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Insight @ In-Situ: Inciting a revolution in Mars revelation.
#1
NASA's next Mars lander spreads its solar wings
January 24, 2018 by Andrew Good, NASA


[Image: nasasnextmar.jpg]
Credit: NASA
NASA's next mission to Mars passed a key test Tuesday, extending the solar arrays that will power the InSight spacecraft once it lands on the Red Planet this November.



The test took place at Lockheed Martin Space just outside of Denver, where InSight was built and has been undergoing testing ahead of its launch. The mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.

"This is the last time we will see the spacecraft in landed configuration before it arrives at the Red Planet," said Scott Daniels, Lockheed Martin InSight Assembly, Test and Launch Operations (ATLO) Manager. "There are still many steps we have to take before launch, but this is a critical milestone before shipping to Vandenberg Air Force Base in California." The InSight launch window opens in May.

The fan-like solar panels are specially designed for Mars' weak sunlight, caused by the planet's distance from the Sun and its dusty, thin atmosphere. The panels will power InSight for at least one Martian year (two Earth years) for the first mission dedicated to studying Mars' deep interior. InSight's full name is Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport.




Credit: NASA
"Think of InSight as Mars' first health checkup in more than 4.5 billion years," said Bruce Banerdt of JPL, the mission's principal investigator. "We'll study its pulse by 'listening' for marsquakes with a seismometer. We'll take its temperature with a heat probe. And we'll check its reflexes with a radio experiment."

In addition to the solar panel test, engineers added a final touch: a microchip inscribed with more than 1.6 million names submitted by the public. It joins a chip containing almost 827,000 names that was glued to the top of InSight back in 2015, adding up to a total of about 2.4 million names going to Mars. "It's a fun way for the public to feel personally invested in the mission," Banerdt said. "We're happy to have them along for the ride."

The chips were inscribed at JPL's Microdevices Laboratory, which has added names and images to a number of spacecraft, including the Mars Spirit, Opportunity and Curiosity rovers. Each character on the InSight microchips is just 400 nanometers wide. Compare that to a human hair, 100,000 nanometers wide, or a red blood cell, 8,000 nanometers wide.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Another chance to put your name on Mars

More information: For more information on InSight, visit mars.nasa.gov/insight/


Provided by: NASA


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-01-nasa-mars-...s.html#jCp

Video: Tour a Mars robot test lab
March 9, 2018 by Andrew Good, Jet Propulsion Laboratory


[Image: videotourama.jpg]
Engineers use a replica of NASA's InSight lander, which will launch to Mars later this year, at the agency's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
NASA's InSight lander looks a bit like an oversized crane game: when it lands on Mars this November, its robotic arm will be used to grasp and move objects on another planet for the first time.



And like any crane game, practice makes it easier to capture the prize.

Engineers and scientists have a replica of InSight at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. They use this testbed to simulate all the functions of the spacecraft, preparing for any scenario it might meet once it touches down on the Red Planet.

InSight is unique in that it's a lander rather than a rover; once it touches down, it can't reposition itself. Its job is to stay very still and collect high-precision data. JPL's testbed for the lander sits on piles of crushed garnet in a facility called the In-Situ Instrument Lab. This garnet simulates a mix of sand and gravel found on the Martian surface but has the benefit of being dust-free. The testbed's legs are raised or lowered to test operations in an uneven landing area with up to 15 degrees of tilt.

Engineers also pile garnet at different tilts in the testbed's "workspace"—the area in front of the lander where it practices setting down three science tools: an ultra-sensitive seismometer; a shield that isolates the seismometer from wind and temperature swings; and a heat-flow probe. These three objects are formally called the Science Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS); the Wind and Thermal Shield (WTS); and the Heat Flow and Physical Properties Probe (HP3).




Credit: Jet Propulsion Laboratory
All this practice ensures InSight can set these objects down safely no matter what surprises its landing site has in store.

One challenge lies in the tethers that supply power to each science instrument, said Marleen Sundgaard of JPL, InSight's testbed lead. Each tether unspools as the arm lifts an instrument off the lander.

"We have multiple places where we could put each instrument down," Sundgaard said. "There are scenarios where the tethers would cross each other, so we need to make sure they don't snag."

Besides robotic operations, the testbed has to recreate Martian light. Special lights are also used to calibrate InSight's cameras to the brightness and color of Martian sunlight.

All this practice should pay off with some incredible new science. InSight will be the first mission dedicated to exploring the deep interior of Mars, including its core and mantle. The data it collects could help scientists understand how all rocky planets—including Mars and Earth—first formed.

InSight will launch from Vandenberg Air Force Base in central California. The launch window opens on May 5.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: NASA's next Mars lander spreads its solar wings

More information: For more information about InSight, go to mars.nasa.gov/insight/


Provided by: Jet Propulsion Laboratory


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-03-video-mars...b.html#jCp
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#2
NASA Mars Mission Tours California

March 14, 2018

[Image: PIA22227-16.jpg]

This artist's concept shows the InSight lander, its sensors, cameras and instruments. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

› Full image and caption
[/url]
Scientists and engineers with NASA's next mission to Mars will be touring California cities starting this month.

NASA's [url=https://mars.nasa.gov/insight/]InSight mission
will be the first interplanetary launch from the West Coast. In preparation for its May launch, the Mars InSight Roadshow is stopping at cities along the earthquake-prone California coast to explain how the robotic lander will study Mars' deep interior using seismology and other geophysical measurements.

The Roadshow brings family-friendly science activities, exhibits and public talks to communities throughout California, making comparisons between earthquakes and the marsquakes that InSight will try to detect. The Roadshow will also partner with local and national organizations along the way, promoting planetary science and showing the benefits of NASA earthquake data gathered by Earth-observing satellites. All the museums are members of the NASA Museum Alliance.

InSight's launch window opens May 5 at Vandenberg Air Force Base near Lompoc, northwest of Santa Barbara. InSight stands for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport. It will be the first mission to study the deep interior of Mars, using an ultra-sensitive seismometer, a heat-flow probe and other instruments. InSight is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.

What to Expect:
  • "Make Your Own Marsquake" demo, in which members of the public jump and see seismometer readings on a screen
  • Interviews with NASA scientists and engineers
  • Colorful backdrops and selfie stations
  • Models of the InSight spacecraft
  • Mars globe "cutaways" showing the interior of Mars
  • Virtual reality headsets used to see panoramas of Mars

Who to Expect:
  • Members of InSight's mission and science teams
  • JPL's Mars public engagement team
  • NASA Solar System Ambassadors

Tour Dates:

March 30-31, Redding, CA
Turtle Bay Exploration Park, Exhibit

March 30, Redding, CA
Shasta Union High School District's David Marr Theater, Public Talk

April 13-15, Sacramento, CA
Powerhouse Science Center, Exhibit

April 18-22, San Francisco, CA
Exploratorium, Exhibits and Public Talks

April 27-29, San Luis Obispo, CA
San Luis Obispo Children's Museum, Exhibit

April 28, San Luis Obispo, CA
Cal Poly San Luis Obispo, Public Talk


May 2-3, Santa Maria, CA
Santa Maria Valley Discovery Museum, Exhibit

May 2, Lompoc, CA
Dick DeWees Community & Senior Center, Exhibit

May 3, Lompoc, CA
Lompoc Public Library, Public Talk

May 4, Santa Maria, CA
Allan Hancock College, Exhibit and Public Talk

May 19, Santa Barbara, CA
Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Exhibit

And more to come! Find future dates and details at:
https://mars.nasa.gov/insight/participate/roadshow/

News Media Contact
Andrew Good
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
818-393-2433
andrew.c.good@jpl.nasa.gov

2018-051

Let's hope they don't land on EDGE of a cliff ? Angel

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Reply
#3
Quote:What to expect.


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-03-scientists...g.html#jCp Insight needs a visionary upgrade? Blind Faith?


Each anomaly revealed is occulted ANU!

[Image: doh.gif]

...Like digging a hole in water...

Quote:InSight stands for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport.

"If we see very strong variations [in seismic velocities], it's more likely that they're due to melt," says Ulrich Faul, a research scientist in MIT's Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences. "Water, based on these experiments, is no longer a major player in that sense. This will shift how we interpret images of the interior of the Earth."

Scientists find seismic imaging is blind to water
March 14, 2018, Massachusetts Institute of Technology


[Image: scientistsfi.gif]
MIT scientists find seismic imaging is blind to water, which may help researchers reinterpret structures within the Earth, including at mid-ocean ridges, where it was thought that magma, welling up from the interior, contained trace amounts …more
When an earthquake strikes, nearby seismometers pick up its vibrations in the form of seismic waves. In addition to revealing the epicenter of a quake, seismic waves can give scientists a way to map the interior structures of the Earth, much like a CT scan images the body.



By measuring the velocity at which seismic waves travel at various depths, scientists can determine the types of rocks and other materials that lie beneath the Earth's surface. The accuracy of such seismic maps depends on scientists' understanding of how various materials affect seismic waves' speeds.

Now researchers at MIT and the Australian National University have found that seismic waves are essentially blind to a very common substance found throughout the Earth's interior: water.

Their findings, published today in the journal Nature, go against a general assumption that seismic imaging can pick up signs of water deep within the Earth's upper mantle. In fact, the team found that even trace amounts of water have no effect on the speed at which seismic waves travel.

The results may help scientists reinterpret seismic maps of the Earth's interior. For instance, in places such as midocean ridges, magma from deep within the Earth erupts through massive cracks in the seafloor, spreading away from the ridge and eventually solidifying as new oceanic crust.

The process of melting at tens of kilometers below the surface removes tiny amounts of water that are found in rocks at greater depth. Scientists have thought that seismic images showed this "wet-dry" transition, corresponding to the transition from rigid tectonic plates to deformable mantle beneath. However, the team's findings suggest that seismic imaging may be picking up signs of not water, but rather, melt - tiny pockets of molten rock.

"If we see very strong variations [in seismic velocities], it's more likely that they're due to melt," says Ulrich Faul, a research scientist in MIT's Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences. "Water, based on these experiments, is no longer a major player in that sense. This will shift how we interpret images of the interior of the Earth."

Faul's co-authors are lead author Christopher Cline, along with Emmanuel David, Andrew Berry, and Ian Jackson, of the Australian National University.

A seismic twist

Faul, Cline, and their colleagues originally set out to determine exactly how water affects seismic wave speeds. They assumed, as most researchers have, that seismic imaging can "see" water, in the form of hydroxyl groups within individual mineral grains in rocks, and as molecular-scale pockets of water trapped between these grains. Water, even in tiny amounts, has been known to weaken rocks deep in the Earth's interior.

 

"It was known that water has a strong effect in very small quantities on the properties of rocks," Faul says. "From there, the inference was that water also affects seismic wave speeds substantially."

To measure the extent to which water affects seismic wave speeds, the team produced different samples of olivine - a mineral that constitutes the majority of Earth's upper mantle and determines its properties. They trapped various amounts of water within each sample, and then placed the samples one at a time in a machine engineered to slowly twist a rock, similar to twisting a rubber band. The experiments were done in a furnace at high pressures and temperatures, in order to simulate conditions deep within the Earth.

"We twist the sample at one end and measure the magnitude and time delay of the resulting strain at the other end," Faul says. "This simulates propagation of seismic waves through the Earth. The magnitude of this strain is similar to the width of a thin human hair - not very easy to measure at a pressure of 2,000 times atmospheric pressure and a temperature that approaches the melting temperature of steel."

The team expected to find a correlation between the amount of water in a given sample and the speed at which seismic waves would propagate through that sample. When the initial samples did not show the anticipated behavior, the researchers modified the composition and measured again, but they kept getting the same negative result. Eventually it became inescapable that the original hypothesis was incorrect.

"From our [twisting] measurements, the rocks behaved as if they were dry, even though we could clearly analyze the water in there," Faul says. "At that point, we knew water makes no difference."

A rock, encased

Another unexpected outcome of the experiments was that seismic wave velocity appeared to depend on a rock's oxidation state. All rocks on Earth contain certain amounts of iron, at various states of oxidation, just as metallic iron on a car can rust when exposed to a certain amount of oxygen. The researchers found, almost unintentionally, that the oxidation of iron in olivine affects the way seismic waves travel through the rock.

Cline and Faul came to this conclusion after having to reconfigure their experimental setup. To carry out their experiments, the team typically encases each rock sample in a cylinder made from nickel and iron. However, in measuring each sample's water content in this cylinder, they found that hydrogen atoms in water tended to escape out of the rock, through the metal casing. To contain hydrogen, they switched their casing to one made from platinum.

To their surprise they found that the type of metal surrounding the samples affected their seismic properties. Separate experiments showed that what in fact changed was the amount of Fe3+ in olivine. Normally the oxidation state of iron in olivine is 2+. As it turns out, the presence of Fe3+ produces imperfections which affect seismic wave speeds.

Faul says that the group's findings suggest that seismic waves may be used to map levels of oxidation, such as at subduction zones - regions in the Earth where oceanic plates sink down into the mantle. Based on their results, however, seismic imaging cannot be used to image the distribution of water in the Earth's interior. What some scientists interpreted as water may in fact be melt - an insight that may change our understanding of how the Earth shifts its tectonic plates over time.

"An underlying question is what lubricates tectonic plates on Earth," Faul says. "Our work points toward the importance of small amounts of melt at the base of tectonic plates, rather than a wet mantle beneath dry plates. Overall these results may help to illuminate volatile cycling between the interior and the surface of the Earth."

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Mysterious deep-Earth seismic signature explained

More information: Redox-influenced seismic properties of upper-mantle olivine, Nature (2018). nature.com/articles/doi:10.1038/nature25764


Journal reference: Nature [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: Massachusetts Institute of Technology


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-03-scientists...g.html#jCp



RE: Insight @ In-Situ: Inciting a revolution in Mars revelation.
Seismic is Water Blind >>> on Mars Too.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#4
Quote:EA:
RE: Insight @ In-Situ: Inciting a revolution in Mars revelation.

Seismic is Water Blind >>> on Mars Too.

I bet ALL my future Social Security Checks that the Noggin Accidentally Struck Above         -EA

NEVER EVER thought about that for THIS mission.

$$$ Just Plain Lost   and now   .... it's way way too fracking LATE to do ANYTHING about it.

Naughty

Better meme from You EA:

Never Anomalous Substance Acknowledged / Juxtaposed Posit Liquid  - EA


Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Reply
#5
...
Some points on this lander.
To me, it doesn't appear to be designed to last very long,
or may be prone to problems.
Not being designed to last very long,
aka
not as tough and resilient as the Rovers,
is not that bad,
it just needs to last long enough for them to get enough data,
so that they can develop newer computer models to project that data into.

Quote:JPL's testbed for the lander 
sits on piles of crushed garnet Whip
in a facility called the In-Situ Instrument Lab. 

This garnet simulates a mix of sand and gravel found on the Martian surface,
but
has the benefit of being dust-free. 



What ... no dusty sand on Mars?
What about windstorms?
The In-situ lab is kind of ... exisiting in better than normal,
or leaning on optimum Mars conditions it appears.



Quote:a shield that isolates the seismometer from wind and temperature swings
the Wind and Thermal Shield (WTS)


Sounds great!
It also sounds like an imminent part failure.
Especially when I read this:



Quote:One challenge  Hi
lies in the tethers Whip
that supply power to each science instrument, 
said Marleen Sundgaard of JPL, 
InSight's testbed lead. 

Each tether unspools as the arm lifts an instrument off the lander



No  Lol  Problem-o there Nonono  ...  Rofl

OK OK ... 
so they are in the lab ... working out the jinx and the kinks,
in a manufactured dust free Mars  Reefer
and the obvious needed improvements,
are what they looking for,
as they build this lander.

I sense a money issue.
A funding limit.
Science under the strain of budget blues.
Well ... that is what you get when your prior missions funding,
were commandeered by special interests,
and bullshit like the ...
Pluto  Fly Hi   Bye
and
the 
Ceres Dawn LAMO orbital altitude,
were perpetrated upon the American public.

Looking at what they are trying to tonka toy that lander up with,
I might give them less money too.

But heck, NASA does surprise us with efficiency if anything,
and they can get their spacecraft anywhere,
on time,
and intact,
so they might get this lander to actually make it happen,
but the missions always end up having highly questionable priorities,
with unbelieveably wasted mission potential.
So what I will casually watch for in this mission and lab, etc,
is for the recurrent wasted mission potential,
and the recurrent excuses and disclaimers so often witnessed.

...
Reply
#6
Quote:it just needs to last long enough for them to get enough data,

so that they can develop newer computer models to project that data into.

This new model should be considered when projecting commences.

They've got about ~50 days to update any software if necessary.
Quote: Wrote:InSight stands for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport.
You can't really do SEISMIC  Doh if you don't understand the constituent properties of the substances and materials inside the core or mantle.

Rare metals on Mars and Earth implicate colossal impacts
March 16, 2018 by Amanda Doyle, Astrobio.net


[Image: raremetalson.jpg]
The surface features of the northern and southern hemispheres of Mars are very different. In this topographic map, the northern hemisphere (shown in blue) is mostly smooth lowlands and has experienced extensive volcanism. The southern hemisphere (in orange) has an older, cratered highland surface. This dichotomy could have been caused by a giant impact. Credit: University of Arizona/LPL/SwRI
New research has revealed that a giant impact on Mars more than four billion years ago would explain the unusual amount of "iron loving" elements in the Red Planet.

Planets form as small dust grains stick together and agglomerate with other grains, leading to bigger bodies termed "planetesimals." These planetesimals continue to collide with each other and are either ejected from the solar system, gobbled up by the sun, or form a planet. This is not the end of the story, as planets continue to accrete material well after they have formed. This process is known as late accretion, and it occurs as leftover fragments of planet formation rain down on the young planets.

Planetary scientist Ramon Brasser of the Tokyo Institute of Technology and geologist Stephen Mojzsis of the University of Colorado, Boulder took a closer look at a colossal impact during Mars' late accretion that could explain the unusual amount of rare metallic elements in Mars' mantle, which is the layer below the planet's crust. Their recently published paper, "A colossal impact enriched Mars' mantle with noble metals," appeared in the journal Geophysical Research Letters.

When proto-planets accrete enough material, metals such as iron and nickel begin to separate and sink to form the core. This explains why Earth's core is mainly composed of iron, and it is expected that elements that readily bond with iron should also mainly exist in the core. Examples of such 'iron loving' elements, known as siderophiles, are gold, platinum and iridium, to name a few. Just like Mars, however, there are more siderophiles in the Earth's mantle than would be expected by the process of core formation.

"High pressure experiments indicate that these metals should not be in the mantle. These metals don't like being dissolved in silicate and instead they prefer to sink through the mantle into the Earth's core," Brasser tells Astrobiology Magazine. "The fact that we do have them at all means that they must have arrived after the core and the mantle separated, when it became much more difficult for these metals to reach the core."

A 2016 paper by Brasser and colleagues conclusively showed that a giant impact is the best explanation for Earth's high siderophile element abundance.

 

The amount of siderophiles accumulated during late accretion should be proportional to the 'gravitational cross section' of the planet. This cross section is effectively the cross hairs that an impactor 'sees' as it approaches a target planet. The gravitational cross section extends beyond the planet itself, as the world's gravity will direct an object towards it even when the object was not on a direct collision course. This process is called gravitational focusing.

The earlier paper showed that Earth has more siderophiles in the mantle than it should, even according to the gravitational cross section theory. The scientists explained this by showing that an impact of a lunar-sized body on the Earth (in addition to the event that formed the moon) would have enriched the mantle with enough siderophiles to explain the current value.

An early giant impact

Analysis of Martian meteorites show that Mars accreted another 0.8 percent by mass (weight percent, or wt percent) of material via late accretion. In the new paper, Brasser and Mojzsis show that for Mars to have amended its mass by about 0.8 wt percent in a single impact event required a body at least 1,200 kilometers in diameter.

They further argue that such an impact ought to have occurred some time between 4.5 and 4.4 billion years ago. Studies of zircon crystals in ancient Martian meteorites can be used to date the formation of the Martian crust to before 4.4 billion years ago. As such, a giant impact should have caused widespread crustal melting and such a catastrophic event must have occurred before the evidence for the oldest crust. If the impact occurred as early in the planet's history as 4.5 billion years ago, then the siderophiles should have been stripped away during core formation. This history provides firm bookend constraints on when the impact happened.

Understanding late accretion is not just important for explaining the siderophile abundance, but also for placing an upper limit on the age of Earth's biosphere.

"During each impact, a small bit of Earth's crust is locally melted," says Brasser. "When the accretion is very intense, almost all of Earth's crust is molten. As the accretion intensity decreases, the amount of crustal melting also decreases. We argue that the earliest time you could form a biosphere is when the accretion is low enough so that less than 50 percent of the crust is molten at any given time."

The surface of Mars also has an unusual dichotomy, which could be explained by a giant impact. The southern hemisphere exists as an ancient cratered terrain, and the northern hemisphere appears younger and smoother and was influenced by extensive volcanism. A giant impact might also have created the Martian moons, Deimos and Phobos, although an alternative theory is that the highly porous Phobos could be a captured asteroid.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Collisions after moon formation remodeled early Earth

More information: A colossal impact enriched Mars' mantle with noble metals, arxiv.org/abs/1706.02014


Journal reference: Geophysical Research Letters [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Source:: Astrobio.net


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-03-rare-metal...e.html#jCp






Astrophysics > Earth and Planetary Astrophysics
A colossal impact enriched Mars' mantle with noble metals
R. Brasser, S. J. Mojzsis
(Submitted on 7 Jun 2017)
Quote:Once the terrestrial planets had mostly completed their assembly, bombardment continued by planetesimals left-over from accretion. Highly siderophile element (HSE) abundances in Mars' mantle imply its late accretion supplement was 0.8 wt.%; Earth and the Moon obtained an additional 0.7 wt.% and 0.02 wt.%, respectively. The disproportionately high Earth/Moon accretion ratio is explicable by stochastic addition of a few remaining Ceres-sized bodies that preferentially targeted Earth. Here we show that Mars' late accretion budget also requires a colossal impact, a plausible visible remnant of which is the hemispheric dichotomy. The addition of sufficient HSEs to the martian mantle entails an impactor of at least 1200 km in diameter to have struck Mars before ca. 4430 Ma, by which time crust formation was well underway. Thus, the dichotomy could be one of the oldest geophysical features of the martian crust. Ejected debris could be the source material for its satellites.
Comments:
Accepted for publication in Geophysical Research Letters
Subjects:
Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)
DOI:
10.1002/2017GL074002
Cite as:
arXiv:1706.02014 [astro-ph.EP]
 
(or arXiv:1706.02014v1 [astro-ph.EP] for this version)
Submission history
From: Ramon Brasser [view email]
[v1] Wed, 7 Jun 2017 00:38:46 GMT (403kb)
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#7
...


Quote:Brasser and Mojzsis show that for Mars to have amended its mass by about 0.8 wt percent 
in a single impact event 
required a body at least 1,200 kilometers in diameter.


That is more of a direct full straight on impact model.
Mars also could have been grazed by a much larger body.

...
Reply
#8
Quote:They further argue that such an impact ought to have occurred some time between 4.5 and 4.4 billion years ago. Studies of zircon crystals in ancient Martian meteorites can be used to date the formation of the Martian crust to before 4.4 billion years ago. As such, a giant impact should have caused widespread crustal melting and such a catastrophic event must have occurred before the evidence for the oldest crust. If the impact occurred as early in the planet's history as 4.5 billion years ago, then the siderophiles should have been stripped away during core formation.
[Image: brass-duck-bookends_1.jpg?itok=ru_OPprG]
This history provides firm bookend constraints on when the impact happened.


I wonder if we will get a Data Drop of lotz of new insight into Mars Geology Then and Now.

Why?

Because they would want to Publish their theories  Arrow  FIRST and soon Before Insight lands and starts making measurements.

Whatever they may know and have under wraps that might involve this collision whether glancing or direct of a hit will mostly be revealed before the craft lands...just so that the scientists can pad their publicized portfolios in recognized peer-reviewed journals.

Recall:


Quote: A NEW MODEL OF MARS AS A FORMER CAPTURED SATELLITE:
BI-MODAL DISTRIBUTION OF KEY FEATURES
DUE TO ANCIENT TIDAL STRESS?
 
Richard C. Hoagland
 (Principal Investigator, Enterprise Mission)
Michael Bara
 (Executive Director, Formal Action Committee on Extraterrestrial Studies).

 
 
ABSTRACT
 
Conventional models of Mars, based on measurements by initial Mariner unmanned spacecraft, found an arid, apparently ancient environment without current liquid water.  This prompted subsequent, highly negative assessments regarding Mars’ history, and the difficulty for the origin and/or evolution of higher forms of life.  Later, the unmanned Viking missions (as well as the 1997 Pathfinder Lander) seemed to confirm this barren model.  Complex, sometimes contradictory geologic theories to explain this desolate Mars environment have been proposed, based on a wide variety of observed surface phenomena and features.  A new model that reconciles major puzzling contradictions among past models is now put forth, using new observations from MGS high-resolution images of Mars and a reevaluation of certain Viking era experiments.  Small-scale surface features are identified which, it is proposed, are the direct product of wide spread ancient and recent bursts of subsurface liquid water.  These water “stains” are shown to cluster (beyond statistical chance) in an unmistakable tidally-determined, bi-modal distribution on the planet: centered near the Tharsis and antipodal Arabia “bulges.”  A revaluation of Mars ancient history is therefore proposed, suggesting that Mars (well after solar system formation) was captured into synchronous orbital lock with a larger planetary companion (“Planet V”), accounting for the clustering of present day water bursts around the former beds of two bi-modally distributed “Mars ancient oceans” as a direct result.  The current Tharsis and Arabia mantle uplifts are shown to be an inevitable additional fossil signature of such former tidal stresses, induced by a close gravitational relationship with Planet V.  Other heretofore inexplicable Martian surface features are shown to be consistent with such a simple "tidal model": Valles Marineris (as an eroded ancient tidal bore, formed immediately post-capture); the presence of the extremely flat terrain covering the northern hemisphere (via deposited sediments from the once tidally supported oceans, when released); and the current trench or "moat" around the Tharsis bulge (from relaxation of Tharsis back into the mantle, after tidal lock was broken).  The long-mysterious “Line of Dichotomy” is explained as a remnant of a “blast wave” of debris from this sudden severing of the former orbital lock relationship with Planet V, due to either a catastrophic collision or explosion.  Chemical signatures of this extraordinary destruction event on Mars are shown to be consistent with the model; including the distribution of olivine preferentially below the line of dichotomy; the presence of primitive mantle and core materials such as iron and sulfur in unusual abundance on Mars surface; and the concentration of proposed “water stains” in areas bereft of olivine.  Mars unusual magnetic field “striping” is now shown to be another unique southern hemisphere signature of this destruction event, caused by standing P and S waves reverberating through the planet’s crust as a result of the massive simultaneous impacts from Planet V debris.  Recently published research showing unprecedented outflow channels from the Tharsis and Arabia bulges are shown to be consistent with the sudden relaxation of the two tidal oceans, as is the sculpting of huge amounts of material by fluvial processes north of the Arabia bulge.  Two possible mechanisms for the destruction of Planet V and the breaking of this tidal lock are outlined.  Finally, a new timeline for Mars geologic evolution is proposed that is consistent with these observations, placing these events between capture ~500 MYA and the destruction of Planet V at 65 MYA.

"Stay Tuned..." -RCH

http://www.enterprisemission.com/tides.htm


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With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#9
Quote:I wonder if we will get a Data Drop of lotz of new insight into Mars Geology Then and Now.

Why?

Because they would want to Publish their theories  [Image: arrow.png]  FIRST and soon Before Insight lands and starts making measurements.

Whatever they may know and have under wraps that might involve this collision whether glancing or direct of a hit will mostly be revealed before the craft lands...just so that the scientists can pad their publicized portfolios in recognized peer-reviewed journals.

Recall:



Mars' oceans formed early, possibly aided by massive volcanic eruptions
March 19, 2018, University of California - Berkeley


[Image: marsoceansfo.jpg]
The early ocean known as Arabia (left, blue) would have looked like this when it formed 4 billion years ago on Mars, while the Deuteronilus ocean, about 3.6 billion years old, had a smaller shoreline. Both coexisted with the massive volcanic province Tharsis, located on the unseen side of the planet, which may have helped support the existence of liquid water. The water is now gone, perhaps frozen underground and partially lost to space, while the ancient seabed is known as the northern plains. Credit: Robert Citron images, UC Berkeley

[/url]
A new scenario seeking to explain how Mars' putative oceans came and went over the last 4 billion years implies that the oceans formed several hundred million years earlier and were not as deep as once thought.



The proposal by geophysicists at the University of California, Berkeley, links the existence of oceans early in Mars history to the rise of the solar system's largest volcanic system, Tharsis, and highlights the key role played by global warming in allowing
liquid water to exist on Mars.

"Volcanoes may be important in creating the conditions for Mars to be wet," said Michael Manga, a UC Berkeley professor of earth and planetary science and senior author of a paper appearing in Nature this week and posted online March 19.

Those claiming that Mars never had oceans of liquid water often point to the fact that estimates of the size of the oceans don't jibe with estimates of how much water could be hidden today as permafrost underground and how much could have escaped into space. These are the main options, given that the polar ice caps don't contain enough water to fill an ocean.

The new model proposes that the oceans formed before or at the same time as Mars' largest volcanic feature, Tharsis, instead of after Tharsis formed 3.7 billion years ago. Because Tharsis was smaller at that time, it did not distort the planet as much as it did later, in particular the plains that cover most of the northern hemisphere and are the presumed ancient seabed. The absence of crustal deformation from Tharsis means the seas would have been shallower, holding about half the water of earlier estimates.

"The assumption was that Tharsis formed quickly and early, rather than gradually, and that the oceans came later," Manga said. "We're saying that the oceans predate and accompany the lava outpourings that made Tharsis."

It's likely, he added, that Tharsis spewed gases into the atmosphere that created a global warming or greenhouse effect that allowed liquid water to exist on the planet, and also that volcanic eruptions created channels that allowed underground water to reach the surface and fill the northern plains.

 

Following the shorelines

The model also counters another argument against oceans: that the proposed shorelines are very irregular, varying in height by as much as a kilometer, when they should be level, like shorelines on Earth.

This irregularity could be explained if the first ocean, called Arabia, started forming about 4 billion years ago and existed, if intermittently, during as much as the first 20 percent of Tharsis's growth. The growing volcano would have depressed the land and deformed the shoreline over time, which could explain the irregular heights of the Arabia shoreline.

Similarly, the irregular shoreline of a subsequent ocean, called Deuteronilus, could be explained if it formed during the last 17 percent of Tharsis's growth, about 3.6 billion years ago.

"These shorelines could have been emplaced by a large body of liquid water that existed before and during the emplacement of Tharsis, instead of afterwards," said first author Robert Citron, a UC Berkeley graduate student. Citron will present a paper about the new analysis on March 20 at the annual Lunar and Planetary Science conference in Texas.

Tharsis, now a 5,000-kilometer-wide eruptive complex, contains some of the biggest volcanoes in the solar system and dominates the topography of Mars. Earth, twice the diameter and 10 times more massive than Mars, has no equivalent dominating feature. Tharsis's bulk creates a bulge on the opposite side of the planet and a depression halfway between. This explains why estimates of the volume of water the northern plains could hold based on today's topography are twice what the new study estimates based on the topography 4 billion years ago.

New hypothesis supplants old
Quote: Wrote:.
Quote: Wrote: Wrote:InSight stands for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport.
You can't really do SEISMIC  [Image: doh.gif] if you don't understand the constituent properties of the substances and materials inside the core or mantle.

Rare metals on Mars and Earth implicate colossal impacts
March 16, 2018 by Amanda Doyle, Astrobio.net


Geodesy and Heat Transport.


Manga, who models the internal heat flow of Mars, such as the rising plumes of molten rock that erupt into volcanoes at the surface, tried to explain the irregular shorelines of the plains of Mars 11 years ago with another theory
. He and former graduate student Taylor Perron suggested that Tharsis, which was then thought to have originated at far northern latitudes, was so massive that it caused the spin axis of Mars to move several thousand miles south, throwing off the shorelines.

Since then, however, others have shown that Tharsis originated only about(~19.5) 20 degrees above the equator, nixing that theory.
"Stay Tuned..." -RCH
But Manga and Citron came up with another idea,  [Image: doh.gif] that the shorelines could have been etched as Tharsis was growing, not afterward.
The new theory also can account for the cutting of valley networks by flowing water at around the same time.

"This is a hypothesis," Manga emphasized. "But scientists can do more precise dating of Tharsis and the shorelines to see if it holds up."

NASA's next Mars lander, the InSight mission (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport), could help answer the question. Scheduled for launch in May, it will place a seismometer on the surface to probe the interior and perhaps find frozen remnants of that ancient ocean, or even liquid water.

 Explore further: Mars upside down

More information: Robert I. Citron et al, Timing of oceans on Mars from shoreline deformation, Nature (2018). DOI: 10.1038/nature26144


Journal reference: Nature
Provided by: University of California - Berkeley


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-03-mars-ocean...d.html#jCp



[Image: naughty.gif] Manga.

This Negates That  [Image: arrow.png]  #6 Friday, March 16th, 2018, 09:20 pm

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This new model should be considered when projecting commences.

They've got about ~50 days to update any software if necessary.
Quote: Wrote: Wrote:InSight stands for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport.
You can't really do SEISMIC  [Image: doh.gif] if you don't understand the constituent properties of the substances and materials inside the core or mantle.

Rare metals on Mars and Earth implicate colossal impacts
March 16, 2018 by Amanda Doyle, Astrobio.net


[Image: raremetalson.jpg]
The surface features of the northern and southern hemispheres of Mars are very different. In this topographic map, the northern hemisphere (shown in blue) is mostly smooth lowlands and has experienced extensive volcanism. The southern hemisphere (in orange) has an older, cratered highland surface. This dichotomy could have been caused by a giant impact. Credit: University of Arizona/LPL/SwRI
New research has revealed that a giant impact on Mars more than four billion years ago would explain the unusual amount of "iron loving" elements in the Red Planet.
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#10
One scientist's 30-year quest to get under Mars' skin
May 5, 2018 by Pascale Mollard

[Image: philippelogn.jpg]
Philippe Lognonne, the principal investigator for the SEIS experiment on the NASA InSight Mission, has always wanted to know what's going on under Mars' famously red surface
Philippe Lognonne has waited three decades to hear the heartbeat of Mars.

With a little luck and some help from NASA, the instrument he designed to take the Red Planet's pulse will land before the year's end and press a high-tech ear to its dusty surface.
As principal investigator for the Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS), a multi-sensor seismometer, Lognonne will have a front-row seat for the scheduled launch on Saturday from Vandenberg Air Force Base in central California of NASA's InSight mission.
But he's keeping the champagne corked: three times in the past, Mars space missions featuring his ultra-sensitive seismometers have faltered, failed or been scrapped.
Lognonne's cherubic features are framed by a mop of shoulder-length auburn hair, a grizzled beard and white sideburns.
He has just turned 55, and has a weakness for Hawaiian shirts.
A researcher at the Institute of Earth Physics in Paris, Lognonne has explored the dynamics of tsunamis and deciphered data from 1970s Apollo missions.
But from the start, his true passion and unwavering mission was to build the tools that could detect what's going on under Mars' red surface.
"This planet was habitable four billion years ago, and I want to understand why, bit by bit, it stopped being so," Lognonne said in an interview at the Paris university where he teaches.
Soon after completing his PhD in 1989, the young scientist focused on designing a suite of seismometers—used on Earth to detect and measure earthquakes—that could probe deep beneath the Martian surface in search of answers.
[Image: graphiconnas.jpg]
Graphic on NASA's new Mars lander
'Don't give up'
His first crack at securing passage to Mars for his instruments came in 1996, when France's National Centre for Space Studies joined a Russian mission that included an orbiter and two landers.
But two small seismometers on board never made it past Earth's atmosphere—the launch failed, and the mission was aborted.
Lognonne got another shot at his goal seven years later.
Working with US engineer Bruce Banerdt—who 15 years later would become the scientific director for InSight—he helped prepare instruments for the European NetLander mission, which sought to set up a network of four small stations on the surface of Mars, including a seismometer. A launch date was set for 2005.

But the mission got mired in red ink and was axed in 2003.
"That was a bit of let-down," Lognonne said flatly.
What kept him going? Why didn't he give up at that point?
"I've always told my students, if you really believe that a project is scientifically important, the only reason to not carry on is if someone else is already doing it," he said.
Banerdt and Lognonne went their separate ways but stayed in touch, linked in part by the dream of putting a seismometer on Mars.
"We knew that the scientific consensus was that it must be done," Lognonne said.
[Image: 1-philippelogn.jpg]
Philippe Lognonne worked on the SEIS seismometer that can measure ground motions in a wide range of frequencies, using an array of six sensors
A small leak
In 2012, NASA invited bids under its Discovery programme for relatively low-budget space exploration projects, and the duo decided to try once again.
They were up against 26 other projects in their category.
In August of that year, they got the call from NASA saying they had been selected for a 2016 Mars launch.
"Four years is very short!" Lognonne recalls thinking, as they threw themselves into the task.
The SEIS seismometer that will—with any luck at all—leave Earth on Saturday measures ground motions in a wide range of frequencies, using an array of six sensors.
It will detect and record "marsquakes" and other sources of ground motion, such as meteorite impacts and the faint gravitational effects of Phobos, a Martian moon.
The sensors are in a temperature-controlled and vacuum-sealed box housed within a domed, three-legged pod that resembles an autonomous vacuum cleaner.
The ensemble—protected by a wind and thermal shield—is to be placed on Martian soil by a robot arm, and is connected to the lander by a flexible tether with power and data lines.
But three months before the scheduled launch in early 2016, the French team detected a tiny leak in the tether.
NASA canned the launch. "That was a shock," said Lognonne.
But this time the cancellation was not final. The mission was rescheduled for May to June 2018, the next window of opportunity for a Mars launch.
The champagne is on ice.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: NASA's newest Mars lander to study quakes on Red Planet




NASA counts down to liftoff of Mars lander, InSight
May 5, 2018 by Kerry Sheridan

[Image: 1-theinsightla.jpg]
The InSight lander, seen here in a NASA handout illustration, is designed to monitor quakes on the surface of Mars
NASA counted down Saturday to the long-awaited launch of its latest Mars lander, InSight, designed to perch on the surface of the Red Planet and listen for "Marsquakes."

The spacecraft was scheduled to blast off atop an Atlas V rocket at 4:05 am Pacific time (1105 GMT) from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California.
Foggy weather was the only technical concern ahead of the launch, and NASA safety officers said Friday the usual visibility constraints might be waived so the launch could proceed.
The $993 million project aims to expand human knowledge of conditions on Mars, inform efforts to send human explorers there, and reveal how rocky planets like the Earth formed billions of years ago.
If all goes as planned, the lander should settle on the Red Planet on November 26.
Its name, InSight, is short for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport.
NASA chief scientist Jim Green said experts already know that Mars has quakes, avalanches and meteor strikes.
"But how quake-prone is Mars? That is fundamental information that we need to know as humans that explore Mars," Green said.
French-made seismometer
The key instrument on board is a seismometer, called the Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure, made by the French Space Agency.
After the lander settles on the Martian surface, a robotic arm is supposed to emerge and place the seismometer directly on the ground.
The second main instrument is a self-hammering probe that will monitor the flow of heat in the planet's subsurface.
[Image: atelephotovi.jpg]
A telephoto vista of Mars' Gale Crater taken by NASA's Curiosity Mars rover on October 25, 2017
Called the Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package, it was made by the German Space Agency with the participation of the Polish Space Agency.
The probe will bore down 10 to 16 feet (three to five meters) below the surface, NASA said, 15 times deeper than any previous Mars mission.
Understanding the temperature on Mars is crucial to NASA's efforts to send people there by the 2030's, and how much a human habitat might need to be heated under frigid conditions, said Green.
Daytime summer temperatures near the Martian equator may reach 70 degrees Fahrenheit (20 degrees C), but then plunge by night to -100 F (-73 C).
"It is an important part of knowledge of how this planet is evolving," Green said.

"We have to be able as humans living and working on Mars to survive that."
Excitement builds
The solar and battery-powered lander is designed to operate for 26 Earth months, or one year on Mars, a period in which it is expected to pick up as many as 100 quakes.
"Hopefully it will last a lot longer than that," said Tom Hoffman, InSight project manager from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
The spacecraft was initially supposed to launch in 2016 but had to be delayed after temperature tests showed a problem with part of the seismometer, which engineers have since fixed.
InSight aims to be the first NASA spacecraft to land on Mars since the Curiosity rover in 2012.
"There is nothing routine about going to Mars, especially landing on Mars," said Stu Spath, InSight program manager at Lockheed Martin Space.
"On Saturday morning, the anticipation and excitement is going to be second to none."
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: NASA's newest Mars lander to study quakes on Red Planet

NASA blasts off Mars-bound spaceship, InSight, to study quakes LilD
May 5, 2018


[Image: 2-theinsightla.jpg]
The InSight lander, seen here in a NASA handout illustration, is designed to monitor quakes on the surface of Mars
NASA on Saturday launched its latest Mars lander, called InSight, designed to perch on the surface and listen for "Marsquakes" ahead of eventual human missions to explore the Red Planet.



"Three, two, one, liftoff!" said a NASA commentator as the spacecraft blasted off on a dark, foggy morning atop an Atlas V rocket at 4:05 am Pacific time (1105 GMT) from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, marking NASA's first interplanetary launch from the US west coast.

The $993 million project aims to expand our knowledge of interior conditions on Mars, inform efforts to send human explorers there, and reveal how rocky planets like the Earth formed billions of years ago.

If all goes as planned during the 301 million mile (485 million kilometer) journey, the lander should settle on the Red Planet on November 26.

InSight is short for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport.

"#Mars, here I come! Six months and counting to the Red Planet," said a message on InSight's Twitter account.

NASA chief scientist Jim Green said experts already know that Mars has quakes, avalanches and meteor strikes.

"But how quake-prone is Mars? That is fundamental information that we need to know as humans that explore Mars," Green said.

French-made seismometer

The key instrument on board is a seismometer, called the Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure, made by the French Space Agency.

After the lander settles on the Martian surface, a robotic arm is supposed to emerge and place the seismometer directly on the ground.

"For us, InSight is perhaps not the ultimate but a very, very important mission because we are going to the hear the heartbeat of Mars with the seismometer we put on board," said Jean-Yves Le Gall, president of France's Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), in an interview on NASA television after liftoff.

The second main instrument is a self-hammering probe that will monitor heat in the planet's subsurface.

[Image: 1-atelephotovi.jpg]
A telephoto vista of Mars' Gale Crater taken by NASA's Curiosity Mars rover on October 25, 2017
Called the Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package, it was made by the German Space Agency with the participation of the Polish Space Agency.

The probe will bore down 10 to 16 feet (three to five meters) below the surface, NASA said, 15 times deeper than any previous Mars mission.

Understanding the temperature on Mars is crucial to NASA's efforts to send people there by the 2030's, and how much a human habitat might need to be heated under frigid conditions, said Green.

 

The temperature at the landing site for InSight is frigid, and expected to range between -148 F and -4 F (-100 Celsius to -20 Celsius).

Daytime summer temperatures near the Martian equator may reach 70 degrees Fahrenheit (20 degrees C), but then plunge by night to -100 F (-73 C).

"It is an important part of knowledge of how this planet is evolving," Green said.

"We have to be able as humans living and working on Mars to survive that."

Two Earth years

The solar and battery-powered lander is designed to operate for 26 Earth months, or one year on Mars, a period in which it is expected to pick up as many as 100 quakes.

"Hopefully it will last a lot longer than that," said Tom Hoffman, InSight project manager from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

The spacecraft was initially supposed to launch in 2016 but had to be delayed after temperature tests showed a problem with part of the seismometer, which engineers have since fixed.

InSight aims to be the first NASA spacecraft to land on Mars since the Curiosity rover in 2012.

"There is nothing routine about going to Mars, especially landing on Mars," said Stu Spath, InSight program manager at Lockheed Martin Space.


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-05-nasa-blast...t.html#jCp
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#11
Despite the challenges I HOPE Angel  it actually lands and deploys ALL instruments for at least 6 months.

If not, then the #2020CydoniaRover should be the NEXT PRIORITY !!! or it stays on the ground.

Bob... Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Reply
#12
I've been reading about the seismic sensitivity of the instrument.
Supposedly it can detect the motion of a hydrogen atom.

Hmm2
Reply
#13
Not if it's attached to 2 Oxygen atoms..thus WATER !!!

Naughty 


Bob... Ninja Alien2
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Reply
#14
"Not if it's attached to 2 Oxygen atoms..thus WATER !!!"

Damned ...b-b-but that would be common sense !
Reply
#15
...
I think I was skeptical about this lander from the beginning.
I remember now,
it was those goofy electronic tethers that have to unravel themselves to deploy the instruments.

Looking at this in the last text.


Quote:Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package
The second main instrument is a self-hammering Gangup  probe that will monitor heat in the planet's subsurface.

The probe will bore down 10 to 16 feet (three to five meters) below the surface, Nonono
NASA said, 
15 times deeper than any previous Mars mission.


Well if the tethers unravel with no probelms,
Ok, great,
and the little probe starts to hammer itself down and into the frozen soil.
What happens down maybe two feet, ... Dunno
if the Mole Whip hits a 2 pound, 
5 pound, 
or 10 pound rock ... head and dead on ... while submerging?  Wall

The probe HP3
https://mars.nasa.gov/insight/mission/instruments/hp3/

Mounted on the lander deck at launch. 

Upon landing, the lander's arm picks up HP3 and places it on the surface. 

The mole Naughty  then hammers itself under the surface  Rofl  

MASS: Just over 6.5 pounds (ab

VOLUME: About 5.3 gallons (20 liters) in total


----------------------------------------------------------------

Check out the tehthers that have to unravel


[Image: insight-35.jpg]


That punk ass mole can't dodge a 5 pound rock


[Image: insight-10.jpg]


nope, nothing can go wrong there  Hi



[Image: hp3.png]



Lol   might be able to cook some tortillas or make some pancakes on those hot plates Lol

sorry, but the thing is comical looking.

If I was an army-brat teenager on 22nd century Mars I would beat the crap out of it with a baseball bat.

We really need some manned missions to Mars.
For all of NASA's successes there with Rovers and such,
they still failed.
It seems like the last 50 years were just a giant delay tactic in space exploration.

And now I don't even want to go. Spaceship travel sucks for the next 150-250 years.

Sitting on a cornflake, waiting for the Star Gate to open.

See how we fly, like Lucy in the Sky ...

If it isn't by Star Gate, or some such rapid transit system,
it's not worth traveling there.

Quote:Mounted on the lander deck at launch. 

Upon landing, the lander's arm picks up HP3 and places it on the surface. 

The mole Naughty  then hammers itself under the surface  Rofl  


...
Reply
#16
InSight steers toward Mars
May 24, 2018, Jet Propulsion Laboratory


[Image: insight.jpg]
The solar arrays on NASA's InSight lander are deployed in this test inside a clean room at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver. This configuration is how the spacecraft will look on the surface of Mars. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Lockheed Martin
NASA's InSight lander has made its first course correction toward Mars.



InSight, short for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport, is the first mission dedicated to exploring the deep interior of Mars.

The lander is currently encapsulated in a protective aeroshell, which launched on top of an Atlas V 401 rocket on May 5 from Vandenberg Air Force Base in Central California. Yesterday, the spacecraft fired its thrusters for the first time to change its flight path. This activity, called a trajectory correction maneuver, will happen a maximum of six times to guide the lander to Mars.

Every launch starts with a rocket. That's necessary to get a spacecraft out past Earth's gravity—but rockets don't complete the journey to other planets. Before launch, every piece of hardware headed to Mars is cleaned, limiting the number of Earth microbes that might travel on the spacecraft. However, the rocket and its upper stage, called a Centaur, don't get the same special treatment.

As a result, Mars launches involve aiming the rocket just off-target so that it flies off into space. Separately, the spacecraft performs a series of trajectory correction maneuvers guiding it to the Red Planet. This makes sure that only the clean spacecraft lands on the planet, while the upper stage does not come close.

Precise calculations are required for InSight to arrive at exactly the right spot in Mars' atmosphere at exactly the right time, resulting in a landing on Nov. 26. Every step of the way, a team of navigators estimates the position and velocity of the spacecraft. Then they design maneuvers to deliver it to an entry point at Mars. That navigation team is based at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, which leads the InSight mission.




Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-05-insight-mars.html#jCp
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