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`Oumuamua, the first known interstellar asteroid,
#34
Vote Common Sense Tuesday and in blank row print 2020CydoniaRover and print yes in that row along the bottom line where you write Common Sense for Party line and maybe get voters make the decision where the 2020 Rover lands.

It's LEGAL ballot and if done across country, finding anywhere from 20 to 180 guests from my tweeting that page to bunch of news sites, news people, AP, Fox News, NBC, CBS, ABC, and other places, poltico, Daily beast, Breitbart, many others.

Do another tweet from list tomorrow evening. Sunday evening, Monday noonish.

#2020CydoniaRover


S   P   R   E   A    D            I    T           E      V     E     R     Y     W     H     E     R     E  



Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
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#35
Quote:"Usually, if we get a measurement from a comet that's kind of weird, we go back and measure it again until we understand what we're seeing," said Davide Farnocchia, of the Center for Near Earth Object Studies (CNEOS) at JPL and a coauthor on both papers. "But this one is gone forever;  Hi  we probably know as much about it as we're ever going to know."

NASA Learns More About Interstellar Visitor 'Oumuamua
November 14, 2018 by Calla Cofield, NASA

[Image: nasalearnsmo.jpg]
An artist's concept of interstellar asteroid 1I/2017 U1 ('Oumuamua) as it passed through the solar system after its discovery in October 2017. Observations of 'Oumuamua indicate that it must be very elongated because of its dramatic …more
In November 2017, scientists pointed NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope toward the object known as 'Oumuamua—the first known interstellar object to visit our solar system. The infrared Spitzer was one of many telescopes pointed at 'Oumuamua in the weeks after its discovery that October.




'Oumuamua was too faint for Spitzer to detect when it looked more than two months after the object's closest aproach to Earth in early September. However, the "non-detection" puts a new limit on how large the strange object can be. The results are reported in a new study published today in the Astronomical Journal and coauthored by scientists at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.

The new size limit is consistent with the findings of a research paper published earlier this year, which suggested that outgassing was responsible for the slight changes in 'Oumuamua's speed and direction as it was tracked last year: The authors of that paper conclude the expelled gas acted like a small thruster gently pushing the object. That determination was dependent on 'Oumuamua being relatively smaller than typical solar system comets. (The conclusion that 'Oumuamua experienced outgassing suggested that it was composed of frozen gases, similar to a comet.)

"'Oumuamua has been full of surprises from day one, so we were eager to see what Spitzer might show," said David Trilling, lead author on the new study and a professor of astronomy at Northern Arizona University. "The fact that 'Oumuamua was too small for Spitzer to detect is actually a very valuable result."

'Oumuamua was first detected by the University of Hawaii's Pan-STARRS 1 telescope on Haleakala, Hawaii (the object's name is a Hawaiian word meaning "visitor from afar arriving first"), in October 2017 while the telescope was surveying for near-Earth asteroids.

Subsequent detailed observations conducted by multiple ground-based telescopes and NASA's Hubble Space Telescope detected the sunlight reflected off 'Oumuamua's surface. Large variations in the object's brightness suggested that 'Oumuamua is highly elongated and probably less than half a mile (2,600 feet, or 800 meters) in its longest dimension.

But Spitzer tracks asteroids and comets using the infrared energy, or heat, that they radiate, which can provide more specific information about an object's size than optical observations of reflected sunlight alone would.

[Image: nasalearnsmo.gif]
Scientists have concluded that vents on the surface of 'Oumuamua must have emitted jets of gases, giving the object a slight boost in speed, which researchers detected by measuring the position of the object as it passed by Earth in 2017. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
The fact that 'Oumuamua was too faint for Spitzer to detect sets a limit on the object's total surface area. However, since the non-detection can't be used to infer shape, the size limits are presented as what 'Oumuamua's diameter would be if it were spherical. Using three separate models that make slightly different assumptions about the object's composition, Spitzer's non-detection limited 'Oumuamua's "spherical diameter" to 1,440 feet (440 meters), 460 feet (140 meters) or perhaps as little as 320 feet (100 meters). The wide range of results stems from the assumptions about 'Oumuamua's composition, which influences how visible (or faint) it would appear to Spitzer were it a particular size.



Small but Reflective

The new study also suggests that 'Oumuamua may be up to 10 times more reflective than the comets that reside in our solar system—a surprising result, according to the paper's authors. Because infrared light is largely heat radiation produced by "warm" objects, it can be used to determine the temperature of a comet or asteroid; in turn, this can be used to determine the reflectivity of the object's surface—what scientists call albedo. Just as a dark T-shirt in sunlight heats up more quickly than a light one, an object with low reflectivity retains more heat than an object with high reflectivity. So a lower temperature means a higher albedo.

A comet's albedo can change throughout its lifetime. When it passes close to the Sun, a comet's ice warms and turns directly into a gas, sweeping dust and dirt off the comet's surface and revealing more reflective ice.

'Oumuamua had been traveling through interstellar space for millions of years, far from any star that could refresh its surface. But it may have had its surface refreshed through such "outgassing" when it made an extremely close approach to our Sun, a little more than five weeks before it was discovered. In addition to sweeping away dust and dirt, some of the released gas may have covered the surface of 'Oumuamua with a reflective coat of ice and snow—a phenomenon that's also been observed in comets in our solar system.

'Oumuamua is on its way out of our solar system—almost as far from the Sun as Saturn's orbit—and is well beyond the reach of any existing telescopes.

"Usually, if we get a measurement from a comet that's kind of weird, we go back and measure it again until we understand what we're seeing," said Davide Farnocchia, of the Center for Near Earth Object Studies (CNEOS) at JPL and a coauthor on both papers. "But this one is gone forever; we probably know as much about it as we're ever going to know."

Explore further: 'Oumuamua one year later

More information: David E. Trilling et al. Spitzer Observations of Interstellar Object 1I/'Oumuamua, The Astronomical Journal (2018). DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/aae88f 

Journal reference: Astronomical Journal
Provided by: NASA



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-11-nasa-inter...a.html#jCp





Evidence of aliens? What to make of research and reporting on 'Oumuamua, our visitor from space

November 16, 2018 by Steven Tingay, The Conversation



[Image: evidenceofal.jpg]
An artist’s impression of 'Oumuamua, the first interstellar object discovered in the solar system. ESA/Hubble, NASA, ESO, M. KornmesserCC BY
As an astrophysicist, probably the most common question I get asked is: "Are we alone in the universe and do aliens exist?"








There is no doubt: people love to think and talk about aliens. Hence, stories about the search for extraterrestrial intelligence get picked up and reported with gusto in the media.



But what really lies at the heart of this complicated and popular topic is evidence – the nature of any evidence of alien life, how we view and respect this evidence, and how this is communicated to the public.



Nowhere is this more important than in the coverage of scientific studies of a mystery object – 'Oumuamua – that was recently discovered passing through our solar system. For example, two publications in two respected peer-reviewed journals prompted very different reactions.



Hello 'Oumuamua  Hi



'Oumuamua, meaning scout or messenger in Hawaiian, is the name given to the first detected interstellar object to visit our solar system. On discovery last year, 'Oumuamua was classified as a comet, but this was later withdrawn when no evidence for cometary activity was detected.



'Oumuamua was quickly found to have an orbit that does not belong to our solar system. It has an origin elsewhere in our galaxy, and a trajectory that saw it traverse the inner solar system over the course of a few months.



It passed close to the sun and to Earth, and was found to have an unusual geometry, about 200 metres long and some 35 metres wide, rotating every seven hours.



The discovery of 'Oumuamua generated a lot of attention in the scientific community, and in the media. Given its unusual geometry and its origin outside the solar system, questions were soon asked as to whether 'Oumuamua could be a spacecraft.



Observations were made with radio telescopes to search for any direct evidence of transmissions indicating intelligent lifeincluding by a team led by me using an Australian telescope (the Murchison Widefield Array). We listened around FM radio frequencies, on the basis that any intelligent life on 'Oumuamua may recognise FM frequencies popular on Earth.







No direct evidence of intelligent life was ever found in these searches.









Observations with ESO’s Very Large Telescope and others have shown that this unique object is dark, reddish in colour, and highly elongated. Credit: ESOMore hard data on 'Oumuamua





Extensive and impressive observations with a range of telescopes, including the Hubble Space Telescope, were made to accurately determine 'Oumuamua's trajectory. Results of the study, by a team of astronomers led by the European Space Agency's Marco Micheli, were published in Nature in June.



These very careful observations showed that 'Oumuamua accelerated as it left the solar system, revealing the existence of "non-gravitational forces". This means that the trajectory of the object could not be explained just by the gravity of the sun and other major objects in our solar system.



A range of possible explanations for the acceleration exist. One is that heated gas escaping from 'Oumuamua (outgassing) could produce a force that caused the observed acceleration. This is commonly seen in normal comets.



But 'Oumuamua still shows no evidence for cometary activity. Micheli's team ran through six possible explanations and concluded that outgassing is the most likely option, even though there is no direct evidence that this is the case.



They showed that the acceleration of 'Oumuamua is unusual, but within the bounds of what has been seen previously for solar system comets.



One of the explanations discounted by the study team is that 'Oumuamua was accelerated by radiation pressure from our sun. Radiation from the sun can push objects away from it.



But they concluded that this explanation is not preferred, because it means that the density of 'Oumuamua would have to be very low. An object needs have a large surface area and low mass (low density) to be accelerated by radiation pressure.



Could it be aliens?



Another study by postdoctoral researcher Shmuel Bialy and distinguished astronomer Avi Loeb, from Harvard University, took a different approach.



Details of the study have just been published in November's The Astrophysical Journal Letters, but were available online earlier.



The authors chose to assume solar radiation pressure to be the cause of the acceleration, and then determined the properties of 'Oumuamua required to make this work. They require an object with thickness less than 1mm, an areal mass density of 1 to 2 grams per square centimetre, and a large area.



[Image: 1-evidenceofal.jpg]

Data from the Murchison Widefield Array, showing no detection of radio signals from ‘Oumuamua in the frequency range 70-105MHz (containing the FM band). Credit: Steven Tingay and co-authors, Author provided

It is unlikely that nature would produce such an extreme geometry. The authors quickly mention this, before moving to a discussion that, under the assumption that solar radiation is the cause for the acceleration, 'Oumuamua is artificial—that means the product of an alien civilisation.



The properties the authors derive under their assumptions are similar to those of solar sails being designed and built by humans as a possible way to travel interstellar distances.



Bialy and Loeb spend half of their article discussion section on the idea that 'Oumuamua could be a defunct or active solar sail belonging to an alien civilisation.



The nature and communication of evidence



Bialy and Loeb did not issue a press release about their study, but the media picked up the paper once it was accepted and available online, prior to this week's journal publication.



(This is something that happened to me in 2012, leading to my published non-detection of aliens being run on the front page of the BBC news website.)



Bialy and Loeb's publication attracted headlines such as this, for example: "Harvard astronomers claim Oumuamua is ALIEN PROBE - 'Nothing like we've ever seen!'". Most other reporting was more balanced.



This is pretty normal. A lot of the media jump to aliens in the reporting of space and astronomy, even when the original reported studies have never mentioned aliens. Recent reporting of Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) is an example.



What surprised me was the reaction of some of my colleagues to Bialy and Loeb's paper. On social media, there have been some pretty personal attacks by scientists – on Loeb in particular – for being in the media for this work.



Both new studies lay out their assumptions, cite substantial evidence, and undertake rigorous calculations. Both were accepted by top-quality journals after independent peer review.



Both finish with bottom lines that the studies of 'Oumuamua are inconclusive and we will need to examine more such objects that come through the solar system in the future.



Both sets of authors also come up with different perspectives and motivate different questions. But Loeb has ended up in the media, talking about his paper, and is being panned by some colleagues for it.



[Image: 2-evidenceofal.jpg]

Artist’s impression of the IKAROS mission using a solar sail. Credit: Wikimedia/Andrzej MireckiCC BY-SA

Since the pre-journal paper was picked up he told me he has been swamped by media interest. "I use the discussions with the media as a platform for highlighting the standard scientific methodology: an anomaly is observed in data, the standard explanation fails to explain it, and so an alternative interpretation is proposed. I encourage anyone with a better explanation to write a paper about it and publish it. Wrong interpretations can be ruled out when more data will be released on 'Oumuamua or other members of its population in the future."



As for the negative reactions he has received, he referred to an article he recently published where he paraphrased another scientist known for his once-controversial theories. "As Galileo reasoned after looking through his telescope, 'in the sciences, the authority of a thousand is not worth as much as the humble reasoning of a single individual.'"



Let's talk about evidence



Given my work on observations of 'Oumuamua, a few journalists have contacted me for comment.



These have been great opportunities to discuss in depth with journalists the nature of evidence, the difference between something being consistent with observations and direct evidence for a conclusion, and the need for evidence to be commensurate with the impact of a claim.



If aliens are claimed, direct and robust evidence is required – not a conclusion based on a few observations that are difficult to explain, plus a bunch of assumptions.



But no scientist has claimed 'Oumuamua is alien in this discussion – they have just raised questions and explored answers.



There is no point in shying away from a proper discussion on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, or in being personally critical of colleagues.



Scientists should take every opportunity to engage with the public and the media on the topic, given the public's interest and the media's willingness to report.



It is interesting, fun, and scientific, and a great opportunity to discuss the scientific method and science in an engaging manner. The media reporting of 'Oumuamua shows that (aside from a few headlines), the content of reports is generally pretty good and responsible.



Whatever 'Oumuamua is (almost certainly not made by aliens, in my view), it is a fascinating object and presents lots of interesting scientific questions that will trigger further studies and observations.



We will never see 'Oumuamua again, and we may never know exactly what it is. But seeing 'Oumuamua in the news is likely to inspire some kids to take up a career in science.



[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Scientists push back against Harvard 'alien spacecraft' theory



Journal reference: Astrophysical Journal Letters [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: The Conversation





Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-11-evidence-aliens-oumuamua-visitor-space.html#jCp
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#36
NASA's Voyager 2 probe enters interstellar space
December 10, 2018 by Dwayne Brown / Karen Fox, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

[Image: nasasvoyager.jpg]
This illustration shows the position of NASA’s Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 probes, outside of the heliosphere, a protective bubble created by the Sun that extends well past the orbit of Pluto. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
For the second time in history, a human-made object has reached the space between the stars. NASA's Voyager 2 probe now has exited the heliosphere – the protective bubble of particles and magnetic fields created by the Sun.




Members of NASA's Voyager team will discuss the findings at a news conference at 11 a.m. EST (8 a.m. PST) today at the meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) in Washington. The news conference will stream live on the agency's website.

Comparing data from different instruments aboard the trailblazing spacecraft, mission scientists determined the probe crossed the outer edge of the heliosphere on Nov. 5. This boundary, called the heliopause, is where the tenuous, hot solar wind meets the cold, dense interstellar medium. Its twin, Voyager 1, crossed this boundary in 2012, but Voyager 2 carries a working instrument that will provide first-of-its-kind observations of the nature of this gateway into interstellar space.

Voyager 2 now is slightly more than 11 billion miles (18 billion kilometers) from Earth. Mission operators still can communicate with Voyager 2 as it enters this new phase of its journey, but information – moving at the speed of light – takes about 16.5 hours to travel from the spacecraft to Earth. By comparison, light traveling from the Sun takes about eight minutes to reach Earth.



The most compelling evidence of Voyager 2's exit from the heliosphere came from its onboard Plasma Science Experiment (PLS), an instrument that stopped working on Voyager 1 in 1980, long before that probe crossed the heliopause. Until recently, the space surrounding Voyager 2 was filled predominantly with plasma flowing out from our Sun. This outflow, called the solar wind, creates a bubble – the heliosphere – that envelopes the planets in our solar system. The PLS uses the electrical current of the plasma to detect the speed, density, temperature, pressure and flux of the solar wind. The PLS aboard Voyager 2 observed a steep decline in the speed of the solar wind particles on Nov. 5. Since that date, the plasma instrument has observed no solar wind flow in the environment around Voyager 2, which makes mission scientists confident the probe has left the heliosphere.



In addition to the plasma data, Voyager's science team members have seen evidence from three other onboard instruments – the cosmic ray subsystem, the low energy charged particle instrument and the magnetometer – that is consistent with the conclusion that Voyager 2 has crossed the heliopause. Voyager's team members are eager to continue to study the data from these other onboard instruments to get a clearer picture of the environment through which Voyager 2 is traveling.

"There is still a lot to learn about the region of interstellar space immediately beyond the heliopause," said Ed Stone, Voyager project scientist based at Caltech in Pasadena, California. 

Together, the two Voyagers provide a detailed glimpse of how our heliosphere interacts with the constant interstellar wind flowing from beyond. Their observations complement data from NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX), a mission that is remotely sensing that boundary. NASA also is preparing an additional mission – the upcoming Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe (IMAP), due to launch in 2024 – to capitalize on the Voyagers' observations.



[Image: nasasvoyager.gif]
Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center"Voyager has a very special place for us in our heliophysics fleet," said Nicola Fox, director of the Heliophysics Division at NASA Headquarters. "Our studies start at the Sun and extend out to everything the solar wind touches. To have the Voyagers sending back information about the edge of the Sun's influence gives us an unprecedented glimpse of truly uncharted territory."


While the probes have left the heliosphere, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 have not yet left the solar system, and won't be leaving anytime soon. The boundary of the solar system is considered to be beyond the outer edge of the Oort Cloud, a collection of small objects that are still under the influence of the Sun's gravity. The width of the Oort Cloud is not known precisely, but it is estimated to begin at about 1,000 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun and to extend to about 100,000 AU. One AU is the distance from the Sun to Earth. It will take about 300 years for Voyager 2 to reach the inner edge of the Oort Cloud and possibly 30,000 years to fly beyond it.

The Voyager probes are powered using heat from the decay of radioactive material, contained in a device called a radioisotope thermal generator (RTG). The power output of the RTGs diminishes by about four watts per year, which means that various parts of the Voyagers, including the cameras on both spacecraft, have been turned off over time to manage power.

"I think we're all happy and relieved that the Voyager probes have both operated long enough to make it past this milestone," said Suzanne Dodd, Voyager project manager at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California. "This is what we've all been waiting for. Now we're looking forward to what we'll be able to learn from having both probes outside the heliopause."

[Image: 2-nasasvoyager.jpg]
The set of graphs on the left illustrates the drop in electrical current detected in three directions by Voyager 2's plasma science experiment (PLS) to background levels. They are among the key pieces of data that show that Voyager 2 …more
Voyager 2 launched in 1977, 16 days before Voyager 1, and both have traveled well beyond their original destinations. The spacecraft were built to last five years and conduct close-up studies of Jupiter and Saturn. However, as the mission continued, additional flybys of the two outermost giant planets, Uranus and Neptune, proved possible. As the spacecraft flew across the solar system, remote-control reprogramming was used to endow the Voyagers with greater capabilities than they possessed when they left Earth. Their two-planet mission became a four-planet mission. Their five-year lifespans have stretched to 41 years, making Voyager 2 NASA's longest running mission.

The Voyager story has impacted not only generations of current and future scientists and engineers, but also Earth's culture, including film, art and music. Each spacecraft carries a Golden Record of Earth sounds, pictures and messages. Since the spacecraft could last billions of years, these circular time capsules could one day be the only traces of human civilization.

Voyager's mission controllers communicate with the probes using NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN), a global system for communicating with interplanetary spacecraft. The DSN consists of three clusters of antennas in Goldstone, California; Madrid, Spain; and Canberra, Australia.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: NASA Voyager 2 could be nearing interstellar space

Provided by: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-12-nasa-voyager-probe-interstellar-space.html#jCp
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With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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#37
poof-dust in space...

Bizarre Space Object 'Oumuamua Could Be a Monstrous Corpse of Comet Dust
By Meghan Bartels, Senior Writer, Space.com February 6, 2019 06:34am ET


'Oumuamua, the first known visitor from beyond our solar system, is long gone, but it's still leaving scientists guessing. A new explanation proposes that the strange object was a "monstrous fluffy dust aggregate" — that's a technical term, apparently — produced by a busted-up comet.

That's the explanation laid out by Zdenek Sekanina, an astronomer at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, in a new, unpublished paper. The explanation draws on observations of comets breaking apart as they get closer to the sun.
 
'Oumuamua is the interstellar object that astronomers detected whizzing through our solar system in October 2017. It was the first interstellar object scientists ever spotted, although they expect thousands more have gone unnoticed. Ever since 'Oumuamua's appearance, scientists have debated what the object is: asteroid or comet, ripped-up planetesimal, or of course, the least likely explanation, an alien probe
The new paper adds another loop to the already-knotty issue by suggesting that the object changed during its brief time in our solar system. Scientists caught sight of 'Oumuamua only when it was already on its way out of the neighborhood, after all. So, while the object appeared reddish, long and thin during its exit, it may have started out with different properties. ['Oumuamua in Photos: The Solar System's 1st Interstellar Visitor Explained]
[img=553x0]https://img.purch.com/w/640/aHR0cDovL3d3dy5saXZlc2NpZW5jZS5jb20vaW1hZ2VzL2kvMDAwLzEwMy83NTQvaTAyL091bXVhbXVhLTAxLmpwZz8xNTQ3NjkxOTU1[/img]

Artist's illustration of 'Oumuamua, the first interstellar object ever spotted in our solar system.
Credit: M. Kornmesser/ESO
Starting with that idea, the new paper compared 'Oumuamua to other faint but more mundane comets that astronomers have observed. Typically, when these faint comets come within a quarter of Earth's distance from the sun, they don't survive the visit. And a comet's death is not a quiet process; instead, these comets experience a so-called outburst that triggers their disintegration.
Specifically, the paper considers a comet called C/2017 S3 (Pan-STARRS), which crept in from the Oort Cloud, which surrounds our solar system. This comet experienced two of these violent outbursts before finally falling to pieces. Observers gathered some strange data that suggested C/2017 S3's remains had become "a monstrous, extremely fluffy aggregate of loosely bound dust grains" before it even reached its closest approach to the sun.




Interstellar Object `Oumuamua Observed by Astronomers
Imagery of `Oumuamua from the .2-meter William Herschel Telescope in La Palma in Spain's Canary Island is looped several times here. Credit: A. Fitzsimmons, QUB/Isaac Newton Group, La Palma.




 







While 'Oumuamua's precise origins and structure have confused scientists, this explanation offers a new complication: that the object wasn't actually a solid body when scientists first spotted it but was instead a clump of remnants. The new paper proposes that a similar fate to C/2017's befell 'Oumuamua, with its outburst coming before any scientific observations occurred, thus disguising the object's original structure.
The paper was posted to the pre-print server arXiv.org on Jan. 30.


https://www.livescience.com/64695-oumuam...-dust.html
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
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#38
...

Rofl

from slender long cigar shape Whip

to

pancaked solar sail form Whip

to

monstrous corpse of comet dust Whip

Rofl


[Image: lifeforce_01.jpg]



...
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#39
The fact that it made movements and changes in speed, course, that no other observed planetary body have made, makes me think the theory that it was a probe very plausible.
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#40
Hot naked vampire queen on board?:)
Reply
#41
...

You remember the movie with the space ship.
That movie was panned and trashed by reviews.
So far ahead of its time, that was a great movie.
they should have called it:
Alien Vampires
and it would have been better received.


Quote:Hot naked vampire queen on board?

she was the best
[Image: lifeforce-1985-cannon-film-BDP6R8.jpg]
[Image: lifeforce.jpg]
...
Reply
#42
JULY 1, 2019
'Oumuamua is not an alien spacecraft: study
by University of Maryland
[Image: oumuamuaisno.jpg]In this artist's concept, the interstellar object 'Oumuamua is depicted as a cigar-shaped body. A new analysis strongly suggests that 'Oumuamua has a natural origin and is not an alien spacecraft. Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser


On October 19, 2017, astronomers discovered the first known interstellar object to visit our solar system. First spotted by the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 (PanSTARRS1) telescope located at the University of Hawaii's Haleakala Observatory, the object defied easy description, simultaneously displaying characteristics of both a comet and an asteroid.

Astronomers formally named the object 1I/2017 U1 and appended the common name 'Oumuamua, which roughly translates to "scout" in Hawaiian. Researchers from around the world raced to collect as much data as possible before 'Oumuamua traveled beyond the reach of Earth's telescopes. In all, they had only a few weeks to observe the strange visitor.
Early reports of 'Oumuamua's odd characteristics led some to speculate that the object could be an alien spacecraft, sent from a distant civilization to examine our star system. But a new analysis co-led by Matthew Knight, an associate research scientist in the University of Maryland Department of Astronomy, strongly suggests that 'Oumuamua has a purely natural origin. The research team reported their findings in the July 1, 2019, issue of the journal Nature Astronomy.
"We have never seen anything like 'Oumuamua in our solar system. It's really a mystery still," Knight said. "But our preference is to stick with analogs we know, unless or until we find something unique. The alien spacecraft hypothesis is a fun idea, but our analysis suggests there is a whole host of natural phenomena that could explain it."
As Knight and his colleagues summarized in their study, 'Oumuamua is red in color, similar to many small objects observed in our solar system. But that's where the familiarity ends.
'Oumuamua likely has an elongated, cigarlike shape and an odd spin pattern—much like a soda bottle laying on the ground, spinning on its side. According to Knight, its motion through our solar system is particularly puzzling. While it appeared to accelerate along its trajectory—a typical feature of comets—astronomers could find no evidence of the gaseous emissions that typically create this acceleration.
"The motion of 'Oumuamua didn't simply follow gravity along a parabolic orbit as we would expect from an asteroid," Knight said. "But visually, it hasn't ever displayed any of the cometlike characteristics we'd expect. There is no discernable coma—the cloud of ice, dust and gas that surrounds active comets—nor a dust tail or gas jets."
[Image: 20-internationa.jpg]

This artist's impression shows the first interstellar object discovered in the Solar System, Oumuamua. Observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, CFHT, and others, show that the object is moving faster than predicted while leaving the Solar System.The inset shows a color composite produced by combining 192 images obtained through three visible and two near-infrared filters totaling 1.6 hours of integration on October 27, 2017, at the Gemini South telescope. Credit: ESA/Hubble, NASA, ESO/M. Kornmesser, Gemini Observatory/AURA/NSF
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Knight worked with Alan Fitzsimmons, an astronomer at Queen's University Belfast in Northern Ireland, to assemble a team of 14 astronomers hailing from the U.S. and Europe. The International Space Science Institute in Bern, Switzerland, served as a virtual home base for the collaboration.

"We put together a strong team of experts in various different areas of work on 'Oumuamua. This cross-pollination led to the first comprehensive analysis and the best big-picture summary to date of what we know about the object," Knight explained. "We tend to assume that the physical processes we observe here, close to home, are universal. And we haven't yet seen anything like 'Oumuamua in our solar system. This thing is weird and admittedly hard to explain, but that doesn't exclude other natural phenomena that could explain it."
The new research paper is primarily an analysis of existing data, including a December 2017 study of 'Oumuamua's shape and spin pattern co-authored by Knight and a team of UMD astronomers. This paper, published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters, relied on data from the Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) at the Lowell Observatory in Arizona. UMD is a scientific partner of the DCT, along with Boston University, the University of Toledo and Northern Arizona University.
Knight, Fitzsimmons and their colleagues considered a number of mechanisms by which 'Oumuamua could have escaped from its home system. For example, the object could have been ejected by a gas giant planet orbiting another star. According to theory, Jupiter may have created the Oort cloud—a massive shell of small objects at the outer edge of our solar system—in this way. Some of those objects may have slipped past the influence of the sun's gravity to become interstellar travelers themselves.
The research team suspects that 'Oumuamua could be the first of many interstellar visitors. Knight is looking forward to data from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which is scheduled to be operational in 2022.
"In the next 10 years, we expect to begin seeing more objects like 'Oumuamua. The LSST will be leaps and bounds beyond any other survey we have in terms of capability to find small interstellar visitors," Knight said. "We may start seeing a new object every year. That's when we'll start to know whether 'Oumuamua is weird, or common. If we find 10-20 of these things and 'Oumuamua still looks unusual, we'll have to reexamine our explanations."[/size]


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The three surprises of 'Oumuamua[/size]


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More information: The natural history of 'Oumuamua, Nature Astronomy (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41550-019-0816-x , https://nature.com/articles/s41550-019-0816-x
Journal information: Nature Astronomy  Astrophysical Journal Letters [/url]

Provided by [url=https://phys.org/partners/university-of-maryland/]University of Maryland
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[size=undefined]https://phys.org/news/2019-07-oumuamua-a...craft.html[/size]

July 4th @ Perihelion... Where the Earth appears to anomalously slow down visually.>>>

Was Oumuamua @ Aphelion as it orbits Planet 9 and our Sun???  Arrow Cry

Quote:Aphelion can typically create this acceleration and the equal area and timing according to Keplar may reverse engineer the quadrant that should reveal our Planet X? -EA


Quote:'Oumuamua likely has an elongated, cigarlike shape and an odd spin pattern—much like a soda bottle laying on the ground, spinning on its side. According to Knight, its motion through our solar system is particularly puzzling. While it appeared to accelerate along its trajectory—a typical feature of comets—astronomers could find no evidence of the gaseous emissions that typically create this acceleration.
[Image: anim_kepler2.gif]
"The motion of 'Oumuamua didn't simply follow gravity along a parabolic orbit as we would expect from an asteroid," Knight said. "But visually, it hasn't ever displayed any of the cometlike characteristics we'd expect.
[Image: kepler_2nd_law.gif]anomalous acceleration...


 
There is no discernable coma—the cloud of ice, dust and gas that surrounds active comets—nor a dust tail or gas jets."

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#43
JULY 9, 2019
Study suggests asteroids might play key role in spreading life
by Peter Reuell, Harvard University
[Image: 9-studysuggest.jpg]Idan Ginsburg and his team have found that as many as 10 trillion asteroid-sized objects might exist that carry life. Credit: Rose Lincoln/Harvard file photo
Picture this: A bacteria-carrying asteroid is ejected from the center of the galaxy into the far reaches of space only to be "captured" by a distant solar system, potentially bringing life to a new world.

It might sound like the stuff of pulp science fiction, but the evidence suggests it might happen far more often than scientists ever thought, according to Idan Ginsburg.
A postdoctoral scholar at the Institute for Theory and Computation, Ginsburg is the lead author, along with post-doctoral fellow Manasvi Lingam and Abraham "Avi" Loeb, the Frank B. Baird Jr. Professor of Science and Chair of the Astronomy Department, of a study that makes the most comprehensive calculation ever of the likelihood of that process—known as "panspermia"—occurring in the Milky Way.
What they found, Ginsburg said, was surprising: Calculations showed there may be as many as 10 trillion asteroid-sized objects carrying life. The work also suggested there may be as many as 100 million objects the size of Saturn's moon Enceladus, which is about 500 kilometers in diameter, and as many as 1,000 Earth-sized objects also carrying life or prebiotic material.
"We are not the first to have discussed this, but we are the first to really look into this at such a level of detail," Ginsburg said. "Other researchers have mentioned the possibility of galactic panspermia, but when we did the calculations we got these very large values. That suggests that this is not only possible, it's probable."
And while it may seem unlikely that life—even the tiniest bacteria—could survive in the harsh conditions of deep space, Ginsburg said studies have repeatedly shown the opposite.
"The biggest worry people had for a long time with this idea was that UV radiation would just destroy life," he said. "But it turns out if you're shielded, even just a few inches, by rock or ice, that's enough protection. There are even more complex life forms, like tardigrades, that can survive in space—they simply go into hibernation. So we know that microbes on a planet can survive being ejected into space; they can survive in space and, in theory, survive re-entry to be transplanted from one planet to another."
To understand how the process might occur, Ginsburg, Lingam, and Loeb began by looking at the center of the galaxy.

"Our solar system is fairly stable, but there are other places—especially in the center of the galaxy—where things are much more dynamic, and objects can be and do get kicked out all the time," Ginsburg said. "Planets, planetesimals, comets, moons, asteroids—all should be plentiful in the galactic center, so the galactic center can act like a dandelion and seed these objects out to the rest of the galaxy."
That process, Ginsburg said, is driven by the gravity slingshot effect produced by the super-massive black hole at the center of the galaxy.
"With a black hole you can easily accelerate things to anywhere from 1,000 to over 10,000 kilometers-per-second," he said. "That's fast enough to travel across the galaxy, but there is still a chance for an object like that to be captured by a solar system closer to the edge of the galaxy, so it's possible to transfer life across vast distances in a relatively short time."
Calculating the chances of that happening, Ginsburg said, was no easy feat.
"We took into account the number of stars an object would pass through, its velocity, how long life can survive, the size of the object," he said. "This is a seven-dimensional integral—I don't think you could consider any more variables without getting into something like string theory. This is not just a thought experiment, it was incredibly mathematically detailed—we took the mathematics, the physics, and the biology together and put together a clear picture of how this might work."
Going forward, Ginsburg, Lingam, and Loeb said there are a number of avenues to pursue, but a key question is whether scientists might one day be able to observe the process in action.
"That will be difficult, but I tell people that just a few decades ago, scientists thought it would be very challenging if not impossible to find exoplanets or gravity waves," Ginsburg said. "We think that, hopefully, people will eventually be able to search for signs of this, and that by studying our own galaxy, it can help us understand the origins of life."


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The Milky Way could be spreading life from star to star[/size]


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[Image: KH-COMPOSITE-Q4.jpg?w=620]

INCOMING! 
Mysterious object from interstellar space ‘approaching our solar system’
  • Harry Pettit, Senior Digital Technology and Science Reporter
  • 12 Sep 2019, 11:18

  • Updated: 12 Sep 2019, 15:20

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A MYSTERIOUS object from deep space is fizzing towards the Solar System – and scientists have no idea what it is.
Dubbed "C/2019 Q4", the high-speed body appears to be on a path originating from another star system that will see it fire past Mars in October.
[img=620x0]https://www.thesun.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/KH-COMPOSITE-Q4.jpg[/img]
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Simulation of C/2019 Q4's possible orbital path (green) through the solar system. The object may pass between the orbits of Mars (orange) and Jupiter (purple) in October
That would make it only the second interstellar visitor ever known to have reached the Solar System.
The first, a cigar-shaped object called Oumuamua, took the world by storm when it careened past Earth in 2017.

A pair of Harvard scientists claimed it could be an alien spacecraft, sparking a frantic flurry of scans as the object closed in on the Solar System.
Experts found no signs of alien signals, and Oumuamua whizzed past Earth before its true origin could be determined.
[img=620x0]https://www.thesun.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/NINTCHDBPICT000521296283.jpg[/img]
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The European Southern Observatory in GermanyCredit: ESO
Now researchers at European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Germany say an object once thought to be from the Solar System may actually be an interstellar traveller.
C/2019 Q4 was spotted on August 30 by amateur Ukrainian astronomer Gennady Borisov, and scientists have studied it ever since.

"It's so exciting, we're basically looking away from all of our other projects right now," Dr Olivier Hainaut, an astronomer with the ESO, told Business Insider.
Dr Hainaut was also part of a team that studied Oumuamua during its brief visit.
"The main difference from 'Oumuamua and this one is that we got it a long, long time in advance, " he added.
"Now astronomers are much more prepared."
[img=620x0]https://www.thesun.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/NINTCHDBPICT0004464939792.jpg[/img]
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Artist's impression of the interstellar object OumuamuaCredit: Getty - Contributor
Early images of C/2019 Q4 suggest it's followed by a tail of dust.
That's typically what you see coming out the back of a comet, though scientists say they can't be sure that's definitely what the object is.
With more observations of C/2019 Q4, scientists have worked out the shape of its orbit.
If the object is indeed interstellar, scientists should be able to study it until early 2021, when it will grow too dim to see.
That means we'll have way more time to study it than Oumuamua, which was only visible for a few weeks before it disappeared into deep space, never to be seen again.
Back in January, a Harvard space chief claimed Oumuamua could be an alien spacecraft that broke down on its interstellar journey.
That may explain why we didn't spot any signals coming out of it – though not all scientists agree.
In July, an international team of scientists concluded that Oumuamua has a "purely natural origin". They reckon it's a hunk of rock ejected by a giant gas planet.
What is Oumuamua?
Here's everything you need to know...
  • Oumuamua is a cigar-shaped asteroid that sped past Earth in 2017

  • Some boffins think the space rock was an alien probe sent by a distant civilisation

  • It was spotted by scientists in Hawaii, and its name means 'scout' in Hawaiian

  • Researchers involved in SETI- the Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence - used a powerful dish to scan Oumuamua

  • They found no signs of radio signals, suggesting it wasn't an alien spaceship after all

  • Recent research suggests that the object could have been ejected by a gas giant planet

  • It's now moving away from Earth so fast that we're unlikely to ever find out

Speaking to The Sun, space expert Lembit Opik said the new object shows how easy it is for interstellar objects to reach the solar system.
"Although it is unlikely that ‘Oumuamua is of alien origin, there are still some fascinating possibilities to emerge from its appearance," said Lembit, Chairman of Parliament for Asgardia, a group attempting to build the first "space nation".
"Due to the nature that it was travelling from one solar system to another that wasn’t our own, it implies two possible outcomes.
"Firstly, it shows that interstellar travel is possible. Humans and other lifeforms can potentially use phenomena such as ‘Oumuamua to travel on, taking us to unexplored corners of the universe.
"The other likely outcome is that lifeforms can be transported across all reaches of the universe.
"Whether it be bacteria or other such minute forms of life, it potentially means that life originating from one solar system could develop in another, potentially unlocking a mystery regarding the origin of life within the universe."



Play Video

Astronomers are to scan mysterious cigar-shaped interstellar object 'Oumuamua' for signs of alien life
TOP STORIES IN SCIENCE

[img=140x0]https://www.thesun.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/tp-composite-new-earth-new2.jpg?strip=all&w=300&h=192&crop=1[/img]

SPACE HAVEN
 Water found on habitable 'super-Earth' ⁠— but it's 2million years away




[img=140x0]https://www.thesun.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/ac-graphic-asteroid-3.jpg?strip=all&w=300&h=192&crop=1[/img]

ROCKY HORROR
 Huge asteroid could hit Earth THIS YEAR and 'flatten area bigger than London'




[img=140x0]https://www.thesun.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/AD-GRAPHIC-Alien-Signal-V2.jpg?strip=all&w=300&h=192&crop=1[/img]
PHONE HOME
 Alien-hunting telescope receives 100 'mystery signals' from 3bn light years away




[img=140x0]https://www.thesun.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/NINTCHDBPICT000521029213-1.jpg?strip=all&w=300&h=192&crop=1[/img]

CLAW BLIMEY
 Rare red and black 'Halloween lobster' found in 1-in-50million find




[img=140x0]https://www.thesun.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/NINTCHDBPICT000476647367.jpg?strip=all&w=300&h=192&crop=1[/img]
PHONE HOME
 Aliens 'have already explored the galaxy and visited Earth', scientists claim





In other space news, [url=https://www.thesun.co.uk/tech/9409198/spacex-starlink-satellites-lose-control-space-junk/]SpaceX has lost control of 3 Starlink satellites weeks after launch.
An Apollo astronaut has admitted that he nearly died ‘trying to do a high jump’ on the Moon in 1972.
And, there may have been a breakthrough in the search for alien life as scientists pinpoint exact location of mysterious fast radio burst that ‘could be signal from ET’.
What do you think the mysterious object is? Let us know in the comments...
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#45
SEPTEMBER 18, 2019
Could we intercept interstellar comet C/2019 Q4 Borisov?
by Matt Williams, Universe Today
[Image: couldweinter.jpg]Artist’s impression of the first interstellar asteroid/comet, “Oumuamua”. This unique object was discovered on Oct. 19th, 2017, by the Pan-STARRS 1 telescope in Hawaii. Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser
When 'Oumuamua passed through our solar system two years ago, it set off a flurry of excitement in the astronomical community. Here was the first-ever interstellar object that be observed by human trackers, and the mysteries surrounding its true nature and composition led to some pretty interesting theories. There were even some proposals for a rapid mission that would be able to rendezvous with it.

And now that a second interstellar object—C/2019 Q4 (Borisov)—has been detected traveling through the solar system, similar proposals are being made. One of them comes from a group of scientists from the Initiative for Interstellar Studies (i4is) in the U.K. In a recent study, they assess the technical feasibility of sending a mission to this interstellar comet using existing technology, and found that there were a few options.
In many ways, C/2019 Q4 (Borisov) represents an opportunity to conduct the kinds of research that were not possible with 'Oumuamua. When that mystery object was first observed, it had already made its closest pass to the sun, past Earth, and was on its way out of the solar system. Nevertheless, what we were able to learn about 'Oumuamua led to the conclusion that it was an entirely new class of celestial object.
In addition to those who ventured that it was either a comet or an asteroid, there were also those who theorized that 'Oumuamua could be a fragment from a comet that exploded when passing close to our sun, or even an extra-terrestrial solar sail. Another interesting find was the fact that similar objects likely pass through our solar system on a regular basis (many of which stay).
For these reasons, a mission to study such objects up close is desirable. As Dr. Andreas M. Hein—the executive director of i4is's board of directors, the chairman of its technical research committee, and one of the co-authors on the recent study, told Universe Today via email:
"Investigating interstellar objects from a close distance would provide us with unique data about other star systems without actually flying to them. They might provide unique insights into the evolution and composition of other star systems and exoplanets in them. Interstellar objects are cool, as it's a bit like: If you can't go to the mountain, let the mountain come to you. It will likely take many decades until we can send a spacecraft to another star. Hence, interstellar objects might be an intermediate solution for finding out more about other stars and their planets."

What's more, he claims, these objects have probably been traveling between star systems for hundreds of thousands (or even millions) of years. As a result, they have undoubtedly picked up material along the way or bear the marks of encounters with other objects or forces. In short, their composition and surface features can tell us a great deal about what is out there in the interstellar medium.
This is not the first time that i4is has proposed sending a spacecraft to rendezvous with an interstellar object. In 2017, Dr. Hein and several colleagues from i4is (who also co-authored this study) produced a paper titled "Project Lyra: Sending a Spacecraft to 1I/'Oumuamua (former A/2017 U1), the Interstellar Asteroid," which was conducted with the help of the asteroid-prospecting company Asteroid Initiatives LLC.
The project was so-named because of 'Oumuamua's origins, which astronomers concluded came from the general direction of Vega—the brightest star in the northern constellation of Lyra. After taking into account the speed with which 'Oumuamua was leaving the solar system at the time—26 km/s (93,600 km/h; 58,160 mph)—they determined that any proposal would be a trade-off between three factors.

[Image: 1-couldweinter.jpg]
Artist’s illustration of a light-sail powered by lasers generated on the surface of a planet. Credit: M. Weiss/CfA
These included when a mission could launch, the velocity it could achieve, and the time it would take to rendezvous with the object. Under the circumstances, they felt that the best option was to wait for future technological breakthroughs—such as those being pursued by Breakthrough Starshot (a concept for a laser-driven interstellar solar sail).
These conclusions have proven very applicable, thanks to the detection of a second interstellar object passing through our solar system in as many years. In their most recent study, the research team once again used Optimum Interplanetary Trajectory Software (OITS), which was developed by team-member Adam Hibberd, to assess all available options for sending a spacecraft to rendezvous with an interstellar object.
These included the optimal launch vehicle (like NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) or SpaceX's Falcon Heavy) the optimal trajectory for the mission, and the best type of spacecraft. In the end, they determined that humanity has the capability of rendezvousing with an interstellar object using existing technology, and came up with a mission architecture that could make that happen.
This mission would rely on a heavy-launch vehicle and could alternately employ a two-ton (1.8 metric ton) or a 3 kg (6.6 lbs) CubeSat spacecraft. Depending on when it launched and what its preferred trajectory would be, it might also need to conduct a Jupiter flyby and Solar Oberth maneuver to catch up with C/2019 Q4 (Borisov). As Dr. Hein explained:
"Our results show that for both, 'Oumuamua and C/2019 Q4 (Borisov), we already have the technology to visit these objects. Regarding 'Oumuamua, we can launch a spacecraft toward it even beyond the year 2030. There is plenty of time to develop such a spacecraft. The case for C/2019 Q4 (Borisov) is a bit more tricky, as it is faster than 'Oumuamua. But even for this object, we could have sent a two-ton spacecraft to it with a Falcon Heavy if we would have launched it in 2018."
"Later missions are also possible, but require a bigger launcher. Future telescopes will be able to detect such objects much earlier and with adequate preparation, we can send a spacecraft on an encounter mission. So we have the technology to do this, and with the discovery of C/2019 Q4 (Borisov), we also know that we probably have plenty of opportunities to fly to such an object."
Once again, the presence of an interstellar object in our solar system is a major source of excitement. In addition to all the opportunities to learn from them, C/2019 Q4 and 'Oumuamua confirm that objects from distant stars pass through our system pretty regularly; they also show that we are at a point where we can detect, track and study them.
But it is especially exciting knowing that in the future, we will be able to study them up close. In fact, the ESA is currently working on a mission that could very well be the one to rendezvous with a future interstellar object. It's known as the Comet Interceptor, a "fast-class" concept consisting of three spacecraft that will wait in space until a pristine comet appears, and rapidly catch up with it.
"We imagine two types of research," Dr. Hein said. "First, remote sensing, for example, with a telescope taking pictures. Second, we can analyze material from the object directly by shooting an impactor into it and catching some of the particles from the dust plume that is generated with the main spacecraft. This would provide unique insights into the composition of the object."
As for what this research could reveal, Dr. Hein has some thoughts on that too: "I can only speculate, but we might see evidence that organic molecules, the building blocks for life, actually travel between star systems, and who knows? Maybe life itself might actually spread between stars in our galaxy."




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Newly discovered comet is likely interstellar visitor



[b]More information:[/b] Adam Hibberd, et al. Sending a Spacecraft to Interstellar Comet C/2019 Q4 (Borisov) arXiv:1909.06348v1 [astro-ph.EP]: arxiv.org/abs/1909.06348v1.
Source Universe Today
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