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Cat's Brain: Stonehenge and Avebury Mystery?
#1
There is so many new revelations around Stonehenge and Avebury etc... a new thread was warranted.

Introducing:

Cat's Brain.

Quote:We are setting foot inside a significant building that has lain forgotten and hidden for thousands of years."



Ancestors of Stonehenge people could be buried inside uncovered 'house of the dead'
July 12, 2017

[Image: ancestorsofs.jpg]
Credit: University of Reading
A 'House of the Dead' has been discovered in Wiltshire dating back 5,000 years by University of Reading archaeologists and students, and could contain the ancestors of those who lived around Stonehenge and Avebury.



As part of the University's final Archaeology Field School in the Pewsey Vale, students and staff, with the support of volunteers from the area, have investigated the site of a Neolithic long barrow burial mound in a place known as Cat's Brain – the first to be fully investigated in Wiltshire in half a century.
The monument, which predates nearby Marden Henge by over 1,000 years, may contain human remains buried there in around 3,600 BC. The monument was first spotted by aerial photography and followed up by geophysical survey imagery.
An Open Day will be held at Marden henge on Saturday 15 July to allow members of the public to see the excavation happening live, as the team searches for human remains and other artefacts.
Dr Jim Leary, Director of the Archaeology Field School, said: "Opportunities to fully investigate long barrows are virtually unknown in recent times, and this represents a fantastic chance to carefully excavate one using the very latest techniques and technology.
"Members of the public now have the chance to visit us and see prehistory being unearthed as we search for human remains on the site. Discovering the buried remains of what could be the ancestors of those who lived around Stonehenge would be the cherry on the cake of an amazing project."



Credit: University of Reading
The Cat's Brain long barrow, found in the middle of a farmer's field halfway between the iconic prehistoric monuments of Avebury and Stonehenge, consists of two ditches flanking what appears to be a central building. This may have been covered with a mound made of the earth dug from the ditches, but has been ploughed flat over many centuries.
The monument dates to the early Neolithic period – an era representing the earliest agricultural communities in Britain, and the first monument builders. The last long barrow to be fully investigated in Wiltshire was in the 1960s.
'Incredible discovery'
Having cleared the top soil, the clear outline of the long barrow ditches is visible, as well as the footprint of the building. The team will now conclude the three-year Archaeology Field School project by excavating the archaeological remains and recover artefacts, bones, and other environmental evidence, which will be analysed.


This analysis will provide crucial evidence for the people and society in Britain during this remote period.
In addition to the Cat's Brain long barrow site, the University of Reading's Archaeology Field School is working at Marden henge, the largest henge in the country, built around 2,400 BC, also within the Vale of Pewsey. Little archaeological work has been carried out in the Vale, especially compared with the well-known nearby sites of Avebury and Stonehenge. The project aims to fill this gap in our knowledge and highlight the importance of the area in the Neolithic period.
Amanda Clarke, co-director of the Archaeology Field School, said: "This incredible discovery of one of the UK's first monuments offers a rare glimpse into this important period in history. We are setting foot inside a significant building that has lain forgotten and hidden for thousands of years."
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Exploring ancient life in the Vale of Pewsey
Provided by: University of Reading [Image: img-dot.gif]


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-07-ancestors-...e.html#jCp[/url][url=https://phys.org/news/2017-07-ancestors-stonehenge-people-uncovered-house.html#jCp]

Holy Schrodinger's Quantum Cat Brain 

I will infill the latest discoveries as the thread progresses with improvisational quantum processes.
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#2
England’s first prehistoric stone ‘circles’ may have been square
It is believed to be the first prehistoric "stone square" ever discovered – in Britain or continental Europe [Image: avebury.jpg][img=788x0]https://static.independent.co.uk/s3fs-public/styles/article_small/public/thumbnails/image/2017/06/28/20/avebury.jpg[/img]Stones at the Avebury stone circle PA Archive/PA Images

One of Britain’s most famous prehistoric monuments  - Avebury in Wiltshire – may be substantially more ancient than previously thought.



Investigations within the UNESCO World Heritage designated stone circle - the largest in Britain - have revealed a hitherto unknown, and probably very early, series of ancient standing stones, are arranged, not as a circle, but as a 30 metre by 30 metre square.


It is believed to be the first prehistoric "stone square" ever discovered – in Britain or continental Europe.  It is conceivable that the newly discovered monument, which would have originally consisted of around 17 standing stones, was built up to a thousand years before both Stonehenge’s  and Avebury’s surviving stone circles.

Most of the newly discovered stones (or in some cases the holes they had stood in) had been buried (or, in the case of stone holes, filled in) at some stage in prehistory – or, more probably, in mediaeval or early modern times.


What’s more, at the centre of the square, archaeologists, re-analysing pre-war archaeological records, have discovered the remains of a substantial Neolithic timber building – constructed in mid-fourth millennium BC style.

That would make the ten metre long, six metre wide building the oldest feature yet found at Avebury. It would also raise the possibility that the stone square, constructed around it, is equally old or was built slightly later but while the building was still standing (i.e., up to a few hundred years later). The sides of the building and the sides of the stone square are aligned with each other – so a relationship between the two is likely.



If the building does indeed date from some five and a half thousand years ago, the discovery helps push back the date of the origins of Avebury by up to a thousand years.



[Image: avebury-skycopter-still.jpg][img=564x0]https://static.independent.co.uk/s3fs-public/styles/story_medium/public/thumbnails/image/2017/06/29/00/avebury-skycopter-still.jpg[/img]
The exact area where the archaeologists have found the prehistoric 'stone square' and timber building (National Trust)


If the newly discovered stone square also dates back to the fourth millennium BC, then it would potentially be the oldest standing stone complex in England – and around the same age as the oldest ones in Scotland.



What’s more, the square shape of the newly revealed early Avebury standing stone enclosure is totally unique – indeed without parallel anywhere. 



It is likely that both the rectangular building and the stone square surrounding it were of religious or ceremonial significance – but so far the archaeologists have found no clues as to the precise nature of any ritual or ceremonial activities that may have taken place there.



The early date for the stone square (and the building it appears to enclose) is also supported by two other pieces of evidence from Avebury. Both the site of the timber building and the stone square itself were located in the centre of a  100 metre diameter stone circle (in the southern half of Avebury) which was probably built at a later date – perhaps in or by the mid-third millennium BC.



A second identical stone circle was erected, presumably at around the same time, in the northern half of Avebury.


video: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/avebur...13421.html

Man finds ancient medieval city on border of England and Wales

Significantly a group of three massive standing stones stood at the centre of that northern circle – and has been scientifically dated to somewhere between around 3500 and 2800BC.



The stylistic dating of the southern circle’s timber building and the scientific dating of the northern circle’s central standing stones both point to very early ceremonial activity at the centre of what would eventually become Avebury’s still surviving northern and southern stone circles.



Additional support for an early date for the newly discovered  timber building and stone square is also provided by fragments of pottery all dating from between 3600 BC and 2800 BC found many years ago in that specific area.



The discovery of a stone square, arguably pre-dating most British stone circles, raises the possibility that other similar monuments were built in the fourth millennium BC – but have simply not been discovered. The find therefore has the potential to completely rewrite the evolution of standing stone complexes in Britain.



The Avebury  UNESCO World Heritage Site, cared for by the National Trust, contains three stone circles – including Europe’s largest which is 330 metres across and originally comprised around 100 huge standing stones.


A research team led by the University of Leicester and the University of Southampton used a combination of electrical resistivity, ground-penetrating radar and archival research to investigate the site.

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/avebur...13421.html



Ancient stone monuments may have been used for mysterious moonlit ceremonies, say archaeologists 



[Image: TELEMMGLPICT000132535682-large_trans_NvB...pCom4.jpeg]

The Summer Solstice at Stonehenge CREDIT: WENN





7 JULY 2017 • 10:00PM



Ancient stone monuments may have been used for mysterious night-time ceremonies, archaeologists believe, after finding that some rock carvings only appear in moonlight.
Traditionally Neolithic structures were believed to align with the movements of the Sun, with  the huge Wiltshire circle of Stonehenge lining up perfectly with the summer solstice.
But a new investigation of the stone age engraved panel Hendraburnick Quoit in Cornwall by Dr Andy Jones, found nearly 10 times the number of markings when viewed in moonlight or very low sunlight from the south east.




They also discovered that pieces of quartz had been deliberately smashed up around the site which would have glowed in the dark under moonlight, or firelight, creating a gentle luminescence.




[Image: Hendraburnick_Quoit-geograph-org-uk-7332...pQBfEs.jpg][img=620x0]http://www.telegraph.co.uk/content/dam/science/2017/07/07/Hendraburnick_Quoit-geograph-org-uk-733290-large_trans_NvBQzQNjv4BqEDjTm7JpzhSGR1_8ApEWQA1vLvhkMtVb21dMmpQBfEs.jpg[/img]
 Hendraburnick Quoit




Dr Jones, of the Cornwall Archaeological Unit said: “I think the new marks show that this site was used at night and it is likely that other megalithic sites were as well.
“We were aware there were some cup and ring marks on the rocks but we were there on a sunny afternoon and noticed it was casting shadows on others which nobody had seen before.
“When we went out to some imaging at night, when the camera flashed we suddenly saw more and more art, which suggested that it was meant to be seen at night and in the moonlight.
“Then when you think about the quartz smashed around, which would have caused flashes and luminescence, suddenly you see that these images would have emerged out of the dark.
“Stonehenge does have markings, and I think that many more would be found at sites across the country if people were to look at them in different light.”





[Image: rock1-large_trans_NvBQzQNjv4BqrpfQw2hJyG...TInME.jpeg][img=620x0]http://www.telegraph.co.uk/content/dam/science/2017/07/07/rock1-large_trans_NvBQzQNjv4BqrpfQw2hJyG_yckwxPAr0gqsW2GA9nAM4IFtGNFTInME.jpeg[/img]
Marks on the rock came into view under a camera flash and would have lit up in moonlight, say experts  CREDIT: DR ANDY JONES 




Hendraburnick Quoit is a large propped ‘axe-shaped’ stone that was set upon a low platform of slates on Hendraburnick Down, near Davidstow.  Dr Jones believes it was dragged up from the valley below to act as a ritual marker for a sacred site in the Late Neolithicor Early Bronze Age, around 2,500BC.
Previous studies had recorded 13 cup marks on the rocks but Dr Jones and colleague Thomas Goskar found 105 engravings when he started to look under new light, making it the most highly decorated and complex example of rock art in southern England.
Writing in the archaeology journal Time and Mine, and Dr Jones and Mr Goskar conlcude: “As in many cultures where darkness is associated with the supernatural and the heightening of senses , it is possible that some activities at Hendraburnick Quoit may have been undertaken at night.
“Quartz has luminescent properties and reflects both moonlight and firelight
“Given that human eye perceives colour and shade quite differently at night than by daylight and the art would have been visible in moonlit conditions, the smashed quartz at Hendraburnick could have been used as part of night time activity on the site in order to ‘release’ the luminescent properties of the quartz around the monument and ‘reveal’ the art in a particular way.
“After the ritual, the broken pieces, once they had fallen on the ground, could have effectively formed a wider platform or arc which would have continued to glisten around it in the moonlight, and thereby added to the ‘aura’ of the site.”





[Image: cupandringmarks-large_trans_NvBQzQNjv4Bq...lEOVI.jpeg][img=620x0]http://www.telegraph.co.uk/content/dam/science/2017/07/07/cupandringmarks-large_trans_NvBQzQNjv4Bq2xH_am5qyIBBe32ZCWDxVJsEAVEVd1rEOxUIrDlEOVI.jpeg[/img]
More than 100 marks were eventually found on the rock  CREDIT: THOMAS GOSKAR

Smashed up quartz pieces discovered at the Early Bronze Age cairn at Olcote near Calanais, on the Isles of Lewis are thought to be linked with funerary and lunar rites.
The new research was published in the archaeology journal Time and Mind.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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#3
 Cat's Brain: are environs of Stonehenge and Avebury etc. Just like zep gobekli tepi in a sense>>>

Quote:... as if attempting to remove its existence from the landscape.[Image: 35519135330_a050041e05_m.jpg] Super-Henge!!!  Holycowsmile
They suggest it appears likely a change occurred, either in religious or political leanings, or a new group of people came in, took over, and then sought to remove evidence of the structure.


[Image: ch.jpg]
Clever Cat & Harry Hat Man
The Cat belongs to the Hat Man.
He lets her go where she pleases.
But when she sits down beside him,
she almost always sneezes.

The Cat belongs to the Hat Man.
He lets her go where she pleases.
But when she sits down beside him,
she almost always sneezes.
'Ch, ch, ch!'

http://www.letterland.com/parent-guide/b...aphs-songs
Chalk!
Holy cliffs o' Dover!
[Image: article-2114912-122B6AF7000005DC-519_964x644.jpg]
Superhenge turns out to be giant circle of chalk-filled post holes

August 17, 2016 by Bob Yirka report



[Image: stonehenge.jpg]
Stonehenge. Image: Wikipedia.
A team of researchers working at a site near Stonehenge made headlines last year when they conducted radar tests on a 4,500-year-old monument called Durrington Walls. They reported that they had found evidence of a circle of buried stones that was much larger than Stonehenge, leading to the nickname Superhenge. Now, after excavating two of the locations thought to contain stones, the team is reporting that they are not stones at all[Image: doh.gif] but are instead holes in the ground that once held wooden posts but which are now filled with small blocks of chalk.


                                                       



The excavation is part of the Stonehenge Hidden Landscapes Project, which is seeking to better explain the nature of Stonehenge by digging up and studying other parts of the landscape that may contain other structures or artifacts from the same time period. Last year, a study was made of Durrington Walls, a monument approximately two miles from Stonehenge. 



Today, it exists as a semi-circular mound (approximately 1,640 feet across) of chalk and dirt with a ditch situated just next to it. Radar guns suggested 200 to 300 anomalies beneath the ground at regular intervals which archeologists believed were likely long, tall stones buried below. 



But now that the team has dug out two of the anomalies, they have discovered that the radar was picking up columns of chalk blocks sitting in five-foot-deep holes that they now believe were once used to keep wood posts upright in the ground. Both holes also had a shallow connecting hole that is believed to have been used to help steady the pole in the ground. At the bottom of one of the holes, the researchers found the remains of a cow shoulder blade that had been fashioned into a primitive shovel.





The researchers now theorize that the site was intended to be used for conducting unknown types of rituals, but was never finished—instead, the posts that had been laid were pulled from the ground and were filled in with blocks of chalk and then the whole site was covered over with dirt and chalk bits, as if attempting to remove its existence from the landscape. They suggest it appears likely a change occurred, either in religious or political leanings, or a new group of people came in, took over, and then sought to remove evidence of the structure.




Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-08-superhenge-...s.html#jCp
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#4
Quote:Such a huge monument erected so perfectly, over many centuries, is not something easy for us to understand in our fast-paced, modern world.

We may have cracked the mystery of stonehenge.


  • By Vivien Cumming

18 July 2017

Stonehenge is one the UK’s most visited tourist attractions – and one of the world’s most enigmatic ancient monuments. People come from all over the world to stare at the iconic stone pillars and wonder how, and why, they were put in place.
The site may be instantly recognisable, but there is far more to it than first meets the eye. As archaeologists study this area, mystery after mystery unfolds. But a coherent story may be beginning to emerge.
That has been particularly true over the last decade. Researchers have been studying not just the monument itself, but the area around it, hoping to find clues in this intriguing landscape of prehistoric monuments.


Underground imaging and excavation have revealed that Stonehenge was once part of a complicated network of structures: ancient burial mounds, unknown settlements, processional routes and even gold-adorned burials. The finds paint a picture of a far more mysterious and elaborate Neolithic and Bronze Age world than previously thought.

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One such project that looked at Stonehenge in this holistic way was the Stonehenge Hidden Landscapes Project, which ran from 2010 to 2014. Underground radar and magnetic imaging techniques revealed that Stonehenge lies at the centre of a complex web of structures covering an estimated 4.5 square miles (12 sq km). The project caused a media frenzy in 2015, when scientists announced the finding of a potential ‘Superhenge’ at nearby Durrington Walls – a huge 500m (1,640ft) diameter stone circle.

However, this frenzy was short-lived. When excavating the site, the archaeologists didn’t find any stones. Instead, they found that timber posts once stood here. After they were removed, the holes were filled with chalk and then covered in earth to form a henge bank. On radar scans, the gaps in the loose chalk had looked like stones.



[Image: p058kwr4.jpg]
Today, Durrington Walls is a field surrounded by banks (Credit: Vivien Cumming)




Despite this setback, UK lead for the Stonehenge Hidden Landscapes Project Vincent Gaffney stressed that the project revealed hundreds of new features and many sites never seen before. “Following this survey, we know not only where things are but where they aren’t as well,” said Gaffney, an archaeologist at the University of Bradford.

These kinds of surveys are key, Gaffney said, because they allow archaeologists “to investigate all areas of land equally, and not just the monuments we know. This allows us to interpret the evidence in a more sophisticated manner.

“What this has revealed is a completely unknown monumental phase of Durrington Walls. In between the Neolithic village and the massive earthwork was a massive ring of posts somewhere between 4-6m (13-20ft) in height – a minimum of 200 and perhaps as many as 300. This is completely new and would have been missed entirely without the survey.”



[Image: p058kxh3.jpg]
Modern stones mark where the pillars of Woodhenge, another ancient monument in the area, would have been (Credit: Vivien Cumming)




The finding of another huge monument in the area has changed the way archaeologists look at the development and history of the region. “Increasingly, I would suggest that we are beginning to see the mosaic of blank areas and monuments as suggesting processional movement,” said Gaffney.

In other words, the landscape was used in religious or ceremonial processions related to the monuments.

Discover more about the mysteries of prehistoric Brits:
• Why they threw out their most valuable possessions
• How they dug out miles of copper mines using only stone and bone tools
• The mystery of England’s ancient tunnels
• Their peculiar obsession with building forts on hills (and not necessarily for war)
• Whether the remote Orkney islands once were the centre of civilisation
• The strange origins of Scotland’s stone circles


Mike Parker Pearson of University College London’s Institute of Archaeology, who led the Stonehenge Riverside Project from 2003 to 2009, thinks that the posts at Durrington Walls were put up with the intention that they would be taken down soon after. “They may only have stood for a matter of months before they were replaced by the henge bank and ditch,” he said. “Their purpose seems to have been to mark the perimeter of the great village, by now abandoned. So perhaps the posts were a monument to the people who lived here while building Stonehenge.”

Whatever the monument was used for, it shows that Stonehenge isn’t alone in this landscape. Understanding the significance of Stonehenge depends on understanding everything else around it as well.

The Stonehenge Riverside Project found that Stonehenge was built in two phases. The first – a ditch, bank and circle of bluestones – was built 500 years earlier than previously thought, more than 4,500 years ago. The second phase, when the larger, iconic outer circle was erected, came about 500 years after the first.



[Image: p058l4jf.jpg][img=604x0]http://ichef.bbci.co.uk/wwfeatures/wm/live/624_351/images/live/p0/58/l4/p058l4jf.jpg[/img]
Stonehenge wasn't the only significant monument in the region (Credit: Vivien Cumming)




The area, however, was occupied beginning around 9,000 years ago, suggesting it had significance long before Stonehenge was built.

Twenty miles (30km) away lies the less well-known but just as significant site of Avebury, home of the largest stone circle in Europe. But the Neolithic reach of this area extended even further – such as into Wales, where prehistoric Britons procured the bluestones for Stonehenge’s inner circle.

Meanwhile, Parker Pearson says, it seems that the big stones at Stonehenge came from the Avebury area.

This suggests that these significant Neolithic landscapes – Salisbury Plain, Avebury and the Preseli hills in Wales, another area rich with prehistoric monuments – were linked. And holding that link together was Stonehenge.

Parker Pearson suggests that the Welsh bluestones were the first to be put in place at Stonehenge, and that it was the monument that they came from that was important. The stones would have been considered to be ancestral symbols of western Britons, he said, and “bringing them to Salisbury Plain was an act of unification of the two main Neolithic peoples of southern Britain.”



[Image: p058l4rk.jpg][img=604x0]http://ichef.bbci.co.uk/wwfeatures/wm/live/624_351/images/live/p0/58/l4/p058l4rk.jpg[/img]
Outcrops of rock in the Presili hills, Wales (Credit: Vivien Cumming)




Even today, the Preseli hills are dotted with dolmens (ancient tombs). “The density of dolmens reveals that this was an important region (both politically and spiritually) some 700 years before Stonehenge,” Parker Pearson said, making it “possibly a leading territory within western Britain in the centuries before 3000 BC.”

Question time
But even if we agree with the theory that bringing the stones from Wales was a symbolic and even political, act, it presents another mystery: how did prehistoric Britons move those huge stones?


Some suggest that people didn’t move the stones at all, and that instead, glaciers transported the stones across southern Britain. But the finding of two ancient stone quarries in Preseli ended that debate for the most part.



[Image: p058ldw5.jpg][img=604x0]http://ichef.bbci.co.uk/wwfeatures/wm/live/624_351/images/live/p0/58/ld/p058ldw5.jpg[/img]
Excavations at the Craig Rhos-y-felin quarry, shown here, revealed that the bluestones were quarried and transported to Stonehenge (Credit: Vivien Cumming)




Scientists also have experimented with ideas of how to transport the large stones 160 miles (260km) from Wales. According to Parker Pearson, they discovered that moving small megaliths like the bluestones, which mostly weighed 2 tons or less, was not actually that difficult – even with just dragging the stone on a sledge.



[Image: p058ldyd.jpg][img=604x0]http://ichef.bbci.co.uk/wwfeatures/wm/live/624_351/images/live/p0/58/ld/p058ldyd.jpg[/img]
The outcrops of the Preseli hills in Wales (Credit: Vivien Cumming)




In another recent finding, archaeologists discovered the cremated remains of people buried at Stonehenge. The Stonehenge Riverside Project’s 2008 excavation retrieved about 58 burials, including at least nine men – and 14 women. As it is thought that anyone buried at Stonehenge had elevated social status, this therefore poses questions about the role of women in the Neolithic period.



[Image: p058lf9x.jpg][img=604x0]http://ichef.bbci.co.uk/wwfeatures/wm/live/624_351/images/live/p0/58/lf/p058lf9x.jpg[/img]
Stonehenge continues to bring new surprises for archaeologists to unravel (Credit: Vivien Cumming)




“It frequently seems that there is always something new from Stonehenge, but I continue to be surprised that we keep finding so much – even in areas that have been studied intensively for years,” said Gaffney. “The latest findings from Durrington demonstrate that new technology doesn’t just find new sites, it dramatically transforms how we understand known sites.

“It also emphasises not just how unique Stonehenge was, but how important the landscape around that monument was – and that we are still just beginning to understand how it developed and what it meant to the people who built Stonehenge.”

Even so, no matter how many new discoveries are made, it seems that Stonehenge will only continue to throw up new questions for scientists and the media to ponder. These Neolithic people had huge skill and ambition.
Such a huge monument erected so perfectly, over many centuries, is not something easy for us to understand in our fast-paced, modern world.
  • We may have cracked the mystery of Stonehenge.
http://www.bbc.com/travel/story/20170713...-was-built
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
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