Thread Rating:
  • 0 Vote(s) - 0 Average
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
Dark side of the Moon: China's Chang'e 4 to Aitken Basin Von Kármán crater.
#1
China launches rover for first far side of the moon landing
December 7, 2018 by Ryan Mcmorrow

[Image: nolanderorro.jpg]
No lander or rover has ever touched the surface of the far side of the moon, seen in this 1968 NASA file image
China launched a rover early Saturday destined to land on the far side of the moon, a global first that would boost Beijing's ambitions to become a space superpower, state media said.




The Chang'e-4 lunar probe mission—named after the moon goddess in Chinese mythology—launched on a Long March 3B rocket from the southwestern Xichang launch centre at 2:23 am (1823 GMT), according to the official Xinhua news agency.

The blast-off marked the start of a long journey to the far side of the moon for the Chang'e-4 mission, expected to land around the New Year to carry out experiments and survey the untrodden terrain.

Xinhua said the successful launch had opened "a new chapter in lunar exploration".

Unlike the near side of the moon that is "tidally locked" and always faces the earth, and offers many flat areas to touch down on, the far side is mountainous and rugged.

It was not until 1959 that the Soviet Union captured the first images of the heavily cratered surface, uncloaking some of the mystery of the moon's "dark side".

No lander or rover has ever touched the surface there, positioning China as the first nation to explore the area.

"China over the past 10 or 20 years has been systematically ticking off the various firsts that America and the Soviet Union did in the 1960s and 1970s in space exploration," said Jonathan McDowell, an astronomer at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.

"This is one of the first times they've done something that no one else has done before."

Next up: humans

It is no easy technological feat—China has been preparing for this moment for years.

A major challenge for such a mission is communicating with the robotic lander: as the far side of the moon always points away from earth, there is no direct "line of sight" for signals.

As a solution, China in May blasted the Queqiao ("Magpie Bridge") satellite into the moon's orbit, positioning it so that it can relay data and commands between the lander and earth.

Adding to the difficulties, Chang'e-4 is being sent to the Aitken Basin in the lunar south pole region—known for its craggy and complex terrain—state media has said.



The probe is carrying six experiments from China and four from abroad.

They include low-frequency radio astronomical studies—aiming to take advantage of the lack of interference on the far side—as well as mineral and radiation tests, Xinhua cited the China National Space Administration as saying.

The experiments also involve planting potato and other seeds, according to Chinese media reports.

Beijing is pouring billions into its military-run space programme, with hopes of having a crewed space station by 2022, and of eventually sending humans to the moon.

The Chang'e 4 mission is a step in that direction, significant for the engineering expertise needed to explore and settle the moon, McDowell said.

"The main thing about this mission is not science, this is a technology mission," he said.

'National pride'

Chang'e-4 will be the second Chinese probe to land on the moon, following the Yutu ("Jade Rabbit") rover mission in 2013.

Once on the moon's surface, the rover faces an array of extreme challenges.

During the lunar night—which lasts 14 earth days—temperatures will drop as low as minus 173 degrees Celsius (minus 279 Fahrenheit). During the lunar day, also lasting 14 earth days, temperatures soar as high as 127 C (261 F).

The rover's instruments must withstand those fluctuations and it must generate enough energy to sustain it during the long night.

Yutu conquered those challenges and, after initial setbacks, ultimately surveyed the moon's surface for 31 months. Its success provided a major boost to China's space programme.

Beijing is planning to send another lunar lander, Chang'e-5, next year to collect samples and bring them back to earth.

It is among a slew of ambitious Chinese targets, which include a reusable launcher by 2021, a super-powerful rocket capable of delivering payloads heavier than those NASA and private rocket firm SpaceX can handle, a moon base, a permanently crewed space station, and a Mars rover.

"Our country's successful lunar exploration project not only vaults us to the top of the world's space power ranks, it also allows the exploration of the far side of the moon," said Niu Min, a booster and expert on China's space programme.

The project, he said in an interview with local website Netease, "greatly inspires everyone's national pride and self-confidence".

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: China prepares mission to land spacecraft on moon's far side


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-12-china-rover-side-moon.html#jCp
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#2
Will they land @ ~19.5 again?

[Image: Chang%27e-3_landing_location.jpg]
 
 
~19.5 West ... ~44 North!

The actual Chang'e-3 touchdown longitude, corresponding (within 0.01 degrees) ... eerily ... impossibly ... to the crucial"hyperdimensional, inscribed tetrahedral angle" -- echoed by the posting of two tetrahedrons on the official Chang'e-3 website ... months before!

https://www.enterprisemission.com/china/...anding.htm
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#3
Things looking very interesting and good for China right now...Trump agreed 3 month moratorium on Trade War, EU and IRan doing trade in EU and Iran Dinars, BRICS moving along nicely in Pakistan, Russia has the NEO-CON Kiev Coup folks hostage, CIA President of Kiev on Late night Fox begging for Nato help.  Not going to happen.

Bob.... Ninja Assimilated
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
Reply
#4
...

I don't care for the Chinese initiative in space to become a "space super power".
Epic Fail,
is what I wish upon their entire space program,
as their militaristic motives in near space certainly conflict with our national security.

Aside from that unfortunately,
I will bet that the Chinese are smart enough such that,
if they were to send a probe to Pluto,
they would take the common sense option to orbit the planet Pluto for imaging,
rather than
Fly  Hi Bye Pluto ... to go bypass a 45 km ice booger in the Kuiper belt.

If the Chinese sent a probe to orbit Ceres,
their HAMO,
would have been NASA's LAMO,
and then the Chinese would descend their probe in for a ... Chinese Fry  Hi Bye,      Lol
right over the top of Ahuna Whip

Because they will have more imagination,
to maximize their scientific potential in space missions than ... stuck in the frozen Martian mud NASA .

...
Reply
#5
chinese space craft = junk.
how long did their last little moon rover last?
they're going to be the first freeze dried people on the moon in a loong time.

people wow about china doing something... like they'll be any better or open than anyone else... nope!
We have private companies that will beat China to the moon with men.
On a satellite I ride. Nothing down below can hide.
Reply
#6
They try and learn at least. And may succeed.     Marsrover
Reply
#7
...


Quote:they're going to be the first freeze dried people on the moon in a loong time.


and  



Quote:They try and learn at least. And may succeed.



Lots of expendable Chinese taikonauts ready to die in punk-ass Chinese spacecraft.
Trash cans with rocket propellant, and limpy gimpy rovers.
They will no doubt rely upon robotics for the most part,
before sending the Chinese horde into space to infest the solar system.
No question that NASA and US manufacturing produces a better quality product,
and precision delivery systems.
I am more impressed by India in the realm of cost efficiency efforts,
than anything Chinese in space. 
Nonetheless,
the Chinese are really good at overpopulated rat maze lifestyles in unfashionable hovels.
Ideal for really shitty planetary surface colonization pods,
with 10 people living inside an oversize closet with a toilet.

Nonetheless, they are smart enough to not use lies like "planetary protection guidelines",
to deceive their enthusiastic population.
Though the planetary exploitation model they represent is reprehensible,
they will go straight for what makes them an industrial colonization power,
and are not at all concerned,
about nonsense like a pinch of Earth bacteria making it to Mars.
 
NASA double talk --- planetary protection guidelines -- 
and at the same time,
DARPA and NASA have joint plans for terraforming Mars with GMO bacteria.

The difference with China and NASA nonsense,
is the HYPOCRISY of NASA.
 
China: we invest, then we infest, 
and then we will exploit the fuck out of it.

NASA Politically Correctness ... is not a facet of the Chinese space effort.

...
Reply
#8
China lands probe on far side of moon in world first
January 3, 2019

[Image: 1-thechange4lu.jpg]
The Chang'e-4 lunar probe mission - named after the moon goddess in Chinese mythology - launched last December from the southwestern Xichang launch centre
A Chinese lunar rover landed on the far side of the moon on Thursday, in a global first that boosts Beijing's ambitions to become a space superpower.




The Chang'e-4 probe touched down and sent a photo of the so-called "dark side" of the moon to the Queqiao satellite, which will relay communications to controllers on Earth, China's national space agency said on its website.

Beijing is pouring billions into its military-run space programme, with hopes of having a crewed space station by 2022, and of eventually sending humans to the moon.

The Chang'e-4 lunar probe mission—named after the moon goddess in Chinese mythology—launched in December from the southwestern Xichang launch centre.

It is the second Chinese probe to land on the moon, following the Yutu (Jade Rabbit) rover mission in 2013.

Unlike the near side of the moon that offers many flat areas to touch down on, the far side is mountainous and rugged.

The moon is "tidally locked" to Earth in its rotation so the same side is always facing Earth.

Chang'e-4 is carrying six experiments from China and four from abroad, including low-frequency radio astronomical studies—aiming to take advantage of the lack of interference on the far side.

The rover will also conduct mineral and radiation tests, the China National Space Administration has said, according to state news agency Xinhua.

Extreme challenges

It was not until 1959 that the Soviet Union captured the first images of the moon's mysterious and heavily cratered "dark side".

No lander or rover has ever previously touched the surface there, and it is no easy technological feat—China has been preparing for this moment for years.

A major challenge for such a mission was communicating with the robotic lander as there is no direct "line of sight" for signals to the far side of the moon.

As a solution, China in May blasted the Queqiao ("Magpie Bridge") satellite into the moon's orbit, positioning it so that it can relay data and commands between the lander and Earth.

In another extreme hurdle, during the lunar night—which lasts 14 Earth days—temperatures drop to as low as minus 173 degrees Celsius (minus 279 Fahrenheit).

During the lunar day, also lasting 14 Earth days, temperatures soar as high as 127 C (261 F).

The rover's instruments have to withstand those fluctuations and it has to generate enough energy to sustain it during the long night.

Adding to the difficulties, Chang'e-4 was sent to the Aitken Basin in the lunar south pole region—known for its craggy and complex terrain—state media has said.

Yutu also conquered those challenges and, after initial setbacks, ultimately surveyed the moon's surface for 31 months. Its success provided a major boost to China's space programme.

Beijing is planning to send another lunar lander, Chang'e-5, later this year to collect samples and bring them back to Earth.

It is among a slew of ambitious Chinese targets, which include a reusable launcher by 2021, a super-powerful rocket capable of delivering payloads heavier than those NASA and private rocket firm SpaceX can handle, a moon base, a permanently crewed space station, and a Mars rover.


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2019-01-china-probe-side-moon-state.html#jCp
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#9
Actual Views from Dark Moon China Mover Rover


[Image: Dv9G20iVsAAidVN?format=jpg&name=small]

https://interestingengineering.com/chine...f-the-moon


Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
Reply
#10
China just landed on the far side of the moon. Could it become the first nation to have its own moon base?

By ROBYN DIXON
JAN 03, 2019 | 2:10 PM
| BEIJING

  


[Image: la-1546526562-k8eukusdgx-snap-image]

An image taken by the Chang'e-4 probe shows the far side of the moon. (China National Space Administration)


In a milestone that underscores China’s ambition to become a global leader in space exploration, the Chang’e-4 lunar lander became the first space vehicle to touch down on the far side of the moon, where it began to explore terrain that had never before been reached.
Chinese scientists have long held ambitions to establish a manned moon base and to send nuclear-powered rockets into space in future decades to colonize and exploit space. Thursday’s landing was a modest yet deeply symbolic step forward in that quest.
Chang’e-4, carrying a 300-pound lunar rover with probes and spectrometers, touched down in the Von Karman crater in the South Pole-Aitken basin, according to the China National Space Administration, which published a color photograph of the moon’s smooth surface, a crater and the dark horizon beyond.


[Image: 6EXVPT7P4FBAXAV755VZW3IAFI.jpg]

Around the world, miles of rock are missing. Could ‘Snowball Earth’ be the culprit?
JAN 03, 2019 | 4:00 AM

The moon probe landed on the planned landing site, “lifting the mysterious veil” of the far side of the moon and opening “a new chapter in human lunar exploration,” the administration said.
The state-owned Global Times said it marked a major step toward the establishment of a Chinese manned lunar base — and toward deep space exploration.
Chang’e-4 was launched from the Xichang satellite launch station in Sichuan province in southern China on Dec. 8. A forerunner, Chang’e-3, landed on the moon in 2013, making China the third country after the U.S. and the Soviet Union to soft-land a spacecraft — meaning the craft would not be destroyed in the landing — on lunar soil.
This year, China is expected to launch another lunar lander that will bring samples back to Earth.
Chang’e-4’s six-wheeled lunar rover will probe the moon’s surface and transmit photographs to Earth. The mission also encompasses a biological experiment, to assess whether seeds can germinate and silkworm larvae can hatch and grow in a sealed container containing nutrients, water and air.
Chang’e-4 also carries German and Swedish research equipment to study radiation and lunar wind. It is also expected to experiment with conducting low-frequency radio astronomy observations free of interference from Earth, since the moon’s far side never faces our planet.
“The far side of the moon is a rare quiet place that is free from interference of radio signals from Earth. This probe can fill the gap of low-frequency observation in radio astronomy and will provide important information for studying the origin of stars and nebula evolution,” mission spokesman Yu Guobin told New China News Agency.
[Image: la-1546527018-su3jfd4v21-snap-image]

A Long March 3B rocket transporting the Chang'e-4 lunar lander launches Dec. 8. (AFP/Getty Images)

Secrecy around China’s space program is intense, and news from Chinese authorities about Chang’e-4 was limited in the lead-up to the landing, perhaps because of setbacks and failures in past missions.
Global media attention on China’s space program has often focused on those setbacks rather than the steady progress being made. In October, China’s first private rocket failed to reach orbit, and earlier in the year one of its two orbiting space stations, Tiangong-1, fell back to Earth. The previous year, two Long March rocket launches failed. However, China completed dozens of successful rocket launches last year.
Independent space expert Namrata Goswami, writing in the Diplomat, said Chang’e-4 marks China’s seriousness about meeting deadlines and targets for space travel, noting that Chinese space scientists set a 2018 deadline for a far-side lunar landing years ago.
“Significantly, China’s ambitions for the moon and outer space have only been growing, to include ambitions of a Chinese research base on the moon, as well as developing bio-regenerative life support systems to ensure that humans can settle and survive in lunar conditions,” Goswami wrote.
She said China’s ambition was to be able to “set the rules of the game in outer space” by establishing a long-term human presence.
In May, eight Chinese volunteer students concluded a yearlong test of a bio-regenerative life support system at Beihang University, an astronautics and aeronautics university in Beijing. That marked a record for human habitation in an enclosed system with recycled water, food and air — a crucial test for lunar habitation. The students grew food including wheat, potatoes, carrots, beans and onions, and ate high-protein mealworms.
Underscoring the growing strategic rivalry between the U.S. and China, President Trump has announced plans for a new military branch called a “space force.” Meanwhile, NASA announced plans in 2017 to return to the moon and establish a long-term manned lunar base “for a sustained period of exploration and use,” and as a possible launchpad for a future manned mission to Mars. NASA’s eighth spacecraft landing on Mars was in November.
[Image: la-1546526904-m41xkonpwl-snap-image]

An image taken by China's Chang'e-4 probe during its landing process. (China National Space Administration)

But last month two NASA Apollo mission veterans warned of the need for funding, technology and a cohesive, consistent plan, complaining that successive administrations had failed to fund NASA adequately.
China’s rapid expansion of its space program has the Pentagon concerned, although China has insisted it has no plans to militarize space. In August, a Pentagon report on China’s military capabilities warned of the nation’s advances in space exploration and its capacity to use space technology for military and surveillance purposes, including the potential to knock out opponents’ satellites. China has already tested anti-satellite missiles. The Pentagon predicted China would have a manned orbiting space station by 2025. China is also swiftly developing its own global satellite navigation system, Beidou.
The lunar lander is just part of an ambitious, carefully choreographed, long-term space exploration plan that includes colonizing and exploring the commercial possibilities of the solar system and beyond.
After unmanned rocket launches, China became the third nation to independently send a human into space in 2003. It has plans to take its second space station out of service and launch a third, which will be manned. Its manned and robotic missions aim to build its technological prowess and research, and develop the capacity to send astronauts into space for longer periods. From there China plans better space vehicles, deep space exploration and exploitation of resources.
Chinese officials rarely discuss the nation’s expansive space ambitions, but in late 2017 the state-owned People’s Daily spelled out the plans of the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, China’s rocket manufacturer, including plans to establish a fleet of nuclear-powered space shuttles by the 2040s for regular space flights to other planets.
In the nearer term, it aims to catch up to U.S. rocket technology, launch a Mars probe, and have a reusable shuttle by 2025 to begin space tourism.
China’s space exploration is a key part of its Made in China 2025 program, which involves attaining global leadership in space travel by the middle of the century. Chinese officials and state media have stopped using the term lately, after it was censored by authorities last year over concerns it was antagonizing the Trump administration as trade tensions between the nations mounted.
Although hopes are growing that the two nations may reach a deal to end the trade war, analysts don’t expect China to give up its aspiration to become a global leader in strategic technology such as rockets, robots and artificial intelligence.

https://www.latimes.com/world/la-fg-chin...story.html
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#11
Quote:China’s space exploration is a key part of its Made in China 2025 program, which involves attaining global leadership in space travel by the middle of the century
That's pretty ambitious for a program that's just now doing rovers..
I mean, we have private companies with more advanced and capable space programs now than China will have by mid century
On a satellite I ride. Nothing down below can hide.
Reply
#12
Chinese rover powers up devices in pioneering moon mission

January 5, 2019 by Ken Moritsugu



[Image: 6-chineserover.jpg]
In this photo provided on Jan. 4, 2019, by China National Space Administration via Xinhua News Agency, Yutu-2, China's lunar rover, leaves wheel marks after leaving the lander that touched down on the surface of the far side of the moon. China's space agency says that all systems are go for its spacecraft and rover that have made a pioneering landing on the far side of the moon. (China National Space Administration/Xinhua News Agency via AP)
All systems are go as a Chinese spacecraft and rover power up their observation equipment after making a first-ever landing on the far side of the moon, the Chinese National Space Administration said.








The Jade Rabbit 2 rover has succeeded in establishing a digital transmission link with a relay satellite that sends data back to the Beijing control center, the space agency said in a posting late Friday on its website.



The rover's radar and panoramic camera have been activated and are working normally, it said. A photo released by the agency showed the rover stopped at a point not far from where the Chang'e 4 spacecraft touched down Thursday.



Chang'e 4, named after a Chinese moon goddess, is the first craft to make a soft landing on the moon's far side, which faces away from Earth. Previous landings, including one by China's Chang'e 3 in 2013, have been on the near side.



After sending the rover off from a ramp, the spacecraft deployed three 5-meter (16-foot) low-frequency radio antennas, the Chinese space agency said. Chang'e 4 also has sent back images taken with a topographical camera.



Researchers hope that low-frequency observations of the cosmos from the far side, where radio signals from Earth are blocked by the moon, will help scientists learn more about the early days of the solar system and even the birth of the universe's first stars.



Harvard University astronomer Avi Loeb noted, however, that the relay satellite needed to send back information from the far side also contaminates the sky.







[Image: 7-chineserover.jpg]

In this photo provided on Thursday, Jan. 3, 2019, by China National Space Administration via Xinhua News Agency, Yutu-2, China's lunar rover, leaves wheel marks after leaving the lander that touched down on the surface of the far side of the moon. A Chinese spacecraft on Thursday, Jan. 3, made the first-ever landing on the far side of the moon, state media said. The lunar explorer Chang'e 4 touched down at 10:26 a.m., China Central Television said in a brief announcement at the top of its noon news broadcast. (China National Space Administration/Xinhua News Agency via AP)"As long as we keep it clean of radio interference, the far side of the moon is very good for radio astronomy," he said.





The far side has been observed many times from lunar orbits, but never explored on the surface. It is popularly called the "dark side" because it can't be seen from Earth and is relatively unknown, not because it lacks sunlight.



"It's just the far side, it can be either dark or light," Loeb said, depending on the time of day.



The pioneering landing highlights China's ambitions to rival the U.S., Russia and Europe in space. Both China's space community and public have taken pride in the accomplishment, with some drawing comparisons to the United States.



China's space program lags America's, but has made great strides in the past 15 years, including manned flights and a space laboratory that is seen as a precursor to plans for a space station.



[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: China begins first surface exploration of moon's far side




Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2019-01-chinese-rover-powers-devices-moon.html#jCp


China broadcasts spacecraft pictures from moon's far side
January 11, 2019

[Image: 3-chinabroadca.jpg]
In this photo released by Xinhua News Agency, the screen at the Beijing Aerospace Control Center shows the lander of the Chang'e-4 probe, right, and the rover Yutu-2 (Jade Rabbit-2) taking photos of each other, Friday, Jan. 11, 2019. (Jin Liwang/Xinhua via AP)
China on Friday broadcast pictures taken by its rover and lander on the moon's far side, in what its space program hailed as another triumph for the groundbreaking mission to the less-understood sector of the lunar surface.




The pictures on state broadcaster CCTV showed the Jade Rabbit 2 rover and the Chang'e 4 spacecraft that transported it on the first-ever soft landing on the far side of the moon, which always faces away from Earth.

The pictures were transmitted by a relay satellite to a control center in Beijing, although it wasn't immediately clear when they were taken.

"The lander, its rover, and the relay satellite are all in a stable condition. They have reached the predetermined engineering goals, right now they are getting into the stage of scientific searches," Zhang Kejian, director of the China National Space Administration, said before engineers at the Beijing center.

"Now I declare that the Chang'e 4 mission, as a part of the Chang'e Lunar Exploration Program, has been a success," Zhang said.

Pictures transmitted back show a rocky surface with the jagged edge of craters in the background, posing a challenge for controllers in plotting the rover's future travels, the official Xinhua News Agency said.

Among the images is a 360-degree panorama stitched together from 80 photos taken by a camera on the lander after it released the rover onto the lunar surface, Xinhua said, citing Li Chunlai, deputy director of the National Astronomical Observatories of China and commander-in-chief of the ground application system of Chang'e 4.



[Image: 4-chinabroadca.jpg]
Technicians work at the Beijing Aerospace Control Center in Beijing Friday, Jan. 11, 2019. China on Friday broadcast pictures taken by its rover and lander on the moon's far side, in what its space program hailed as another triumph for the …more"From the panorama, we can see the probe is surrounded by lots of small craters, which was really thrilling," Li was quoted as saying.


The space administration also released a 12-minute video of Chang'e 4's landing utilizing more than 4,700 images taken by an on-board camera. The probe is shown adjusting its altitude, speed and pitch as it seeks to avoid obstacles on the ground.

Researchers hope that low-frequency observations of the cosmos from the far side of the moon, where radio signals from Earth are blocked, will help scientists learn more about the early days of the solar system and birth of the universe's first stars.

The far side has been observed many times from lunar orbits, but never explored on the surface. It is popularly called the "dark side" because it can't be seen from Earth and is relatively unknown, not because it lacks sunlight.

The pioneering landing highlights China's ambitions to rival the U.S., Russia and Europe in space through manned flights and the planned construction of a permanent space station.


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2019-01-china-spac...e.html#jCp
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#13
(01-05-2019, 03:10 AM)Keith Wrote:
Quote:China’s space exploration is a key part of its Made in China 2025 program, which involves attaining global leadership in space travel by the middle of the century
That's pretty ambitious for a program that's just now doing rovers..
I mean, we have private companies with more advanced and capable space programs now than China will have by mid century

Cry

NASA and China collaborate on Moon exploration
January 18, 2019 by Ivan Couronne

[Image: observations.jpg]
Observations gathered from the collaboration could help future missions to the Moon, pictured over Los Angeles in January 2018
The space agencies of the United States and China are coordinating efforts on Moon exploration, NASA said Friday, as it navigates a strict legal framework aimed at protecting national security and preventing technology transfer to China. Ninja




"With the required approval from Congress, NASA has been in discussions with China to explore the possibility of observing a signature of the landing plume of their lunar lander, Chang'e 4, using our @NASAMoon spacecraft's instrument," NASA's associate administrator for the science mission directorate, Thomas Zurbuchen, wrote on Twitter.

Zurbuchen's tweet confirmed a similar statement made Monday by the deputy chief commander of China Lunar Exploration Program, Wu Yanhua.

NASA shared information from a US satellite while China told the Americans about the latitude, longitude and time of the landing "in a timely manner," he said.

The hope was that NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) could observe the historic touchdown of the Chinese lander on January 3.

NASA provided the planned orbit path of LRO to China, but it turned out the spacecraft was not in the right place at the right time.

"For a number of reasons, NASA was not able to phase LRO's orbit to be at the optimal location during the landing, however NASA was still interested in possibly detecting the plume well after the landing," the agency said in a statement.

"Science gathered about how lunar dust is ejected upwards during a spacecraft's landing could inform future missions and how they arrive on the lunar surface."

Such observations could help astronauts prepare for future missions to the Moon.

NASA's lunar orbiter will pass over the Chang'e 4 landing site on January 31 and will snap pictures, as it did for the Chang'e 3 in 2013.

The agency said significant findings resulting from the cooperation would be shared with the global research community in February at a United Nations space gathering in Austria.

Risk of 'technology transfer'

Since 2011, the US Congress has barred NASA or the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy from using federal funds "to develop, design, plan, promulgate, implement or execute a bilateral policy, program, order, or contract of any kind to participate, collaborate, or coordinate bilaterally in any way with China or any Chinese-owned company."

Exceptions are possible, but NASA must convince Congress and the FBI that the activity would "pose no risk of resulting in the transfer of technology, data, or other information with national security or economic security implications to China or a Chinese-owned company."

The clause was inserted in a US spending bill after a wave of cyber-attacks that was traced to sources in China.

NASA said in its Friday statement that "all NASA data associated with this activity are publicly available," and that NASA's cooperation with China "is transparent, reciprocal and mutually beneficial."

Sino-US cooperation could extend beyond the current lunar project, according to Wu Weiren, chief designer of China's Lunar Exploration Program.

In an interview broadcast by state television CCTV on Sunday, he said NASA scientists had discussed a possible collaboration at an international conference "a few years ago," and that US scientists had asked to extend the lifespan of China's Queqiao relay satellite from three to five years to facilitate the planning of an American moon mission.

And why?

"Later, they said, feeling somewhat embarrassed, that they wanted to land on the far side of the moon too, so if we let (our relay satellite) operate longer they can also use it," he said.

The satellite in question aids in communications with a lander on the far side of the Moon.

NASA scientists had also discussed possibly placing a beacon on the Chang'e 4 probe, he added.

"If we put a beacon there, they also know where to land. I told them our Chang'e 4 can be used as a beacon for you in future," Wu said.

However the US restrictions "might be a much higher barrier to overcome" in ambitious cooperation projects such as a lunar research base that "might involve sharing of technological information," said Henry Hertzfeld, director of the Space Policy Institute at George Washington University.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: China says it exchanged data with NASA on far side of moon


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2019-01-nasa-china-collaborate-moon-mission.html#jCp
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#14
.



Chang'e 4 Rover comes into view
February 9, 2019, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

[Image: change4rover.jpg]
The Chang'e 4 rover is now visible to LROC! Just beyond the tip of the right arrow is the rover and the lander is to the right of the tip of the left arrow. The image appears blocky because it is enlarged 4x to make it easier to see the two …more
On Jan. 30 2019, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) acquired a spectacular limb shot centered on the Chang'e 4 landing site, looking across the floor of Von Kármán crater. At the time, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) was more than 200 kilometers from the landing site so Chang'e 4 was only a few pixels across and the rover was not discernable. The following day LRO was closer to the site and again slewed (59 degrees this time) to capture another view. This time the small Yutu-2 rover shows up (two pixels) just north of the lander. Also, shadows cast by the lander and rover are now visible.




At some time after the formation of Von Kármán crater, the crater floor was covered by eruptions of basaltic lava, similar to the eruptions in Hawaii last summer. Chang'e 4 will collect compositional measurements of these farside basaltic rocks, and lunar scientists are anxiously awaiting these results. Do volcanic rocks on the farside differ from the basalts collected from the nearside? We will have to wait and see!

A striking aspect of the floor of Von Kármán crater is the number and variety of impact craters. There is a high density of craters because the surface is more than 3 billion years old! During those 3 billion years, so many small craters (<200 meters (660 feet) in diameter) formed that when a new one forms, the total number of craters does not increase. 
[Image: source.gif]
This seemingly counterintuitive situation occurs because each new crater erases, on average, one older crater of comparable size, a state known as "equilibrium" to crater counting geologists.  Doh

For surfaces this old (in equilibrium), only larger craters (>1000 meters (3280 feet) diameter), which are not in equilibrium, continue to increase in density and can be used to estimate the age of the surface.

[Image: 1-change4rover.jpg]
Chang'e 4 lander (near tip of left arrow) and rover (near tip of right arrow) nestled among craters on the floor of Von Kármán crater. Image is 1700 meters (5580 feet) wide across the center, LROC NAC M1303570617. Credit: NASA/Goddard/Arizona State University
Note also all of the small craters that have formed on top of larger ones. Smaller impacts wear down and degrade larger craters over time. You can easily see a wide variety of crater degradation states, ranging from sharp and crisp (new) to highly degraded (old). As result of all of these impacts (small and large), the surface of the Moon consists of a very fine powder known as regolith, in which the Apollo astronauts made their distinct boot prints.

LROC is a system of three cameras mounted on LRO that capture high resolution photos of the lunar surface.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: First look: Chang'e lunar landing site

Provided by: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center [Image: img-dot.gif][Image: img-dot.gif]




Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2019-02-rover-view.html#jCp
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#15
Thanx for the catch !!!

Applause Applause


Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
Reply
#16
Ingredients for water could be made on surface of moon, a chemical factory

February 20, 2019, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

[Image: ingredientsf.jpg]
NASA scientists show how ingredients for water could be made on surface of moon, a chemical factory. Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center/Ernie Wright


When a stream of charged particles known as the solar wind careens onto the Moon's surface at 450 kilometers per second (or nearly 1 million miles per hour), they enrich the Moon's surface in ingredients that could make water, NASA scientists have found.




Using a computer program, scientists simulated the chemistry that unfolds when the solar wind pelts the Moon's surface. As the Sun streams protons to the Moon, they found, those particles interact with electrons in the lunar surface, making hydrogen (H) atoms. These atoms then migrate through the surface and latch onto the abundant oxygen (O) atoms bound in the silica (SiO2) and other oxygen-bearing molecules that make up the lunar soil, or regolith. Together, hydrogen and oxygen make the molecule hydroxyl (OH), a component of water, or H2O.

"We think of water as this special, magical compound," said William M. Farrell, a plasma physicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, who helped develop the simulation. "But here's what's amazing: every rock has the potential to make water, especially after being irradiated by the solar wind."

Understanding how much water—or its chemical components—is available on the Moon is critical to NASA's goal of sending humans to establish a permanent presence there, said Orenthal James Tucker, a physicist at Goddard who spearheaded the simulation research.

"We're trying to learn about the dynamics of transport of valuable resources like hydrogen around the lunar surface and throughout its exosphere, or very thin atmosphere, so we can know where to go to harvest those resources," said Tucker, who recently described the simulation results in the journal JGR Planets.

Several spacecraft used infrared instruments that measure light emitted from the Moon to identify the chemistry of its surface. These include NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft, which had numerous close encounters with the Earth-Moon system en route to comet 103P/Hartley 2; NASA's Cassini spacecraft, which passed the Moon on its way to Saturn; and India's Chandrayaan-1, which orbited the Moon a decade ago. All found evidence of water or its components (hydrogen or hydroxyl).

[Image: 1-ingredientsf.jpg]
The sun releases a constant stream of particles and magnetic fields called the solar wind. This solar wind slams worlds across the solar system with particles and radiation -- which can stream all the way to planetary surfaces unless …more
But how these atoms and compounds form on the Moon is still an open question. It's possible that meteor impacts initiate the necessary chemical reactions, but many scientists believe that the solar wind is the primary driver.



Tucker's simulation, which traces the lifecycle of hydrogen atoms on the Moon, supports the solar wind idea.

"From previous research, we know how much hydrogen is coming in from the solar wind, we also know how much is in the Moon's very thin atmosphere, and we have measurements of hydroxyl in the surface," Tucker said. "What we've done now is figure out how these three inventories of hydrogen are physically intertwined."

Showing how hydrogen atoms behave on the Moon helped resolve why spacecraft have found fluctuations in the amount of hydrogen in different regions of the Moon. Less hydrogen accumulates in warmer regions, like the Moon's equator, because hydrogen atoms deposited there get energized by the Sun and quickly outgas from the surface into the exosphere, the team concluded. Conversely, more hydrogen appears to accumulate in the colder surface near the poles because there's less Sun radiation and the outgassing is slowed.

Overall, Tucker's simulation shows that as solar wind continually blasts the Moon's surface, it breaks the bonds among atoms of silicon, iron and oxygen that make up the majority of the Moon's soil. This leaves oxygen atomswith unsatisfied bonds. As hydrogen atoms flow through the Moon's surface, they get temporarily trapped with the unhinged oxygen (longer in cold regions than in warm). They float from O to O before finally diffusing into the Moon's atmosphere, and, ultimately, into space. "The whole process is like a chemical factory," Farrell said.

A key ramification of the result, Farrell said, is that every exposed body of silica in space—from the Moon down to a small dust grain—has the potential to create hydroxyl and thus become a chemical factory for water.

More information: O. J. Tucker et al, Solar Wind Implantation Into the Lunar Regolith: Monte Carlo Simulations of H Retention in a Surface With Defects and the H 2 Exosphere, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets(2018). DOI: 10.1029/2018JE005805 

Provided by: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


Naughty  Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2019-02-ingredient...y.html#jCp  Naughty






Real reason for most of moon's atmosphere and water... Arrow

[Image: tumblr_mtepoeRgnq1r5f6yro1_r2_500.gif]

Earth's atmosphere stretches out to the moon – 
and beyond Holycowsmile
February 20, 2019 by Claudia Mignone, American Geophysical Union

[Image: earthsatmosp.jpg]
The extent of Earth’s geocorona. Where Earth’s atmosphere merges into outer space, there is a cloud of hydrogen atoms called the geocorona. Note: the illustration is not to scale. Credit: ESA


The gaseous layer that wraps around Earth reaches up to 630,000 kilometers away, or 50 times the diameter of our planet, according to a new study based on observations by the ESA/NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, SOHO, and published in AGU's Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics.




"The moon flies through Earth's atmosphere," says Igor Baliukin of Russia's Space Research Institute, lead author of the paper presenting the results. "We were not aware of it until we dusted off observations made over two decades ago by the SOHO spacecraft."

Where our atmosphere merges into outer space, there is a cloud of hydrogen atoms called the geocorona. One of the spacecraft instruments, SWAN, used its sensitive sensors to trace the hydrogen signature and precisely detect how far the very outskirts of the geocorona are. These observations could be done only at certain times of the year, when the Earth and its geocorona came into view for SWAN.

For planets with hydrogen in their exospheres, water vapor is often seen closer to their surface. That is the case for Earth, Mars and Venus.

"This is especially interesting when looking for planets with potential reservoirs of water beyond our solar system," explains Jean-Loup Bertaux, co-author and former principal investigator of SWAN.

The first telescope on the moon, placed by Apollo 16 astronauts in 1972, captured an evocative image of the geocorona surrounding Earth and glowing brightly in ultraviolet light.

"At that time, the astronauts on the lunar surface did not know that they were actually embedded in the outskirts of the geocorona," says Jean-Loup.



[Image: 1-earthsatmosp.jpg]
Earth’s geocorona from the moon. The Earth and its hydrogen envelope, or geocorona, as seen from the moon. This ultraviolet picture was taken in 1972 with a camera operated by Apollo 16 astronauts on the Moon. Credit: NASACloud of hydrogen


The sun interacts with hydrogen atoms through a particular wavelength of ultraviolet light called Lyman-alpha, which the atoms can both absorb and emit. Since this type of light is absorbed by Earth's atmosphere, it can only be observed from space.

Thanks to its hydrogen absorption cell, the SWAN instrument could selectively measure the Lyman-alpha light from the geocorona and discard hydrogen atoms further out in interplanetary space.



The new study revealed that sunlight compresses hydrogen atoms in the geocorona on Earth's dayside, and also produces a region of enhanced density on the night side. The denser dayside region of hydrogen is still rather sparse, with just 70 atoms per cubic centimeter at 60,000 kilometers above Earth's surface, and about 0.2 atoms at the moon's distance.

"On Earth we would call it vacuum, so this extra source of hydrogen is not significant enough to facilitate space exploration," says Igor. The good news is that these particles do not pose any threat for space travelers on future crewed missions orbiting the moon.

"There is also ultraviolet radiation associated to the geocorona, as the hydrogen atoms scatter sunlight in all directions, but the impact on astronauts in lunar orbit would be negligible compared to the main source of radiation – the sun," says Jean-Loup Bertaux.

On the down side, the Earth's geocorona could interfere with future astronomical observations performed in the vicinity of the moon.



[Image: 2-earthsatmosp.jpg]
SOHO observation of the geocorona. The intensity of hydrogen atom emission in the outermost part of Earth’s atmosphere, the geocorona, as measured by the SWAN instrument on board the ESA/NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, SOHO. Low …more"Space telescopes observing the sky in ultraviolet wavelengths to study the chemical composition of stars and galaxies would need to take this into account," adds Jean-Loup.


The power of archives

Launched in December 1995, the SOHO space observatory has been studying the sun, from its deep core to the outer corona and the solar wind, for over two decades. The satellite orbits around the first Lagrange point (L1), some 1.5 million kilometers from Earth towards the sun.

This location is a good vantage point to observe the geocorona from outside. SOHO's SWAN instrument imaged Earth and its extended atmosphere on three occasions between 1996 and 1998.

Jean-Loup and Igor's research team in Russia decided to retrieve this data set from the archives for further analysis. These unique views of the whole geocorona as seen from SOHO are now shedding new light on Earth's atmosphere.

"Data archived many years ago can often be exploited for new science," says Bernhard Fleck, ESA SOHO project scientist. "This discovery highlights the value of data collected over 20 years ago and the exceptional performance of SOHO."

Explore further: NASA's MAVEN spacecraft finds that 'stolen' electrons enable unusual aurora on Mars

More information: I. I. Baliukin et al. SWAN/SOHO Lyman-α mapping: the Hydrogen Geocorona Extends Well Beyond The Moon, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics (2019). DOI: 10.1029/2018JA026136 

Journal reference: Journal of Geophysical Research
Provided by: American Geophysical Union


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2019-02-earth-atmosphere-moon.html#jCp
Reply
#17
Astronomers Make Massive Discovery on the Far Side of the Moon

The heavy core of a giant asteroid may be buried beneath the moon’s South Pole-Aitken basin

[Image: mass_anomaly.png]

By Jason Daley
smithsonian.com
June 12, 2019


Planetary scientists have identified an abnormally massive area located deep below a crater on the moon’s far side. The lunar feature has a mass five times the size of Hawaii’s Big Island, but the exact reason why this anomaly exists in unclear, according to a new study in the journal Geophysical Research Letters.

The massive blob was discovered by researchers using data from NASA’s 2011 Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory, or GRAIL, mission and mapping information from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. By combining both datasets, researchers found that the abnormal mass is located 180 miles underneath the South Pole-Aitken basin, a huge four billion-year-old crater.

“[The South Pole-Aitken basin] one of the best natural laboratories for studying catastrophic impact events, an ancient process that shaped all of the rocky planets and moons we see today,” says study co-author Peter James, a planetary scientist at Baylor University, in a statement.

The 1,200-mile-wide crater was formed when some large space rock with a heavy metal core smashed into the lunar surface billions of years ago, as Maya Wei-Haas at National Geographic describes. When that happened, the asteroid drilled through layers of the moon's crust while losing mass of its own. Molten rock partially refilled the impact area, melting chunks of the asteroid's busted metal core along the way. James explains that today, metal from the asteroid’s core could still be embedded in the lunar mantle, causing the extra mass.

Providing more evidence for this theory, there appears to be what’s called a central depression on the basin's floor. The oval-shaped depression is about half a mile deeper than the rest of the crater, suggesting that something beneath it has enough gravitational pull to tug the area inward.

“That’s a huge result,” lunar geologist Daniel Moriarty of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center tells Wei-Haas. “It really gives us a hint of what’s going on in the lunar interior.”

James and his team are gearing up to continue analyzing the crater. Others are excited as well. “As an impact modeler, it’s very exciting,” says Brandon Johnson, a planetary scientist at Brown University who was not involved in the new study, tells Wei-Haas. “I can’t wait to possibly get started working on this.”

We’re already getting a few clues about the ancient goings-on at the South Pole-Aitken basin from other sources, too. Just last month, researchers released data showing that China’s Chang’e-4 mission to the far side, which explored part of the basin in January, may have found rocks from the moon’s mantle on the surface, which could give scientists new insights into the processes that formed the moon.


Source: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-new...KEE5ICQ.99

So the SOUTH pole is interesting and that is where CHINA landed, still working far as I know.

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
Reply
#18
JULY 18, 2019
China's plans to solve the mysteries of the moon
by Chinese Academy of Sciences
[Image: 2-moon.jpg]Credit: CC0 Public Domain
Fifty years ago, on July 20, 1969, the world watched as Neil Armstrong walked on the Moon. Since then, space agencies around the globe have sent rovers to Mars, probes to the furthest reaches of our galaxy and beyond, yet humanity's curiosity and fascination with the Moon has never abated.

China, in collaboration with several countries, is now at the forefront of lunar exploration. In an article published on July 18 in Science, researchers laid out what the China Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP) has accomplished since their launch in 2007 and their plans into the next three decades.
"Fifty years after Neil Armstrong took, 'one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind' as the first human to set foot on the Moon, China's CE-4 lander and Yutu 2 rover left the footprints of humanity's first robotic visit to the surface of the far side of the Moon," said Li Chunlai, article author and the Deputy Director-General of National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academies of Science (NAOC).
The exploration of the far side of the Moon led to the unexpected discovery of possible lunar mantle material on the surface—a potential indicator of the severity of asteroid impacts in the early days of the Moon. The Chinese missions also led to the highest resolution global image and topographic data of the Moon to date.
"CLEP has brought Chinese lunar science to a great stage of development," Li said, noting the program has pushed technology forward with regard to lunar remote sensing, lunar geomorphology and lunar geology.
CLEP's next mission is set to launch in early 2020. Dubbed Chang'E 5 for the Chinese moongoddess, the goal of this mission is to collect lunar rock and soil that will be sent to Earth in a sample-return vehicle. It'll be the first sample-return mission of any country since 1976. This technological advancement—bringing samples to Earth—signals the third phase of CLEP.
Li and his team hope these developments will eventually translate to great strides in scientific application through a Lunar Scientific Research Station. The plan is to have the station in place by 2030 to carry out technical verification and scientific validation of various experiments, with the ultimate goal of hosting astronauts for long-term stays on the Moon.
First, though, there's work to be done. CLEP's planned lunar exploration and scientific studies would be significantly limited by current technology, according to Li. While China has made remarkable progress through CLEP, international collaboration is critical for the next phase of lunar exploration.
"The Moon belongs to all of us. Just as the Apollo program played a positive role in promoting the development of human society, China will work with countries around the world in its forward-looking lunar and deep space exploration projects," Li said. "We hope to cooperate with other countries in the exploration, research and utilization of the Moon to jointly create a better future for humanity through achievements in space science and technology."


[size=undefined]

Explore further
Lunar eclipse marks Moon landing's 50th anniversary[/size]


[size=undefined]
More information: China's present and future lunar exploration program, Science (2019). DOI: 10.1126/science.aax9908
Journal information: Science [/url]

Provided by [url=https://phys.org/partners/chinese-academy-of-sciences/]Chinese Academy of Sciences
[/size]

[size=undefined]https://phys.org/news/2019-07-china-mysteries-moon.html[/size]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#19
"probes to the furthest reaches of our galaxy"

Thats new to me, I thought we had not yet left this solar system.
Reply
#20
#5
1 minute ago (This post was last modified: Less than 1 minute ago by EA.)

Lunacy.  [Image: arrow.png] [Image: giphy.gif]

Moon is now older and wiser.
[/url]
JULY 29, 2019
Study shows that the Moon is older than previously believed
by 
University of Cologne
[Image: continuingth.jpg]This sample is an ilmenite basalt collected during Apollo 12. It has glass on it, deposited by the splash of material when another basalt was struck by an impactor. Samples like 12054 allow us to reconstruct the history of the Moon with the stories they tell. Credit: Maxwell Thiemens, 2019
A new study spearheaded by Earth scientists at the University of Cologne's Institute of Geology and Mineralogy has constrained the age of the Moon to approximately 50 million years after the formation of the solar system. After the formation of the solar system, 4.56 billion years ago, the Moon formed approximately 4.51 billion years ago. The new study has thus determined that the Moon is significantly older than previously believed—earlier research had estimated the Moon to have formed approximately 150 million years after solar system's formation. To achieve these results, the scientists analysed the chemical composition of a diverse range of samples collected during the Apollo missions. The study "Early Moon formation inferred from hafnium-tungsten systematics' was published in Nature Geoscience.

On 21 July 1969, mankind took its first steps on another celestial body. In their few hours on the lunar surface, the crew of Apollo 11 collected and brought back to Earth 21.55 kg of samples. Almost exactly 50 years later, these samples are still teaching us about key events of the early solar system and the history of the Earth-Moon system. Determining the age of the Moon is also important to understand how and at which time the Earth formed, and how it evolved at the very beginning of the solar system.
This study focuses on the chemical signatures of different types of lunar samples collected by the different Apollo missions. "By comparing the relative amounts of different elements in rocks that formed at different times, it is possible to learn how each sample is related to the lunar interior and the solidification of the magma ocean," says Dr. Raúl Fonseca from the University of Cologne, who studies processes that occurred in the Moon's interior in laboratory experiments together with his colleague Dr. Felipe Leitzke.
The Moon likely formed in the aftermath of a giant collision between a Mars-sized planetary body and the early Earth. Over time, the Moon accreted from the cloud of material blasted into Earth's orbit. The newborn Moon was covered in a magma ocean, which formed different types of rocks as it cooled. "These rocks recorded information about the formation of the Moon, and can still be found today on the lunar surface," says Dr. Maxwell Thiemens, former University of Cologne researcher and lead author of the study. Dr. Peter Sprung, co-author of the study, adds: "Such observations are not possible on Earth anymore, as our planet has been geologically active over time. The Moon thus provides a unique opportunity to study planetary evolution."
The Cologne scientists used the relationship between the rare elements hafnium, uranium and tungsten as a probe to understand the amount of melting that occurred to generate the mare basalts, i.e., the black regions on the lunar surface. Owing to an unprecedented measurement precision, the study could identify distinct trends amongst the different suites of rocks, which now allows for a better understanding of the behaviour of these key rare elements.
Studying hafnium and tungsten on the Moon are particularly important because they constitute a natural radioactive clock of the isotope hafnium-182 decaying into tungsten-182. This radioactive decay only lasted for the first 70 million years of the solar system. By combining the hafnium and tungsten information measured in the Apollo samples with information from laboratory experiments, the study finds that the Moon already started solidifying as early as 50 million years after solar system formed. "This age information means that any giant impact had to occur before that time, which answers a fiercely debated question amongst the scientific community regarding when the Moon formed," adds Professor Dr. Carsten Münker from the UoC's Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, senior author of the study.
Maxwell Thiemens concludes: "Mankind's first steps on another world exactly 50 years ago yielded samples which let us understand the timing and evolution of the Moon. As the Moon's formation was the final major planetary event after Earth's formation, the age of the Moon provides a minimum age for Earth as well."


[size=undefined]

Explore further
Apollo moon rocks help transform understanding of the universe[/size]


[size=undefined]
More information: Maxwell M. Thiemens et al. Early Moon formation inferred from hafnium–tungsten systematics. Nature Geoscience (2019 
DOI: doi.org/10.1038/s41561-019-0398-3
Journal information: Nature Geoscience [/url]

Provided by 
University of Cologne
[/size][url=<br /><br /><font color=#0072bc data-scefontsize=undefined size=0 href=https://phys.org/news/2019-07-moon-older-previously-believed.html]

[size=undefined]https://phys.org/news/2019-07-moon-older...ieved.html[/size]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply


Forum Jump:


Users browsing this thread: 1 Guest(s)