Asteroid 2018 LA was detected in space eight hours before hitting Earth. It was detected by the Catalina Sky Survey, operated by the University of Arizona and sponsored by NASA as part of its Planetary Defence mission. This is the third time in history that an asteroid inbound to hit Earth was detected early and only the second time that fragments were recovered. After disruption, the asteroid fragments were blown by the wind while falling down, scattering over a wide area. Calculations of the landing area were done independently by a US-based group headed by Peter Jenniskens, a subject expert of the NASA-sponsored SETI Institute in California, as well as Esko Lyytinen and Jarmo Moilanen of the Finnish Fireball Network (FFN).

The first meteorite was found after five days of walking and scouring around by a team of geoscientists from Botswana International University of Science and Technology (BUIST), Botswana Geoscience Institute (BGI) and University of Botswana's Okavango Research Institute (ORI). The Department of Wildlife and National Parks granted access and deployed park rangers for protection and participation in the search. The importance of the find is two-fold: It has enormous scientific value and it allows to better calibrate the so-called "Earth Defense" against impacting asteroids.

Jenniskens, who traveled to Botswana to assist in the search, teamed up with Oliver Moses (from ORI), to gather security surveillance videos in Rakops and Maun, to get better constraints on the position and altitude of the fireball's explosion. Professor Alexander Proyer, from BIUST, led the joint expedition while Mohutsiwa Gabadirwe, BGI senior curator, coordinated access to the protected fall area in the game reserve. Professor Roger Gibson, Head of School at the School of Geosciences at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, also assisted in locating the fall area. The meteorite was eventually spotted by BIUST geologist Lesedi Seitshiro. The search for more fragments of the meteorite continues. Dr. Fulvio Franchi of BIUST, is leading the follow-up search team joined by Tomas Kohout of the FFN and the University of Helsinki.

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Search team pointing to the meteorite found. Credit: Peter Jenniskens
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Tiny asteroid discovered Saturday disintegrates over Africa

Provided by: University of Helsinki

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New telescope will scan the skies for asteroids on collision course with Earth
June 28, 2018 by Michael B. Lund, The Conversation

[Image: newtelescope.jpg]
Aerial view of Arizona Meteor Crater, September 2010. Credit: Shane Torgerson, CC BY
Around sunrise on Feb. 15, 2013, an extremely bright and otherworldly object was seen streaking through the skies over Russia before it exploded about 97,000 feet above the Earth's surface. The resulting blast damaged thousands of buildings and injured almost 1,500 people in Chelyabinsk and the surrounding areas. While this sounds like the first scene of a science fiction movie, this invader wasn't an alien spaceship attacking humanity, but a 20-meter-wide asteroid that had collided with the Earth.

What is worrisome is that no one had any idea this 20-meter asteroid existed until it entered the Earth's atmosphere that morning.

As an astronomer, I study objects in the sky that change in brightness over short time scales – observations that I use to detect planets around other stars. A large part of my research is understanding how we can better design and run telescopes to monitor an ever-changing sky. That's important because the same telescopes I'm using to explore other star systems are also being designed to help my colleagues discover objects in our own solar system, like asteroids on a collision course with with Earth.

Near-Earth objects

A meteor is any chunk of matter that enters the Earth's atmosphere. Before the Chelyabinsk meteor met its demise on Earth, it was orbiting our sun as an asteroid. These rocky objects are normally thought to be restricted to the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. However, there are many asteroids throughout the solar system. Some, like the Chelyabinsk meteor, are known as near-Earth objects (NEOs).

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Exterior view of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which is still under construction.Sublocation Cerro Pachón, Chile. Credit: LSST Project/NSF/AURA, CC BY-NC-SA
The Chelyabinsk meteor likely came from a group of NEOs called Apollo asteroids, named after the asteroid 1862 Apollo. There are more than 1,600 known Apollo asteroids logged in the JPL Small-Body Database that have orbits that may cross the Earth's path, and are large enough (over 140 meters), that they're considered potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) because a collision with Earth would devastate the region hit.

The scars of these past collisions are prominent on the moon, but the Earth also bears the marks of such impacts. Chicxulub crater on Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula was created by the Chicxulub asteroid that drove the dinosaurs to extinction. The Barringer Crater in Arizona is just 50,000 years old. The question is not if a dangerously large asteroid will collide with the Earth, but when?


Searching for threats

The U.S. government is taking the threat of an asteroid collision seriously. In Section 321 of the NASA Authorization Act of 2005, Congress required NASA develop a program to search for NEOs. NASA was assigned the task of identifying 90 percent of all NEOs greater than 140 meters in diameter. Currently, they estimate that three-quarters of the 25,000 PHAs have yet to be found.

To reach this goal, an international team of of hundreds of scientists, including myself, is completing construction of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) in Chile, which will be an essential tool for alerting us of PHAs.

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A photograph and a baseline design rendering mix, showing a view of the completed exterior building from the road leading up to the site. Credit: LSST Project/NSF/AURA, CC BY-NC-SA
With significant funding from the U.S., LSST will search for PHAs during its 10-year mission by observing the same area of sky at hourly intervals searching for objects that have changed position. Anything that moves in just one hour has to be so close that it is within our solar system. Teams led by researchers at the University of Washington and JPL have both produced simulations showing that LSST on its own will be capable of finding around 65 percent of PHAs. If we combine LSST data with other astronomical surveys like Pan-STARRS and the Catalina Sky Survey, we think we can help reach that goal of discovering 90 percent of potentially hazardous asteroids.

Preparing to avert disaster

Both the Earth and these asteroids are orbiting the sun, just on different paths. The more observations taken of a given asteroid, the more precisely its orbit can be mapped and predicted. The biggest priority, then, is finding asteroids that may collide with the Earth in the future.

If an asteroid is on a collision course hours or days before it occurs, the Earth won't have many options. It's like a car suddenly pulling out in front of you. There is little that you can do. If, however, we find these asteroids years or decades before a potential collision, then we may be able to use spacecraft to nudge the asteroid enough to change its path so that it and the Earth don't collide.

This is, however, easier said than done, and currently, no one really knows how well an asteroid can be redirected. There have been several proposals for missions by NASA and the European Space Agency to do this, but so far, they have not passed early stages of mission development.

The B612 Foundation, a private nonprofit group, is also trying to privately raise money for a mission to redirect an asteroid, and they may be the first to attempt this if the government space programs don't. Pushing an asteroid sounds like an odd thing to do, but when we one day find an asteroid on a collision course with Earth, it may well be that knowledge that will save humanity.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Two small asteroids safely pass Earth this week

Provided by: The Conversation

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Antipodal  Arrow

Planetary defense has new tool in weather satellite lightning detector
August 1, 2018, NASA

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On December 29, 2017, the Geostationary Lightning Mapper, an instrument flying on board two weather satellites, detected a bright meteor in Earth’s atmosphere over the western Atlantic Ocean. Credit: NASA/Lockheed Martin
NASA's efforts to better understand asteroid impacts has found unexpected support from a new satellite sensor designed to detect lightning. New research published in the journal Meteoritics and Planetary Science finds that the new Geostationary Lightning Mapper, or GLM, on two weather satellites is able to pick up signals of meteors in Earth's atmosphere.

"GLM detects these meteors when they become brighter than the full Moon," says lead author and meteor astronomer Peter Jenniskens of the SETI Institute and NASA's Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley. "Meteors that bright are called 'bolides' and they are caused mainly by the impact of small asteroids."

Jenniskens' work on meteors contributes to the NASA Ames Asteroid Threat Assessment Program, which helps improve information for impact prediction warnings by studying how asteroids fragment as they travel through the atmosphere.

"The range of altitudes over which asteroids deposit their kinetic energy—the energy of their motion—determines how dangerous the shock waves are that can cause damage on the ground," says Eric Stern, a research scientist at Ames who is the entry modeling lead for the program. "The light profiles derived from GLM data are slated now to be used in a future version of NASA's automated bolide reporting system."

The Geostationary Lightning Mapper, built by Lockheed Martin, was designed for mapping lightning flashes over vast geographic regions. The instrument captures 500 images per second of Earth from geostationary orbit, in which the satellite is always in the same position with respect to the rotating Earth, more than 22,000 miles up.

[Image: 1-planetarydef.jpg]
The bright flash produced by the December 2017 meteor was picked up by the Geostationary Lightning Mapper. This image shows one moment of that meteor event, which released three kilotons of energy into the atmosphere. In the image inset, …more
"The instrument views Earth in only a narrow range of wavelengths of light," said Samantha Edgington, GLM chief scientist at Lockheed Martin, who led the effort to develop the processing pipeline that now provides lightning data to weather forecasters. "Since most of the light is blocked, we were surprised to see how readily the instrument detected the meteors."

GLM is one of several instruments onboard the new Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites-16 and -17, which are operated by the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration.

"Although most lightning flashes are very brief, the relatively long-duration signals of bolides are not filtered out of the data," said NOAA physical scientist Scott Rudlosky. "That's because GLM also was designed to measure a longer-lasting lightning type that is known to play a key role in lightning-ignited wild fires."

The ten bolides discussed in the paper were observed with the first GLM instrument on board GOES-16, which was launched in November 2016.

[Image: planetarydef.gif]
Slow-motion movie of the December 2017 meteor impacting Earth's atmosphere. Individual pixels in the Geostationary Lightning Mapper's sensor are illuminated in successive frames. Credit: NASA/Lockheed Martin
"The first bolide we found in GLM data was on Feb. 6, 2017; more than 500 people reported seeing this event over Wisconsin that day," said Jenniskens. "Meteorites likely fell in Lake Michigan but were never recovered."

Other detected bolides show different manners of fragmentation. They include one that caused a meteorite fall in Canada and another large, explosive event over the western Atlantic Ocean of a rare size that occurs only once a year.

[/url]Explore further: Flashy first images arrive from NOAA's GOES-16 lightning mapper

More information: Peter Jenniskens et al. Detection of meteoroid impacts by the Geostationary Lightning Mapper on the GOES-16 satellite, Meteoritics & Planetary Science (2018). DOI: 10.1111/maps.13137

Journal reference: Meteoritics and Planetary Science
Provided by: NASA

Read more at:

While the cause for the increased upwelling is not yet clear, the most likely process appears to be a change in the "Roaring 40s," a belt of eastward-blowing winds that encircle Antarctica.

Research finds quakes can systematically trigger other ones on opposite side of Earth
August 2, 2018 by Steve Lundeberg, Oregon State University

[Image: asteroid_7.jpg]
New research shows that a big earthquake can not only cause other quakes, but large ones, and on the opposite side of the Earth.

The findings, published today in Scientific Reports, are an important step toward improved short-term earthquake forecasting and risk assessment.

Scientists at Oregon State University looked at 44 years of seismic data and found clear evidence that tremblors of magnitude 6.5 or larger trigger other quakes of magnitude 5.0 or larger.

It had been thought that aftershocks—smaller magnitude quakes that occur in the same region as the initial quake as the surrounding crust adjusts after the fault perturbation—were the only seismic activity an earthquake could lead to.

But the OSU analysis of seismic data from 1973 through 2016—an analysis that excluded data from aftershock zones—provided the first discernible evidence that in the three days following one large quake, other earthquakes were more likely to occur.

Each test case in the study represented a single three-day window "injected" with a large-magnitude (6.5 or greater) earthquake suspected of inducing other quakes, and accompanying each case was a control group of 5,355 three-day periods that didn't have the quake injection.

"The test cases showed a clearly detectable increase over background rates," said the study's corresponding author, Robert O'Malley, a researcher in the OSU College of Agricultural Sciences. "Earthquakes are part of a cycle of tectonic stress buildup and release. As fault zones near the end of this seismic cycle, tipping points may be reached and triggering can occur."

The higher the magnitude, the more likely a quake is to trigger another quake. Higher-magnitude quakes, which have been happening with more frequency in recent years, also seem to be triggered more often than lower-magnitude ones.

A tremblor is most likely to induce another quake within 30 degrees of the original quake's antipode—the point directly opposite it on the other side of the globe.

"The understanding of the mechanics of how one earthquake could initiate another while being widely separated in distance and time is still largely speculative," O'Malley said. "But irrespective of the specific mechanics involved, evidence shows that triggering does take place, followed by a period of quiescence and recharge."

Earthquake magnitude is measured on a logarithmic 1-10 scale—each whole number represents a 10-fold increase in measured amplitude, and a 31-fold increase in released energy.

The largest recorded earthquake was a 1960 temblor in Chile that measured 9.5. The 2011 quake that ravaged the Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan measured 6.6.

In 1700, an approximate magnitude 9.0 earthquake hit the Cascadia Subduction Zone—a fault that stretches along the West Coast of North American from British Columbia to California.

Collaborating with O'Malley were Michael Behrenfeld of the College of Agricultural Sciences, Debashis Mondal of the College of Science and Chris Goldfinger of the College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences.

 Explore further: Another strong quake shakes remote Papua New Guinea region

Journal reference: Scientific Reports
Provided by: Oregon State University

Read more at:

New research shows that a big earthquake can not only cause other quakes, but large ones, and on the opposite side of the Earth.

[Image: comet_impact_large_thumb_640xa1.jpg]
Carbon 'leak' may have warmed the planet for 11,000 years, encouraging human civilization

July 30, 2018, Princeton University

[Image: carbonleakma.jpg]
Diatoms like this one, microscopic plants with silica shells, trapped trace amounts of nitrogen in their shells as they grew. Researchers in the Sigman Lab at Princeton University were able to extract that minuscule amount of nitrogen from countless fossil diatoms and create a model for the activity of the Southern Ocean during the Holocene, a period that began about 11,000 years ago. This centric diatom, photographed through a microscope, measures about 70 microns across and lived in the Indian Southern Ocean during the Holocene. Credit: Anja Studer, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry
The oceans are the planet's most important depository for atmospheric carbon dioxide on time scales of decades to millenia. But the process of locking away greenhouse gas is weakened by activity of the Southern Ocean, so an increase in its activity could explain the mysterious warmth of the past 11,000 years, an international team of researchers reports.

The warmth of that period was stabilized by a gradual rise in global carbon dioxide levels, so understanding the reason for that rise is of great interest, said Daniel Sigman, the Dusenbury Professor of Geological and Geophysical Sciences at Princeton.

Scientists have proposed various hypotheses for that carbon dioxide increase, but its ultimate cause has remained unknown. Now, an international collaboration led by scientists from Princeton and the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry point to an increase in Southern Ocean upwelling. Their research appears in the current issue of the journal Nature Geoscience.

"We think we may have found the answer," said Sigman. "Increased circulation in the Southern Ocean allowed carbon dioxide to leak into the atmosphere, working to warm the planet."

Their findings about ocean changes could also have implications for predicting how global warming will affect ocean circulation and how much atmospheric carbon dioxide will rise due to fossil fuel burning.

For years, researchers have known that growth and sinking of phytoplankton pumps carbon dioxide deep into the ocean, a process often referred to as the "biological pump." The biological pump is driven mostly by the low latitude ocean but is undone closer to the poles, where carbon dioxide is vented back to the atmosphere by the rapid exposure of deep waters to the surface, Sigman said. The worst offender is the Southern Ocean, which surrounds Antarctica. "We often refer to the Southern Ocean as a leak in the biological pump," Sigman said.

Sigman and his colleagues have found that an increase in the Southern Ocean's upwelling could be responsible for stabilizing the climate of the Holocene, the period reaching more than 10,000 years before the Industrial Revolution.

[Image: 1-carbonleakma.jpg]
Researchers in the Sigman Lab at Princeton University extracted trace amounts of nitrogen from fossils to create a model for the activity of the Southern Ocean during the Holocene, a warm period that began about 11,000 years ago, during which agriculture and human civilization flourished. The fossils they studied included (from left): planktonic foraminifer Globigerina bulloides, a centric diatom, and deep-sea coral Desmophyllum dianthus.  Credit: From left: Ralf Schiebel, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry; Anja Studer, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry; Dann Blackwood, United States Geological Survey
Most scientists agree that the Holocene's warmth was critical to the development of human civilization. The Holocene was an "interglacial period," one of the rare intervals of warm climate that have occurred over the ice age cycles of the last million years. The retreat of the glaciers opened a more expansive landscape for humans, and the higher concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere made for more productive agriculture, which allowed people to reduce their hunter-gathering activities and build permanent settlements.


The Holocene differed from other interglacial periods in several key ways, say the researchers. For one, its climate was unusually stable, without the major cooling trend that is typical of the other interglacials. Secondly, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere rose about 20 parts per million (ppm), from 260 ppm in the early Holocene to 280 ppm in the late Holocene, whereas carbon dioxide was typically stable or declined over other interglacial periods.

For comparison, since the beginning of industrialization until now, the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere has increased from 280 to more than 400 ppm as a consequence of burning fossil fuels.

"In this context, the 20 ppm increase observed during the Holocene may seem small," said Sigman. "However, scientists think that this small but significant rise played a key role in preventing progressive cooling over the Holocene, which may have facilitated the development of complex human civilizations."

In order to study the potential causes of the Holocene carbon dioxide rise, the researchers investigated three types of fossils from several different areas of the Southern Ocean: diatoms and foraminifers, both shelled microorganisms found in the oceans, and deep-sea corals.

From the nitrogen isotope ratios of the trace organic matter trapped in the mineral walls of these fossils, the scientists were able to reconstruct the evolution of nutrient concentrations in Southern Ocean surface waters over the past 10,000 years.

"The method we used to analyze the fossils is unique and provides a new way to study past changes in ocean conditions," says Anja Studer, first author of the study, who performed the research while a graduate student working with Sigman's lab.

The fossil-bound nitrogen isotope measurements indicate that during the Holocene, increasing amounts of water, rich in nutrients and carbon dioxide, welled up from the deep ocean to the surface of the Southern Ocean. While the cause for the increased upwelling is not yet clear, the most likely process appears to be a change in the "Roaring 40s," a belt of eastward-blowing winds that encircle Antarctica.

Because of the enhanced Southern Ocean upwelling, the biological pump weakened over the Holocene, allowing more carbon dioxide to leak from the deep ocean into the atmosphere and thus possibly explaining the 20 ppm rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide.

"This process is allowing some of that deeply stored carbon dioxide to invade back to the atmosphere," said Sigman. "We're essentially punching holes in the membrane of the biological pump."

The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels over the Holocene worked to counter the tendency for gradual cooling that dominated most previous interglacials. Thus, the new results suggest that the ocean may have been responsible for the "special stability" of the Holocene climate.

The same processes are at work today: The absorption of carbon by the ocean is slowing the rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by fossil fuel burning, and the upwelling of the Southern Ocean is still allowing some of that carbon dioxide to vent back into the atmosphere.

"If the findings from the Holocene can be used to predict how Southern Ocean upwelling will change in the future, it will improve our ability to forecast changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and thus in global climate," said Sigman.
 Explore further: Stronger west winds blow ill wind for climate change

More information: Anja S. Studer et al, Increased nutrient supply to the Southern Ocean during the Holocene and its implications for the pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 rise, Nature Geoscience (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41561-018-0191-8

Journal reference: Nature Geoscience
Provided by: [url=]Princeton University

Read more at:
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
I wonder if this 2.1 kiloton impact explosion in Greenland had an antipodal echoe???
Who knows how to access seismic databases???

Greenland Air Base Unharmed by Apparent Meteor Explosion · 16 hours ago
Air Force remains silent after huge meteor hits near US military base
Fox News · 14 hours ago
Greenland Air Base Unharmed by Apparent Meteor Explosion ... › News › Headlines
16 hours ago - Greenland Air Base Unharmed by Apparent Meteor Explosion ... "There's been no impact to Thule Air Base," Air Force spokeswoman Capt.
Air Force silent after meteor hits earth near US military base
13 hours ago - A METEOR hit the earth and exploded with 2.1 kilotonnes of force last month ... size travelling at 24.4 kilometres per second struck earth in Greenland, just ... about the impact, but America's Air Force has not reported the event.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
They will NEVER admit they could NOT shoot down an incoming rock, yet spend TRILLIONS of $ trying to knock down smaller warheads.  They COULD have tried to blast the rock while traveling inbound but did NOT.

AF & Star Wars Pennywise 

Bob... Ninja  Alien2
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
BREAKING Pressure sensors detected a depressurization in the International Space Station possibly caused by a micrometeorite impact
AIRLIVE contributors
August 30, 2018
[Image: 1043643199.jpg]
Pressure sensors detected a depressurization in the International Space Station (ISS) on Wednesday night.
The crew had to search for a leak, which was eventually traced to the Russian space capsule docked with the station.
The leak was found in the Soyuz craft, which is docked with the ISS, reported Russian space chief Dmitry Rogozin. The official said air was being sucked out through a 1.5mm fracture, which may have been caused by a micrometeorite impact.
“The crew safety is not in danger,” he said. “The spaceship will be kept, a repair kit will be used.”
Rogozin said the malfunction will require a sealant to be applied from the inside of the ship, so no emergency spacewalk will be required.
The leak was slow and posed no danger to people on board, [url=]according to NASA, with mission control deciding that crew members could sleep before locating it.

After waking at the regular time, the six crew members started search procedures and finally localized the leak to the Russian side of the station.
The ISS regularly requires small repairs of various systems, although a hull breach, even a small one, is a rare occurrence. Crew members usually have to deal with leaks from internal tubing, electrical problems or failures of life support devices, including the space toilet, which experienced a series of malfunctions in 2008.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
On the ISS -- and the micrometeor impact Whip

1.5 mm fracture

It would be great to know the actual mass and size of the impacting object.

Double that size at the same speed ... Hmm2

Some day one might penetrate the hull and spurt right through a Russian Hi  astronaut
Quote:The ISS regularly requires small repairs of various systems, 

although a hull breach, 
even a small one, 
is a rare occurrence. 

Crew members usually have to deal with leaks from internal tubing,

 electrical problems or failures of life support devices, 
including the space toilet
which experienced a series of malfunctions in 2008.

This young NASA female knows what to do with:
"number 1"
"number 2"
in the ISS space toilet.
{see video}

It all has to do with suction.

I have a suggestion for ...
"number 3'
It has to do with suction as well, and the female astronaut.


They recycyle the urine back into ... "potable water"


this is very amusing

I still don't know what they do with the poo foo.
It goes into plastic bags ... then?

And the toilet failed in 2008.
That means  ... yes ... the urine suction hose and anal suction tube failed,
and that is when shit floats.

NASA astronaut reveals how complicated it is to poop in space
Quote:A metallic base unit provides suction for excrement, 
which is then sealed in airtight bags,
and tossed along with the other trash  Naughty
that the crew inevitably creates during their stay.

the zero-gravity environment makes poop placement more difficult than anyone would like. 

“After it starts getting full you have to put a rubber glove on and pack it down,” 


If the process isn’t handled with the utmost care, 
it can result in airborne turds  Tp

drifting around the room which have to be gathered and put back where they belong. 


and there it is ... 
ISS astronaut stinkhole space suction baggies full of shit,
are jettisoned into space to orbit the planet.

That brings into play ... sex amongst astronauts.

The young NASA female in the ISS space toilet bathroom video,
only has to swallow when performing "number 3".

But with full intercourse ... Hmm2
fluids indeed ...
can't have that floating around the ISS.


(05-18-2017, 11:23 PM)EA Wrote: I watched this Epic Length video Last Night.

Michael Shermer will be retracting ad hominem attacks and other mistakes and fake news from his Skeptic magazine.

Graham Hancock is decisively the victor in this debate.

Shermer was a quibbling idiot. Ed doody-man couldn't save his pseudoskeptical reputation.
Backtracked and smacked-down like Rogan in non-moderation 

Watch the video...even if you have to watch it bite sized hours over the next few days because History may be in the making and a shift towards a catastrophic shake-up of humanity may have occured in our pre-"HISTORIC" past.

Shermer  >>> debate loser.

Hidden History Debated: Graham Hancock and Randall Carlson Go Head to Head with Skeptic Michael Shermer on the Joe Rogan Podcast

Late last year 'alternative history' author Graham Hancock and 'renegade scholar' Randall Carlson appeared on the Joe Rogan podcast discussing a major topic in Graham's recent book Magicians of the Gods (Amazon US/Amazon UK) - namely, evidence pointing to the possibility that there was a major global catastrophe at the end of the last Ice Age, caused by a comet impact. Noted skeptic Michael Shermer - who has also previously appeared on Joe's show - was moved to comment about the information presented on the podcast, questioning the validity of what was being said.
So Joe decided to bring them all together in the same room to debate the topic face-to-face - resulting in the three and a half hour dialogue (quadralogue?) above.
Related links:

Giant meteorite crater bigger than Paris found beneath Greenland’s ice sheet
Impact could have 'drastically altered the climate and led to serious consequences for life on Earth at the time', scientists say

Tom Batchelor @_tombatchelor
[size=undefined][size=undefined][Image: meteorite-greenland.jpg?w968h681]
An artist’s depiction of a possible impact into the Greenland Ice Sheet ( Carl Toft )

A giant crater that was formed when a meteorite smashed into Earth, has been uncovered deep below Greenland’s ice sheets.
The 31-kilometre-wide cavity was discovered by an international team of scientists who believe it was caused by a “rare” meteorite that struck Earth as recently as 12,000 years ago.

Evidence suggests the crater was formed when a kilometre-wide iron meteorite penetrated seven kilometres into the Earth’s crust.

Watch more
Since then it has been buried under the thick ice of the Hiawatha Glacier in northwest Greenland.
It is the first time ever that an impact crater of any size has been found underneath one of Earth’s continental ice sheets.
Scientists said the impact could have “drastically altered the climate and led to serious consequences for life on Earth at the time”.
The study, led by researchers from the Centre for GeoGenetics at the Natural History Museum of Denmark and University of Copenhagen, was published in the journal Science Advances.

[Image: crater-greenland.jpg]
Map of the bedrock topography beneath the ice sheet and the ice-free land surrounding the Hiawatha impact crater
The crater was first discovered in July 2015 when researchers found a previously undetected “circular depression” under the glacier.
The team then inspected the glacier from the air using state-of-the-art ice radar measurements, revealing the hidden crater – covering an area bigger than Paris – in much more detail.

Detailed chemical analysis of sediment from a river that drains straight through the glacier followed, allowing researchers at Cardiff University to determine the type of object capable of causing such monumental destruction.
In particular, the experts looked for signs of platinum, palladium, rhodium and gold that would indicate the presence of a meteorite.

Watch more[/size][/size]
  • Meteorite filled with diamonds reveals secrets of ‘lost planet’
“When the results came through from the chemical analysis, they were certainly unexpected,” explained co-author of the research Dr Iain McDonald, from Cardiff University’s School of Earth and Ocean Sciences. “Initially we thought we might find the signature from a chrondritic or ‘stoney’ meteorite but the only explanation for the pattern of metals that we found had to be a mixture between the crustal rocks in the surrounding area and an unusual iron asteroid,” he said.

A number of iron meteorites, including a 20-tonne fragment, had previously been found in the area not far from the Hiawatha site.
The team said their next task would be to date the impact, which they believe happened between three million and 12,000 years ago.  
Dr McDonald added: “Chemically, our samples and the iron meteorite are highly heterogeneous and likely represent different fragments bound together by gravity. Fractionated iron meteorites are rare and finding two such occurrences in close proximity may be more than coincidence.

[Image: crater-greenland1.jpg]
The structure is 31km wide, with a prominent rim surrounding
[Image: greenland-crater.jpg]
Kurt Kjær collecting sand samples at the front of Hiawatha Glacier. This sand was transported by the glacier from the bottom of the impact crater to the ice margin, and it has yielded a wealth of information on the impact (Svend Funder)
“While it requires more research, we consider it possible that the Cape York irons may have been outer fragments or even boulders on the surface of the main meteorite. We suspect these initially detached in Earth’s gravity field and then decelerated as they entered the atmosphere to fall south of the Hiawatha crater.”
Professor Kurt H Kjær, lead author of the research from the Natural History Museum of Denmark, said: “The crater is exceptionally well-preserved and that is surprising, because glacier ice is an incredibly efficient erosive agent that would have quickly removed traces of the impact.
“The next step in the investigation will be to confidently date the impact. This will be a challenge because it will probably require recovering material that melted during the impact from the bottom of the structure, but this is crucial if we are to understand how the Hiawatha impact affected life on Earth.”[/size][/size]

Catching asteroid 3 Juno at its best

November 14, 2018 by David Dickinson, Universe Today

[Image: catchingaste.jpg]
Credit: Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.
Not all oppositions are created equal. This week's sky target offers a good case in point, as asteroid 3 Juno reaches its most favorable viewing position for the decade.

Juno in 2018

Juno reaches opposition on Thursday, November 16th, 2018 at around 22:00 Universal Time (UT) or 5:00 PM U.S. Eastern Standard Time (EST). This means the asteroid rises opposite to the setting sun this week, riding highest in the sky as it transits due south. It also makes its closest approach to the Earth about 14 hours prior on the same date, at 159 million kilometers distant. From mid-northern latitudes, the asteroid transits 45 degrees above the southern horizon at its highest. The asteroid loops slowly through the constellation of Eridanus the River through the last half of 2018, before entering the southern section of Taurus the Bull in early 2019.

3 Juno shines at magnitude +7.5, a shade brighter than usual, making it a fine telescopic or binocular object. Though the asteroid orbits the sun once every 4.4 years, it ranges from a perihelion of just shy of 2 astronomical units (AU) from the sun, out to an aphelion of 2.7 AU in the asteroid belt. With an orbit inclined 13 degrees relative to the ecliptic, bashful Juno only reaches a favorable opposition once every 13 years. Witness last year's unfavorable opposition, when Juno shined two full magnitudes (over six times) fainter, at magnitude +9.8.

[Image: 1-catchingaste.jpg]
The path of 3 Juno from mid-November 2018, through the end of January 2019. Credit: Starry Night
This is the best viewing season for 3 Juno since 2005, and the best until its favorable 2031 pass. In fact, at 1.036 distant, the 2018 apparition is one of the best for the 21st century, nudging out 2005 (1.063 AU) and 2031 (1.044 AU).

3 Juno was discovered by astronomer Karl Ludwig Harding on the night of September 1st, 1804, using a small 5-centimeter refracting telescope at the Lilienthal Observatory in Bremen, Germany. That pass was also a favorable perihelion view at 1.17 AU distant, leading to an early discovery of the 11th largest asteroid. Strange but true: in the early 19th century, the large asteroids Ceres, Vesta, Pallas and Juno were all briefly considered planets in their own right.

[Image: 2-catchingaste.jpg]
3 Juno’s orbit around the Sun. Credit: JPL-HorizonsObserving Juno

Watch for 3 Juno just over a degree (two full moon diameters) from the +4.5 star 32 Eridani on the night of opposition, moving about 15′ (a quarter of a degree) a day. The asteroid is far too small to show a visible disk; instead, watch for its movement against the starry background on successive nights.

3 Juno seems to have an interesting tale to tell, as well. It has a relatively high surface reflectivity (known as albedo) of 24 percent, brighter than most stony-chondrite type asteroids. Just 233 kilometers in diameter, 2003 observations done by Sallie Baliunas of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics using adaptive optics on the 100-inch Hooker telescope based at the Mount Wilson observatory show that 3 Juno has a curious 'bite' taken out of one side. Rotating once every 7.2 hours, it would seem that 3 Juno suffered from a large impact in the not very distant past. This lopsided feature is in line with occultation observations of 3 Juno chronicled by amateur observers. 3 Juno was actually part of the very first occultation of a background star caught by amateurs on February 19th, 1958.

[Image: 3-catchingaste.jpg]
3 Juno: looking west at about an hour before sunrise in mid-November from 30 degrees north latitude. Credit: Stellarium
[Image: 4-catchingaste.jpg]
Humanity’s best view of 3 Juno yet, courtesy of the Hooker telescope. Credit: The Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Explore further: NASA Juno data indicate another possible volcano on Jupiter moon Io

Source: Universe Today

Read more at:

Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
[Image: lot-family-salt.jpg]
RE: Boom! A Cosmic Impact On Our History?

[Image: 1065914182.jpg]Bible Revisited: Alleged Sodom Site Thought to Have Been Hit by Cosmic Blast
© Photo: Jimmy Conover

16:17 23.11.2018(updated 18:07 23.11.2018)Get short URL

According to the Bible, the ancient cities, thought to have been located on the Dead Sea, were wiped away by God for the sinful behaviour of their people. The preliminary findings of US scientists suggest that this region witnessed a major calamity almost 4 thousand years ago, which left it uninhabited for centuries.
Archaeologists from Trinity Southwest University, a Christian higher educational institution in Albuquerque, New Mexico, have claimed civilisation in the Dead Sea region was destroyed 3,700 years ago following a meteor explosion in the atmosphere.
During the annual meeting of the American Schools of Oriental Research in Denver, Colorado, scholar Phillip Silvia reported the preliminary findings of their excavations in the area, which some scientists consider to be home to the Biblical cities of Sodom and Gomorrah. The results suggest that cities and settlements in the Jordan Valley’s Middle Ghor region, where up to 65,000 people lived around that time, were obliterated with a powerful wave of heat, wind and tiny particles, the outlet Science News reports.
Waives also pushed salty water from the Dead Sea, which devastated the soil. The explosion, the researchers argue, “not only [wiped] out 100% of the Middle Bronze Age cities and towns, but also [stripped] agricultural soil from once-fertile fields,” Newsweek reports.
READ MORE: The Blast From Five Years Ago: The Chelyabinsk Meteor Conspiracy Theories
According to the scientists, a low-altitude meteor explosion caused the catastrophe which wiped out the region, including the ancient city of Tall el-Hammam, where the researchers worked for years. Radiocarbon dating reportedly revealed that mud-brick walls suddenly disappeared in the Middle Ghor city, as only stone foundations remained.
A pottery surface found on the site was melted into glass, which may be a result of extreme temperatures. Following the alleged blast, people wouldn’t return to the region for 600-700 years.
Humanity has seen several space explosions before. Five years ago, a near-Earth asteroid exploded in the atmosphere near the Russian city of Chelyabinsk, making headlines around the world and even worming its way into a Hollywood movie. This resulted in over 1,000 people being injured (mostly by broken glass from windows blown out by the shockwave). A more powerful blast came in 1908, when an asteroid exploded over a scarcely populated Siberian region on the Tunguska River, wiping away 2,000 square kilometres.

[/url]Science: Sodom & Gomorrah Asteroid Strike - Part 1 - YouTube
May 15, 2015 - Uploaded by John DiNardo
John DiNardo: Appended to my prologue here, is the link to an amazing television documentary. I hope that you ...

  1. [url=]
[size=undefined]May 16, 2015 - Uploaded by John DiNardo
John DiNardo: Appended to my prologue here, is the link to an amazing television documentary. I hope that you ...

An exploding meteor may have wiped out ancient Dead Sea communities
Archaeologists at a site in what's now Jordan have found evidence of a cosmic calamity
10:00AM, NOVEMBER 20, 2018

ANCIENT WIPEOUT  Preliminary evidence indicates that a low-altitude meteor explosion around 3,700 years ago destroyed cities, villages and farmland north of the Dead Sea (shown in the background above) rendering the region uninhabitable for 600 to 700 years.


DENVER — A superheated blast from the skies obliterated cities and farming settlements north of the Dead Sea around 3,700 years ago, preliminary findings suggest.
Radiocarbon dating and unearthed minerals that instantly crystallized at high temperatures indicate that a massive airburst caused by a meteor that exploded in the atmosphere instantaneously destroyed civilization in a 25-kilometer-wide circular plain called Middle Ghor, said archaeologist Phillip Silvia. The event also pushed a bubbling brine of Dead Sea salts over once-fertile farm land, Silvia and his colleagues suspect.
People did not return to the region for 600 to 700 years, said Silvia, of Trinity Southwest University in Albuquerque. He reported these findings at the annual meeting of the American Schools of Oriental Research on November 17.
Excavations at five large Middle Ghor sites, in what’s now Jordan, indicate that all were continuously occupied for at least 2,500 years until a sudden, collective collapse toward the end of the Bronze Age. Ground surveys have located 120 additional, smaller settlements in the region that the researchers suspect were also exposed to extreme, collapse-inducing heat and wind. An estimated 40,000 to 65,000 people inhabited Middle Ghor when the cosmic calamity hit, Silvia said.
The most comprehensive evidence of destruction caused by a low-altitude meteor explosion comes from the Bronze Age city of Tall el-Hammam, where a team that includes Silvia has been excavating for the last 13 years. Radiocarbon dating indicates that the mud-brick walls of nearly all structures suddenly disappeared around 3,700 years ago, leaving only stone foundations.
What’s more, the outer layers of many pieces of pottery from same time period show signs of having melted into glass. Zircon crystals in those glassy coats formed within one second at extremely high temperatures, perhaps as hot as the surface of the sun, Silvia said.
High-force winds created tiny, spherical mineral grains that apparently rained down on Tall el-Hammam, he said. The research team has identified these minuscule bits of rock on pottery fragments at the site.
Examples exist of exploding space rocks that have wreaked havoc on Earth (SN: 5/13/17, p. 12). An apparent meteor blast over a sparsely populated Siberian region in 1908, known as the Tunguska event, killed no one but flattened 2,000 square kilometers of forest. And a meteor explosion over Chelyabinsk, Russia, in 2013 injured more than 1,600 people, mainly due to broken glass from windows that were blown out.

P.J. Silvia et al. The 3.7kaBP Middle Ghor event: catastrophic termination of a Bronze Age civilization. American Schools of Oriental Research annual meeting, Denver, November 17, 2018.

Further Reading
T. Sumner. Here’s how an asteroid impact would kill youScience News. Vol. 191, May 13, 2017, p. 12.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...

Bible’s Sodom and Gomorrah destroyed by an exploding asteroid, says archaeologists
Was this the end of Sodom? A superheated asteroid exploded in the sky above the Dead Sea 3700 years ago, obliterating the cities below.
Jamie Seidel
News Corp Australia NetworkNOVEMBER 22, 20182:31PM


The effect would have been of biblical proportions: a superheated asteroid exploding into a massive fireball and shockwave over the Dead Sea.
The discovery and radiocarbon dating of unusual minerals in Jordan suggests exactly this happened some 3700 years ago.
Trinity Southwest University archaeologist and biblical researcher Phillip Silvia says preliminary findings based on crystallised rock suggests a massive airburst meteor blasted a 25km wide circular plain on the northeastern edge of the Dead Sea, now called Middle Ghor.
In a presentation to the annual meeting of the American Schools of Oriental Research last week, Silvia said excavations at five Middle Ghor sites showed the area was settled for a stretch of at least 2500 years. Then, all of a sudden, the region suffered a collective collapse towards the end of the Bronze Age.
He says surveys have revealed the remains of a further 120 settlements in Middle Ghor, all of which could have been exposed to a fiery blast.
Now, “We’re unearthing the largest Bronze Age site in the region, likely the site of biblical Sodom itself” the excavators’ website declares.
[Image: 0769540ea07ba9ecb6af00a1325a7a8e?width=650]
A reconstruction of Tall el-Hammam, a site in Jordan associated with the biblical city of Sodom.Source:Supplied

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Silva says the ruins of the Bronze Age city of Tall el-Hammam, which he and his team have been excavating for the past 13 years, provides the greatest preliminary evidence of a low-altitude airburst meteor.
Hammam features a raised acropolis upon which a palace complex was built. It looked out over the largely flat 200sq km expanse of what was likely a small kingdom on the edges of the River Jordan.

“The site had begun (at least) during the 4th millennium BCE, thriving for at least a thousand years as an open agricultural community,” the researchers write. “But at the beginning of the 3rd millennium BCE, dramatic disruptions in the relative peace of the region occurred, causing the inhabitants of Tall el-Hammam to construct a formidable defensive system that included a stone-and-mud brick city wall.”
The kingdom continued to thrive. Until, suddenly, it didn’t.

“It’s remarkable that Tall el-Hammam and its neighbours … suffered a civilisation-ending calamity, uniquely their own, toward the end of the Middle Bronze Age,” they write. “While cities to the west (Jerusalem, Bethel, Hebron), north (Deir ‘Alla, Pella, Beth Shan), and east (Rabbath-Ammon, Tall al-Umayri, Nebo) continued in the Late Bronze Age, the cities, towns, and villages of the eastern Jordan Disk did not.”
RELATED: Greenland impact may have depopulated early America
“The phenomenon resulting in the destruction of civilisation on ‘the well watered plain of the Jordan’ and repelling reoccupation for so many centuries is now coming to light through analyses performed by ‘impact’ researchers from seven participating universities,” the archaeologists’ website reports. “That the most productive agricultural land in the region, which had supported flourishing civilisations continuously for at least 3000 years, should suddenly relinquish, then resist, human habitation for such a long period of time has begged investigation.”
[Image: 21894b366cc2dcc6040dc60f4b0143d8?width=650]
Middle Ghor, the flat plain to the north-east of the Dead Sea where biblical archaeologists say a fireball and tsunami from an airburst meteor destroyed the ancient city of Sodom.Source:Supplied

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Silva says the shockwave of the asteroid likely forced a tsunami of Dead Sea brine over what was once fertile farm land. Those who survived from the 50,000 or so people living in the area at the time would have been forced to leave.
A paper published by Silvia and Steven Collins says this “affirm that Tall el-Hammam also tells the Right Story — that the evidence of destruction is consistent with Genesis 19:22-28.”
King James Version: Then the LORD rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the LORD out of heaven; And he overthrew those cities, and all the plain, and all the inhabitants of the cities, and that which grew upon the ground.
RELATED: How NASA hopes to save Earth from a killer asteroid
Radiocarbon dating places the sudden disappearance of clay brick walls — leaving behind only stone foundations — at some 3700 years ago, he says. Recovered fragments of pottery, Silvia says, show signs of having had their outer layers melted into glass.
Zircon crystals in those glassy films would have formed within the first second of the extreme-heat blast, he added, indicating temperatures as hot as the surface of the Sun.

“The physical evidence from Tall el-Hammam and neighbouring sites exhibit signs of a highly destructive concussive and thermal event that one might expect from what is described in Genesis 19,” the study reads. “The soil/ash samples gathered from Tall el-Hammam contain evidence of topsoil destruction and subsoil contamination with Dead Sea salts that would have prevented the cultivation of crops for many centuries following the event.”
Supporting the airburst theory was the discovery of tiny spherical mineral grains which rained down on the ground following the explosion, along with unusual amounts of platinum-palladium, Silvia says.
“An airburst yield of 10 megatons over the northeast corner of the Dead Sea would be sufficient to produce the physical damage observed 10km away at Tall el-Hammam. Note that this is only one-half the yield of the Tunguska airburst event (in Siberia), well within ‘recent’ human experience for meteoritic airbursts,” the study reads.
The impact would cause Middle Ghor to remain uninhabited for another 700 years.
“Research results concerning the “3.7KYrBP Kikkar Event” are presently being compiled for publication and presentation,” the TeHEP website reports.

Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...

The asteroid hitting Sodom and Gomorrah via the hand of God is great entertainment.

Quote:King James Version: 
Then the LORD rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire Whip
from the LORD out of heaven; 
And he overthrew those cities Whip 
and all the plain  
and all the inhabitants of the cities Whip 
and that which grew upon the ground.

I can see Charlton Heston there, witnessing the event in a mid 60's Hollywood movie. 

[Image: charlton-heston-ten-commandments.jpg]

God's Love is the incoming asteroid.
God loved Sodom and Gomorrah to death.
No Nonono I don't think it was just a chance hit,
or a roll of the cosmic dice,
with snake eyes staring up on the desert floor for Sodom and Gomorrah.

in his infinite  Sheep wisdom ordered the Archangels to create the cosmic coincidence,
and then the asteroid simply torched the predictable sinners,
with precision accuracy.
But it had to be the perfect asteroid.
After all,
the area of devastation was not that large.
if you think NASA has good pinpoint targeted landing accuracy,
check out the hand of God!

That asteroid only torched the sinners,
and all the rest of the wannabe saints in Jerusalem and nearby cities,
watched from across the waters and valleys,
and exclaimed with a sigh of relief,
God is Good!

[Image: sodom.jpg]

There are those that believe that Sodom and Gomorrah were hit by a nuclear attack.

[Image: sodom-and-Gomarrah.jpeg]

God freed the sinners of Sodom and Gomorrah, and saved the good people.
Nobody would go there for 700 years because the radioactivity was a bitter reminder,
for the first few hundred years. 

God has nuclear asteroids of Pure Love.
Split an atom, and destroy  free a kingdom of sinners.


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