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Dark side of the Moon: China's Chang'e 4 to Aitken Basin Von Kármán crater.
#1
China launches rover for first far side of the moon landing
December 7, 2018 by Ryan Mcmorrow

[Image: nolanderorro.jpg]
No lander or rover has ever touched the surface of the far side of the moon, seen in this 1968 NASA file image
China launched a rover early Saturday destined to land on the far side of the moon, a global first that would boost Beijing's ambitions to become a space superpower, state media said.




The Chang'e-4 lunar probe mission—named after the moon goddess in Chinese mythology—launched on a Long March 3B rocket from the southwestern Xichang launch centre at 2:23 am (1823 GMT), according to the official Xinhua news agency.

The blast-off marked the start of a long journey to the far side of the moon for the Chang'e-4 mission, expected to land around the New Year to carry out experiments and survey the untrodden terrain.

Xinhua said the successful launch had opened "a new chapter in lunar exploration".

Unlike the near side of the moon that is "tidally locked" and always faces the earth, and offers many flat areas to touch down on, the far side is mountainous and rugged.

It was not until 1959 that the Soviet Union captured the first images of the heavily cratered surface, uncloaking some of the mystery of the moon's "dark side".

No lander or rover has ever touched the surface there, positioning China as the first nation to explore the area.

"China over the past 10 or 20 years has been systematically ticking off the various firsts that America and the Soviet Union did in the 1960s and 1970s in space exploration," said Jonathan McDowell, an astronomer at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.

"This is one of the first times they've done something that no one else has done before."

Next up: humans

It is no easy technological feat—China has been preparing for this moment for years.

A major challenge for such a mission is communicating with the robotic lander: as the far side of the moon always points away from earth, there is no direct "line of sight" for signals.

As a solution, China in May blasted the Queqiao ("Magpie Bridge") satellite into the moon's orbit, positioning it so that it can relay data and commands between the lander and earth.

Adding to the difficulties, Chang'e-4 is being sent to the Aitken Basin in the lunar south pole region—known for its craggy and complex terrain—state media has said.



The probe is carrying six experiments from China and four from abroad.

They include low-frequency radio astronomical studies—aiming to take advantage of the lack of interference on the far side—as well as mineral and radiation tests, Xinhua cited the China National Space Administration as saying.

The experiments also involve planting potato and other seeds, according to Chinese media reports.

Beijing is pouring billions into its military-run space programme, with hopes of having a crewed space station by 2022, and of eventually sending humans to the moon.

The Chang'e 4 mission is a step in that direction, significant for the engineering expertise needed to explore and settle the moon, McDowell said.

"The main thing about this mission is not science, this is a technology mission," he said.

'National pride'

Chang'e-4 will be the second Chinese probe to land on the moon, following the Yutu ("Jade Rabbit") rover mission in 2013.

Once on the moon's surface, the rover faces an array of extreme challenges.

During the lunar night—which lasts 14 earth days—temperatures will drop as low as minus 173 degrees Celsius (minus 279 Fahrenheit). During the lunar day, also lasting 14 earth days, temperatures soar as high as 127 C (261 F).

The rover's instruments must withstand those fluctuations and it must generate enough energy to sustain it during the long night.

Yutu conquered those challenges and, after initial setbacks, ultimately surveyed the moon's surface for 31 months. Its success provided a major boost to China's space programme.

Beijing is planning to send another lunar lander, Chang'e-5, next year to collect samples and bring them back to earth.

It is among a slew of ambitious Chinese targets, which include a reusable launcher by 2021, a super-powerful rocket capable of delivering payloads heavier than those NASA and private rocket firm SpaceX can handle, a moon base, a permanently crewed space station, and a Mars rover.

"Our country's successful lunar exploration project not only vaults us to the top of the world's space power ranks, it also allows the exploration of the far side of the moon," said Niu Min, a booster and expert on China's space programme.

The project, he said in an interview with local website Netease, "greatly inspires everyone's national pride and self-confidence".

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: China prepares mission to land spacecraft on moon's far side


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-12-china-rover-side-moon.html#jCp
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#2
Will they land @ ~19.5 again?

[Image: Chang%27e-3_landing_location.jpg]
 
 
~19.5 West ... ~44 North!

The actual Chang'e-3 touchdown longitude, corresponding (within 0.01 degrees) ... eerily ... impossibly ... to the crucial"hyperdimensional, inscribed tetrahedral angle" -- echoed by the posting of two tetrahedrons on the official Chang'e-3 website ... months before!

https://www.enterprisemission.com/china/...anding.htm
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#3
Things looking very interesting and good for China right now...Trump agreed 3 month moratorium on Trade War, EU and IRan doing trade in EU and Iran Dinars, BRICS moving along nicely in Pakistan, Russia has the NEO-CON Kiev Coup folks hostage, CIA President of Kiev on Late night Fox begging for Nato help.  Not going to happen.

Bob.... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
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#4
...

I don't care for the Chinese initiative in space to become a "space super power".
Epic Fail,
is what I wish upon their entire space program,
as their militaristic motives in near space certainly conflict with our national security.

Aside from that unfortunately,
I will bet that the Chinese are smart enough such that,
if they were to send a probe to Pluto,
they would take the common sense option to orbit the planet Pluto for imaging,
rather than
Fly  Hi Bye Pluto ... to go bypass a 45 km ice booger in the Kuiper belt.

If the Chinese sent a probe to orbit Ceres,
their HAMO,
would have been NASA's LAMO,
and then the Chinese would descend their probe in for a ... Chinese Fry  Hi Bye,      Lol
right over the top of Ahuna Whip

Because they will have more imagination,
to maximize their scientific potential in space missions than ... stuck in the frozen Martian mud NASA .

...
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#5
chinese space craft = junk.
how long did their last little moon rover last?
they're going to be the first freeze dried people on the moon in a loong time.

people wow about china doing something... like they'll be any better or open than anyone else... nope!
We have private companies that will beat China to the moon with men.
On a satellite I ride. Nothing down below can hide.
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#6
They try and learn at least. And may succeed.     Marsrover
Reply
#7
...


Quote:they're going to be the first freeze dried people on the moon in a loong time.


and  



Quote:They try and learn at least. And may succeed.



Lots of expendable Chinese taikonauts ready to die in punk-ass Chinese spacecraft.
Trash cans with rocket propellant, and limpy gimpy rovers.
They will no doubt rely upon robotics for the most part,
before sending the Chinese horde into space to infest the solar system.
No question that NASA and US manufacturing produces a better quality product,
and precision delivery systems.
I am more impressed by India in the realm of cost efficiency efforts,
than anything Chinese in space. 
Nonetheless,
the Chinese are really good at overpopulated rat maze lifestyles in unfashionable hovels.
Ideal for really shitty planetary surface colonization pods,
with 10 people living inside an oversize closet with a toilet.

Nonetheless, they are smart enough to not use lies like "planetary protection guidelines",
to deceive their enthusiastic population.
Though the planetary exploitation model they represent is reprehensible,
they will go straight for what makes them an industrial colonization power,
and are not at all concerned,
about nonsense like a pinch of Earth bacteria making it to Mars.
 
NASA double talk --- planetary protection guidelines -- 
and at the same time,
DARPA and NASA have joint plans for terraforming Mars with GMO bacteria.

The difference with China and NASA nonsense,
is the HYPOCRISY of NASA.
 
China: we invest, then we infest, 
and then we will exploit the fuck out of it.

NASA Politically Correctness ... is not a facet of the Chinese space effort.

...
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#8
China lands probe on far side of moon in world first
January 3, 2019

[Image: 1-thechange4lu.jpg]
The Chang'e-4 lunar probe mission - named after the moon goddess in Chinese mythology - launched last December from the southwestern Xichang launch centre
A Chinese lunar rover landed on the far side of the moon on Thursday, in a global first that boosts Beijing's ambitions to become a space superpower.




The Chang'e-4 probe touched down and sent a photo of the so-called "dark side" of the moon to the Queqiao satellite, which will relay communications to controllers on Earth, China's national space agency said on its website.

Beijing is pouring billions into its military-run space programme, with hopes of having a crewed space station by 2022, and of eventually sending humans to the moon.

The Chang'e-4 lunar probe mission—named after the moon goddess in Chinese mythology—launched in December from the southwestern Xichang launch centre.

It is the second Chinese probe to land on the moon, following the Yutu (Jade Rabbit) rover mission in 2013.

Unlike the near side of the moon that offers many flat areas to touch down on, the far side is mountainous and rugged.

The moon is "tidally locked" to Earth in its rotation so the same side is always facing Earth.

Chang'e-4 is carrying six experiments from China and four from abroad, including low-frequency radio astronomical studies—aiming to take advantage of the lack of interference on the far side.

The rover will also conduct mineral and radiation tests, the China National Space Administration has said, according to state news agency Xinhua.

Extreme challenges

It was not until 1959 that the Soviet Union captured the first images of the moon's mysterious and heavily cratered "dark side".

No lander or rover has ever previously touched the surface there, and it is no easy technological feat—China has been preparing for this moment for years.

A major challenge for such a mission was communicating with the robotic lander as there is no direct "line of sight" for signals to the far side of the moon.

As a solution, China in May blasted the Queqiao ("Magpie Bridge") satellite into the moon's orbit, positioning it so that it can relay data and commands between the lander and Earth.

In another extreme hurdle, during the lunar night—which lasts 14 Earth days—temperatures drop to as low as minus 173 degrees Celsius (minus 279 Fahrenheit).

During the lunar day, also lasting 14 Earth days, temperatures soar as high as 127 C (261 F).

The rover's instruments have to withstand those fluctuations and it has to generate enough energy to sustain it during the long night.

Adding to the difficulties, Chang'e-4 was sent to the Aitken Basin in the lunar south pole region—known for its craggy and complex terrain—state media has said.

Yutu also conquered those challenges and, after initial setbacks, ultimately surveyed the moon's surface for 31 months. Its success provided a major boost to China's space programme.

Beijing is planning to send another lunar lander, Chang'e-5, later this year to collect samples and bring them back to Earth.

It is among a slew of ambitious Chinese targets, which include a reusable launcher by 2021, a super-powerful rocket capable of delivering payloads heavier than those NASA and private rocket firm SpaceX can handle, a moon base, a permanently crewed space station, and a Mars rover.


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2019-01-china-probe-side-moon-state.html#jCp
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#9
Actual Views from Dark Moon China Mover Rover


[Image: Dv9G20iVsAAidVN?format=jpg&name=small]

https://interestingengineering.com/chine...f-the-moon


Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Reply
#10
China just landed on the far side of the moon. Could it become the first nation to have its own moon base?

By ROBYN DIXON
JAN 03, 2019 | 2:10 PM
| BEIJING

  


[Image: la-1546526562-k8eukusdgx-snap-image]

An image taken by the Chang'e-4 probe shows the far side of the moon. (China National Space Administration)


In a milestone that underscores China’s ambition to become a global leader in space exploration, the Chang’e-4 lunar lander became the first space vehicle to touch down on the far side of the moon, where it began to explore terrain that had never before been reached.
Chinese scientists have long held ambitions to establish a manned moon base and to send nuclear-powered rockets into space in future decades to colonize and exploit space. Thursday’s landing was a modest yet deeply symbolic step forward in that quest.
Chang’e-4, carrying a 300-pound lunar rover with probes and spectrometers, touched down in the Von Karman crater in the South Pole-Aitken basin, according to the China National Space Administration, which published a color photograph of the moon’s smooth surface, a crater and the dark horizon beyond.


[Image: 6EXVPT7P4FBAXAV755VZW3IAFI.jpg]

Around the world, miles of rock are missing. Could ‘Snowball Earth’ be the culprit?
JAN 03, 2019 | 4:00 AM

The moon probe landed on the planned landing site, “lifting the mysterious veil” of the far side of the moon and opening “a new chapter in human lunar exploration,” the administration said.
The state-owned Global Times said it marked a major step toward the establishment of a Chinese manned lunar base — and toward deep space exploration.
Chang’e-4 was launched from the Xichang satellite launch station in Sichuan province in southern China on Dec. 8. A forerunner, Chang’e-3, landed on the moon in 2013, making China the third country after the U.S. and the Soviet Union to soft-land a spacecraft — meaning the craft would not be destroyed in the landing — on lunar soil.
This year, China is expected to launch another lunar lander that will bring samples back to Earth.
Chang’e-4’s six-wheeled lunar rover will probe the moon’s surface and transmit photographs to Earth. The mission also encompasses a biological experiment, to assess whether seeds can germinate and silkworm larvae can hatch and grow in a sealed container containing nutrients, water and air.
Chang’e-4 also carries German and Swedish research equipment to study radiation and lunar wind. It is also expected to experiment with conducting low-frequency radio astronomy observations free of interference from Earth, since the moon’s far side never faces our planet.
“The far side of the moon is a rare quiet place that is free from interference of radio signals from Earth. This probe can fill the gap of low-frequency observation in radio astronomy and will provide important information for studying the origin of stars and nebula evolution,” mission spokesman Yu Guobin told New China News Agency.
[Image: la-1546527018-su3jfd4v21-snap-image]

A Long March 3B rocket transporting the Chang'e-4 lunar lander launches Dec. 8. (AFP/Getty Images)

Secrecy around China’s space program is intense, and news from Chinese authorities about Chang’e-4 was limited in the lead-up to the landing, perhaps because of setbacks and failures in past missions.
Global media attention on China’s space program has often focused on those setbacks rather than the steady progress being made. In October, China’s first private rocket failed to reach orbit, and earlier in the year one of its two orbiting space stations, Tiangong-1, fell back to Earth. The previous year, two Long March rocket launches failed. However, China completed dozens of successful rocket launches last year.
Independent space expert Namrata Goswami, writing in the Diplomat, said Chang’e-4 marks China’s seriousness about meeting deadlines and targets for space travel, noting that Chinese space scientists set a 2018 deadline for a far-side lunar landing years ago.
“Significantly, China’s ambitions for the moon and outer space have only been growing, to include ambitions of a Chinese research base on the moon, as well as developing bio-regenerative life support systems to ensure that humans can settle and survive in lunar conditions,” Goswami wrote.
She said China’s ambition was to be able to “set the rules of the game in outer space” by establishing a long-term human presence.
In May, eight Chinese volunteer students concluded a yearlong test of a bio-regenerative life support system at Beihang University, an astronautics and aeronautics university in Beijing. That marked a record for human habitation in an enclosed system with recycled water, food and air — a crucial test for lunar habitation. The students grew food including wheat, potatoes, carrots, beans and onions, and ate high-protein mealworms.
Underscoring the growing strategic rivalry between the U.S. and China, President Trump has announced plans for a new military branch called a “space force.” Meanwhile, NASA announced plans in 2017 to return to the moon and establish a long-term manned lunar base “for a sustained period of exploration and use,” and as a possible launchpad for a future manned mission to Mars. NASA’s eighth spacecraft landing on Mars was in November.
[Image: la-1546526904-m41xkonpwl-snap-image]

An image taken by China's Chang'e-4 probe during its landing process. (China National Space Administration)

But last month two NASA Apollo mission veterans warned of the need for funding, technology and a cohesive, consistent plan, complaining that successive administrations had failed to fund NASA adequately.
China’s rapid expansion of its space program has the Pentagon concerned, although China has insisted it has no plans to militarize space. In August, a Pentagon report on China’s military capabilities warned of the nation’s advances in space exploration and its capacity to use space technology for military and surveillance purposes, including the potential to knock out opponents’ satellites. China has already tested anti-satellite missiles. The Pentagon predicted China would have a manned orbiting space station by 2025. China is also swiftly developing its own global satellite navigation system, Beidou.
The lunar lander is just part of an ambitious, carefully choreographed, long-term space exploration plan that includes colonizing and exploring the commercial possibilities of the solar system and beyond.
After unmanned rocket launches, China became the third nation to independently send a human into space in 2003. It has plans to take its second space station out of service and launch a third, which will be manned. Its manned and robotic missions aim to build its technological prowess and research, and develop the capacity to send astronauts into space for longer periods. From there China plans better space vehicles, deep space exploration and exploitation of resources.
Chinese officials rarely discuss the nation’s expansive space ambitions, but in late 2017 the state-owned People’s Daily spelled out the plans of the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, China’s rocket manufacturer, including plans to establish a fleet of nuclear-powered space shuttles by the 2040s for regular space flights to other planets.
In the nearer term, it aims to catch up to U.S. rocket technology, launch a Mars probe, and have a reusable shuttle by 2025 to begin space tourism.
China’s space exploration is a key part of its Made in China 2025 program, which involves attaining global leadership in space travel by the middle of the century. Chinese officials and state media have stopped using the term lately, after it was censored by authorities last year over concerns it was antagonizing the Trump administration as trade tensions between the nations mounted.
Although hopes are growing that the two nations may reach a deal to end the trade war, analysts don’t expect China to give up its aspiration to become a global leader in strategic technology such as rockets, robots and artificial intelligence.

https://www.latimes.com/world/la-fg-chin...story.html
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#11
Quote:China’s space exploration is a key part of its Made in China 2025 program, which involves attaining global leadership in space travel by the middle of the century
That's pretty ambitious for a program that's just now doing rovers..
I mean, we have private companies with more advanced and capable space programs now than China will have by mid century
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#12
Chinese rover powers up devices in pioneering moon mission

January 5, 2019 by Ken Moritsugu



[Image: 6-chineserover.jpg]
In this photo provided on Jan. 4, 2019, by China National Space Administration via Xinhua News Agency, Yutu-2, China's lunar rover, leaves wheel marks after leaving the lander that touched down on the surface of the far side of the moon. China's space agency says that all systems are go for its spacecraft and rover that have made a pioneering landing on the far side of the moon. (China National Space Administration/Xinhua News Agency via AP)
All systems are go as a Chinese spacecraft and rover power up their observation equipment after making a first-ever landing on the far side of the moon, the Chinese National Space Administration said.








The Jade Rabbit 2 rover has succeeded in establishing a digital transmission link with a relay satellite that sends data back to the Beijing control center, the space agency said in a posting late Friday on its website.



The rover's radar and panoramic camera have been activated and are working normally, it said. A photo released by the agency showed the rover stopped at a point not far from where the Chang'e 4 spacecraft touched down Thursday.



Chang'e 4, named after a Chinese moon goddess, is the first craft to make a soft landing on the moon's far side, which faces away from Earth. Previous landings, including one by China's Chang'e 3 in 2013, have been on the near side.



After sending the rover off from a ramp, the spacecraft deployed three 5-meter (16-foot) low-frequency radio antennas, the Chinese space agency said. Chang'e 4 also has sent back images taken with a topographical camera.



Researchers hope that low-frequency observations of the cosmos from the far side, where radio signals from Earth are blocked by the moon, will help scientists learn more about the early days of the solar system and even the birth of the universe's first stars.



Harvard University astronomer Avi Loeb noted, however, that the relay satellite needed to send back information from the far side also contaminates the sky.







[Image: 7-chineserover.jpg]

In this photo provided on Thursday, Jan. 3, 2019, by China National Space Administration via Xinhua News Agency, Yutu-2, China's lunar rover, leaves wheel marks after leaving the lander that touched down on the surface of the far side of the moon. A Chinese spacecraft on Thursday, Jan. 3, made the first-ever landing on the far side of the moon, state media said. The lunar explorer Chang'e 4 touched down at 10:26 a.m., China Central Television said in a brief announcement at the top of its noon news broadcast. (China National Space Administration/Xinhua News Agency via AP)"As long as we keep it clean of radio interference, the far side of the moon is very good for radio astronomy," he said.





The far side has been observed many times from lunar orbits, but never explored on the surface. It is popularly called the "dark side" because it can't be seen from Earth and is relatively unknown, not because it lacks sunlight.



"It's just the far side, it can be either dark or light," Loeb said, depending on the time of day.



The pioneering landing highlights China's ambitions to rival the U.S., Russia and Europe in space. Both China's space community and public have taken pride in the accomplishment, with some drawing comparisons to the United States.



China's space program lags America's, but has made great strides in the past 15 years, including manned flights and a space laboratory that is seen as a precursor to plans for a space station.



[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: China begins first surface exploration of moon's far side




Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2019-01-chinese-rover-powers-devices-moon.html#jCp


China broadcasts spacecraft pictures from moon's far side
January 11, 2019

[Image: 3-chinabroadca.jpg]
In this photo released by Xinhua News Agency, the screen at the Beijing Aerospace Control Center shows the lander of the Chang'e-4 probe, right, and the rover Yutu-2 (Jade Rabbit-2) taking photos of each other, Friday, Jan. 11, 2019. (Jin Liwang/Xinhua via AP)
China on Friday broadcast pictures taken by its rover and lander on the moon's far side, in what its space program hailed as another triumph for the groundbreaking mission to the less-understood sector of the lunar surface.




The pictures on state broadcaster CCTV showed the Jade Rabbit 2 rover and the Chang'e 4 spacecraft that transported it on the first-ever soft landing on the far side of the moon, which always faces away from Earth.

The pictures were transmitted by a relay satellite to a control center in Beijing, although it wasn't immediately clear when they were taken.

"The lander, its rover, and the relay satellite are all in a stable condition. They have reached the predetermined engineering goals, right now they are getting into the stage of scientific searches," Zhang Kejian, director of the China National Space Administration, said before engineers at the Beijing center.

"Now I declare that the Chang'e 4 mission, as a part of the Chang'e Lunar Exploration Program, has been a success," Zhang said.

Pictures transmitted back show a rocky surface with the jagged edge of craters in the background, posing a challenge for controllers in plotting the rover's future travels, the official Xinhua News Agency said.

Among the images is a 360-degree panorama stitched together from 80 photos taken by a camera on the lander after it released the rover onto the lunar surface, Xinhua said, citing Li Chunlai, deputy director of the National Astronomical Observatories of China and commander-in-chief of the ground application system of Chang'e 4.



[Image: 4-chinabroadca.jpg]
Technicians work at the Beijing Aerospace Control Center in Beijing Friday, Jan. 11, 2019. China on Friday broadcast pictures taken by its rover and lander on the moon's far side, in what its space program hailed as another triumph for the …more"From the panorama, we can see the probe is surrounded by lots of small craters, which was really thrilling," Li was quoted as saying.


The space administration also released a 12-minute video of Chang'e 4's landing utilizing more than 4,700 images taken by an on-board camera. The probe is shown adjusting its altitude, speed and pitch as it seeks to avoid obstacles on the ground.

Researchers hope that low-frequency observations of the cosmos from the far side of the moon, where radio signals from Earth are blocked, will help scientists learn more about the early days of the solar system and birth of the universe's first stars.

The far side has been observed many times from lunar orbits, but never explored on the surface. It is popularly called the "dark side" because it can't be seen from Earth and is relatively unknown, not because it lacks sunlight.

The pioneering landing highlights China's ambitions to rival the U.S., Russia and Europe in space through manned flights and the planned construction of a permanent space station.


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2019-01-china-spac...e.html#jCp
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