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"wisdom" To The Moon. Chandrayaan 2 Vikram lander / Pragyaan rover.orbituary
#1
[Image: chandrayaan2_art1-326x245.jpg]
India seeks to join exclusive company with ambitious moon mission
July 13, 2019
India’s ambitious $142 million Chandrayaan 2 moon mission, comprising a orbiter, lander and rover, is set for liftoff Sunday to begin a nearly two-month transit culminating in a touchdown near the lunar south pole in September.



Indian moon launch rescheduled for Monday
July 18, 2019 Stephen Clark
[Image: D_bR-5wUcAALd_8.jpeg][img=719x0]https://mk0spaceflightnoa02a.kinstacdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/D_bR-5wUcAALd_8.jpeg[/img]The GSLV Mk.3 launcher awaiting liftoff with the Chandrayaan 2 lunar mission. Credit: ISRO
India’s robotic Chandrayaan 2 moon mission is set for liftoff Monday after a technical snag last weekend halted the launch from a spaceport on the Indian coast, ISRO said Thursday.
The three-piece moon mission, comprising an orbiter, lander and rover, was set for blastoff last Sunday aboard India’s GSLV Mk.3 rocket. But a technical problem on the GSLV Mk.3’s cryogenic upper stage forced officials to call off the launch in the final hour of the countdown.
Reports from Indian media suggested the problem, apparently related to the cryogenic stage’s helium pressurization system, proved relatively easy to fix.
The Indian Space Research Organization announced the new target launch date in a tweet early Thursday. ISRO faces a short launch window to get the Chandrayaan 2 mission off the ground, and still have time for the spacecraft to reach its planned landing site in early September.
Liftoff is set for 0913 GMT (5:13 a.m. EDT) Monday from the Satish Dhawan Space Center, located on Sriharikota Island on India’s southeastern coast around 50 miles (80 kilometers) north of Chennai.
Around 16 minutes after liftoff, the 142-foot-tall (43.4-meter) GSLV Mk.3 rocket will loft the Chandrayaan 2 spacecraft into an elliptical orbit around Earth, ranging as high as 24,000 miles (39,000 kilometers) at its farthest point.
[Image: chandrayaan2_diagram.jpg][img=719x0]https://mk0spaceflightnoa02a.kinstacdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/chandrayaan2_diagram.jpg[/img]The Chandrayaan 2 spacecraft will launch with its orbiter and lander sections attached together. Once in lunar orbit, the two segments will split apart to conduct their separate missions. Credit: ISRO
Chandrayaan 2 will use its own propulsion system to raise its orbit over the following weeks, eventually flying high enough to intercept the moon next month. The spacecraft will conduct a series of rocket burns to first slip into orbit around the moon, the lower its altitude to reach a 62-mile-high (100-kilometer) orbit before separating the lander module to begin a descent to the lunar surface.
For a July 14 launch, mission planners designed a transit lasting 53 or 54 days from liftoff until touchdown of Chandrayaan 2’s Vikram lander near the lunar south pole.
ISRO has not announced any change to Chandrayaan 2’s landing date, which was scheduled for Sept. 6 or 7. Officials could shorten the transit time by reducing the number of orbits during Chandrayaan 2’s orbit-raising phase around Earth, and the spacecraft could spend less time in lunar orbit before releasing the lander.
A landing in early September is required to ensure Chandrayaan 2’s Vikram lander touches down soon after sunrise at the landing site in the moon’s southern highlands. The solar-powered lander and its mobile rover are designed to function for about 14 days, the time the sun spends above the horizon on the moon.
The Chandrayaan 2 mission could target a landing date later this year, but that could require a launch delay of weeks or months.
The Chandrayaan 2 orbiter, fitted with its own scientific instruments, is designed for a mission of at least one year. Among other scientific tasks, the orbiter will take high-resolution images of the moon and use a dual-frequency radar to help identify water ice deposits inside the moon’s permanently-shadowed polar craters.
India is aiming to become the fourth nation to successful accomplish a soft-landing on the moon, after landings by the Soviet Union, the United States and China.


https://spaceflightnow.com/2019/07/18/in...or-monday/
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#2
Good Luck to India Applause


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#3
...

I agree, the best of luck for the India space program to the moon.
They provide excellent competition for the Chinese.
The India space program isn't a warm and fuzzy civilian enterprise with cool corporate heroes Nonono
It is a military defense imperative apparently.

The Global Security Research article on India defense is quite good.

https://www.globalsecurity.org/space/wor...litary.htm

Quote:India began its unmanned RISAT-2 spacecraft based radar imaging program,
with the April 20, 2009 launch,
of the all-weather Israeli radar imaging surveillance program satellite TecSAR,
they had purchased for $200 million. 
This is to be utilized to address defense border security issues for India. 
This RISAT-2 and the new in development dedicated Military Naval Satellite, 
as well as in development RECSAT for India herald a new era for India.

Pushed by Indian immediate national security concerns,
that it not fall behind in intelligence surveillance advantage operational issues,
has sparked the Indian governments actions,
and its military with its security requirements responsibility on these programs. 

Literally wartime like emergency requirements Whip
was applied to get this program moving on the path to launch as quickly as possible.

This is in addition to their new higher resolution daylight imaging spacecraft launched in 2008 

and the existing low and medium resolution remote sensing satellites 
already being utilized by Indian Intelligence organization for the State and military.



March 27
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-india...SKCN1R80IA

Modi hails India as military space power after anti-satellite missile test

Quote:India shot down one of its own satellites in low-Earth orbit
with a ground-to-space missile on Wednesday, 
Prime Minister Narendra Modi said, 
hailing his country’s first test of such weaponry as a breakthrough establishing it as a military space power.

India would be the fourth country to have used such an anti-satellite weapon,
after the United States, Russia and China, 
according to Modi, who heads into general elections next month.

“Our scientists shot down a live satellite 300 kilometers away in space, in low-Earth orbit,” 
Modi said in a television broadcast.

“India has made an unprecedented achievement today,” he added, speaking in Hindi. 
“India registered its name as a space power.”

Anti-satellite weapons permit attacks on enemy satellites, 
blinding them or disrupting communications, 
as well as providing a technology base for intercepting ballistic missiles.

Acting U.S. Defense Secretary Patrick Shanahan warned that the use of anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons, 

like the one India tested on Wednesday, 

risk making a “mess” in space  Tp

due to the debris fields Stars they can leave behind.

The U.S. military’s Strategic Command was tracking more than 250 pieces of debris, ...

A ballistic missile defense interceptor,
produced by the government’s Defence Research and Development Organisation,
was used to shoot down the satellite, the foreign ministry said.

The three-minute test in the low-Earth orbit, 
ensured there was no debris in space,
and the remnants would “decay and fall back on to the Earth within weeks,” 
the ministry added.

But Jeffrey Lewis of the Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey, 
said the risk of fragments hitting other objects in space remained.

“One of the big risks of a hit-to-kill ASAT (anti-satellite weapon) is that it shatters the target, 
leaving a cloud of lethal debris that threatens other satellites. 
In an extreme scenario, 
there is even a risk of ‘collisional cascading’ in which one breakup triggers others in a chain reaction.”

“While tests can be arranged to minimize this risk,
 any operational use of such a system in war poses a real threat Whip
to all satellites in orbit at similar altitude.”



You know it is coming.
The near space skies will be filled with space trash just like the oceans.
 Nonetheless anything India does in space is directly attached to the military defense initiative.


https://www.business-standard.com/articl...627_1.html
Modi govt approves new agency to develop space warfare weapon systems

Quote:With the aim of enhancing the capabilities of the armed forces to fight wars in space, 
the government has approved the setting up of a new agency,
which will develop sophisticated weapon systems and technologies for the purpose.

"The Cabinet Committee on Security headed by Prime Minister Narendra Modi 
has cleared the setting up of this new agency
called the Defence Space Whistle Research Agency (DSRO)  

which has been entrusted with the task of creating space warfare weapon systems and technologies," 
sources in the Defence Ministry told ANI.
The decision was taken at the topmost level by the government,

some time ago, and the agency has started taking shape under a Joint Secretary-level scientist.


...
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#4
LilD

JULY 22, 2019
Proud India launches historic bid to put spacecraft on Moon
by Arun Sankar
[Image: thelaunchofc.jpg]The launch of Chandrayaan-2, or Moon Chariot 2, was broadcast live on TV
India on Monday launched a low-cost rocket on a historic bid to put a landing craft on the surface of the Moon and join an elite space force.

A week after an initial launch was halted just before blast-off, Chandrayaan-2—or Moon Chariot 2—took off from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre carrying national pride and the hopes of Indian scientists.
India is seeking to become just the fourth nation after Russia, the United States and China to land a spacecraft on the Moon. If the rest of the mission goes to plan, the Indian probe will land on the lunar South Pole in early September.
"Every Indian is immensely proud today!," tweeted Prime Minister Narendra Modi, who has vowed to send a manned mission into orbit by 2022.
"Special moments that will be etched in the annals of our glorious history!"
There were applause, handshakes and hugs in the mission control room as the rocket blasted off from the base on an island just off the coast of Andra Pradesh state.
President Ram Nath Kovind watched the launch alongside 7,000 dignitaries and flag-waving children, with the crowd bursting into cheers at the spectacle.
"Today is a historic day for space, science and tech in India," Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) chief K. Sivan said as he hailed the efforts made to fix a fuel leak that forced the earlier launch to be postponed.
[Image: indiasmoonmi.jpg]

India's Chandrayaan-2 mission to the Moon, rescheduled for launch on Monday, July 22
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India was also hailed by its international counterparts. The US state department said on Twitter that the launch was "an incredible achievement!" while the European Space Agency sent congratulations.
Shooting for the Moon
Chandrayaan-2 was launched on India's most powerful rocket, the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) MkIII. It carried an orbiter, a lander and a rover almost entirely designed and made in India.
The country's love affair with the film industry saw the media dub the rocket "Baahubali" after one of India's most popular screen heroes, known for his ability to lift heavy items.
Sivan said the mission's next stage would be critical to its success, with scientists set to conduct some 15 crucial manoeuvres of Chandrayaan-2 over the next month-and-a-half to position it around the moon.
"After that, D-day will come—and that day we are going to experience 15 minutes of terror to ensure that the landing is safe," he said.

The lander—named after Vikram A. Sarabhai, the father of India's space programme—will carry the rover to near the lunar South Pole.
[Image: chandrayaan2.jpg][/size]

India's Chandrayaan-2 mission to the Moon, rescheduled for launch on Monday, July 22
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ISRO scientists will remotely control the rover named Pragyaan—"wisdom" in Sanskrit—as it carries out experiments. It will work for one lunar day, the equivalent of 14 Earth days, studying rocks and soil on the Moon's surface.
Small budget, giant result
The 2.4-tonne (5,300-pound) orbiter is expected to circle the Moon for about a year, taking images of the surface, looking for signs of water, and studying the atmosphere.
Chandrayaan-2 stands out because of its low cost, with some $140 million spent on preparations for the mission—a much smaller price tag compared with similar missions by other countries.
The United States—which is marking the 50th anniversary of Neil Armstrong becoming the first human on the Moon—spent the equivalent of more than $100 billion on its Apollo missions.
India also hopes to seek out lucrative commercial satellite and orbiting deals.
The new mission comes almost 11 years after the launch of India's first lunar mission—Chandrayaan-1—which orbited the Moon and searched for water.[/size]


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'Stronger than ever': India set for fresh Moon launch attempt[/size]


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#5
Lunacy.  Arrow [Image: giphy.gif]

Moon is now older and wiser.
[/url]
JULY 29, 2019
Study shows that the Moon is older than previously believed
by 
University of Cologne
[Image: continuingth.jpg]This sample is an ilmenite basalt collected during Apollo 12. It has glass on it, deposited by the splash of material when another basalt was struck by an impactor. Samples like 12054 allow us to reconstruct the history of the Moon with the stories they tell. Credit: Maxwell Thiemens, 2019
A new study spearheaded by Earth scientists at the University of Cologne's Institute of Geology and Mineralogy has constrained the age of the Moon to approximately 50 million years after the formation of the solar system. After the formation of the solar system, 4.56 billion years ago, the Moon formed approximately 4.51 billion years ago. The new study has thus determined that the Moon is significantly older than previously believed—earlier research had estimated the Moon to have formed approximately 150 million years after solar system's formation. To achieve these results, the scientists analysed the chemical composition of a diverse range of samples collected during the Apollo missions. The study "Early Moon formation inferred from hafnium-tungsten systematics' was published in Nature Geoscience.

On 21 July 1969, mankind took its first steps on another celestial body. In their few hours on the lunar surface, the crew of Apollo 11 collected and brought back to Earth 21.55 kg of samples. Almost exactly 50 years later, these samples are still teaching us about key events of the early solar system and the history of the Earth-Moon system. Determining the age of the Moon is also important to understand how and at which time the Earth formed, and how it evolved at the very beginning of the solar system.
This study focuses on the chemical signatures of different types of lunar samples collected by the different Apollo missions. "By comparing the relative amounts of different elements in rocks that formed at different times, it is possible to learn how each sample is related to the lunar interior and the solidification of the magma ocean," says Dr. Raúl Fonseca from the University of Cologne, who studies processes that occurred in the Moon's interior in laboratory experiments together with his colleague Dr. Felipe Leitzke.
The Moon likely formed in the aftermath of a giant collision between a Mars-sized planetary body and the early Earth. Over time, the Moon accreted from the cloud of material blasted into Earth's orbit. The newborn Moon was covered in a magma ocean, which formed different types of rocks as it cooled. "These rocks recorded information about the formation of the Moon, and can still be found today on the lunar surface," says Dr. Maxwell Thiemens, former University of Cologne researcher and lead author of the study. Dr. Peter Sprung, co-author of the study, adds: "Such observations are not possible on Earth anymore, as our planet has been geologically active over time. The Moon thus provides a unique opportunity to study planetary evolution."
The Cologne scientists used the relationship between the rare elements hafnium, uranium and tungsten as a probe to understand the amount of melting that occurred to generate the mare basalts, i.e., the black regions on the lunar surface. Owing to an unprecedented measurement precision, the study could identify distinct trends amongst the different suites of rocks, which now allows for a better understanding of the behaviour of these key rare elements.
Studying hafnium and tungsten on the Moon are particularly important because they constitute a natural radioactive clock of the isotope hafnium-182 decaying into tungsten-182. This radioactive decay only lasted for the first 70 million years of the solar system. By combining the hafnium and tungsten information measured in the Apollo samples with information from laboratory experiments, the study finds that the Moon already started solidifying as early as 50 million years after solar system formed. "This age information means that any giant impact had to occur before that time, which answers a fiercely debated question amongst the scientific community regarding when the Moon formed," adds Professor Dr. Carsten Münker from the UoC's Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, senior author of the study.
Maxwell Thiemens concludes: "Mankind's first steps on another world exactly 50 years ago yielded samples which let us understand the timing and evolution of the Moon. As the Moon's formation was the final major planetary event after Earth's formation, the age of the Moon provides a minimum age for Earth as well."


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Apollo moon rocks help transform understanding of the universe[/size]


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More information: Maxwell M. Thiemens et al. Early Moon formation inferred from hafnium–tungsten systematics. Nature Geoscience (2019 
DOI: doi.org/10.1038/s41561-019-0398-3
Journal information: Nature Geoscience 

Provided by [url=https://phys.org/partners/university-of-cologne/]University of Cologne[/size]


[size=undefined]https://phys.org/news/2019-07-moon-older...ieved.html[/size]
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#6
Does this answer HOW the Moon got tidal-locked precisely for one facing Earth always and diameter to ALWAYS allow for Lunar and Solar eclipses down here on Earth ?

And the Flat Fact that the Moon has less mass than it should have and 'rings like a belll' .

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
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#7
AUGUST 20, 2019
India's Moon probe enters lunar orbit

[Image: 2-chandrayaan2.jpg]Chandrayaan 2, or Moon Chariot 2, lifted off from India's spaceport at Sriharikota in southern Andhra Pradesh state on July 22
India's Chandrayaan 2 spacecraft entered lunar orbit on Tuesday, executing one of the trickiest manoeuvres on its historic mission to the Moon.

After four weeks in space, the craft completed its Lunar Orbit Insertion as planned, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) said in a statement.
The insertion "was completed successfully today at 0902 hrs IST (0332 GMT) as planned, using the onboard propulsion system. The duration of manoeuver was 1738 seconds," the national space agency said.
India is seeking to become just the fourth nation after Russia, the United States and China to land a spacecraft on the Moon.
If the rest of the mission goes to plan, the Indian probe will land on the lunar South Pole on September 7.
To enter the final orbit over the lunar poles, Chandrayaan 2 will undergo four more similar manoeuvres, with the next scheduled for Wednesday.
ISRO chief K. Sivan said the manoeuvre was a key milestone for the mission, adding he was hoping for a perfect landing next month.
"On September 7, the lander will land on the moon. Whatever is humanly possible, has been done by us," Sivan told reporters.
Tuesday's insertion was one of the trickiest operations in the mission because if the satellite had approached the Moon at a higher velocity it would have bounced off and got lost in deep space.
And had it approached at a slow velocity, the Moon's gravity would have pulled it in, causing a crash.
Heart-stopping moments
"The approach velocity had to be just right and the altitude over the moon precise. Even a small error would have killed the mission," Sivan said.
"Our heartbeats increased... for 30 minutes, our hearts almost stopped."
Chandrayaan 2, or Moon Chariot 2, lifted off from India's spaceport at Sriharikota in southern Andhra Pradesh state on July 22.
The spacecraft used in the mission comprises an orbiter, a lander and a rover almost entirely designed and made in India. The orbiter has a mission life of a year and will take images of the lunar surface.
ISRO says the mission will help scientists to better understand the origin and evolution of the Moon by conducting detailed topographical studies, mineral analyses and a host of other experiments.
About $140 million was spent on preparations for the probe's mission—a much smaller price tag compared to similar operations by other countries.
It was launched on India's most powerful rocket, the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) MkIII.
The lift-off was successful in its second attempt, a week after it was aborted just under an hour from its launch due to a technical glitch.
India's first lunar mission in 2008—Chandrayaan-1—did not land on the Moon, but carried out a search for water using radar.
A soft landing on the Moon would be a huge leap forward in India's space programme, with Prime Minister Narendra Modi determined to launch a manned mission into space by 2022.
India also has ambitions to land a probe on Mars. In 2014, India became only the fourth nation to put a satellite into orbit around the Red Planet.


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#8
India’s first attempt to land on the moon appears to end in failure
September 6, 2019 Stephen Clark

If you would like to see more articles like this please support our coverage of the space program by becoming a [b]Spaceflight Now Member[/b]. If everyone who enjoys our website helps fund it, we can expand and improve our coverage further.


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[url=https://spaceflightnow.com/2019/09/06/indias-first-attempt-to-land-on-the-moon-appears-to-end-in-failure/#]
[b]EDITOR’S NOTE: Updated at 11 p.m. EDT (0300 GMT) with Modi comments.[/b]
[img=735x0]https://mk0spaceflightnoa02a.kinstacdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/chandrayaan2_mcc.jpg[/img]A member of the Chandrayaan 2 team reacts after contact with the Vikram lander was lost Friday. Credit: ISRO
Ground teams lost communication with India’s first lunar landing mission moments before its scheduled touchdown on the moon Friday, and the robotic research craft apparently crashed during final descent.
The Indian Space Research Organization, or ISRO, said controllers lost contact with the Vikram lander in the final minutes of its descent to a landing site near the moon’s south pole.
A live broadcast from the lander control center in Bengaluru showed tension rising as the spacecraft neared the lunar surface, with excitement turning to despondency after engineers unexpectedly lost their radio link with Vikram.
India was seeking to become the fourth country to achieve a soft landing on the moon, following successes by the former Soviet Union, the United States and China.
The Vikram lander, part of India’s multi-part Chandrayaan 2 mission, was steering toward a landing zone at 70.9 degrees south latitude on the near side of the moon. Touchdown was set for 4:23 p.m. EDT (2023 GMT) Friday.
The spacecraft’s targeted landing site was closer to the moon’s south pole than any previous mission.
Indian prime minister Narendra Modi observed the landing attempt from a gallery overlooking the Chandrayaan 2 control center in Bengaluru.
Video from the live broadcast showed K. Sivan, ISRO’s chairman, meeting with Modi soon after teams lost contact with Vikram, apparently briefing the prime minister on the status of the landing attempt.

Quote:Somber scenes inside India’s Chandrayaan 2 control center after teams lost communication with the Vikram moon lander. https://t.co/QL0rCdshIS pic.twitter.com/kjVBb7e3Mb
— Spaceflight Now (@SpaceflightNow) September 6, 2019

Vikram, named for the father of India’s space program, was in the final stages of a 15-minute powered descent to the moon’s surface when teams lost contact with the spacecraft.
“The Vikram lander descent was as planned, and normal performance was observed up to an altitude of 2.1 kilometers (1.3 miles),” Sivan said in the control center after briefing Modi. “Subsequently, the communications from the lander to the ground station was lost. The data is being analyzed.”
Modi later visited ISRO teams, telling them to “be courageous” before meeting with Indian students invited to witness the landing at the control center.
The somber mood inside the Chandrayaan 2 control center mirrored the appearance of Israeli engineers in April, when the Beresheet lander crashed during an attempt to become the first privately-funded spacecraft to safely land on the moon.
The Indian prime minister returned to the control center Bengaluru several hours later to address the nation.
“We came very close, but we will need to cover more ground in the times to come,” Modi said. “Every Indian is filled with a spirit of pride as well as confidence. We are proud of our space program and scientists. Their hard work and determination has ensured a better life, not only for our citizens, but also for other nations … India is suffering, but there will be many more opportunities to be proud and rejoice.
When it comes to our space program, the best is yet to come,” Modi continued. “There are new frontiers to discover and new places to go … To our scientists, I want to say India is with you.”
India’s landing attempt Friday was the third try to put a spacecraft on the moon’s surface this year. Before Beresheet’s failed landing in April, China successfully landed the Chang’e 4 spacecraft on the far side of the moon in January.
The Vikram lander ignited four of its retrorockets as designed at 4:07 p.m. EDT (2007 GMT) to begin a pre-programmed descent sequence expected to last more than 15 minutes. The braking rockets were designed to slow Vikram’s horizontal velocity from 3,600 mph (1.6 kilometers per second) to zero in preparation for landing.
[img=735x0]https://mk0spaceflightnoa02a.kinstacdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/vikram_art1.jpg[/img]Artist’s illustration of the Vikram lander during descent. Credit: ISRO
The four throttleable liquid-fueled engines fired for 11 minutes, apparently as designed, to complete the Vikram lander’s “rough braking phase” guiding the craft to an altitude of around 24,000 feet, or 7.4 kilometers. Then Vikram was supposed to use a laser altimeter and hazard avoidance camera to scan the lunar surface, providing inputs to the spacecraft’s navigation computer to control its descent rate.
Vikram was then supposed to head for an altitude of around 1,300 feet (400 meters), before proceeding down to 330 feet (100 meters). The four-legged spacecraft was programmed to hover momentarily to allow its landing sensors to identify a safe, flat, boulder-free landing site before beginning the final descent.
A center engine was scheduled to ignite at an altitude of approximately 42 feet (13 meters) to control the final seconds of the landing, a measure intended to reduce the amount of dust kicked up as Vikram reached the lunar surface.
But the loss of communication suggested something went wrong during the final minutes of Vikram’s descent. ISRO did not offer any additional details on the fate of the lander in immediate hours after the preset landing time.
Less than half of the attempts to land on the moon since the dawn of the Space Age have been successful.
In a press conference before Vikram’s descent, Sivan said he was confident in a smooth landing.
“One good thing is we are learning from their failures,” he said.
“We have the confidence in this landing mission,” Sivan said before the landing attempt. “We are confident because we have enough testing, enough simulations. All the subsystem- and system-level, sensor-level, thruster-level, all the simulations here are done. We are confident that anything humanly possible, we did.
“But at the same time, it’s a new mission,” he said. “It’s a terrifiying moment for us.”
[img=735x0]https://mk0spaceflightnoa02a.kinstacdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/chandrayaan2orbiter.jpg[/img]Artist’s concept of the Chandrayaan 2 lunar orbiter. Credit: ISRO
The Chandrayaan 2 mission launched July 22 from a spaceport on India’s southeastern coast, and it arrived in orbit around the moon Aug. 20. The Chandrayaan 2 mission’s orbiter module, which will image and study the moon from an altitude of around 62 miles (100 kilometers), separated from the mission’s Vikram lander Monday at 0745 GMT (3:45 a.m. EDT).
The Vikram lander then fired its rocket thrusters to maneuver into a lower orbit that ranges between 21 miles (35 kilometers) and 62 miles (101 kilometers) above the moon’s surface.
The maneuvers set up Vikram to begin its final 15-minute powered descent Friday.
“From that time onward, the entire thing will be decided by the Chandrayaan 2 lander only,” Sivan said before the landing attempt. “When the lander is coming down, it will take images of the place, and it will compare with the image of what we stored on-board. It will find a flat surface, it will re-target, it will hover for some time, and it will decide where to land, and it will land. It will land autonomously in an intelligent way.”
The lander measured about 8.3 feet (2.5 meters) tall and 6.6 feet (2 meters) wide, and it carried a 59-pound (27-kilogram) rover named Pragyan, the Sanskrit word for “wisdom.”
The Pragyan rover was expected to drive off a ramp onto the lunar surface a few hours after Vikram’s landing. Pragyan was designed to study the composition of rocks and soil at the landing site, while Vikram was to take panoramic images and conduct its own experiments.
“We have payload systems on the orbiter, and some are on the lander, and some are on the rover,” Sivan said. “Mainly these will be looking at rock-forming elements … mapping of rock-forming elements like magnesium, aluminum, calcium, iron. That is one study.
“Another one is the mapping of minerals and water,” he said. “Then another scientific study is the study of the exosphere. The atmosphere is very, very mild. Then, at the place where the lander is landing, what is the seismic activity there? Another thing is after landing, a probe will go into the lunar surface and study the thermal characteristics and thermal conductivity.”
A NASA-provided laser retroreflector was also aboard the Vikram lander.
Even if the landing attempt ended in failure, Chandrayaan 2’s orbiter remains healthy and is just starting its one-year science mission.
The orbiter carries eight scientific instruments, including a high-resolution stereo imaging camera, a dual-frequency synthetic aperture radar look for evidence of water ice at the lunar poles, an imaging infrared spectrometer to aid in the search for water, and sensors to study the moon’s tenuous atmosphere.
The orbiter was also to provide data relay services the Vikram lander.
Developed at a cost of around $140 million, the Chandrayaan 2 mission is the most ambitious in the history of India’s space program. It follows Chandrayaan 1, a lunar orbiter launched in 2008 that detected the first evidence of water ice hidden inside permanently-shadowed craters at the lunar poles.
India has also placed a spacecraft in orbit around Mars, and the country’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle is a workhorse for launching Indian Earth-observing missions and numerous commercial CubeSats and microsatellites from international customers.
Most of ISRO’s programs focus on environmental observation, weather forecasting and communications, services that aid the country’s population of more than 1.3 billion people.
But ISRO has expanded its portfolio over the last decade, with lunar and Mars missions, a quickening pace of rocket launches, and plans for a space capsule to carry Indian astronauts into orbit.


https://spaceflightnow.com/2019/09/06/in...n-failure/
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#9
 Vikram lander / Pragyaan rover.orbituary

Quote:Cry  life goes on...  Arrow  Meanwhile, Indian scientists are eager to begin analyzing data from the Chandrayaan 2 orbiter, which ISRO said should have a “long life of almost 7 years, instead of the planned one year” due to a precise launch and injection into lunar orbit. LilD

NASA lunar orbiter to image Chandrayaan 2 landing site next week

September 12, 2019 Stephen Clark
[b]EDITOR’S NOTE: [/b]Updated to correct date of LRO flyover.
[Image: 127_133_lro_nearside.jpg][img=712x0]https://mk0spaceflightnoa02a.kinstacdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/127_133_lro_nearside.jpg[/img]This mosaic of the near side of the moon was created using data from NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Credit: NASA
NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter will try to locate India’s Vikram lander on the moon during a flyover of the landing site Tuesday. Indian space officials said they found the disabled spacecraft on the moon using the country’s own Chandrayaan 2 orbiter, but declined to release any images.
LRO’s high-resolution camera has taken aerial images of the Apollo landing sites with enough clarity to resolve the astronauts’ footprints left on the moon more than 40 years earlier. The NASA orbiter’s camera has also imaged China’s Chang’e 3 and Chang’e 4 landers on the moon, and located the crash site of the Israeli Beresheet spacecraft earlier this year.
Noah Petro, LRO’s project scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, said that the orbiter is due to fly over the Vikram landing site Tuesday, Sept. 17.
“Per NASA policy, all LRO data are publicly available,” Petro wrote in an email. “NASA will share any before and after flyover imagery of the area around the targeted Chandrayaan 2 Vikram lander landing site to support analysis by the Indian Space Research Organization.”
ISRO said Tuesday that the Chandrayaan 2 orbiter, which launched in tandem with the Vikram lander, has located the lander on the lunar surface.
“Vikram lander has been located by the orbiter of Chandrayaan 2, but no communication with it yet,” ISRO said in a brief statement. “All possible efforts are being made to establish communication with (the) lander.”
ISRO, India’s space agency, has not released any of the images purportedly showing the Vikram lander on the moon, and ISRO officials did not respond to Spaceflight Now’s request for additional details.
The Indian space agency has not confirmed whether the lander is intact on the lunar surface, or its orientation. It’s not clear Chandrayaan 2’s camera could resolve such details with certainty.
[Image: chandrayaan2orbiter.jpg][img=712x0]https://mk0spaceflightnoa02a.kinstacdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/chandrayaan2orbiter.jpg[/img]Artist’s concept of the Chandrayaan 2 lunar orbiter. Credit: ISRO
“We believe that (Vikram) made a harder landing than they desired on Friday evening,” said Lori Glaze, head of NASA’s planetary science division, in a presentation Tuesday to the National Academies’ Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Sciences.
NASA’s Deep Space Network station near Madrid was in contact with the Vikram lander as it descended toward a landing site near the moon’s south pole Friday. The signal from the robotic lander suddenly ended moments before the scheduled touchdown, and the spacecraft apparently deviated from its planned trajectory at an altitude just below 6,500 feet, or 2 kilometers.
NASA tracking stations have attempted to contact the Vikram lander since last Friday, but as of Thursday, officials have not reestablished communication with the spacecraft. The lander was designed for survive on the lunar surface for 14 days, so time is limited.
The Vikram lander carried a rover named Pragyan — the Sanskrit word for “wisdom” — and several scientific instruments, including cameras, seismic sensors, rock composition payloads, and an underground thermal conductivity probe. Vikram, named for the father of India’s space program, also carried a U.S.-provided laser reflector, which NASA intended to use to make precise measurements of the distance between the Earth and the moon.
[Image: chandrayaan2_1.jpg][img=712x0]https://mk0spaceflightnoa02a.kinstacdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/chandrayaan2_1.jpg[/img]The Chandrayaan 2 mission’s Vikram landing craft and Pragyan rover undergo preparations for launch at the Satish Dhawan Space Center on India’s east coast. Credit: ISRO
The Israeli Beresheet lander, which crashed on the moon in April, also carried a NASA laser retroreflector. A laser altimeter instrument on LRO is scanning the Beresheet landing site in an attempt to get a reflection off the instrument, which was entirely passive and may have survived the crash.
LRO could conduct similar search for Vikram’s laser retroreflector, Glaze said.
“We did have a NASA Laser Retroreflector Array flying on that mission, so we’ll look out for that as we go forward, just as we continue to look for the Laser Retroreflector Array that was on Beresheet,” Glaze said. “We’ll hopefully be getting some images of where that lander laid to rest.”
With a resolution of 32 centimeters, or 12.6 inches, the high-resolution camera on the Chandrayaan 2 orbiter can see more detail on the moon’s surface than any lunar orbiter mission to date. But the U.S. orbiter is plenty capable of finding Vikram, or its wreckage.
The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera, or LROC, instrument has two narrow-angle cameras providing images with 50-centimeter-scale (19.7-inch) resolution. Managed at Arizona State University, LROC was developed by Malin Space Science Systems, and is based on the context camera carried aboard NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.
LROC is one of seven science instruments on LRO, but it’s received significant public attention through its ability to detect changes on the moon’s surface. It’s found fresh impact craters on the moon, in addition to its work locating landers and surveying landing sites for a range of commercial and international missions, including China’s moon landers, Chandrayaan 2, and future U.S. missions.
Petro said Monday’s pass over the Vikram landing site by LRO will be tough. The sun will be low on the horizon, creating long shadows on the surface.
If Monday’s imaging opportunity does not find Vikram, LRO will have additional flyovers in the coming weeks and months.
[Image: 584641main_apollo17-left-670.jpg][img=670x0]https://mk0spaceflightnoa02a.kinstacdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/584641main_apollo17-left-670.jpg[/img]
LRO’s camera took this imager of the Apollo 17 landing site in 2011. Credit: NASA

Meanwhile, Indian scientists are eager to begin analyzing data from the Chandrayaan 2 orbiter, which ISRO said should have a “long life of almost 7 years, instead of the planned one year” due to a precise launch and injection into lunar orbit.
“The orbiter has already been placed in its intended orbit around the moon and shall enrich our understanding of the moon’s evolution and mapping of the minerals and water molecules in the polar regions, using its eight state-of-the-art scientific instruments,” ISRO said. “The orbiter camera is the highest-resolution camera in any lunar (orbiter) mission so far, and shall provide high-resolution images, which will be immensely useful to the global scientific community.”
Before losing contact with the Vikram lander, the craft performed well during powered descent toward the moon’s surface.
“All the systems and sensors of the lander functioned excellently until this point and proved many new technologies, such as variable thrust propulsion technology used in the lander,” ISRO said.
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Quote:The first person to come up with a positive identification was Shanmuga "Shan" Subramanian, a 33-year-old IT professional from Chennai, who told AFP that NASA's inability to find the lander on its own had sparked his interest.



DECEMBER 3, 2019
NASA finds Indian Moon lander with help of amateur space enthusiast
[Image: nasareleased.jpg]NASA released an image taken by its Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter that showed the site where India's Vikram lander crashed on the lunar surface in September 2019
India's Vikram lunar lander, which crashed on its final approach to the Moon's surface in September, has been found thanks in part to the sleuthing efforts of an amateur space enthusiast.

NASA made the announcement on Monday, releasing an image taken by its Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) that showed the site of the spacecraft's impact (September 7 in India and September 6 in the US).
A version of the picture was marked up to show the associated debris field, with parts scattered over almost two dozen locations spanning several kilometers.
In a statement, NASA said it released a mosaic image of the site on September 26 (but taken on September 17), inviting the public to compare it with images of the same area before the crash to find signs of the lander.
The first person to come up with a positive identification was Shanmuga "Shan" Subramanian, a 33-year-old IT professional from Chennai, who told AFP that NASA's inability to find the lander on its own had sparked his interest.
"I had side-by-side comparison of those two images on two of my laptops... on one side there was the old image, and another side there was the new image released by NASA," he said, adding he was helped by fellow Twitter and Reddit users.

[Image: landingsites.jpg]
Landing sites for probes and crewed missions on the Moon, including the planned landing point of Indian lunar lander Chandrayaan 2 Vikram, which crashed in September.
"It was quite hard, but (I) spent some effort," said the self-professed space nerd, finally announcing his discovery on Twitter on October 3.
NASA then performed additional searches in the area and officially announced the finding almost two months later.
"NASA has to be 100% sure before they can go public, and that's the reason they waited to confirm it, and even I would have done the same," said Subramanian.
Blasting off in July, emerging Asian giant India had hoped with its Chandrayaan-2 ("Moon Vehicle 2") mission to become just the fourth country after the United States, Russia and regional rival China to make a successful Moon landing, and the first on the lunar south pole.
The main spacecraft, which remains in orbit around the Moon, dropped the unmanned lander Vikram for a descent that would take five days, but the probe went silent just 2.1 kilometers above the surface.
Days after the failed landing, the Indian Space Research Organization said it had located the lander, but hadn't been able to establish communication.




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Still no trace of missing Indian moon lander: NASA



https://phys.org/news/2019-12-nasa-india...ateur.html
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