Thread Rating:
  • 0 Vote(s) - 0 Average
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
Insight (@ Elysium Planitia) In-Situ: Inciting a revolution in Mars revelation.
#1
NASA's next Mars lander spreads its solar wings
January 24, 2018 by Andrew Good, NASA


[Image: nasasnextmar.jpg]
Credit: NASA
NASA's next mission to Mars passed a key test Tuesday, extending the solar arrays that will power the InSight spacecraft once it lands on the Red Planet this November.



The test took place at Lockheed Martin Space just outside of Denver, where InSight was built and has been undergoing testing ahead of its launch. The mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.

"This is the last time we will see the spacecraft in landed configuration before it arrives at the Red Planet," said Scott Daniels, Lockheed Martin InSight Assembly, Test and Launch Operations (ATLO) Manager. "There are still many steps we have to take before launch, but this is a critical milestone before shipping to Vandenberg Air Force Base in California." The InSight launch window opens in May.

The fan-like solar panels are specially designed for Mars' weak sunlight, caused by the planet's distance from the Sun and its dusty, thin atmosphere. The panels will power InSight for at least one Martian year (two Earth years) for the first mission dedicated to studying Mars' deep interior. InSight's full name is Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport.


Credit: NASA
"Think of InSight as Mars' first health checkup in more than 4.5 billion years," said Bruce Banerdt of JPL, the mission's principal investigator. "We'll study its pulse by 'listening' for marsquakes with a seismometer. We'll take its temperature with a heat probe. And we'll check its reflexes with a radio experiment."

In addition to the solar panel test, engineers added a final touch: a microchip inscribed with more than 1.6 million names submitted by the public. It joins a chip containing almost 827,000 names that was glued to the top of InSight back in 2015, adding up to a total of about 2.4 million names going to Mars. "It's a fun way for the public to feel personally invested in the mission," Banerdt said. "We're happy to have them along for the ride."

The chips were inscribed at JPL's Microdevices Laboratory, which has added names and images to a number of spacecraft, including the Mars Spirit, Opportunity and Curiosity rovers. Each character on the InSight microchips is just 400 nanometers wide. Compare that to a human hair, 100,000 nanometers wide, or a red blood cell, 8,000 nanometers wide.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Another chance to put your name on Mars

More information: For more information on InSight, visit mars.nasa.gov/insight/


Provided by: NASA


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-01-nasa-mars-...s.html#jCp

Video: Tour a Mars robot test lab
March 9, 2018 by Andrew Good, Jet Propulsion Laboratory


[Image: videotourama.jpg]
Engineers use a replica of NASA's InSight lander, which will launch to Mars later this year, at the agency's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
NASA's InSight lander looks a bit like an oversized crane game: when it lands on Mars this November, its robotic arm will be used to grasp and move objects on another planet for the first time.



And like any crane game, practice makes it easier to capture the prize.

Engineers and scientists have a replica of InSight at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. They use this testbed to simulate all the functions of the spacecraft, preparing for any scenario it might meet once it touches down on the Red Planet.

InSight is unique in that it's a lander rather than a rover; once it touches down, it can't reposition itself. Its job is to stay very still and collect high-precision data. JPL's testbed for the lander sits on piles of crushed garnet in a facility called the In-Situ Instrument Lab. This garnet simulates a mix of sand and gravel found on the Martian surface but has the benefit of being dust-free. The testbed's legs are raised or lowered to test operations in an uneven landing area with up to 15 degrees of tilt.

Engineers also pile garnet at different tilts in the testbed's "workspace"—the area in front of the lander where it practices setting down three science tools: an ultra-sensitive seismometer; a shield that isolates the seismometer from wind and temperature swings; and a heat-flow probe. These three objects are formally called the Science Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS); the Wind and Thermal Shield (WTS); and the Heat Flow and Physical Properties Probe (HP3).


Credit: Jet Propulsion Laboratory
All this practice ensures InSight can set these objects down safely no matter what surprises its landing site has in store.

One challenge lies in the tethers that supply power to each science instrument, said Marleen Sundgaard of JPL, InSight's testbed lead. Each tether unspools as the arm lifts an instrument off the lander.

"We have multiple places where we could put each instrument down," Sundgaard said. "There are scenarios where the tethers would cross each other, so we need to make sure they don't snag."

Besides robotic operations, the testbed has to recreate Martian light. Special lights are also used to calibrate InSight's cameras to the brightness and color of Martian sunlight.

All this practice should pay off with some incredible new science. InSight will be the first mission dedicated to exploring the deep interior of Mars, including its core and mantle. The data it collects could help scientists understand how all rocky planets—including Mars and Earth—first formed.

InSight will launch from Vandenberg Air Force Base in central California. The launch window opens on May 5.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: NASA's next Mars lander spreads its solar wings

More information: For more information about InSight, go to mars.nasa.gov/insight/


Provided by: Jet Propulsion Laboratory


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-03-video-mars...b.html#jCp
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#2
NASA Mars Mission Tours California

March 14, 2018

[Image: PIA22227-16.jpg]

This artist's concept shows the InSight lander, its sensors, cameras and instruments. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

› Full image and caption
[/url]
Scientists and engineers with NASA's next mission to Mars will be touring California cities starting this month.

NASA's [url=https://mars.nasa.gov/insight/]InSight mission
will be the first interplanetary launch from the West Coast. In preparation for its May launch, the Mars InSight Roadshow is stopping at cities along the earthquake-prone California coast to explain how the robotic lander will study Mars' deep interior using seismology and other geophysical measurements.

The Roadshow brings family-friendly science activities, exhibits and public talks to communities throughout California, making comparisons between earthquakes and the marsquakes that InSight will try to detect. The Roadshow will also partner with local and national organizations along the way, promoting planetary science and showing the benefits of NASA earthquake data gathered by Earth-observing satellites. All the museums are members of the NASA Museum Alliance.

InSight's launch window opens May 5 at Vandenberg Air Force Base near Lompoc, northwest of Santa Barbara. InSight stands for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport. It will be the first mission to study the deep interior of Mars, using an ultra-sensitive seismometer, a heat-flow probe and other instruments. InSight is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.

What to Expect:
  • "Make Your Own Marsquake" demo, in which members of the public jump and see seismometer readings on a screen
  • Interviews with NASA scientists and engineers
  • Colorful backdrops and selfie stations
  • Models of the InSight spacecraft
  • Mars globe "cutaways" showing the interior of Mars
  • Virtual reality headsets used to see panoramas of Mars

Who to Expect:
  • Members of InSight's mission and science teams
  • JPL's Mars public engagement team
  • NASA Solar System Ambassadors

Tour Dates:

March 30-31, Redding, CA
Turtle Bay Exploration Park, Exhibit

March 30, Redding, CA
Shasta Union High School District's David Marr Theater, Public Talk

April 13-15, Sacramento, CA
Powerhouse Science Center, Exhibit

April 18-22, San Francisco, CA
Exploratorium, Exhibits and Public Talks

April 27-29, San Luis Obispo, CA
San Luis Obispo Children's Museum, Exhibit

April 28, San Luis Obispo, CA
Cal Poly San Luis Obispo, Public Talk


May 2-3, Santa Maria, CA
Santa Maria Valley Discovery Museum, Exhibit

May 2, Lompoc, CA
Dick DeWees Community & Senior Center, Exhibit

May 3, Lompoc, CA
Lompoc Public Library, Public Talk

May 4, Santa Maria, CA
Allan Hancock College, Exhibit and Public Talk

May 19, Santa Barbara, CA
Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Exhibit

And more to come! Find future dates and details at:
https://mars.nasa.gov/insight/participate/roadshow/

News Media Contact
Andrew Good
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
818-393-2433
andrew.c.good@jpl.nasa.gov

2018-051

Let's hope they don't land on EDGE of a cliff ? Angel

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Reply
#3
Quote:What to expect.


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-03-scientists...g.html#jCp Insight needs a visionary upgrade? Blind Faith?


Each anomaly revealed is occulted ANU!

[Image: doh.gif]

...Like digging a hole in water...

Quote:InSight stands for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport.

"If we see very strong variations [in seismic velocities], it's more likely that they're due to melt," says Ulrich Faul, a research scientist in MIT's Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences. "Water, based on these experiments, is no longer a major player in that sense. This will shift how we interpret images of the interior of the Earth."

Scientists find seismic imaging is blind to water
March 14, 2018, Massachusetts Institute of Technology


[Image: scientistsfi.gif]
MIT scientists find seismic imaging is blind to water, which may help researchers reinterpret structures within the Earth, including at mid-ocean ridges, where it was thought that magma, welling up from the interior, contained trace amounts …more
When an earthquake strikes, nearby seismometers pick up its vibrations in the form of seismic waves. In addition to revealing the epicenter of a quake, seismic waves can give scientists a way to map the interior structures of the Earth, much like a CT scan images the body.



By measuring the velocity at which seismic waves travel at various depths, scientists can determine the types of rocks and other materials that lie beneath the Earth's surface. The accuracy of such seismic maps depends on scientists' understanding of how various materials affect seismic waves' speeds.

Now researchers at MIT and the Australian National University have found that seismic waves are essentially blind to a very common substance found throughout the Earth's interior: water.

Their findings, published today in the journal Nature, go against a general assumption that seismic imaging can pick up signs of water deep within the Earth's upper mantle. In fact, the team found that even trace amounts of water have no effect on the speed at which seismic waves travel.

The results may help scientists reinterpret seismic maps of the Earth's interior. For instance, in places such as midocean ridges, magma from deep within the Earth erupts through massive cracks in the seafloor, spreading away from the ridge and eventually solidifying as new oceanic crust.

The process of melting at tens of kilometers below the surface removes tiny amounts of water that are found in rocks at greater depth. Scientists have thought that seismic images showed this "wet-dry" transition, corresponding to the transition from rigid tectonic plates to deformable mantle beneath. However, the team's findings suggest that seismic imaging may be picking up signs of not water, but rather, melt - tiny pockets of molten rock.

"If we see very strong variations [in seismic velocities], it's more likely that they're due to melt," says Ulrich Faul, a research scientist in MIT's Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences. "Water, based on these experiments, is no longer a major player in that sense. This will shift how we interpret images of the interior of the Earth."

Faul's co-authors are lead author Christopher Cline, along with Emmanuel David, Andrew Berry, and Ian Jackson, of the Australian National University.

A seismic twist

Faul, Cline, and their colleagues originally set out to determine exactly how water affects seismic wave speeds. They assumed, as most researchers have, that seismic imaging can "see" water, in the form of hydroxyl groups within individual mineral grains in rocks, and as molecular-scale pockets of water trapped between these grains. Water, even in tiny amounts, has been known to weaken rocks deep in the Earth's interior.

 

"It was known that water has a strong effect in very small quantities on the properties of rocks," Faul says. "From there, the inference was that water also affects seismic wave speeds substantially."

To measure the extent to which water affects seismic wave speeds, the team produced different samples of olivine - a mineral that constitutes the majority of Earth's upper mantle and determines its properties. They trapped various amounts of water within each sample, and then placed the samples one at a time in a machine engineered to slowly twist a rock, similar to twisting a rubber band. The experiments were done in a furnace at high pressures and temperatures, in order to simulate conditions deep within the Earth.

"We twist the sample at one end and measure the magnitude and time delay of the resulting strain at the other end," Faul says. "This simulates propagation of seismic waves through the Earth. The magnitude of this strain is similar to the width of a thin human hair - not very easy to measure at a pressure of 2,000 times atmospheric pressure and a temperature that approaches the melting temperature of steel."

The team expected to find a correlation between the amount of water in a given sample and the speed at which seismic waves would propagate through that sample. When the initial samples did not show the anticipated behavior, the researchers modified the composition and measured again, but they kept getting the same negative result. Eventually it became inescapable that the original hypothesis was incorrect.

"From our [twisting] measurements, the rocks behaved as if they were dry, even though we could clearly analyze the water in there," Faul says. "At that point, we knew water makes no difference."

A rock, encased

Another unexpected outcome of the experiments was that seismic wave velocity appeared to depend on a rock's oxidation state. All rocks on Earth contain certain amounts of iron, at various states of oxidation, just as metallic iron on a car can rust when exposed to a certain amount of oxygen. The researchers found, almost unintentionally, that the oxidation of iron in olivine affects the way seismic waves travel through the rock.

Cline and Faul came to this conclusion after having to reconfigure their experimental setup. To carry out their experiments, the team typically encases each rock sample in a cylinder made from nickel and iron. However, in measuring each sample's water content in this cylinder, they found that hydrogen atoms in water tended to escape out of the rock, through the metal casing. To contain hydrogen, they switched their casing to one made from platinum.

To their surprise they found that the type of metal surrounding the samples affected their seismic properties. Separate experiments showed that what in fact changed was the amount of Fe3+ in olivine. Normally the oxidation state of iron in olivine is 2+. As it turns out, the presence of Fe3+ produces imperfections which affect seismic wave speeds.

Faul says that the group's findings suggest that seismic waves may be used to map levels of oxidation, such as at subduction zones - regions in the Earth where oceanic plates sink down into the mantle. Based on their results, however, seismic imaging cannot be used to image the distribution of water in the Earth's interior. What some scientists interpreted as water may in fact be melt - an insight that may change our understanding of how the Earth shifts its tectonic plates over time.

"An underlying question is what lubricates tectonic plates on Earth," Faul says. "Our work points toward the importance of small amounts of melt at the base of tectonic plates, rather than a wet mantle beneath dry plates. Overall these results may help to illuminate volatile cycling between the interior and the surface of the Earth."

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Mysterious deep-Earth seismic signature explained

More information: Redox-influenced seismic properties of upper-mantle olivine, Nature (2018). nature.com/articles/doi:10.1038/nature25764


Journal reference: Nature [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: Massachusetts Institute of Technology


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-03-scientists...g.html#jCp



RE: Insight @ In-Situ: Inciting a revolution in Mars revelation.
Seismic is Water Blind >>> on Mars Too.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#4
Quote:EA:
RE: Insight @ In-Situ: Inciting a revolution in Mars revelation.

Seismic is Water Blind >>> on Mars Too.

I bet ALL my future Social Security Checks that the Noggin Accidentally Struck Above         -EA

NEVER EVER thought about that for THIS mission.

$$$ Just Plain Lost   and now   .... it's way way too fracking LATE to do ANYTHING about it.

Naughty

Better meme from You EA:

Never Anomalous Substance Acknowledged / Juxtaposed Posit Liquid  - EA


Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Reply
#5
...
Some points on this lander.
To me, it doesn't appear to be designed to last very long,
or may be prone to problems.
Not being designed to last very long,
aka
not as tough and resilient as the Rovers,
is not that bad,
it just needs to last long enough for them to get enough data,
so that they can develop newer computer models to project that data into.

Quote:JPL's testbed for the lander 
sits on piles of crushed garnet Whip
in a facility called the In-Situ Instrument Lab. 

This garnet simulates a mix of sand and gravel found on the Martian surface,
but
has the benefit of being dust-free. 



What ... no dusty sand on Mars?
What about windstorms?
The In-situ lab is kind of ... exisiting in better than normal,
or leaning on optimum Mars conditions it appears.



Quote:a shield that isolates the seismometer from wind and temperature swings
the Wind and Thermal Shield (WTS)


Sounds great!
It also sounds like an imminent part failure.
Especially when I read this:



Quote:One challenge  Hi
lies in the tethers Whip
that supply power to each science instrument, 
said Marleen Sundgaard of JPL, 
InSight's testbed lead. 

Each tether unspools as the arm lifts an instrument off the lander



No  Lol  Problem-o there Nonono  ...  Rofl

OK OK ... 
so they are in the lab ... working out the jinx and the kinks,
in a manufactured dust free Mars  Reefer
and the obvious needed improvements,
are what they looking for,
as they build this lander.

I sense a money issue.
A funding limit.
Science under the strain of budget blues.
Well ... that is what you get when your prior missions funding,
were commandeered by special interests,
and bullshit like the ...
Pluto  Fly Hi   Bye
and
the 
Ceres Dawn LAMO orbital altitude,
were perpetrated upon the American public.

Looking at what they are trying to tonka toy that lander up with,
I might give them less money too.

But heck, NASA does surprise us with efficiency if anything,
and they can get their spacecraft anywhere,
on time,
and intact,
so they might get this lander to actually make it happen,
but the missions always end up having highly questionable priorities,
with unbelieveably wasted mission potential.
So what I will casually watch for in this mission and lab, etc,
is for the recurrent wasted mission potential,
and the recurrent excuses and disclaimers so often witnessed.

...
Reply
#6
Quote:it just needs to last long enough for them to get enough data,

so that they can develop newer computer models to project that data into.

This new model should be considered when projecting commences.

They've got about ~50 days to update any software if necessary.
Quote: Wrote:InSight stands for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport.
You can't really do SEISMIC  Doh if you don't understand the constituent properties of the substances and materials inside the core or mantle.

Rare metals on Mars and Earth implicate colossal impacts
March 16, 2018 by Amanda Doyle, Astrobio.net


[Image: raremetalson.jpg]
The surface features of the northern and southern hemispheres of Mars are very different. In this topographic map, the northern hemisphere (shown in blue) is mostly smooth lowlands and has experienced extensive volcanism. The southern hemisphere (in orange) has an older, cratered highland surface. This dichotomy could have been caused by a giant impact. Credit: University of Arizona/LPL/SwRI
New research has revealed that a giant impact on Mars more than four billion years ago would explain the unusual amount of "iron loving" elements in the Red Planet.

Planets form as small dust grains stick together and agglomerate with other grains, leading to bigger bodies termed "planetesimals." These planetesimals continue to collide with each other and are either ejected from the solar system, gobbled up by the sun, or form a planet. This is not the end of the story, as planets continue to accrete material well after they have formed. This process is known as late accretion, and it occurs as leftover fragments of planet formation rain down on the young planets.

Planetary scientist Ramon Brasser of the Tokyo Institute of Technology and geologist Stephen Mojzsis of the University of Colorado, Boulder took a closer look at a colossal impact during Mars' late accretion that could explain the unusual amount of rare metallic elements in Mars' mantle, which is the layer below the planet's crust. Their recently published paper, "A colossal impact enriched Mars' mantle with noble metals," appeared in the journal Geophysical Research Letters.

When proto-planets accrete enough material, metals such as iron and nickel begin to separate and sink to form the core. This explains why Earth's core is mainly composed of iron, and it is expected that elements that readily bond with iron should also mainly exist in the core. Examples of such 'iron loving' elements, known as siderophiles, are gold, platinum and iridium, to name a few. Just like Mars, however, there are more siderophiles in the Earth's mantle than would be expected by the process of core formation.

"High pressure experiments indicate that these metals should not be in the mantle. These metals don't like being dissolved in silicate and instead they prefer to sink through the mantle into the Earth's core," Brasser tells Astrobiology Magazine. "The fact that we do have them at all means that they must have arrived after the core and the mantle separated, when it became much more difficult for these metals to reach the core."

A 2016 paper by Brasser and colleagues conclusively showed that a giant impact is the best explanation for Earth's high siderophile element abundance.

 

The amount of siderophiles accumulated during late accretion should be proportional to the 'gravitational cross section' of the planet. This cross section is effectively the cross hairs that an impactor 'sees' as it approaches a target planet. The gravitational cross section extends beyond the planet itself, as the world's gravity will direct an object towards it even when the object was not on a direct collision course. This process is called gravitational focusing.

The earlier paper showed that Earth has more siderophiles in the mantle than it should, even according to the gravitational cross section theory. The scientists explained this by showing that an impact of a lunar-sized body on the Earth (in addition to the event that formed the moon) would have enriched the mantle with enough siderophiles to explain the current value.

An early giant impact

Analysis of Martian meteorites show that Mars accreted another 0.8 percent by mass (weight percent, or wt percent) of material via late accretion. In the new paper, Brasser and Mojzsis show that for Mars to have amended its mass by about 0.8 wt percent in a single impact event required a body at least 1,200 kilometers in diameter.

They further argue that such an impact ought to have occurred some time between 4.5 and 4.4 billion years ago. Studies of zircon crystals in ancient Martian meteorites can be used to date the formation of the Martian crust to before 4.4 billion years ago. As such, a giant impact should have caused widespread crustal melting and such a catastrophic event must have occurred before the evidence for the oldest crust. If the impact occurred as early in the planet's history as 4.5 billion years ago, then the siderophiles should have been stripped away during core formation. This history provides firm bookend constraints on when the impact happened.

Understanding late accretion is not just important for explaining the siderophile abundance, but also for placing an upper limit on the age of Earth's biosphere.

"During each impact, a small bit of Earth's crust is locally melted," says Brasser. "When the accretion is very intense, almost all of Earth's crust is molten. As the accretion intensity decreases, the amount of crustal melting also decreases. We argue that the earliest time you could form a biosphere is when the accretion is low enough so that less than 50 percent of the crust is molten at any given time."

The surface of Mars also has an unusual dichotomy, which could be explained by a giant impact. The southern hemisphere exists as an ancient cratered terrain, and the northern hemisphere appears younger and smoother and was influenced by extensive volcanism. A giant impact might also have created the Martian moons, Deimos and Phobos, although an alternative theory is that the highly porous Phobos could be a captured asteroid.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Collisions after moon formation remodeled early Earth

More information: A colossal impact enriched Mars' mantle with noble metals, arxiv.org/abs/1706.02014


Journal reference: Geophysical Research Letters [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Source:: Astrobio.net


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-03-rare-metal...e.html#jCp






Astrophysics > Earth and Planetary Astrophysics
A colossal impact enriched Mars' mantle with noble metals
R. Brasser, S. J. Mojzsis
(Submitted on 7 Jun 2017)
Quote:Once the terrestrial planets had mostly completed their assembly, bombardment continued by planetesimals left-over from accretion. Highly siderophile element (HSE) abundances in Mars' mantle imply its late accretion supplement was 0.8 wt.%; Earth and the Moon obtained an additional 0.7 wt.% and 0.02 wt.%, respectively. The disproportionately high Earth/Moon accretion ratio is explicable by stochastic addition of a few remaining Ceres-sized bodies that preferentially targeted Earth. Here we show that Mars' late accretion budget also requires a colossal impact, a plausible visible remnant of which is the hemispheric dichotomy. The addition of sufficient HSEs to the martian mantle entails an impactor of at least 1200 km in diameter to have struck Mars before ca. 4430 Ma, by which time crust formation was well underway. Thus, the dichotomy could be one of the oldest geophysical features of the martian crust. Ejected debris could be the source material for its satellites.
Comments:
Accepted for publication in Geophysical Research Letters
Subjects:
Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)
DOI:
10.1002/2017GL074002
Cite as:
arXiv:1706.02014 [astro-ph.EP]
 
(or arXiv:1706.02014v1 [astro-ph.EP] for this version)
Submission history
From: Ramon Brasser [view email]
[v1] Wed, 7 Jun 2017 00:38:46 GMT (403kb)
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#7
...


Quote:Brasser and Mojzsis show that for Mars to have amended its mass by about 0.8 wt percent 
in a single impact event 
required a body at least 1,200 kilometers in diameter.


That is more of a direct full straight on impact model.
Mars also could have been grazed by a much larger body.

...
Reply
#8
Quote:They further argue that such an impact ought to have occurred some time between 4.5 and 4.4 billion years ago. Studies of zircon crystals in ancient Martian meteorites can be used to date the formation of the Martian crust to before 4.4 billion years ago. As such, a giant impact should have caused widespread crustal melting and such a catastrophic event must have occurred before the evidence for the oldest crust. If the impact occurred as early in the planet's history as 4.5 billion years ago, then the siderophiles should have been stripped away during core formation.
[Image: brass-duck-bookends_1.jpg?itok=ru_OPprG]
This history provides firm bookend constraints on when the impact happened.


I wonder if we will get a Data Drop of lotz of new insight into Mars Geology Then and Now.

Why?

Because they would want to Publish their theories  Arrow  FIRST and soon Before Insight lands and starts making measurements.

Whatever they may know and have under wraps that might involve this collision whether glancing or direct of a hit will mostly be revealed before the craft lands...just so that the scientists can pad their publicized portfolios in recognized peer-reviewed journals.

Recall:


Quote: A NEW MODEL OF MARS AS A FORMER CAPTURED SATELLITE:
BI-MODAL DISTRIBUTION OF KEY FEATURES
DUE TO ANCIENT TIDAL STRESS?
 
Richard C. Hoagland
 (Principal Investigator, Enterprise Mission)
Michael Bara
 (Executive Director, Formal Action Committee on Extraterrestrial Studies).

 
 
ABSTRACT
 
Conventional models of Mars, based on measurements by initial Mariner unmanned spacecraft, found an arid, apparently ancient environment without current liquid water.  This prompted subsequent, highly negative assessments regarding Mars’ history, and the difficulty for the origin and/or evolution of higher forms of life.  Later, the unmanned Viking missions (as well as the 1997 Pathfinder Lander) seemed to confirm this barren model.  Complex, sometimes contradictory geologic theories to explain this desolate Mars environment have been proposed, based on a wide variety of observed surface phenomena and features.  A new model that reconciles major puzzling contradictions among past models is now put forth, using new observations from MGS high-resolution images of Mars and a reevaluation of certain Viking era experiments.  Small-scale surface features are identified which, it is proposed, are the direct product of wide spread ancient and recent bursts of subsurface liquid water.  These water “stains” are shown to cluster (beyond statistical chance) in an unmistakable tidally-determined, bi-modal distribution on the planet: centered near the Tharsis and antipodal Arabia “bulges.”  A revaluation of Mars ancient history is therefore proposed, suggesting that Mars (well after solar system formation) was captured into synchronous orbital lock with a larger planetary companion (“Planet V”), accounting for the clustering of present day water bursts around the former beds of two bi-modally distributed “Mars ancient oceans” as a direct result.  The current Tharsis and Arabia mantle uplifts are shown to be an inevitable additional fossil signature of such former tidal stresses, induced by a close gravitational relationship with Planet V.  Other heretofore inexplicable Martian surface features are shown to be consistent with such a simple "tidal model": Valles Marineris (as an eroded ancient tidal bore, formed immediately post-capture); the presence of the extremely flat terrain covering the northern hemisphere (via deposited sediments from the once tidally supported oceans, when released); and the current trench or "moat" around the Tharsis bulge (from relaxation of Tharsis back into the mantle, after tidal lock was broken).  The long-mysterious “Line of Dichotomy” is explained as a remnant of a “blast wave” of debris from this sudden severing of the former orbital lock relationship with Planet V, due to either a catastrophic collision or explosion.  Chemical signatures of this extraordinary destruction event on Mars are shown to be consistent with the model; including the distribution of olivine preferentially below the line of dichotomy; the presence of primitive mantle and core materials such as iron and sulfur in unusual abundance on Mars surface; and the concentration of proposed “water stains” in areas bereft of olivine.  Mars unusual magnetic field “striping” is now shown to be another unique southern hemisphere signature of this destruction event, caused by standing P and S waves reverberating through the planet’s crust as a result of the massive simultaneous impacts from Planet V debris.  Recently published research showing unprecedented outflow channels from the Tharsis and Arabia bulges are shown to be consistent with the sudden relaxation of the two tidal oceans, as is the sculpting of huge amounts of material by fluvial processes north of the Arabia bulge.  Two possible mechanisms for the destruction of Planet V and the breaking of this tidal lock are outlined.  Finally, a new timeline for Mars geologic evolution is proposed that is consistent with these observations, placing these events between capture ~500 MYA and the destruction of Planet V at 65 MYA.

"Stay Tuned..." -RCH

http://www.enterprisemission.com/tides.htm


Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#9
Quote:I wonder if we will get a Data Drop of lotz of new insight into Mars Geology Then and Now.

Why?

Because they would want to Publish their theories  [Image: arrow.png]  FIRST and soon Before Insight lands and starts making measurements.

Whatever they may know and have under wraps that might involve this collision whether glancing or direct of a hit will mostly be revealed before the craft lands...just so that the scientists can pad their publicized portfolios in recognized peer-reviewed journals.

Recall:



Mars' oceans formed early, possibly aided by massive volcanic eruptions
March 19, 2018, University of California - Berkeley


[Image: marsoceansfo.jpg]
The early ocean known as Arabia (left, blue) would have looked like this when it formed 4 billion years ago on Mars, while the Deuteronilus ocean, about 3.6 billion years old, had a smaller shoreline. Both coexisted with the massive volcanic province Tharsis, located on the unseen side of the planet, which may have helped support the existence of liquid water. The water is now gone, perhaps frozen underground and partially lost to space, while the ancient seabed is known as the northern plains. Credit: Robert Citron images, UC Berkeley

[/url]
A new scenario seeking to explain how Mars' putative oceans came and went over the last 4 billion years implies that the oceans formed several hundred million years earlier and were not as deep as once thought.



The proposal by geophysicists at the University of California, Berkeley, links the existence of oceans early in Mars history to the rise of the solar system's largest volcanic system, Tharsis, and highlights the key role played by global warming in allowing
liquid water to exist on Mars.

"Volcanoes may be important in creating the conditions for Mars to be wet," said Michael Manga, a UC Berkeley professor of earth and planetary science and senior author of a paper appearing in Nature this week and posted online March 19.

Those claiming that Mars never had oceans of liquid water often point to the fact that estimates of the size of the oceans don't jibe with estimates of how much water could be hidden today as permafrost underground and how much could have escaped into space. These are the main options, given that the polar ice caps don't contain enough water to fill an ocean.

The new model proposes that the oceans formed before or at the same time as Mars' largest volcanic feature, Tharsis, instead of after Tharsis formed 3.7 billion years ago. Because Tharsis was smaller at that time, it did not distort the planet as much as it did later, in particular the plains that cover most of the northern hemisphere and are the presumed ancient seabed. The absence of crustal deformation from Tharsis means the seas would have been shallower, holding about half the water of earlier estimates.

"The assumption was that Tharsis formed quickly and early, rather than gradually, and that the oceans came later," Manga said. "We're saying that the oceans predate and accompany the lava outpourings that made Tharsis."

It's likely, he added, that Tharsis spewed gases into the atmosphere that created a global warming or greenhouse effect that allowed liquid water to exist on the planet, and also that volcanic eruptions created channels that allowed underground water to reach the surface and fill the northern plains.

 

Following the shorelines

The model also counters another argument against oceans: that the proposed shorelines are very irregular, varying in height by as much as a kilometer, when they should be level, like shorelines on Earth.

This irregularity could be explained if the first ocean, called Arabia, started forming about 4 billion years ago and existed, if intermittently, during as much as the first 20 percent of Tharsis's growth. The growing volcano would have depressed the land and deformed the shoreline over time, which could explain the irregular heights of the Arabia shoreline.

Similarly, the irregular shoreline of a subsequent ocean, called Deuteronilus, could be explained if it formed during the last 17 percent of Tharsis's growth, about 3.6 billion years ago.

"These shorelines could have been emplaced by a large body of liquid water that existed before and during the emplacement of Tharsis, instead of afterwards," said first author Robert Citron, a UC Berkeley graduate student. Citron will present a paper about the new analysis on March 20 at the annual Lunar and Planetary Science conference in Texas.

Tharsis, now a 5,000-kilometer-wide eruptive complex, contains some of the biggest volcanoes in the solar system and dominates the topography of Mars. Earth, twice the diameter and 10 times more massive than Mars, has no equivalent dominating feature. Tharsis's bulk creates a bulge on the opposite side of the planet and a depression halfway between. This explains why estimates of the volume of water the northern plains could hold based on today's topography are twice what the new study estimates based on the topography 4 billion years ago.

New hypothesis supplants old
Quote: Wrote:.
Quote: Wrote: Wrote:InSight stands for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport.
You can't really do SEISMIC  [Image: doh.gif] if you don't understand the constituent properties of the substances and materials inside the core or mantle.

Rare metals on Mars and Earth implicate colossal impacts
March 16, 2018 by Amanda Doyle, Astrobio.net


Geodesy and Heat Transport.


Manga, who models the internal heat flow of Mars, such as the rising plumes of molten rock that erupt into volcanoes at the surface, tried to explain the irregular shorelines of the plains of Mars 11 years ago with another theory
. He and former graduate student Taylor Perron suggested that Tharsis, which was then thought to have originated at far northern latitudes, was so massive that it caused the spin axis of Mars to move several thousand miles south, throwing off the shorelines.

Since then, however, others have shown that Tharsis originated only about(~19.5) 20 degrees above the equator, nixing that theory.
"Stay Tuned..." -RCH
But Manga and Citron came up with another idea,  [Image: doh.gif] that the shorelines could have been etched as Tharsis was growing, not afterward.
The new theory also can account for the cutting of valley networks by flowing water at around the same time.

"This is a hypothesis," Manga emphasized. "But scientists can do more precise dating of Tharsis and the shorelines to see if it holds up."

NASA's next Mars lander, the InSight mission (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport), could help answer the question. Scheduled for launch in May, it will place a seismometer on the surface to probe the interior and perhaps find frozen remnants of that ancient ocean, or even liquid water.

 Explore further: Mars upside down

More information: Robert I. Citron et al, Timing of oceans on Mars from shoreline deformation, Nature (2018). DOI: 10.1038/nature26144


Journal reference: Nature
Provided by: University of California - Berkeley


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-03-mars-ocean...d.html#jCp



[Image: naughty.gif] Manga.

This Negates That  [Image: arrow.png]  #6 Friday, March 16th, 2018, 09:20 pm

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This new model should be considered when projecting commences.

They've got about ~50 days to update any software if necessary.
Quote: Wrote: Wrote:InSight stands for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport.
You can't really do SEISMIC  [Image: doh.gif] if you don't understand the constituent properties of the substances and materials inside the core or mantle.

Rare metals on Mars and Earth implicate colossal impacts
March 16, 2018 by Amanda Doyle, Astrobio.net


[Image: raremetalson.jpg]
The surface features of the northern and southern hemispheres of Mars are very different. In this topographic map, the northern hemisphere (shown in blue) is mostly smooth lowlands and has experienced extensive volcanism. The southern hemisphere (in orange) has an older, cratered highland surface. This dichotomy could have been caused by a giant impact. Credit: University of Arizona/LPL/SwRI
New research has revealed that a giant impact on Mars more than four billion years ago would explain the unusual amount of "iron loving" elements in the Red Planet.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#10
One scientist's 30-year quest to get under Mars' skin
May 5, 2018 by Pascale Mollard

[Image: philippelogn.jpg]
Philippe Lognonne, the principal investigator for the SEIS experiment on the NASA InSight Mission, has always wanted to know what's going on under Mars' famously red surface
Philippe Lognonne has waited three decades to hear the heartbeat of Mars.

With a little luck and some help from NASA, the instrument he designed to take the Red Planet's pulse will land before the year's end and press a high-tech ear to its dusty surface.
As principal investigator for the Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS), a multi-sensor seismometer, Lognonne will have a front-row seat for the scheduled launch on Saturday from Vandenberg Air Force Base in central California of NASA's InSight mission.
But he's keeping the champagne corked: three times in the past, Mars space missions featuring his ultra-sensitive seismometers have faltered, failed or been scrapped.
Lognonne's cherubic features are framed by a mop of shoulder-length auburn hair, a grizzled beard and white sideburns.
He has just turned 55, and has a weakness for Hawaiian shirts.
A researcher at the Institute of Earth Physics in Paris, Lognonne has explored the dynamics of tsunamis and deciphered data from 1970s Apollo missions.
But from the start, his true passion and unwavering mission was to build the tools that could detect what's going on under Mars' red surface.
"This planet was habitable four billion years ago, and I want to understand why, bit by bit, it stopped being so," Lognonne said in an interview at the Paris university where he teaches.
Soon after completing his PhD in 1989, the young scientist focused on designing a suite of seismometers—used on Earth to detect and measure earthquakes—that could probe deep beneath the Martian surface in search of answers.
[Image: graphiconnas.jpg]
Graphic on NASA's new Mars lander
'Don't give up'
His first crack at securing passage to Mars for his instruments came in 1996, when France's National Centre for Space Studies joined a Russian mission that included an orbiter and two landers.
But two small seismometers on board never made it past Earth's atmosphere—the launch failed, and the mission was aborted.
Lognonne got another shot at his goal seven years later.
Working with US engineer Bruce Banerdt—who 15 years later would become the scientific director for InSight—he helped prepare instruments for the European NetLander mission, which sought to set up a network of four small stations on the surface of Mars, including a seismometer. A launch date was set for 2005.

But the mission got mired in red ink and was axed in 2003.
"That was a bit of let-down," Lognonne said flatly.
What kept him going? Why didn't he give up at that point?
"I've always told my students, if you really believe that a project is scientifically important, the only reason to not carry on is if someone else is already doing it," he said.
Banerdt and Lognonne went their separate ways but stayed in touch, linked in part by the dream of putting a seismometer on Mars.
"We knew that the scientific consensus was that it must be done," Lognonne said.
[Image: 1-philippelogn.jpg]
Philippe Lognonne worked on the SEIS seismometer that can measure ground motions in a wide range of frequencies, using an array of six sensors
A small leak
In 2012, NASA invited bids under its Discovery programme for relatively low-budget space exploration projects, and the duo decided to try once again.
They were up against 26 other projects in their category.
In August of that year, they got the call from NASA saying they had been selected for a 2016 Mars launch.
"Four years is very short!" Lognonne recalls thinking, as they threw themselves into the task.
The SEIS seismometer that will—with any luck at all—leave Earth on Saturday measures ground motions in a wide range of frequencies, using an array of six sensors.
It will detect and record "marsquakes" and other sources of ground motion, such as meteorite impacts and the faint gravitational effects of Phobos, a Martian moon.
The sensors are in a temperature-controlled and vacuum-sealed box housed within a domed, three-legged pod that resembles an autonomous vacuum cleaner.
The ensemble—protected by a wind and thermal shield—is to be placed on Martian soil by a robot arm, and is connected to the lander by a flexible tether with power and data lines.
But three months before the scheduled launch in early 2016, the French team detected a tiny leak in the tether.
NASA canned the launch. "That was a shock," said Lognonne.
But this time the cancellation was not final. The mission was rescheduled for May to June 2018, the next window of opportunity for a Mars launch.
The champagne is on ice.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: NASA's newest Mars lander to study quakes on Red Planet




NASA counts down to liftoff of Mars lander, InSight
May 5, 2018 by Kerry Sheridan

[Image: 1-theinsightla.jpg]
The InSight lander, seen here in a NASA handout illustration, is designed to monitor quakes on the surface of Mars
NASA counted down Saturday to the long-awaited launch of its latest Mars lander, InSight, designed to perch on the surface of the Red Planet and listen for "Marsquakes."

The spacecraft was scheduled to blast off atop an Atlas V rocket at 4:05 am Pacific time (1105 GMT) from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California.
Foggy weather was the only technical concern ahead of the launch, and NASA safety officers said Friday the usual visibility constraints might be waived so the launch could proceed.
The $993 million project aims to expand human knowledge of conditions on Mars, inform efforts to send human explorers there, and reveal how rocky planets like the Earth formed billions of years ago.
If all goes as planned, the lander should settle on the Red Planet on November 26.
Its name, InSight, is short for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport.
NASA chief scientist Jim Green said experts already know that Mars has quakes, avalanches and meteor strikes.
"But how quake-prone is Mars? That is fundamental information that we need to know as humans that explore Mars," Green said.
French-made seismometer
The key instrument on board is a seismometer, called the Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure, made by the French Space Agency.
After the lander settles on the Martian surface, a robotic arm is supposed to emerge and place the seismometer directly on the ground.
The second main instrument is a self-hammering probe that will monitor the flow of heat in the planet's subsurface.
[Image: atelephotovi.jpg]
A telephoto vista of Mars' Gale Crater taken by NASA's Curiosity Mars rover on October 25, 2017
Called the Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package, it was made by the German Space Agency with the participation of the Polish Space Agency.
The probe will bore down 10 to 16 feet (three to five meters) below the surface, NASA said, 15 times deeper than any previous Mars mission.
Understanding the temperature on Mars is crucial to NASA's efforts to send people there by the 2030's, and how much a human habitat might need to be heated under frigid conditions, said Green.
Daytime summer temperatures near the Martian equator may reach 70 degrees Fahrenheit (20 degrees C), but then plunge by night to -100 F (-73 C).
"It is an important part of knowledge of how this planet is evolving," Green said.

"We have to be able as humans living and working on Mars to survive that."
Excitement builds
The solar and battery-powered lander is designed to operate for 26 Earth months, or one year on Mars, a period in which it is expected to pick up as many as 100 quakes.
"Hopefully it will last a lot longer than that," said Tom Hoffman, InSight project manager from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
The spacecraft was initially supposed to launch in 2016 but had to be delayed after temperature tests showed a problem with part of the seismometer, which engineers have since fixed.
InSight aims to be the first NASA spacecraft to land on Mars since the Curiosity rover in 2012.
"There is nothing routine about going to Mars, especially landing on Mars," said Stu Spath, InSight program manager at Lockheed Martin Space.
"On Saturday morning, the anticipation and excitement is going to be second to none."
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: NASA's newest Mars lander to study quakes on Red Planet

NASA blasts off Mars-bound spaceship, InSight, to study quakes LilD
May 5, 2018


[Image: 2-theinsightla.jpg]
The InSight lander, seen here in a NASA handout illustration, is designed to monitor quakes on the surface of Mars
NASA on Saturday launched its latest Mars lander, called InSight, designed to perch on the surface and listen for "Marsquakes" ahead of eventual human missions to explore the Red Planet.



"Three, two, one, liftoff!" said a NASA commentator as the spacecraft blasted off on a dark, foggy morning atop an Atlas V rocket at 4:05 am Pacific time (1105 GMT) from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, marking NASA's first interplanetary launch from the US west coast.

The $993 million project aims to expand our knowledge of interior conditions on Mars, inform efforts to send human explorers there, and reveal how rocky planets like the Earth formed billions of years ago.

If all goes as planned during the 301 million mile (485 million kilometer) journey, the lander should settle on the Red Planet on November 26.

InSight is short for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport.

"#Mars, here I come! Six months and counting to the Red Planet," said a message on InSight's Twitter account.

NASA chief scientist Jim Green said experts already know that Mars has quakes, avalanches and meteor strikes.

"But how quake-prone is Mars? That is fundamental information that we need to know as humans that explore Mars," Green said.

French-made seismometer

The key instrument on board is a seismometer, called the Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure, made by the French Space Agency.

After the lander settles on the Martian surface, a robotic arm is supposed to emerge and place the seismometer directly on the ground.

"For us, InSight is perhaps not the ultimate but a very, very important mission because we are going to the hear the heartbeat of Mars with the seismometer we put on board," said Jean-Yves Le Gall, president of France's Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), in an interview on NASA television after liftoff.

The second main instrument is a self-hammering probe that will monitor heat in the planet's subsurface.

[Image: 1-atelephotovi.jpg]
A telephoto vista of Mars' Gale Crater taken by NASA's Curiosity Mars rover on October 25, 2017
Called the Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package, it was made by the German Space Agency with the participation of the Polish Space Agency.

The probe will bore down 10 to 16 feet (three to five meters) below the surface, NASA said, 15 times deeper than any previous Mars mission.

Understanding the temperature on Mars is crucial to NASA's efforts to send people there by the 2030's, and how much a human habitat might need to be heated under frigid conditions, said Green.

 

The temperature at the landing site for InSight is frigid, and expected to range between -148 F and -4 F (-100 Celsius to -20 Celsius).

Daytime summer temperatures near the Martian equator may reach 70 degrees Fahrenheit (20 degrees C), but then plunge by night to -100 F (-73 C).

"It is an important part of knowledge of how this planet is evolving," Green said.

"We have to be able as humans living and working on Mars to survive that."

Two Earth years

The solar and battery-powered lander is designed to operate for 26 Earth months, or one year on Mars, a period in which it is expected to pick up as many as 100 quakes.

"Hopefully it will last a lot longer than that," said Tom Hoffman, InSight project manager from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

The spacecraft was initially supposed to launch in 2016 but had to be delayed after temperature tests showed a problem with part of the seismometer, which engineers have since fixed.

InSight aims to be the first NASA spacecraft to land on Mars since the Curiosity rover in 2012.

"There is nothing routine about going to Mars, especially landing on Mars," said Stu Spath, InSight program manager at Lockheed Martin Space.


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-05-nasa-blast...t.html#jCp
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#11
Despite the challenges I HOPE Angel  it actually lands and deploys ALL instruments for at least 6 months.

If not, then the #2020CydoniaRover should be the NEXT PRIORITY !!! or it stays on the ground.

Bob... Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Reply
#12
I've been reading about the seismic sensitivity of the instrument.
Supposedly it can detect the motion of a hydrogen atom.

Hmm2
Reply
#13
Not if it's attached to 2 Oxygen atoms..thus WATER !!!

Naughty 


Bob... Ninja Alien2
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Reply
#14
"Not if it's attached to 2 Oxygen atoms..thus WATER !!!"

Damned ...b-b-but that would be common sense !
Reply
#15
...
I think I was skeptical about this lander from the beginning.
I remember now,
it was those goofy electronic tethers that have to unravel themselves to deploy the instruments.

Looking at this in the last text.


Quote:Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package
The second main instrument is a self-hammering Gangup  probe that will monitor heat in the planet's subsurface.

The probe will bore down 10 to 16 feet (three to five meters) below the surface, Nonono
NASA said, 
15 times deeper than any previous Mars mission.


Well if the tethers unravel with no probelms,
Ok, great,
and the little probe starts to hammer itself down and into the frozen soil.
What happens down maybe two feet, ... Dunno
if the Mole Whip hits a 2 pound, 
5 pound, 
or 10 pound rock ... head and dead on ... while submerging?  Wall

The probe HP3
https://mars.nasa.gov/insight/mission/instruments/hp3/

Mounted on the lander deck at launch. 

Upon landing, the lander's arm picks up HP3 and places it on the surface. 

The mole Naughty  then hammers itself under the surface  Rofl  

MASS: Just over 6.5 pounds (ab

VOLUME: About 5.3 gallons (20 liters) in total


----------------------------------------------------------------

Check out the tehthers that have to unravel


[Image: insight-35.jpg]


That punk ass mole can't dodge a 5 pound rock


[Image: insight-10.jpg]


nope, nothing can go wrong there  Hi



[Image: hp3.png]



Lol   might be able to cook some tortillas or make some pancakes on those hot plates Lol

sorry, but the thing is comical looking.

If I was an army-brat teenager on 22nd century Mars I would beat the crap out of it with a baseball bat.

We really need some manned missions to Mars.
For all of NASA's successes there with Rovers and such,
they still failed.
It seems like the last 50 years were just a giant delay tactic in space exploration.

And now I don't even want to go. Spaceship travel sucks for the next 150-250 years.

Sitting on a cornflake, waiting for the Star Gate to open.

See how we fly, like Lucy in the Sky ...

If it isn't by Star Gate, or some such rapid transit system,
it's not worth traveling there.

Quote:Mounted on the lander deck at launch. 

Upon landing, the lander's arm picks up HP3 and places it on the surface. 

The mole Naughty  then hammers itself under the surface  Rofl  


...
Reply
#16
InSight steers toward Mars
May 24, 2018, Jet Propulsion Laboratory


[Image: insight.jpg]
The solar arrays on NASA's InSight lander are deployed in this test inside a clean room at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver. This configuration is how the spacecraft will look on the surface of Mars. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Lockheed Martin
NASA's InSight lander has made its first course correction toward Mars.



InSight, short for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport, is the first mission dedicated to exploring the deep interior of Mars.

The lander is currently encapsulated in a protective aeroshell, which launched on top of an Atlas V 401 rocket on May 5 from Vandenberg Air Force Base in Central California. Yesterday, the spacecraft fired its thrusters for the first time to change its flight path. This activity, called a trajectory correction maneuver, will happen a maximum of six times to guide the lander to Mars.

Every launch starts with a rocket. That's necessary to get a spacecraft out past Earth's gravity—but rockets don't complete the journey to other planets. Before launch, every piece of hardware headed to Mars is cleaned, limiting the number of Earth microbes that might travel on the spacecraft. However, the rocket and its upper stage, called a Centaur, don't get the same special treatment.

As a result, Mars launches involve aiming the rocket just off-target so that it flies off into space. Separately, the spacecraft performs a series of trajectory correction maneuvers guiding it to the Red Planet. This makes sure that only the clean spacecraft lands on the planet, while the upper stage does not come close.

Precise calculations are required for InSight to arrive at exactly the right spot in Mars' atmosphere at exactly the right time, resulting in a landing on Nov. 26. Every step of the way, a team of navigators estimates the position and velocity of the spacecraft. Then they design maneuvers to deliver it to an entry point at Mars. That navigation team is based at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, which leads the InSight mission.




Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-05-insight-mars.html#jCp
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#17
NASA's InSight passes halfway to Mars, instruments check in
August 20, 2018, Jet Propulsion Laboratory


[Image: 1-nasasinsight.jpg]
This artist's concept shows the InSight spacecraft, encapsulated in its aeroshell, as it cruises to Mars. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

NASA's InSight spacecraft, en route to a Nov. 26 landing on Mars, passed the halfway mark on Aug. 6. All of its instruments have been tested and are working well.



As of Aug. 20, the spacecraft had covered 172 million miles (277 million kilometers) since its launch 107 days ago. In another 98 days, it will travel another 129 million miles (208 million kilometers) and touch down in Mars' Elysium Planitia region, where it will be the first mission to study the Red Planet's deep interior. InSight stands for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport.

The InSight team is using the time before the spacecraft's arrival at Mars to not only plan and practice for that critical day, but also to activate and check spacecraft subsystems vital to cruise, landing and surface operations, including the highly sensitive science instruments.

InSight's seismometer, which will be used to detect quakes on Mars, received a clean bill of health on July 19. The SEIS instrument (Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure) is a six-sensor seismometer combining two types of sensors to measure ground motions over a wide range of frequencies. It will give scientists a window into Mars' internal activity.



"We did our final performance checks on July 19, which were successful," said Bruce Banerdt, principal investigator of InSight from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California.

The team also checked an instrument that will measure the amount of heat escaping from Mars. After being placed on the surface, InSight's Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package (HP3) instrument will use a self-hammering mechanical mole burrowing to a depth of 10 to 16 feet (3 to 5 meters). Measurements by sensors on the mole and on a science tether from the mole to the surface will yield the first precise determination of the amount of heat escaping from the planet's interior. The checkout consisted of powering on the main electronics for the instrument, performing checks of its instrument sensor elements, exercising some of the instrument's internal heaters, and reading out the stored settings in the electronics module.

The third of InSight's three main investigations—Rotation and Interior Structure Experiment (RISE)—uses the spacecraft's radio connection with Earth to assess perturbations of Mars' rotation axis. These measurements can provide information about the planet's core.

[Image: 2-nasasinsight.jpg]
This long-exposure image (24 seconds) was taken by Instrument Context Camera (ICC) of NASA's InSight Mars lander. The image shows some of the interior features of the backshell that encapsulates the spacecraft. The backshell carries the …more

"We have been using the spacecraft's radio since launch day, and our conversations with InSight have been very cordial, so we are good to go with RISE as well," said Banerdt.

 

The lander's cameras checked out fine as well, taking a spacecraft selfie of the inside of the spacecraft's backshell. InSight Project Manager Tom Hoffman from JPL said that, "If you are an engineer on InSight, that first glimpse of the heat shield blanket, harness tie-downs and cover bolts is avery reassuring sight as it tells us our Instrument Context Camera is operating perfectly. The next picture we plan to take with this camera will be of the surface of Mars."

If all goes as planned, thecamera will take the first image of Elysium Planitia minutes after InSight touches down on Mars.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: NASA ready to study heart of Mars

Provided by: Jet Propulsion Laboratory


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-08-nasa-insig...s.html#jCp
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#18
Mars in sight Arrow

NASA's First Image of Mars from a CubeSat
October 23, 2018 by Andrew Good, Jet Propulsion Laboratory

[Image: nasasfirstim.jpg]
One of NASA's twin MarCO spacecraft took this image of Mars on October 2—the first time a CubeSat, a kind of low-cost, briefcase-sized spacecraft—has done so. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
NASA's MarCO mission was designed to find out if briefcase-sized spacecraft called CubeSats could survive the journey to deep space. Now, MarCO—which stands for Mars Cube One—has Mars in sight.




One of the twin MarCO CubeSats snapped this image of Mars on Oct. 3—the first image of the Red Planet ever produced by this class of tiny, low-cost spacecraft. The two CubeSats are officially called MarCO-A and MarCO-B but nicknamed EVE and Wall-E by their engineering team.

A wide-angle camera on top of MarCO-B produced the image as a test of exposure settings. The MarCO mission, led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, hopes to produce more images as the CubeSats approach Mars ahead of Nov. 26. That's when they'll demonstrate their communications capabilities while NASA's InSight spacecraft attempts to land on the Red Planet. (The InSight mission won't rely on them, however; NASA's Mars orbiters will be relaying the spacecraft's data back to Earth.)

This image was taken from a distance of roughly 8 million miles (12.8 million kilometers) from Mars. The MarCOs are "chasing" Mars, which is a moving target as it orbits the Sun. In order to be in place for InSight's landing, the CubeSats have to travel roughly 53 million miles (85 million kilometers). They have already traveled 248 million miles (399 million kilometers).

[Image: 1-nasasfirstim.jpg]
One of NASA's twin MarCO spacecraft took this image(annotated) of Mars on October 2—the first time a CubeSat, a kind of low-cost, briefcase-sized spacecraft—has done so. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
MarCO-B's wide-angle camera looks straight out from the deck of the CubeSat. Parts related to the spacecraft's high-gain antenna are visible on either side of the image. Mars appears as a small red dot at the right of the image.

To take the image, the MarCO team had to program the CubeSat to rotate in space so that the deck of its boxy "body" was pointing at Mars. After several test images, they were excited to see that clear, red pinprick.

"We've been waiting six months to get to Mars," said Cody Colley, MarCO's mission manager at JPL. "The cruise phase of the mission is always difficult, so you take all the small wins when they come. Finally seeing the planet is definitely a big win for the team."

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: A pale blue dot, as seen by a CubeSat

More information: For more information about MarCO, visit www.jpl.nasa.gov/cubesat/missions/marco.php 

Provided by: Jet Propulsion Laboratory


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-10-nasa-image-mars-cubesat.html#jCp
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#19
How NASA will know when InSight touches down
November 19, 2018, NASA

[Image: 1-hownasawillk.jpg]
This image depicts the MarCO CubeSats relaying data from NASA's InSight lander as it enters the Martian atmosphere. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
What's the sound of a touchdown on Mars?




If you're at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, it sounds like winning the Super Bowl: cheers, laughter and lots of hollering.

But in the minutes before that, NASA's InSight team will be monitoring the Mars lander's radio signals using a variety of spacecraft—and even radio telescopes here on Earth—to suss out what's happening 91 million miles (146 million km) away.

Because these signals are captured by several spacecraft, they're relayed to Earth in different ways and at different times. That means the mission team may know right away when InSight touches down, or they may have to wait up to several hours.

Here's how NASA will be listening for the next Mars landing on Nov. 26.  LilD

Radio Telescopes

As the InSight lander descends into Mars' atmosphere, it will broadcast simple radio signals called "tones" back to Earth. Engineers will be tuning in from two locations: the National Science Foundation's Green Bank Observatory in Green Bank, West Virginia and the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy's facility at Effelsberg, Germany. Their results will be relayed to Mission Control at JPL and engineers at Lockheed Martin Space in Denver.

These tones don't reveal much information, but radio engineers can interpret them to track key events during InSight's entry, descent and landing (EDL). For example, when InSight deploys its parachute, a shift in velocity changes the frequency of the signal. This is caused by what's called the Doppler effect, which is the same thing that occurs when you hear a siren change in pitch as an ambulance goes by. Looking for signals like these will allow the team to know how InSight's EDL is progressing.

Mars Cube One (MarCO)

Two briefcase-sized spacecraft are flying behind InSight and will attempt to relay its signals to Earth. Belonging to a class of spacecraft called CubeSats, the MarCOs are being tested as a way for future missions to send home data during EDL.

The MarCOs are experimental technology. But if they work as they should, the pair will transmit the whole story of EDL as it's unfolding. That might include an image from InSight of the Martian surface right after the lander touches down.



InSight

After it touches down, InSight will essentially yell, "I made it!" Seven minutes later, the spacecraft says it again—but a little louder and clearer.

The first time, it will communicate with a tone beacon that the radio telescopes will try to detect. The second time, it will send a "beep" from its more powerful X-band antenna, which should now be pointed at Earth. This beep includes slightly more information and is only heard if the spacecraft is in a healthy, functioning state. If NASA's Deep Space Network picks up this beep, it's a good sign that InSight survived landing. Engineers will need to wait until early evening to find out if the lander successfully deployed its solar arrays.

Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO)

Besides the MarCO CubeSats, NASA's MRO will be soaring over Mars, recording InSight's data during descent.

MRO will hold on to the data it records during EDL as it disappears over the Martian horizon. When it comes back around from the other side, it will play back that data for engineers to study. By 3 p.m. PST (6 p.m. EST), they should be able to piece together MRO's recording of the landing.

MRO's recording is similar to an airplane's black box, which means that it could also prove important if InSight doesn't successfully touch down.

2001 Mars Odyssey

NASA's longest-lived spacecraft at Mars will also relay data after InSight has touched down. Odyssey will relay the entire history of InSight's descent to Mars, as well as a couple images. It will also relay confirmation that InSight's solar arrays, which are vital to the spacecraft's survival, fully deployed. Engineers will have this data just before 5:30 p.m. PST (8:30 p.m. EST).

Odyssey will also serve as a data relay for InSight during surface operations, along with MRO, NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution mission (MAVEN) and the European Space Agency's Trace Gas Orbiter.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Five things to know about InSight's Mars landing

Provided by: NASA


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-11-nasa-insight.html#jCp
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#20
What two planetary siblings can teach us about life
November 21, 2018 by Andrew Good, NASA

[Image: whattwoplane.jpg]
This composite image of Earth and Mars was created to allow viewers to gain a better understanding of the relative sizes of the two planets. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
Mars and Earth are like two siblings who have grown apart.




There was a time when their resemblance was uncanny: Both were warm, wet and shrouded in thick atmospheres. But 3 or 4 billion years ago, these two worlds took different paths.

We may soon know why they went their separate ways. NASA's InSight spacecraft will arrive at the Red Planet on Monday, Nov. 26, and will allow scientists to compare Earth to its rusty sibling like never before.

InSight (short for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) won't be looking for life on Mars. But studying its insides—what it's made of, how that material is layered and how much heat seeps out of it—could help scientists better understand how a planet's starting materials make it more or less likely to support life.

"Earth and Mars were molded out of very similar stuff," said Bruce Banerdt, InSight's principal investigator at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, which leads the mission. "Why did the finished planets turn out so differently? Our measurements will help us turn back the clock and understand what produced a verdant Earth but a desolate Mars."

Serving Life on a Plate

Long ago, Mars stopped changing, while Earth continued to evolve.

Earth developed a kind of geological "conveyer belt" that Mars never had: tectonic plates. When they converge, they can push the crust into the planet. When they move apart, they enable new crust to emerge.

This churning of material brings more than just rock to the surface. Some of life's most vital ingredients are so-called volatiles, which include water, carbon dioxide and methane. Because they change into gas easily (that's what makes them volatile), they can be released by tectonic action.

The fact that Mars doesn't have tectonic plates suggests its crust was never recycled back into the planet's interior. Could the appearance of life depend on whether tectonic plates are present to churn up volatiles?

"One of our key questions regarding habitability is, what are the key conditions planets need for life to form?" said Sue Smrekar, InSight's deputy principal investigator at JPL. "Understanding a planet's initial building blocks set the stage for how processes that affect the environment evolve over time."



InSight could help answer these questions by using a seismometer, called Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS), to watch how quakes—which can be caused by processes other than just tectonic action—travel through Mars. Understanding how the planet is layered will help scientists work backward, piecing together how dust, metals and ices in the early solar system combined to form the Red Planet.

Red Hot Mars

Every rocky planet traps a reserve of heat in its interior. Some is trapped when a planet forms; the rest comes from radioactive materials decaying over time. That heat then gradually wends its way to the surface, melting rock layers, fracturing crust and creating volcanoes that belch out volatile gases.

Heat is important for several reasons. It could have created hot springs early in Martian history, warming the subsurface from below. It could have spewed steam out of volcanoes that later condensed into streams and oceans.

By measuring Mars' internal temperature with a probe, called Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package (HP3), InSight could help explain how heat shaped the planet's surface, making it more or less habitable over time.

A Naked Planet

Heat keeps a planet's core molten and flowing. Metallic elements in that core generate electric currents as they move, producing a magnetic field. That magnetic field is like invisible armor, shielding a planet—and any life-forms that may be on it—against radiation.

Mars once had a strong magnetic field; many of the oldest parts of the planet's crust are highly magnetized. But billions of years ago, most of this field disappeared, leaving Mars unprotected.

To better understand why Mars' magnetic field vanished, InSight's scientists want to learn more about the planet's core. Whether the core is liquid, solid or a combination of both affects how the planet wobbles on its axis, just like the liquid yolk inside a spinning, raw egg will result in a different wobble than the denser, solid yolk of a cooked egg.

A radio experiment, called Rotation and Structure Experiment (RISE), will help InSight's scientists measure Mars' wobble. Combined with data about the planet's layers and heat, the findings will make it possible to piece together how Mars lost its magnetic field.

Mars' wobble, tectonic activity and heat flow—all three can help explain what set these planetary siblings on different roads, only one of which provides much better conditions for life today.

"Mars is a laboratory for how all these processes happen early in a planet's formation," Smrekar said. "InSight will help constrain our models of how planets are made and change over time."

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: NASA's InSight will study Mars while standing still

Provided by: NASA


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-11-planetary-...e.html#jCp






[Image: marsrevisite.jpg]

Mars revisited: NASA spacecraft days away from risky landing
Mars is about to get its first U.S. visitor in years: a three-legged, one-armed geologist to dig deep and listen for quakes.
[Image: 1x1.gif]20 hours ago in Space Exploration


update on phobos
[Image: 0722-good-genes-mick-jagger-primary-main-3.jpg]

[Image: marsmoongoti.jpg]

Mars moon got its grooves from rolling stones, study suggests
A new study bolsters the idea that strange grooves crisscrossing the surface of the Martian moon Phobos were made by rolling boulders blasted free from an ancient asteroid impact.
[Image: 1x1.gif]20 hours ago in Space Exploration
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#21
Mars landing comes down to final 6 minutes of 6-month trip
November 21, 2018 by Marcia Dunn

[Image: marslandingc.jpg]
This illustration made available by NASA in October 2016 shows an illustration of NASA's InSight lander about to land on the surface of Mars. NASA's InSight spacecraft will enter the Martian atmosphere at supersonic speed, then hit the …more
It all comes down to the final six minutes of a six-month journey to Mars.




On Nov. 26, NASA's InSight spacecraft will enter the Martian atmosphere at supersonic speed, then hit the brakes to get to a soft, safe landing on the alien red plains.

After micromanaging every step of the way, flight controllers will be powerless over what happens at the end of the road Monday, nearly 100 million miles (160 million kilometers) away. The communication lag between Mars and Earth is eight minutes.


"By the time we hear anything, the whole thing is already done," 
said project manager Tom Hoffman of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. "Either it happened or it hasn't happened."

Any small last-minute adjustments must be completed 1 ½ hours before touchdown, said Rob Grover, lead engineer for the landing team.

"All of our efforts to make sure we're successful all happen in the years before," he explained.

A brief rundown of Insight's do-or-die entry, descent and landing:

SIX MINUTES BEFORE TOUCHDOWN

InSight will come in like a 12,300-mph (19,800-kph) arrow, piercing the top of the Martian atmosphere about 77 miles (114 kilometers) above the surface. Engineers are shooting for a 12-degree angle of attack, almost parallel to the ground. Too steep, the spacecraft could burn up. Too shallow, it could bounce back into space. Atmospheric friction slows the spacecraft, but builds up heat. Its heat shield is made to withstand the 2,700 degrees Fahrenheit (1,500 degrees Celsius). Once InSight is down to seven miles (11 kilometers), its parachute opens at a breakneck 860 mph (1,400 kph).

[Image: 1-marslandingc.jpg]
In this February 2015 photo made available by NASA, the parachute for the InSight mission to Mars is tested inside the world's largest wind tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, Calif. NASA's InSight spacecraft will enter …more
THREE MINUTES

Shortly after the white nylon chute opens with a yank, InSight ditches its heat shield and unfolds its three legs. After two minutes of descending under the parachute, the spacecraft, still supersonic, starts using radar to determine speed and altitude, from about 1 ½ miles (2 ½ kilometers) up. Less than a minute remains until touchdown. With its speed now down to 134 mph (215 kph), the lander dumps its back shell and parachute. It is less than a mile (one kilometer) above the ground.

FORTY-FIVE SECONDS



Almost immediately, InSight's 12 descent engines start firing to further slow the lander and keep it away from the severed back shell, still falling under the parachute. The lander turns itself so its solar panels will extend east and west at touchdown, and its robotic arm faces south. InSight's speed is now 17 mph (27 kph), at an altitude of 164 feet (50 meters)

FIFTEEN SECONDS

Now in so-called constant velocity mode, InSight is aiming for a 5 mph (8 kph) touchdown in a plain near the equator called Elysium Planitia. There it will dig deep for heat measurements and scope out marsquakes over a full Martian year, or two Earth years. NASA picked this spot because it should be relatively flat and free of big rocks that could hamper science operations. Parking near the equator provides optimal sunlight for solar energy. "It's a very safe place to land," Grover said at a press conference Wednesday.

TOUCHDOWN!

It will be around 2 p.m., Mars time, when InSight lands. That's 3 p.m. on the U.S. East Coast and noon for the JPL flight controllers in Pasadena, California. NASA estimates temperatures could be in the teens or even single digits Fahrenheit (well below zero Celsius). Overnight lows could reach minus 140 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 96 degrees Celsius.) It's wintertime on Mars. "Probably don't need an umbrella, but you may need a coat and definitely recommend a spacesuit, too, if you're there at the landing site," Grover joked to reporters while describing the bone-dry Martian plain.

[Image: 2-marslandingc.jpg]
This illustration made available by NASA in October 2016 shows an illustration of NASA's InSight lander about to land on the surface of Mars. NASA's InSight spacecraft will enter the Martian atmosphere at supersonic speed, then hit the …more
HELLO? HELLO?

Since departing Earth in May, InSight has been shadowed by WALL-E and EVE, the first CubeSats to venture into deep space. The briefcase-size satellites named after the characters in the 2008 animated movie will pass within a few thousand miles (kilometers) of Mars, as InSight lands. NASA hopes one or both relay InSight's radio signals. If the experiment succeeds, flight controllers may be able to follow InSight's descent and landing, although with a lag of more than eight minutes at best. Otherwise, news will trickle in from NASA's Mars orbiters.

SAY CHEESE:

InSight's first job, just several minutes after landing, is to take a picture. Ground controllers want to see what they're up against. Big rocks or a hillside could interfere with the stationary lander's geology experiments. Once the red dust settles about 16 minutes after touchdown, the lander will spread its solar panels and settle in for its first long winter's nap at Mars.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Five things to know about InSight's Mars landing


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-11-mars-minutes-month.html#jCp
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#22
Why they call it SHE ?    Hmm2
Reply
#23
Who? EVE???

Big test coming up for tiny satellites trailing Mars lander
November 22, 2018 by Marcia Dunn

[Image: bigtestcomin.jpg]
This illustration made available by NASA in March 2018 shows the twin Mars Cube One project (MarCO) spacecrafts flying over Mars with Earth and the sun in the distance. The MarCOs will be the first CubeSats, a kind of modular, …more
A pair of tiny experimental satellites trailing NASA's InSight spacecraft all the way to Mars face their biggest test yet.




Their mission: Broadcast immediate news, good or bad, of InSight's plunge through the Martian atmosphere on Monday.

Named WALL-E and EVE after the main characters in the 2008 animated movie, the twin CubeSats will pass within a few thousand miles (kilometers) of Mars as the lander attempts its dicey touchdown.

If these pipsqueaks manage to relay InSight's radio signals to ground controllers nearly 100 million miles (160 million kilometers) away, we'll know within minutes whether the spacecraft landed safely.

A look at InSight's itty-bitty sidekicks:

HITCHHIKERS

WALL-E and EVE, each the size of a briefcase, hitched a ride on the same rocket that launched InSight to Mars in May. CubeSats always share rockets; they're too small and inexpensive to warrant their own launch. This Mars Cube One project, or MarCO, built and managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, cost $18.5 million.

FLIGHT FORMATION

NASA kept the CubeSats about 6,000 miles (10,000 kilometers) away from InSight during the 300 million-mile (483 million-kilometer) journey to Mars to prevent any collisions or close calls. The mini satellites were just as far from each other for the same reason. The elbow room in this "very loose formation," as chief engineer Andy Klesh describes it, has varied during the mission and is narrowing as the spacecraft draws ever closer to Mars.

BEST BEHAVIOR

For the record, EVE has behaved better than WALL-E during the 6 1/2-month voyage to Mars. Each CubeSat has the same type of cold gas propulsion that's used in fire extinguishers to spray foam. In the film, WALL-E uses a fire extinguisher to propel through space. In reality, WALL-E has been leaking fuel almost since liftoff. Flight controllers have worked around the problem. Meanwhile, "EVE seems to follow her namesake and has been flying beautifully throughout the mission," said Klesh.

[Image: 1-bigtestcomin.jpg]
In this undated photo made available by NASA in March 2018, engineer Joel Steinkraus uses sunlight to test the solar arrays on one of the Mars Cube One project (MarCO) spacecraft at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. …more
DRY RUN

In June, WALL-E and EVE aced a series of radio-relay tests using signals from a big dish antenna near Palo Alto, California. Klesh said that gives engineers confidence in the CubeSats' ability to do the same with InSight's signals on landing day. Last month, the pair sent back photos of Mars from 8 million miles (13 million kilometers) out. Mars was merely a bright pinpoint, but the team said it marked a proud CubeSat first.



ALL EARS

It takes eight minutes and seven seconds for a radio signal to get from Mars to Earth, one way. It should take less than a minute on top of that to get word from InSight, if the mini satellites cooperate. That means NASA could know InSight's fate close to real time. If WALL-E and EVE are mum, confirmation would come directly from the lander or, hours later, from spacecraft circling Mars.

FUTURE GOAL

As NASA explores new worlds, it would be handy to have listening outposts to beam back descent and landing updates. Spacecraft already in orbit around Mars serve that purpose whenever NASA sends a lander. But where there are no satellites—think asteroids or dwarf planets on the fringes of our solar system—CubeSats could step in, with little overhead and low cost.

BEYOND MARS

Whether or not they provide any insight on InSight, WALL-E and EVE will zoom past Mars and remain in an elliptical orbit around the sun. Engineers expect them to keep working for a couple weeks beyond Mars depending on how long the fuel and electronics last.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: NASA's First Image of Mars from a CubeSat


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-11-big-tiny-satellites-trailing-mars.html#jCp
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#24
Women cant steer space rocket.
Reply
#25
If women can give themselves Orgasms just by THINKING it, they can drive ANYTHING ANYWHERE ANYTIME.

Eve can sit on my FACE and NOZZLE all day Drool Boobs Butt


WAll_E can say bye bye   Hi    Like New Horizons


Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Reply
#26
...

'tis Monday ... touchdown on the surface is imminent.

...
Reply
#27
The landing will happen in under 1 hour.

Tune In to NASA TV !!!
Reply
#28
RE: Insight @ In-Situ: Inciting a revolution in Mars revelation.

Updated.

Insight @ In-Situ: Inciting a revolution in Mars revelation.




NASA spacecraft lands on red planet after six-month journey
November 26, 2018 by Marcia Dunn

[Image: 37-nasaspacecra.jpg]
People at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., celebrate as the InSight lander touches down on Mars on Monday, Nov. 26, 2018. (AP Photo/Marcio Jose Sanchez)
A NASA spacecraft designed to burrow beneath the surface of Mars landed on the red planet Monday after a six-month, 300-million-mile (482-million-kilometer) journey and a perilous, six-minute descent through the rose-hued atmosphere.




After waiting in white-knuckle suspense for confirmation to arrive from space, flight controllers at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, leaped out of their seats and erupted in screams, applause and laughter as the news came in that the three-legged InSight spacecraft had successfully touched down.

People hugged, shook hands, exchanged high-fives, pumped their fists, wiped away tears and danced in the aisles.

"Flawless," declared JPL's chief engineer, Rob Manning.

"This is what we really hoped and imagined in our mind's eye," he said. "Sometimes things work out in your favor."

A pair of mini satellites trailing InSight since their May liftoff provided practically real-time updates of the spacecraft's supersonic descent through the reddish skies.

A quick photo sent from Mars' surface was marred by specks of debris on the camera cover but showed a flat surface with few if any rocks—just what scientists were hoping for. Much better pictures will arrive in the hours and days ahead.

"What a relief," Manning said. "This is really fantastic." He added: "Wow! This never gets old."

[Image: 38-nasaspacecra.jpg]
Engineer Kris Bruvold, bottom center, celebrates as the InSight lander touch downs on Mars in the mission support area of the space flight operation facility at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory Monday, Nov. 26, 2018, in Pasadena, Calif. (AP …more
InSight, a $1 billion international venture, reached the surface after going from 12,300 mph (19,800 kph) to zero in six minutes flat, using a parachute and braking engines. Radio signals confirming the landing took more than eight minutes to cross the nearly 100 million miles (160 million kilometers) between Mars and Earth.

Viewings of the televised activity inside the JPL control room were held coast to coast at museums, planetariums and libraries, as well as New York's Times Square.



NASA last landed on Mars in 2012 with the Curiosity rover.

"Landing on Mars is one of the hardest single jobs that people have to do in planetary exploration," InSight's lead scientist, Bruce Banerdt, said before Monday's success. "It's such a difficult thing, it's such a dangerous thing that there's always a fairly uncomfortably large chance that something could go wrong."

[Image: 39-nasaspacecra.jpg]
This illustration made available by NASA in October 2016 shows an illustration of NASA's InSight lander about to land on the surface of Mars. NASA's InSight spacecraft will enter the Martian atmosphere at supersonic speed, then hit the …more
Mars has been the graveyard for a multitude of space missions. Up to now, the success rate at the red planet was only 40 percent, counting every attempted flyby, orbital flight and landing by the U.S., Russia and other spacefaring countries since 1960.



The U.S., however, has pulled off seven successful Mars landings in the past four decades, not counting InSight, with only one failed touchdown. No other country has managed to set and operate even a single spacecraft on the dusty surface.



InSight was shooting for Elysium Planitia, a plain near the Martian equator that the InSight team hopes is as flat as a parking lot in Kansas.

The stationary 800-pound (360-kilogram) lander will use its 6-foot (1.8-meter) robotic arm to place a mechanical mole and seismometer on the ground. The self-hammering mole will burrow 16 feet (5 meters) down to measure the planet's internal heat, while the seismometer listens for possible quakes.

[Image: 40-nasaspacecra.jpg]
In this image provided by NASA, Mars InSight team members Kris Bruvold, left, and Sandy Krasner rejoice, Monday, Nov. 26, 2018, inside the Mission Support Area at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., after receiving …more
No lander has dug deeper on Mars than several inches, and no seismometer has ever worked on the planet.

Germany is in charge of InSight's mole, while France is in charge of the seismometer.

An ecstatic Philippe Laudet, the French Space Agency's project manager, said at JPL that now that the seismometer is on Mars, a "new adventure" is beginning.

By examining the interior of Mars, scientists hope to understand how our solar system's rocky planets formed 4.5 billion years ago and why they turned out so different—Mars cold and dry, Venus and Mercury burning hot, and Earth hospitable to life.

[Image: 41-nasaspacecra.jpg]
An engineer smiles next to an image of Mars sent from the InSight lander shortly after it landed on Mars in the mission support area of the space flight operation facility at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory Monday, Nov. 26, 2018, in …more
InSight has no life-detecting capability, however. That will be left to future rovers, such as NASA's Mars 2020 mission, which will collect rocks that will eventually be brought back to Earth and analyzed for evidence of ancient life.



[Image: 42-nasaspacecra.jpg]
Engineers celebrate as the InSight lander touch downs on Mars in the mission support area of the space flight operation facility at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory Monday, Nov. 26, 2018, in Pasadena, Calif. (AP Photo/(Al Seib /Los Angeles Times via AP, Pool)
[Image: 43-nasaspacecra.jpg]
Engineers embrace after the Mars landing of InSight in the mission support area of the space flight operation facility at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory Monday, Nov. 26, 2018, in Pasadena, Calif. (Al Seib/Los Angeles Times via AP, Pool)
[Image: 44-nasaspacecra.jpg]
A image transmitted from Mars by the InSight lander is seen on a computer screen at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory Monday, Nov. 26, 2018, in Pasadena, Calif. (NASA via AP)
[Image: 45-nasaspacecra.jpg]
This image made available by NASA shows the planet Mars. This composite photo was created from over 100 images of Mars taken by Viking Orbiters in the 1970s. In our solar system family, Mars is Earth's next-of-kin, the next-door relative …more
[Image: 46-nasaspacecra.jpg]
In this 2015 photo made available by NASA, a technician prepares the InSight spacecraft for thermal vacuum testing in its "cruise" configuration for its flight to Mars, simulating the conditions of outer space at Lockheed Martin Space …more
Explore further: Anxiety abounds at NASA as Mars landing day arrives

Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-11-nasa-space...h.html#jCp

RE: Insight @ In-Situ: Inciting a revolution in Mars revelation.

Thread Title Update  Arrow

Insight (@ Elysium Planitia) In-Situ: Inciting a revolution in Mars revelation.

EA

Why NASA's Mars InSight Landing Zone Is a Big Weird Oval

By Rafi Letzter, Staff Writer November 26, 2018 07:24am ET

[img=545x0]https://img.purch.com/w/660/aHR0cDovL3d3dy5saXZlc2NpZW5jZS5jb20vaW1hZ2VzL2kvMDAwLzEwMy8wNzEvb3JpZ2luYWwvbWFycy1pbnNpZ2h0LWVsbGlwc2UuanBn[/img][Image: aHR0cDovL3d3dy5saXZlc2NpZW5jZS5jb20vaW1h...lwc2UuanBn]

Here's where the Mars InSight lander is supposed to make touchdown on the Red Planet.
Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
NASA's InSight lander is scheduled to touch downon Mars today (Nov. 26), where it will begin its mission to study "Marsquakes” and the Red Planet's core. Insight's landing area is somewhere in a big oval, situated on the very flat, safe region Elysium Planitia. The flat part makes sense; there's no sense dropping an $850 million piece of equipment somewhere rocky. But why the big oval shape?
Insight could land just about anywhere in an elliptical region about 81 miles (130 kilometers) by 17 miles (27 km) at its widest point, according to Jet Propulsion Laboratory scientist Matt Golombek — though the lander will most likely end up closer to the middle of that region.
Any lander punching through the Martian atmosphere at high speedwould have an elliptical landing zone, Golombek told Live Science. InSight's is on the bigger end though, because it will use a less precise (and less expensive) landing system than the Curiosity rover did back in 2012, or the Mars 2020 rover is expected to sometime in the next decade. [Mars Insight Photos: A Timeline to Landing on the Red Planet]
The elliptical shape is the result of two factors, he said: the angle at which a lander enters the Martian atmosphere and the unpredictable wobbling it goes through on the way down.
Entering an atmosphere at high speed requires that a lander catches enough air to slow down without burning up or smashing into the surface, but not so much air that it bounces off into outer space. To pull that trick off, InSight will aim to hit the atmosphere at a precise 12-degree angle, Golombek said. That means that it will have a lot of lateral momentum that will carry it far over the surface, even as it plunges downward.
And as it plunges, it will be wobbling, jostled by unpredictable currents in the Martian air. Those currents will knock the lander side to side as it falls, making it difficult to predict precisely where the lander will end up. [NASA's InSight Mars Lander: Full Coverage]
And the effect of those wobbles, Golombek said, will be amplified by the lander's forward momentum. So even if the wind can shift the lander just 17 miles or so (about 27 km) side to side, the same forces stretch the possible landing area to 81 miles (130 km) along the direction of travel. Thus, that funny, stretched-out ellipse.
Fortunately, NASA has obsessively checked the entire landing zoneand believes it will be safe enough for a comfortable landing even despite all that uncertainty. After 6 minutes of suspense Monday, we'll all know for sure.



Now we know.  LilD
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#29
Did they find life already ?
Reply
#30
...

Quote:Did they find life already ?



Many years ago ... all the rest is predictable lies and evasion.

It is amazing how the NASA Good Guys that get the spacecraft there on the surface of Mars,
do such amazing and incredible work.
Congratulations !!!

From there the research scientists that have cornered the funding,
fail the NASA Good Guys and the public,
with bullshit science research,
ie,
they aren't looking for -- Current Life --
they are looking only for ancient indicators of life.
Those scientists,
are NASA UNDERWORLD vampires, they monopolize the funding into nonsense science,
geared only to facilitate Planetary Protection Guidelines,
a concept that the Chinese and Russians do this with --->  Lol

Chinese or Russian space exploration initiatives ---> Slap2 <---- NASA UNDERWORLD

...
Reply
#31
InSight is catching rays on Mars
November 27, 2018 by Andrew Good

[Image: insightiscat.jpg]
The Instrument Deployment Camera (IDC), located on the robotic arm of NASA's InSight lander, took this picture of the Martian surface on Nov. 26, 2018, the same day the spacecraft touched down on the Red Planet. The camera's transparent …more
NASA's InSight has sent signals to Earth indicating that its solar panels are open and collecting sunlight on the Martian surface. NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter relayed the signals, which were received on Earth at about 5:30 p.m. PST (8:30 p.m. EST). Solar array deployment ensures the spacecraft can recharge its batteries each day. Odyssey also relayed a pair of images showing InSight's landing site.




"The InSight team can rest a little easier tonight now that we know the spacecraft solar arrays are deployed and recharging the batteries," said Tom Hoffman, InSight's project manager at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, which leads the mission. "It's been a long day for the team. But tomorrow begins an exciting new chapter for InSight: surface operations and the beginning of the instrument deployment phase."

InSight's twin solar arrays are each 7 feet (2.2 meters) wide; when they're open, the entire lander is about the size of a big 1960s convertible. Mars has weaker sunlight than Earth because it's much farther away from the Sun. But the lander doesn't need much to operate: The panels provide 600 to 700 watts on a clear day, enough to power a household blender and plenty to keep its instruments conducting science on the Red Planet. Even when dust covers the panels—what is likely to be a common occurrence on Mars—they should be able to provide at least 200 to 300 watts.

The panels are modeled on those used with NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander, though InSight's are slightly larger in order to provide more power output and to increase their structural strength. These changes were necessary to support operations for one full Mars year (two Earth years).

In the coming days, the mission team will unstow InSight's robotic arm and use the attached camera to snap photos of the ground so that engineers can decide where to place the spacecraft's scientific instruments. It will take two to three months before those instruments are fully deployed and sending back data.

In the meantime, InSight will use its weather sensors and magnetometer to take readings from its landing site at Elysium Planitia—its new home on Mars.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: How NASA will know when InSight touches down


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-11-insight-rays-mars.html#jCp
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#32
Why didn't they release the Mars Odyssey Stereo images article says they took after landing ?

Doh 


Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Reply
#33
The InSight spec for the seismo 
is being touted as sensitive 
to the displacement of 1/2 the width of a hydrogen atom.

Hmm2What's that supposed to mean?


I think this must refer to some ultra S/N ratio,
since any such faint signals would be drowned out by anything.


It should deliver a trove of anomalous waveforms.
Reply


Forum Jump:


Users browsing this thread: 1 Guest(s)