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"wisdom" To The Moon. Chandrayaan 2 Vikram lander / Pragyaan rover.
[Image: chandrayaan2_art1-326x245.jpg]
India seeks to join exclusive company with ambitious moon mission
July 13, 2019
India’s ambitious $142 million Chandrayaan 2 moon mission, comprising a orbiter, lander and rover, is set for liftoff Sunday to begin a nearly two-month transit culminating in a touchdown near the lunar south pole in September.

Indian moon launch rescheduled for Monday
July 18, 2019 Stephen Clark
[Image: D_bR-5wUcAALd_8.jpeg][img=719x0][/img]The GSLV Mk.3 launcher awaiting liftoff with the Chandrayaan 2 lunar mission. Credit: ISRO
India’s robotic Chandrayaan 2 moon mission is set for liftoff Monday after a technical snag last weekend halted the launch from a spaceport on the Indian coast, ISRO said Thursday.
The three-piece moon mission, comprising an orbiter, lander and rover, was set for blastoff last Sunday aboard India’s GSLV Mk.3 rocket. But a technical problem on the GSLV Mk.3’s cryogenic upper stage forced officials to call off the launch in the final hour of the countdown.
Reports from Indian media suggested the problem, apparently related to the cryogenic stage’s helium pressurization system, proved relatively easy to fix.
The Indian Space Research Organization announced the new target launch date in a tweet early Thursday. ISRO faces a short launch window to get the Chandrayaan 2 mission off the ground, and still have time for the spacecraft to reach its planned landing site in early September.
Liftoff is set for 0913 GMT (5:13 a.m. EDT) Monday from the Satish Dhawan Space Center, located on Sriharikota Island on India’s southeastern coast around 50 miles (80 kilometers) north of Chennai.
Around 16 minutes after liftoff, the 142-foot-tall (43.4-meter) GSLV Mk.3 rocket will loft the Chandrayaan 2 spacecraft into an elliptical orbit around Earth, ranging as high as 24,000 miles (39,000 kilometers) at its farthest point.
[Image: chandrayaan2_diagram.jpg][img=719x0][/img]The Chandrayaan 2 spacecraft will launch with its orbiter and lander sections attached together. Once in lunar orbit, the two segments will split apart to conduct their separate missions. Credit: ISRO
Chandrayaan 2 will use its own propulsion system to raise its orbit over the following weeks, eventually flying high enough to intercept the moon next month. The spacecraft will conduct a series of rocket burns to first slip into orbit around the moon, the lower its altitude to reach a 62-mile-high (100-kilometer) orbit before separating the lander module to begin a descent to the lunar surface.
For a July 14 launch, mission planners designed a transit lasting 53 or 54 days from liftoff until touchdown of Chandrayaan 2’s Vikram lander near the lunar south pole.
ISRO has not announced any change to Chandrayaan 2’s landing date, which was scheduled for Sept. 6 or 7. Officials could shorten the transit time by reducing the number of orbits during Chandrayaan 2’s orbit-raising phase around Earth, and the spacecraft could spend less time in lunar orbit before releasing the lander.
A landing in early September is required to ensure Chandrayaan 2’s Vikram lander touches down soon after sunrise at the landing site in the moon’s southern highlands. The solar-powered lander and its mobile rover are designed to function for about 14 days, the time the sun spends above the horizon on the moon.
The Chandrayaan 2 mission could target a landing date later this year, but that could require a launch delay of weeks or months.
The Chandrayaan 2 orbiter, fitted with its own scientific instruments, is designed for a mission of at least one year. Among other scientific tasks, the orbiter will take high-resolution images of the moon and use a dual-frequency radar to help identify water ice deposits inside the moon’s permanently-shadowed polar craters.
India is aiming to become the fourth nation to successful accomplish a soft-landing on the moon, after landings by the Soviet Union, the United States and China.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Good Luck to India Applause

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007

I agree, the best of luck for the India space program to the moon.
They provide excellent competition for the Chinese.
The India space program isn't a warm and fuzzy civilian enterprise with cool corporate heroes Nonono
It is a military defense imperative apparently.

The Global Security Research article on India defense is quite good.

Quote:India began its unmanned RISAT-2 spacecraft based radar imaging program,
with the April 20, 2009 launch,
of the all-weather Israeli radar imaging surveillance program satellite TecSAR,
they had purchased for $200 million. 
This is to be utilized to address defense border security issues for India. 
This RISAT-2 and the new in development dedicated Military Naval Satellite, 
as well as in development RECSAT for India herald a new era for India.

Pushed by Indian immediate national security concerns,
that it not fall behind in intelligence surveillance advantage operational issues,
has sparked the Indian governments actions,
and its military with its security requirements responsibility on these programs. 

Literally wartime like emergency requirements Whip
was applied to get this program moving on the path to launch as quickly as possible.

This is in addition to their new higher resolution daylight imaging spacecraft launched in 2008 

and the existing low and medium resolution remote sensing satellites 
already being utilized by Indian Intelligence organization for the State and military.

March 27

Modi hails India as military space power after anti-satellite missile test

Quote:India shot down one of its own satellites in low-Earth orbit
with a ground-to-space missile on Wednesday, 
Prime Minister Narendra Modi said, 
hailing his country’s first test of such weaponry as a breakthrough establishing it as a military space power.

India would be the fourth country to have used such an anti-satellite weapon,
after the United States, Russia and China, 
according to Modi, who heads into general elections next month.

“Our scientists shot down a live satellite 300 kilometers away in space, in low-Earth orbit,” 
Modi said in a television broadcast.

“India has made an unprecedented achievement today,” he added, speaking in Hindi. 
“India registered its name as a space power.”

Anti-satellite weapons permit attacks on enemy satellites, 
blinding them or disrupting communications, 
as well as providing a technology base for intercepting ballistic missiles.

Acting U.S. Defense Secretary Patrick Shanahan warned that the use of anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons, 

like the one India tested on Wednesday, 

risk making a “mess” in space  Tp

due to the debris fields Stars they can leave behind.

The U.S. military’s Strategic Command was tracking more than 250 pieces of debris, ...

A ballistic missile defense interceptor,
produced by the government’s Defence Research and Development Organisation,
was used to shoot down the satellite, the foreign ministry said.

The three-minute test in the low-Earth orbit, 
ensured there was no debris in space,
and the remnants would “decay and fall back on to the Earth within weeks,” 
the ministry added.

But Jeffrey Lewis of the Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey, 
said the risk of fragments hitting other objects in space remained.

“One of the big risks of a hit-to-kill ASAT (anti-satellite weapon) is that it shatters the target, 
leaving a cloud of lethal debris that threatens other satellites. 
In an extreme scenario, 
there is even a risk of ‘collisional cascading’ in which one breakup triggers others in a chain reaction.”

“While tests can be arranged to minimize this risk,
 any operational use of such a system in war poses a real threat Whip
to all satellites in orbit at similar altitude.”

You know it is coming.
The near space skies will be filled with space trash just like the oceans.
 Nonetheless anything India does in space is directly attached to the military defense initiative.
Modi govt approves new agency to develop space warfare weapon systems

Quote:With the aim of enhancing the capabilities of the armed forces to fight wars in space, 
the government has approved the setting up of a new agency,
which will develop sophisticated weapon systems and technologies for the purpose.

"The Cabinet Committee on Security headed by Prime Minister Narendra Modi 
has cleared the setting up of this new agency
called the Defence Space Whistle Research Agency (DSRO)  

which has been entrusted with the task of creating space warfare weapon systems and technologies," 
sources in the Defence Ministry told ANI.
The decision was taken at the topmost level by the government,

some time ago, and the agency has started taking shape under a Joint Secretary-level scientist.


JULY 22, 2019
Proud India launches historic bid to put spacecraft on Moon
by Arun Sankar
[Image: thelaunchofc.jpg]The launch of Chandrayaan-2, or Moon Chariot 2, was broadcast live on TV
India on Monday launched a low-cost rocket on a historic bid to put a landing craft on the surface of the Moon and join an elite space force.

A week after an initial launch was halted just before blast-off, Chandrayaan-2—or Moon Chariot 2—took off from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre carrying national pride and the hopes of Indian scientists.
India is seeking to become just the fourth nation after Russia, the United States and China to land a spacecraft on the Moon. If the rest of the mission goes to plan, the Indian probe will land on the lunar South Pole in early September.
"Every Indian is immensely proud today!," tweeted Prime Minister Narendra Modi, who has vowed to send a manned mission into orbit by 2022.
"Special moments that will be etched in the annals of our glorious history!"
There were applause, handshakes and hugs in the mission control room as the rocket blasted off from the base on an island just off the coast of Andra Pradesh state.
President Ram Nath Kovind watched the launch alongside 7,000 dignitaries and flag-waving children, with the crowd bursting into cheers at the spectacle.
"Today is a historic day for space, science and tech in India," Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) chief K. Sivan said as he hailed the efforts made to fix a fuel leak that forced the earlier launch to be postponed.
[Image: indiasmoonmi.jpg]

India's Chandrayaan-2 mission to the Moon, rescheduled for launch on Monday, July 22
India was also hailed by its international counterparts. The US state department said on Twitter that the launch was "an incredible achievement!" while the European Space Agency sent congratulations.
Shooting for the Moon
Chandrayaan-2 was launched on India's most powerful rocket, the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) MkIII. It carried an orbiter, a lander and a rover almost entirely designed and made in India.
The country's love affair with the film industry saw the media dub the rocket "Baahubali" after one of India's most popular screen heroes, known for his ability to lift heavy items.
Sivan said the mission's next stage would be critical to its success, with scientists set to conduct some 15 crucial manoeuvres of Chandrayaan-2 over the next month-and-a-half to position it around the moon.
"After that, D-day will come—and that day we are going to experience 15 minutes of terror to ensure that the landing is safe," he said.

The lander—named after Vikram A. Sarabhai, the father of India's space programme—will carry the rover to near the lunar South Pole.
[Image: chandrayaan2.jpg][/size]

India's Chandrayaan-2 mission to the Moon, rescheduled for launch on Monday, July 22
ISRO scientists will remotely control the rover named Pragyaan—"wisdom" in Sanskrit—as it carries out experiments. It will work for one lunar day, the equivalent of 14 Earth days, studying rocks and soil on the Moon's surface.
Small budget, giant result
The 2.4-tonne (5,300-pound) orbiter is expected to circle the Moon for about a year, taking images of the surface, looking for signs of water, and studying the atmosphere.
Chandrayaan-2 stands out because of its low cost, with some $140 million spent on preparations for the mission—a much smaller price tag compared with similar missions by other countries.
The United States—which is marking the 50th anniversary of Neil Armstrong becoming the first human on the Moon—spent the equivalent of more than $100 billion on its Apollo missions.
India also hopes to seek out lucrative commercial satellite and orbiting deals.
The new mission comes almost 11 years after the launch of India's first lunar mission—Chandrayaan-1—which orbited the Moon and searched for water.[/size]


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'Stronger than ever': India set for fresh Moon launch attempt[/size]

Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Lunacy.  Arrow [Image: giphy.gif]

Moon is now older and wiser.
JULY 29, 2019
Study shows that the Moon is older than previously believed
University of Cologne
[Image: continuingth.jpg]This sample is an ilmenite basalt collected during Apollo 12. It has glass on it, deposited by the splash of material when another basalt was struck by an impactor. Samples like 12054 allow us to reconstruct the history of the Moon with the stories they tell. Credit: Maxwell Thiemens, 2019
A new study spearheaded by Earth scientists at the University of Cologne's Institute of Geology and Mineralogy has constrained the age of the Moon to approximately 50 million years after the formation of the solar system. After the formation of the solar system, 4.56 billion years ago, the Moon formed approximately 4.51 billion years ago. The new study has thus determined that the Moon is significantly older than previously believed—earlier research had estimated the Moon to have formed approximately 150 million years after solar system's formation. To achieve these results, the scientists analysed the chemical composition of a diverse range of samples collected during the Apollo missions. The study "Early Moon formation inferred from hafnium-tungsten systematics' was published in Nature Geoscience.

On 21 July 1969, mankind took its first steps on another celestial body. In their few hours on the lunar surface, the crew of Apollo 11 collected and brought back to Earth 21.55 kg of samples. Almost exactly 50 years later, these samples are still teaching us about key events of the early solar system and the history of the Earth-Moon system. Determining the age of the Moon is also important to understand how and at which time the Earth formed, and how it evolved at the very beginning of the solar system.
This study focuses on the chemical signatures of different types of lunar samples collected by the different Apollo missions. "By comparing the relative amounts of different elements in rocks that formed at different times, it is possible to learn how each sample is related to the lunar interior and the solidification of the magma ocean," says Dr. Raúl Fonseca from the University of Cologne, who studies processes that occurred in the Moon's interior in laboratory experiments together with his colleague Dr. Felipe Leitzke.
The Moon likely formed in the aftermath of a giant collision between a Mars-sized planetary body and the early Earth. Over time, the Moon accreted from the cloud of material blasted into Earth's orbit. The newborn Moon was covered in a magma ocean, which formed different types of rocks as it cooled. "These rocks recorded information about the formation of the Moon, and can still be found today on the lunar surface," says Dr. Maxwell Thiemens, former University of Cologne researcher and lead author of the study. Dr. Peter Sprung, co-author of the study, adds: "Such observations are not possible on Earth anymore, as our planet has been geologically active over time. The Moon thus provides a unique opportunity to study planetary evolution."
The Cologne scientists used the relationship between the rare elements hafnium, uranium and tungsten as a probe to understand the amount of melting that occurred to generate the mare basalts, i.e., the black regions on the lunar surface. Owing to an unprecedented measurement precision, the study could identify distinct trends amongst the different suites of rocks, which now allows for a better understanding of the behaviour of these key rare elements.
Studying hafnium and tungsten on the Moon are particularly important because they constitute a natural radioactive clock of the isotope hafnium-182 decaying into tungsten-182. This radioactive decay only lasted for the first 70 million years of the solar system. By combining the hafnium and tungsten information measured in the Apollo samples with information from laboratory experiments, the study finds that the Moon already started solidifying as early as 50 million years after solar system formed. "This age information means that any giant impact had to occur before that time, which answers a fiercely debated question amongst the scientific community regarding when the Moon formed," adds Professor Dr. Carsten Münker from the UoC's Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, senior author of the study.
Maxwell Thiemens concludes: "Mankind's first steps on another world exactly 50 years ago yielded samples which let us understand the timing and evolution of the Moon. As the Moon's formation was the final major planetary event after Earth's formation, the age of the Moon provides a minimum age for Earth as well."


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Apollo moon rocks help transform understanding of the universe[/size]

More information: Maxwell M. Thiemens et al. Early Moon formation inferred from hafnium–tungsten systematics. Nature Geoscience (2019 
Journal information: Nature Geoscience 

Provided by [url=]University of Cologne[/size]

Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Does this answer HOW the Moon got tidal-locked precisely for one facing Earth always and diameter to ALWAYS allow for Lunar and Solar eclipses down here on Earth ?

And the Flat Fact that the Moon has less mass than it should have and 'rings like a belll' .

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
AUGUST 20, 2019
India's Moon probe enters lunar orbit

[Image: 2-chandrayaan2.jpg]Chandrayaan 2, or Moon Chariot 2, lifted off from India's spaceport at Sriharikota in southern Andhra Pradesh state on July 22
India's Chandrayaan 2 spacecraft entered lunar orbit on Tuesday, executing one of the trickiest manoeuvres on its historic mission to the Moon.

After four weeks in space, the craft completed its Lunar Orbit Insertion as planned, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) said in a statement.
The insertion "was completed successfully today at 0902 hrs IST (0332 GMT) as planned, using the onboard propulsion system. The duration of manoeuver was 1738 seconds," the national space agency said.
India is seeking to become just the fourth nation after Russia, the United States and China to land a spacecraft on the Moon.
If the rest of the mission goes to plan, the Indian probe will land on the lunar South Pole on September 7.
To enter the final orbit over the lunar poles, Chandrayaan 2 will undergo four more similar manoeuvres, with the next scheduled for Wednesday.
ISRO chief K. Sivan said the manoeuvre was a key milestone for the mission, adding he was hoping for a perfect landing next month.
"On September 7, the lander will land on the moon. Whatever is humanly possible, has been done by us," Sivan told reporters.
Tuesday's insertion was one of the trickiest operations in the mission because if the satellite had approached the Moon at a higher velocity it would have bounced off and got lost in deep space.
And had it approached at a slow velocity, the Moon's gravity would have pulled it in, causing a crash.
Heart-stopping moments
"The approach velocity had to be just right and the altitude over the moon precise. Even a small error would have killed the mission," Sivan said.
"Our heartbeats increased... for 30 minutes, our hearts almost stopped."
Chandrayaan 2, or Moon Chariot 2, lifted off from India's spaceport at Sriharikota in southern Andhra Pradesh state on July 22.
The spacecraft used in the mission comprises an orbiter, a lander and a rover almost entirely designed and made in India. The orbiter has a mission life of a year and will take images of the lunar surface.
ISRO says the mission will help scientists to better understand the origin and evolution of the Moon by conducting detailed topographical studies, mineral analyses and a host of other experiments.
About $140 million was spent on preparations for the probe's mission—a much smaller price tag compared to similar operations by other countries.
It was launched on India's most powerful rocket, the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) MkIII.
The lift-off was successful in its second attempt, a week after it was aborted just under an hour from its launch due to a technical glitch.
India's first lunar mission in 2008—Chandrayaan-1—did not land on the Moon, but carried out a search for water using radar.
A soft landing on the Moon would be a huge leap forward in India's space programme, with Prime Minister Narendra Modi determined to launch a manned mission into space by 2022.
India also has ambitions to land a probe on Mars. In 2014, India became only the fourth nation to put a satellite into orbit around the Red Planet.


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'Stronger than ever': India set for fresh Moon launch attempt[/size]

Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...

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