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Electric Ashlars: stones clad in lightning.(a power source of sorts of course)
#1
Arrow Holy Skyrmions!!!
Quote:"This evidence is rare because lighting strikes are conducted along the top 'skin' of the Earth's surface.

Now we know how they charged their devices.

Geophysics revealed that not only was the stone originally part of a circle of standing stones, but also that there was a massive, star-shaped magnetic anomaly in the center—either the result of a single, large lighting strike or many smaller strikes on the same spot.

Quote:The force is strong with this one: Wireless phone charger makes your device levitate as it powers up
  • OvRcharge works using a base, the transmitter, and a charging case

  • Case contains electricity receiver and magnet to charge phone and hover

  • Firm says it can levitate objects up to 600g, and can make a tablet float
PUBLISHED: 11:15 EST, 1 August 2016 UPDATED: 12:10 EST, 1 August 2016
[Image: 36B5947E00000578-3715389-Canadian_innova...452545.jpg]
[url=https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3715389/The-force-strong-one-Wireless-phone-charger-makes-device-levitate-powers-up.html]https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3715389/The-force-strong-one-Wireless-phone-charger-makes-device-levitate-powers-up.html


DECEMBER 23, 2019
Ancient secret of stone circles revealed
[Image: magnifyinggl.jpg]Credit: CC0 Public Domain
New evidence of a massive lightning strike at the center of a hidden stone circle in the Outer Hebrides may help shed light on why these monuments were created thousands of years ago.

The Calanais Virtual Reconstruction Project, a joint venture led by the University of St Andrews with the Urras nan Tursachan and the University of Bradford, with funding from Highlands and Islands Enterprise, has uncovered a potential link between ancient stone circles and the forces of nature.
While studying prehistoric Tursachan Chalanais, the main stone circle at Calanais on the Isle of Lewis, the project team surveyed nearby satellite sites to reveal evidence for lost circles buried beneath the peat.
One rarely-visited site surveyed, known as Site XI or Airigh na Beinne Bige, now consists of a single standing stone on an exposed hillside overlooking the great circle.
Geophysics revealed that not only was the stone originally part of a circle of standing stones, but also that there was a massive, star-shaped magnetic anomaly in the center—either the result of a single, large lighting strike or many smaller strikes on the same spot.
Project leader Dr. Richard Bates, of the School of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, said: "Such clear evidence for lightning strikes is extremely rare in the UK and the association with this stone circle is unlikely to be coincidental.
"Whether the lightning at Site XI focused on a tree or rock which is no longer there, or the monument itself attracted strikes, is uncertain.
"However, this remarkable evidence suggests that the forces of nature could have been intimately linked with everyday life and beliefs of the early farming communities on the island."

A virtual reconstruction of the lost stone circle of Na Dromannan, created by the computer science team at the University of St Andrews under Dr Alan Miller. Credit: University of St Andrews
The researchers were also able to virtually recreate another nearby circle, with the help of the Smart History team based in the University of St Andrews School of Computer Science, which had been lost with its stones either buried or lying flat.
Known as Na Dromannan, careful scanning of the stones allowed a full 3-D model to be built allowing the passage of the sun and moon around this circle to be tracked for the first time in four millennia.
Dr. Bates added: "For the first time in over 4000 years the stones can now be seen and 'virtually' walked around.

"Everyone will be able to visit this remote site and get a real sense of what it was like just after it had been constructed. We have only just scratched the surface of this landscape and already we can get a feel for what might be buried out there waiting for discovery."
The team hopes to return to Lewis next year to undertake further surveys both on land, and in the waters, around the Tursachan at Calanais, where the old landscape has been flooded by rising sea levels.
Dr. Chris Gaffney, of the School of Archaeological and Forensic Sciences at the University of Bradford, said: "Evidence for such strikes within archaeological surveys is very rare and our work at Site XI demonstrates that without detailed scientific survey we would never be able to identify such events."
Dr. Tim Raub, of the School of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, added: "This evidence is rare because lighting strikes are conducted along the top 'skin' of the Earth's surface. The clarity of the strike suggests we are looking at events before the peat enveloped the site, more than 3000 years ago."
Professor Vincent Gaffney of the School Archaeological Sciences at the University of Bradford, said: "The dramatic results of survey on Lewis demonstrate that we have to understand the landscapes that surrounds these ritual monuments and the role that nature and natural events, including lightning, played in creating the rituals and beliefs of people many thousands of years ago."
Dr. Alison Sheridan, Director of Urras nan Tursachan, the Calanais based charitable trust that partnered this research, said: "This is a thrilling discovery that helps us get inside the minds of the people who built the stone circles at and around Calanais. There is much still to find out about the so-called 'satellite' circles of Neolithic Calanais and this provides an important first step. The modelling of Na Dromannan also helps us investigate whether this circle was astronomically aligned."




Explore further
'Secret square' discovered beneath world-famous Avebury stone circle



[b]More information:[/b] C. Richard. Bates et al. Geophysical Investigation of the Neolithic Calanais Landscape, Remote Sensing (2019). DOI: 10.3390/rs11242975
Provided by University of St Andrews


https://phys.org/news/2019-12-ancient-se...ealed.html

Recall:

Ancient sculptors made magnetic figures from rocks struck by lightning
Guatemalan ‘potbelly’ sculptures suggest people knew about magnetism more than 2,000 years ago


[Image: 041719_bb_magneticsculpture_feat_rev.jpg]

[b]MAGNETIC ANCESTOR[/b]  Ancient massive carvings from Guatemala such as this round figure include magnetized areas possibly intended to show the continuing power of deceased ancestors.

R. FU

Share this: By Bruce Bower
APRIL 22, 2019 AT 8:00 AM

People living at least 2,000 years ago near the Pacific Coast of what’s now Guatemala crafted massive human sculptures with magnetized foreheads, cheeks and navels. New research provides the first detailed look at how these sculpted body parts were intentionally placed within magnetic fields on large rocks.
Lightning strikes probably magnetized sections of boulders that were later carved into stylized, rotund figures — known as potbellies — at the Guatemalan site of Monte Alto, say Harvard University geoscientist Roger Fu and his colleagues. Artisans may have held naturally magnetized mineral chunks near iron-rich, basalt boulders to find areas in the rock where magnetic forces pushed back, the scientists say in the June [i]Journal of Archaeological Science[/i]. Predesignated parts of potbelly figures — which can stand more than 2 meters tall and weigh 10,000 kilograms or more — were then carved at those spots.
[Image: cta-module-sm@2x.jpg]
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[Image: 041719_bb_magneticsculpture_inline1_370.jpg][b]HEADS UP[/b] Colossal stone heads from an ancient Guatemalan site contain magnetic fields on the right temple and cheek, spots that apparently held special significance for makers of the sculptures.R. FUPotbellies represented dead but still revered ancestors of high-ranking families, suspects art historian Julia Guernsey of the University of Texas at Austin.  Sculptures that repelled magnetized objects would have been seen as demonstrating the presence and authority of deceased ancestors in rapidly expanding societies ( [i]SN: 6/1/13, p. 12[/i] ), she suggests. Fu’s results also indicate that Mesoamericans attributed special powers to certain body parts, such as the face and midsection, Guernsey adds.
The researchers studied 11 potbelly sculptures, six heads and five bodies, now displayed in a Guatemalan town. At least 127 such sculptures have been found at sites in Mesoamerica, an ancient cultural region that runs from central Mexico through much of Central America.
Handheld sensors confirmed a 1997 report that magnetic signals occurred over the right temple and cheek of three colossal heads from Monte Alto. Sensors also detected magnetism near the navels of four body sculptures. A portable, high-resolution magnetic sensor then precisely mapped magnetic fields on two head and two body sculptures.

Questions or comments on this article? E-mail us at feedback@sciencenews.org
CITATIONS
R.R. Fu [i]et al[/i]. Knowledge of magnetism in ancient Mesoamerica: precision measurements of the potbelly sculptures from Monte Alto, Guatemala[i]Journal of Archaeological Science[/i]. Vol. 106, June 2019, p. 29. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2019.03.001.

  1. [Image: 071619_mt_magnets_feat.jpg]
    MATERIALS SCIENCE
    Permanent liquid magnets have now been created in the lab
    By Maria TemmingJuly 18, 2019
    https://www.sciencenews.org/article/anci...-lightning
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#2
Quote:Currently, the team's findings are specific to thermal sources of light, like the sun or like an incandescent bulb.Arrow But the researchers hope to generalize the work further to agree with other light sources, like LEDs, fireflies, or arcing bolts of electricity.



DECEMBER 23, 2019
New rules illuminate how objects absorb and emit light
by Scott Lyon, Princeton University
[Image: newrulesillu.jpg]Princeton researchers, led by Alejandro Rodriguez, have uncovered new rules for how objects absorb and emit light. The work resolves a longstanding discrepancy between large and small objects, unifying the theory of thermal radiation across all scales and boosting scientists' control in designing light-based technology. Credit: Casey Horner/Unsplash
Princeton researchers have uncovered new rules governing how objects absorb and emit light, fine-tuning scientists' control over light and boosting research into next-generation solar and optical devices.

The discovery solves a longstanding problem of scale, where light's behavior when interacting with tiny objects violates well-established physical constraints observed at larger scales.
"The kinds of effects you get for very small objects are different from the effects you get from very large objects," said Sean Molesky, a postdoctoral researcher in electrical engineering and the study's first author. The difference can be observed in moving from a molecule to a grain of sand. "You can't simultaneously describe both things," he said.
The problem stems from light's famous shapeshifting nature. For ordinary objects, light's movement can be described by straight lines, or rays. But for microscopic objects, light's wave properties take over and the neat rules of ray optics break down. The effects are significant. In important modern materials, observations at the micron scale showed infrared light radiating at millions of times more energy per unit area than ray optics predicts.
The new rules, published in Physical Review Letters on Dec. 20, tell scientists how much infrared light an object of any scale can be expected to absorb or emit, resolving a decades-old discrepancy between big and small. The work extends a 19th-century concept, known as a blackbody, into a useful modern context. Blackbodies are idealized objects that absorb and emit light with maximum efficiency.
"There's been a lot of research done to try to understand in practice, for a given material, how one can approach these blackbody limits," said Alejandro Rodriguez, an associate professor of electrical engineering and the study's principal investigator. "How can we make a perfect absorber? A perfect emitter?"
"It's a very old problem that many physicists—including Planck, Einstein and Boltzmann—tackled early on and laid the foundations for the development of quantum mechanics."
A large body of previous work has shown that structuring objects with nanoscale features can enhance absorption and emission, effectively trapping photons in a tiny hall of mirrors. But no one had defined the fundamental limits of the possible, leaving open major questions about how to assess a design.
No longer confined to brute-force trial and error, the new level of control will allow engineers to optimize designs mathematically for a wide range of future applications. The work is especially important in technologies like solar panels, optical circuits and quantum computers.
Currently, the team's findings are specific to thermal sources of light, like the sun or like an incandescent bulb. But the researchers hope to generalize the work further to agree with other light sources, like LEDs, fireflies, or arcing bolts of electricity.




Explore further
Camouflage made of quantum material could hide you from infrared cameras



[b]More information:[/b] Sean Molesky et al, T Operator Bounds on Angle-Integrated Absorption and Thermal Radiation for Arbitrary Objects, Physical Review Letters (2019). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.257401
[b]Journal information:[/b] Physical Review Letters [/url]

Provided by 
Princeton University







At the Speed of lightning man's imagination was sparked his insight in-situ new gnosis was founded on the rock thus it struck him...Maybe EYE can harness this. go figure.







DECEMBER 23, 2019
Electronics at the speed of light
[Image: 1-electronicsa.jpg]Illustration of how electrons can be imagined to move between two arms of a metallic nanoantenna, driven by a single-cycle light wave. Credit: University of Konstanz
A European team of researchers including physicists from the University of Konstanz has found a way of transporting electrons at times below the femtosecond range by manipulating them with light. This could have major implications for the future of data processing and computing.

Contemporary electronic components, which are traditionally based on silicon semiconductor technology, can be switched on or off within picoseconds (i.e. 10-12 seconds). Standard mobile phones and computers work at maximum frequencies of several gigahertz (1 GHz = 109 Hz) while individual transistors can approach one terahertz (1 THz = 1012 Hz). Further increasing the speed at which electronic switching devices can be opened or closed using the standard technology has since proven a challenge. A recent series of experiments—conducted at the University of Konstanz and reported in a recent publication in Nature Physics—demonstrates that electrons can be induced to move at sub-femtosecond speeds, i.e. faster than 10-15 seconds, by manipulating them with tailored light waves.
"This may well be the distant future of electronics," says Alfred Leitenstorfer, Professor of Ultrafast Phenomena and Photonics at the University of Konstanz (Germany) and co-author of the study. "Our experiments with single-cycle light pulses have taken us well into the attosecond range of electron transport." Light oscillates at frequencies at least a thousand times higher than those achieved by purely electronic circuits: One femtosecond corresponds to 10-15 seconds, which is the millionth part of a billionth of a second. Leitenstorfer and his team from the Department of Physics and the Center for Applied Photonics (CAP) at the University of Konstanz believe that the future of electronics lies in integrated plasmonic and optoelectronic devices that operate in the single-electron regime at optical—rather than microwave—frequencies. "However, this is very basic research we are talking about here and may take decades to implement," he cautions.
[b]A question of controlling light and matter[/b]
The challenge for the international team of theoretical and experimental physicists from the University of Konstanz, the University of Luxembourg, CNRS-Université Paris Sud (France) and the Center for Materials Physics (CFM-CSIC) and Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC) in San Sebastián (Spain) who collaborated on this project was to develop an experimental set-up for manipulating ultrashort light pulses at femtosecond scales below a single oscillation cycle on the one hand, and to create nanostructures suited for high-precision measurements and manipulation of electronic charges on the other. "Fortunately for us, we have first-class facilities at our disposal right here in Konstanz," says Leitenstorfer, whose team conducted the experiments. "The Center for Applied Photonics is a world-leading facility for the development of ultrafast laser technology. And thanks to our Collaborative Research Centre 767 Controlled Nanosystems: Interaction and Interfacing to the Macroscale, we have access to extremely well-defined nanostructures that can be created and controlled at the nanometre scale."

[b]Superfast electron switch[/b]
The experimental set-up developed by Leitenstorfer's team and coordinating author Daniele Brida (formerly leader of an Emmy Noether research group at the University of Konstanz, now professor at the University of Luxembourg) involved nanoscale gold antennae as well as an ultrafast laser capable of emitting one hundred million single-cycle light pulses per second in order to generate a measurable current. The bowtie design of the optical antenna allowed for a sub-wavelength and sub-cycle spatio-temporal concentration of the electric field of the laser pulse into the gap of a width of six nm (1 nm = 10-9 metres).
As a result of the highly nonlinear character of electron tunnelling out of the metal and acceleration over the gap in the optical field, the researchers were able to switch electronic currents at speeds of approximately 600 attoseconds (i.e. less than one femtosecond, 1 as = 10-18 seconds). "This process only occurs at time scales of less than half an oscillation period of the electric field of the light pulse," explains Leitenstorfer—an observation that the project partners in Paris and San Sebastián were able to confirm and map out in detail by means of a time-dependent treatment of the electronic quantum structure coupled to the light field.
The study opens up entirely new opportunities for understanding how light interacts with condensed matter, enabling observation of quantum phenomena at unprecedented temporal and spatial scales. Building on the new approach to electron dynamics driven at the nanoscale by optical fields that this study affords, the researchers will move on to investigate electron transport at atomic time and length scales in even more sophisticated solid-state devices with picometre dimensions.




Explore further
Physicists produce extremely short and specifically shaped electron pulses for materials studies



[b]More information:[/b] Sub-femtosecond electron transport in a nanoscale gap, Nature Physics (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41567-019-0745-8 , https://nature.com/articles/s41567-019-0745-8
[b]Journal information:[/b] Nature Physics 

Provided by [url=https://phys.org/partners/university-of-konstanz/]University of Konstanz 
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#3
...
from the first post


Quote:Ancient secret of stone circles revealed

Geophysics revealed that not only was the stone originally part of a circle of standing stones, 

but also that there was a massive, 
star-shaped magnetic anomaly in the center 
either the result of a single, 
large lighting strike
or many smaller strikes on the same spot.



That is really interesting about the Stone Circles on the Scottish Isle.
Looks like the research is just getting started and much more may be found.
I was thinking that perhaps to consider something else than lightning,
or something in tandem with lightning.
It is not just a circle.

[Image: Callanish_aerial_picture_1687x1265.jpg]


With lightning expected and hitting, 
one would not want to stand too close to the circle ...
I wonder what some qualified psychics would have to say about the events that took place.
Kind of their own local Star Gate ritual in a way, maybe.
This goes much farther than the moon and sun in simple astronomy,
and much more than what the next quote adds.


Quote:The stones, however, are not just connected with the Sun and the Moon. 
The researchers discovered a complex relationship between the alignment of the stones, 
the surrounding landscape and horizon, 
and the movements of the Sun and the Moon across that landscape.

“This research is finally proof that the ancient Britons

connected the Earth to the sky  Hi
with their earliest standing stones, 
and that this practice continued in the same way for 2000 years,” says Dr. Higginbottom.

https://astronomynow.com/2016/08/19/brit...tronomers/
[url=https://astronomynow.com/2016/08/19/britains-pre-stonehenge-megaliths-were-aligned-by-astronomers/][/url]

Here is a nice video, and there are tons of images online.





and a fly over


...
Reply
#4
Like I said before we are all "sparks across he holes of our minds".  Whirling in the "Winds of Change"

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
Reply
#5
[Image: Geophysical_0.jpg?itok=p1J83mYk]








[Image: Callanish-stone-circle.jpg]


24 DECEMBER, 2019 - 03:57 [b]ASHLEY COWIE[/b]
Did Lightning Determine Locations For Neolithic Stone Monuments?

PRINT
A recently published scientific study adopting new technologies has revealed how a lightning strike 5,000 years ago might have inspired Neolithic builders to construct the iconic Callanish Stone circle in the Outer Hebrides archipelago off the west coast of Scotland.
The newly generated geophysical survey map first revealed a burned star-shaped lightning pattern lay around a single stone known as 'site XI', about 2.8km from the famous Callanish great circle in the island's Loch Roag area, which is believed to have been built around 3000 BC. Then the archaeological geophysical survey, based at ancient monuments on the Isle of Lewis, a Scottish Hebridean Island, revealed a star-shaped burn mark beneath peat at the Callanish stone circle covering an area of 20 meters in diameter which is suspected to have been formed by lightning strikes.


[Image: Geophysical_0.jpg?itok=p1J83mYk]
[i]Geophysical survey revealed a lightning strike at the center of the Callanish stone circle. (Dr Richard Bates, [/i][i]University of St Andrews [/i][i])[/i]
Do Standing Stones Represent Lightning?
Over the last 150 years Scottish stone circles have been presented as ritualistic sites that align with the movements of the Sun and the Moon against horizons but most scholars in the field have struggled to account for the many stone circles that have no recognized relationship with such alignments. Now a team of archaeologists have provided evidence that our Neolithic forbears were inspired to construct their stone monuments having watched lightning striking the Earth.
The new geophysical techniques mapped hitherto unobserved buried features and the new evidence shows the 1.5-metre-high standing stone was originally part of another stone circle with the lightning strike pattern at its center. One of the archaeologists, Professor Vincent Gaffney, told  [i]The Guardian [/i]: 'We're really excited´ and that the discovery was ´completely and utterly unexpected and remarkable´.
[Image: Stone-Circle.jpg?itok=t7EInEB8]
[i]Stone circle at Callanish, Isle of Lewis, Western Isles, Outer Hebrides, Scotland, UK. ( [/i][i]Colin & Linda McKie [/i][i]/ Adobe Stock)[/i]
Community Centers or Space Platforms?
The Neolithic agricultural revolution began in Syria and Iraq between about 11000 BC and 9000 BC and reached Britain about 5000 BC and northern Scotland around 4500 BC. At this time nomadic hunting, gathering and fishing stations were settled at all year round and farming sparked the first of the Neolithic settlements around which many modern villages, towns and cities were built.
Soon after the first settlers established farms in the north of Scotland, they began building vast stone burial cairns and erected towering standing stones and expansive stone circles for community ceremonies, religious rituals and feasts and as trading centers.  But now, the researchers said that lightning strikes might have hit trees or rocks and may have been 'part of the game' in choosing where to locate the stone circles.
Maybe They Were Multipurpose?
Beginning in the 1930´s Professor Alexander Thom spent several decades studying Britain's standing stones and in the 1960´s he [i]proposed[/i] that they may have served as lunar observatories and places to commemorate the dead. Thom also noted complex geometric considerations in the builders location determination processes for the stones and in August 2016, a new study published in the  [i]Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports [/i]developed Thom's purported astronomical link re-evaluating how and why Scotland's standing stones were built.
First considering how the stones aligned with significant astronomical events this was combined with data on the shape of the landscape and elevation of the ground suggesting that the ancient Neolithic builders held a deep ´understanding of the Universe´ and knew ´that it was cyclic and made up of opposites.´
Lead author  [i]Gail Higginbottom [/i] of the University of Adelaide, Australia, wrote in the paper that only ´two different-shaped horizons´ surrounded the most significant monuments which she said was ´pretty incredible in itself´, and that the landscapes on which the stones were set were specifically chosen to show the most extreme rising and setting points of the Sun and Moon. The study went so far as to say this was how the Callanish stone setting was located.


About Turn, Again…
Then, in a 2016 [i]BBC [/i] article Dr  [i]Kenneth Brophy [/i] of the University of Glasgow in Scotland said “we cannot use current applications of science and maths to understand the builders’ motives and contrasts” and that contrary to the life work of Professor Alexander Thom he sees ´nothing´ in prehistoric life to suggest Neolithic people held a ´highly mathematical view of the world´. Brophy argued ´astronomy alone does not explain how they were made´ and he added that if you were going to build something that marks a particular lunar cycle, “I don't think you would put up stones of that scale, as it's unnecessary.”
Brophy maintained that the locations for stone circles would have been chosen because they had a ‘special history that people were drawn to’ and this new study suggests he is ‘bang on’. Could there possibly be a more ‘special history’ than a location stroked by the perceived magical forces of the gods, a flash of destructive lightning smashing against their territory? And it´s hard to conceive of a better monument to honor such an electric event than towering stones representing lightning stretching from heaven to Earth.


https://vimeo.com/273858929

[video=vemio]https://vimeo.com/273858929[/video]
https://www.ancient-origins.net/news-his...le-0013049
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#6
You guys must also remember that BUTTERFLIES get their colored wings through the refraction of light bouncing between the layers of each wing cell. The colors may change slightly to greatly depending on what kind of butterfly it is; but ALL butterflies wing colors are made this fashion.

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
Reply
#7
....

This quote in the last post from this idiot is unfortunate:


Quote:Then, in a 2016 [i]BBC [/i] article Dr  [i]Kenneth Brophy [/i]  Pennywise
of the University of Glasgow in Scotland said 
“we cannot use current applications of science and maths,  
to understand the builders’ motives and contrasts”, 
and 
that contrary to the life work of Professor Alexander Thom, 
Brophy sees ´nothing´ in prehistoric life to suggest Neolithic people held a ´highly mathematical view of the world. 


Now look at the context of what Brophy is refering to.



Quote:1930´s Professor Alexander Thom spent several decades studying Britain's standing stones ... 
Thom also noted complex geometric considerations
in the builders location determination processes ...

Lead author Gail Higginbottom 

August 2016, 
new study published in the  Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 
developed Thom's purported astronomical link 
re-evaluating how and why Whip
Scotland's standing stones were built.

First considering how the stones aligned with significant astronomical events, 
this was combined with data, 
on the shape of the landscape, 
and elevation of the ground, 
suggesting that the ancient Neolithic builders held a deep ´understanding of the Universe´, 
and knew ´that it was cyclic and made up of opposites.´

Gail Higginbottom  wrote in the paper, 

that only ´two different-shaped horizons´ surrounded the most significant monuments, 
which she said was ´pretty incredible in itself´, 
and that the landscapes on which the stones were set were specifically chosen, 
to show the most extreme rising and setting points of the Sun and Moon.




Two completely contrary points.
One is a scientific study -- Higginbottom
the other is - a baseless opinion -- Brophy



Brophy then blunders forth this nonsense,
and then you know,
how he is another university professor just making shit up to get news print.
He is correct in his first statement below,
but totally offers nothing of substance in the second statement,
by dictating what he deems was "necessary"  Naughty  or not Whip
on how Neolithic man,
wanted to express himself.



Quote:Brophy argued, 
"astronomy alone does not explain how they {the stone sites} were made" 
and he added, 
that if you were going to build something --  that marks a particular lunar cycle, 
quote:
“I don't think  Doh you would put up stones of that scale, 
as it's unnecessary.”


Brophy doesn't think too clearly,
and is an obviously blind idiot.
What is also obvious,
is that the Callanish site location was influenced -- by what are determined as "lightning" strikes,
and 
at that site the Neolithic man applied his cultural sacred expression of astronomical observation,
of the two most important astronomical features in the sky, 
the sun and lunar movements.
at these chosen sites.
I believe it is more than just Sun and Moon, that the concepts covered planets and stars.
However,
Brophy would relegate ancient man,
to hapless half wits incapable of astronomical accounting of the sun moon and planets.

My question is how many times did lightning strike,
at the specific location of the star shaped burn mark,
to warrant a sacred site for erecting stones like that?
Since when does lightning strike the same spot repeatedly?

There feels like there is a lot more to this than just lightning strikes.
A much more important event marks the site,
is just my sense of possibility.
Why the cruciform shape of the stones over the landscape?

Neolithic Alchemical rituals Coffee2  were performed there,
and perhaps they had a way to draw the localized repeated lightning in to a chosen spot?
Maybe it was the site of ancient alien contact.
It was more than just unexplained repeated lightning strikes ... that initiated the site location.



Let's look at Higginbottoms' pdf abstract:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar...via%3Dihub

Quote:Origins of Standing Stone Astronomy in Britain: 
New quantitative techniques for the study of archaeoastronomy

By c. 3000 BCE, in the late Neolithic, 
there had been a significant change in the way people materialized their cosmology across Scotland,
with the introduction of free-standing stones,
that continued to be erected almost until the end of the Bronze Age (Burl, 1993, 2000). 

Significantly, a series of astronomical patternings have been empirically verified,
for many Bronze Age monuments that were erected in the latter Bronze Age 
(Higginbottom et al., 2000, 2001, 2015). 

Further, two series of complex landscape patternings associated with the monuments and their orientations,
have been identified (Higginbottom et al., 2015; Higginbottom and Clay, in press). 
However, when and where these patterns were first associated with standing-stone structures was unknown. 
Through innovative statistics and software,
we show that visible astronomical-landscape variables found at Bronze Age sites,
on the inner isles and mainland of western Scotland,
were actually first established in stone nearly two millennia earlier, 
likely with the erection of two of the earliest dated British 'great circles':
Callanish on the Isle of Lewis and Stenness on the Isle of Orkney. 
In particular, we introduce our new statistical test 
that enables the quantitative determination of astronomical connections of stone circles. 

It is seen that whilst different standing-stone monuments were created over time, 
(Burl, 1993, 2000; Higginbottom et al., 2015) 
with a mixture of landscape variables (Higginbottom et al., 2015), 
we nevertheless see that highly relevant landscape markers,
and other aspects remained unchanged through these years. 
This suggests that there is some continuity of this cosmological system through time, 
despite the various radical material and social changes,
that occurred from the late Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age.
(Lynch, 2000; Mullin, 2001; Owoc, 2001).



I would say that this detailed study far outweighs Brophy's pompous random offhand horseshit comments.

...
Reply
#8
I don't think the lightning strike was centered at the Main Circle:

Scientists studying a prehistoric stone circle on the Outer Hebrides island discovered evidence of a lightning strike on a nearby site where a circle had been hidden beneath a peat bog.


Just one stone remained standing at the site, known as Site XI or Airigh na Beinne Bige, which overlooks   Arrow  the main stone circle, Tursachan Chalanais, at Calanais on the Isle of Lewis.

[Image: image.jpg][img=650x0]https://images-e.jpimedia.uk/imagefetch/w_700,f_auto,ar_3:2,q_auto:low,c_fill/if_h_lte_200,c_mfit,h_201/https://www.scotsman.com/webimage/1.5066017.1577099310!/image/image.jpg[/img]
The Callanish Standing Stones on the Isle of Lewis. Picture: Contributed

But it is believed that the single stone was once part of a circle of standing stones, and that a massive star-shaped 'magnetic anomaly' in the centre signified where it had been struck by lightning.

Article:
https://www.scotsman.com/heritage/new-ev...-1-5066019
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With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#9
...

Clearly the professor Brophy is trying to tie lightning strikes to all the circles of stones in the area,
as a cultural prerequisite to construction,
or they would not have dragged up just one known occurrence with a star shaped anomaly,
as evidence.
So it is safe to say that -- if the premise of lightning is correct at the other site you referred to,
then at Callanish, 
that is what they expect to be an important facet of the site origination.
The star shaped anomaly is vaguely understood,
and they may still have to inspect the Callanish site for one.
These sites are ritual centers for a lot of purposes no doubt,
but cultural alchemical rituals were of major importance.
I don't necessarily buy the idea that the lightning caused the star shaped anomaly at the one site.
Maybe so.
If lightning strikes are as important in this cultural construction of circles as suggested,
then the other circles should have star shaped anomalies from lightning strikes?
Or then each site may have had rituals that involved repeated burning at a central point.
I think that Brody just wants to cast doubt on the astronomical features of the stone circles, 
and is promotionally winging the premise of lightning about,
hoping for traction in media publications.
...
Reply
#10
When lightning strikes the ground,
a conductive patch of soil will melt
and form a "fulgurite" that has a peculiar organic shape...
and probably was said to have magic powers.

[Image: sjRk9UE.jpg]
Reply
#11
(01-02-2020, 02:48 PM)Kalter Rauch Wrote: When lightning strikes the ground,
a conductive patch of soil will melt
and form a "fulgurite" that has a peculiar organic shape...
and probably was said to have magic powers.

[Image: sjRk9UE.jpg]


"We hypothesize that over evolutionary timescales living organisms adapted and evolved to actually use the electricity in the environment—global lightning," Prof. Price continues. "This has likely not changed over billions of years and is similar to the evolution of our eyes, which evolved using the sunlight nature gave us."


Shazam!  Sheep Shazbot?
[Image: poster,504x498,f8f8f8-pad,600x600,f8f8f8.u1.jpg][/url]

MAY 5, 2020
Electrical activity in living organisms mirrors electrical fields in atmosphere
[Image: lightning.jpg]Credit: CC0 Public Domain
Most electrical activity in vertebrates and invertebrates occurs at extremely low frequencies, and the origin—and medical potential—of these frequencies have eluded scientists. Now a Tel Aviv University study provides evidence for a direct link between electrical fields in the atmosphere and those found in living organisms, including humans.

The study's findings may change established notions about electrical activity in living organisms, paving the way for revolutionary, new medical treatments. Illnesses such as epilepsy and Parkinson's are related to abnormalities in the electrical activity of the body.
"We show that the electrical activity in many living organisms—from zooplankton in the oceans, to sharks and even in our brains—is very similar to the electrical fields we measure and study in the atmosphere from global lightning activity," explains Prof. Colin Price of TAU's Porter School of the Environment and Earth Sciences, who led the research for the study, published in the International Journal of Biometeorology on February 8.
Colleagues from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of Alaska also contributed to the study.
"We hypothesize that over evolutionary timescales living organisms adapted and evolved to actually use the electricity in the environment—global lightning," Prof. Price continues. "This has likely not changed over billions of years and is similar to the evolution of our eyes, which evolved using the sunlight nature gave us."
As living organisms evolved over billions of years, the natural electromagnetic resonant frequencies in the atmosphere, continuously generated by global lightning activity, provided the background electric fields for the development of cellular electrical activity. Prof. Price's research found that, in some animals, the electrical spectrum is difficult to differentiate from the background atmospheric electric field produced by lightning.
"Neither biologists nor doctors can explain why the frequencies in living organisms (0-50 Hz) are similar to those in the atmosphere caused by lightning," adds Prof. Price. "Most of them are not even aware of the similarity we presented in our paper."
"Our review of previous studies revealed that lightning-related fields may have positive medical applications related to our biological clock (circadian rhythms), spinal cord injuries and maybe other bodily functions related to electrical activity in our bodies," says Prof. Price. 


[Image: shazam-movie_0.jpg]

"The connection between the ever-present electromagnetic fields, between lightning in the atmosphere and human health, may have huge implications in the future for various treatments related to electrical abnormalities in our bodies."



The study comprised a retrospective review of previous studies on the link between lightning-related fields in the atmosphere and human and animal health. "We collected many different studies over the years to build a clear picture of this link," concludes Prof. Price. "Going forward, we need to design new experiments to see how these extremely low frequency fields from lightning may impact living organisms, and to investigate how these fields can be used to benefit us. One new experiment we are now planning is to see how these fields may impact the rate of photosynthesis in plants."




Explore further
Lightning's electromagnetic fields may have protective properties



[b]More information:[/b] Colin Price et al, Natural ELF fields in the atmosphere and in living organisms, International Journal of Biometeorology (2020). DOI: 10.1007/s00484-020-01864-6
[b]Journal information:[/b] International Journal of Biometeorology 

Provided by [url=https://phys.org/partners/tel-aviv-university/]Tel Aviv University

https://phys.org/news/2020-05-electrical...phere.html
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#12
A long time ago I was in a car when lightning hit the street 
a few feet in front of the car.
In that case, the moving car acted as a proximity switch 
that triggered an impending bolt which began from the ground.

Since I was looking directly at the flash
I was imprinted with whatever information it carried...
possibly accessible through memory,
though the effect was otherwise isolated from danger by the rubber tires.

[Image: QNcbRI4.png]
Reply
#13
(05-07-2020, 07:44 PM)Kalter Rauch Wrote: Since I was looking directly at the flash
I was imprinted with whatever information it carried...
possibly accessible through memory,
though the effect was otherwise isolated from danger by the rubber tires.


Did you try and meditate about trying to remember the flash.  It may concern more information than the Flat Fact that you remember it happening there is possible information locked in certain portions of mind something especially for you.

I do not call what I hear in ears is not 'tinnitus' but the sound of the Universe in all frequencies.  As it varies at different times and happens only when I have no music, tv or radio on or playing guitar or poking at electronic keyboard.

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
Reply
#14
Thinking about the event,
after the sun came up,
I went back (then) and looked at the place on the street
but there was nothing apparent,
so it may not have been natural......

[Image: sYmg4Vp.png]
Reply
#15
The tarmac would have negated anything below ground anyway.  You'd be arrested digging the road up
Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
Reply
#16
"The tarmac would have negated anything below ground anyway."
Hmm2 ...I suppose...although now it seems like I remember that where I looked on the street
there was a small round metal access plate for a utility.
Also, the lightning explanation came from dad...and he was always explaining away any weird stuff.
Reply
#17
MAY 12, 2020
Geometry guided construction of earliest known temple, built 6,000 years before Stonehenge
[Image: geometryguid.jpg]Geometric pattern underlying the architectural planning of a complex at Göbekli Tepe. A diagram superimposed over the schematic plan. Credit: Gil Haklay/AFTAU.
The sprawling 11,500-year-old stone Göbekli Tepe complex in southeastern Anatolia, Turkey, is the earliest known temple in human history and one of the most important discoveries of Neolithic research.

Researchers at Tel Aviv University and the Israel Antiquities Authority have now used architectural analysis to discover that geometry informed the layout of Göbekli Tepe's impressive round stone structures and enormous assembly of limestone pillars, which they say were initially planned as a single structure.
Three of the Göbekli Tepe's monumental round structures, the largest of which are 20 meters in diameter, were initially planned as a single project, according to researchers Gil Haklay of the Israel Antiquities Authority, a Ph.D. candidate at Tel Aviv University, and Prof. Avi Gopher of TAU's Department of Archaeology and Ancient Near Eastern Civilizations. They used a computer doink-headto trace aspects of the architectural design processes involved in the construction of these enclosures in this early Neolithic site.
Their findings were published in Cambridge Archaeological Journal in May.
"Göbekli Tepe is an archaeological wonder," Prof. Gopher explains. "Built by Neolithic communities 11,500 to 11,000 years ago, it features enormous, round stone structures and monumental stone pillars up to 5.5 meters high. Since there is no evidence of farming or animal domestication at the time, the site is believed to have been built by hunter-gatherers. However, its architectural complexity is highly unusual for them."
Discovered by German archaeologist Dr. Klaus Schmidt in 1994, Göbekli Tepe has since been the subject of hot archaeological debate. But while these, and other early Neolithic remains, have been intensively studied, the issue of architectural planning during these periods and its cultural ramifications have not.

[Image: 1-geometryguid.jpg]
Göbekli Tepe, Enclosure C. Credit: Gil Haklay/AFTAU.
Most researchers have made the case that the Göbekli Tepe enclosures at the main excavation area were constructed over time. However, Haklay and Prof. Gopher say that three of the structures were designed as a single project and according to a coherent geometric pattern.
"The layout of the complex is characterized by spatial and symbolic hierarchies that reflect changes in the spiritual world and in the social structure," Haklay explains. "In our research, we used an analytic tool—an doink-headbased on standard deviation mapping—to identify an underlying geometric pattern that regulated the design."

"This research introduces important information regarding the early development of architectural planning in the Levant and in the world," Prof. Gopher adds. "It opens the door to new interpretations of this site in general, and of the nature of its megalithic anthropomorphic pillars specifically."
Certain planning capabilities and practices, such as the use of geometry and the formulation of floor plans, were traditionally assumed to have emerged much later than the period during which the Göbekli Tepe was constructed—after hunter-gatherers transformed into food-producing farmers some 10,500 years ago. Notably, one of the characteristics of early farmers is their use of rectangular architecture.
"This case of early architectural planning may serve as an example of the dynamics of cultural changes during the early parts of the Neolithic period," Haklay says. "Our findings suggest that major architectural transformations during this period, such as the transition to rectangular architecture, were knowledge-based, top-down processes carried out by specialists.
"The most important and basic methods of architectural planning were devised in the Levant in the Late Epipaleolithic period as part of the Natufian culture and through the early Neolithic period. Our new research indicates that the methods of architectural planning, abstract design rules and organizational patterns were already being used during this formative period in human history."
Next, the researchers intend to investigate the architectural remains of other Neolithic sites throughout the Levant.




Explore further
Skull fragments with carved long, deliberate lines found at Gobekli Tepe



[b]More information:[/b] Gil Haklay et al, Geometry and Architectural Planning at Göbekli Tepe, Turkey, Cambridge Archaeological Journal (2020). DOI: 10.1017/S0959774319000660
Provided by Tel Aviv University



https://phys.org/news/2020-05-geometry-e...years.html
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With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#18
JUNE 22, 2020
Scientists find huge ring of ancient shafts near Stonehenge
[Image: 37-scientistsfi.jpg]In this Sunday, June 21, 2015 file photo, the sun rises as thousands of revellers gather at the ancient stone circle Stonehenge to celebrate the Summer Solstice, the longest day of the year, near Salisbury, England. Archaeologists said Monday June 22, 2020, they have discovered a major new prehistoric monument under the earth near Stonehenge that could shed new light on the origins of the mystic stone circle that is the subject of continued scientific research and venue for modern day pagan celebrations. (AP Photo/Tim Ireland, File)
Archaeologists said Monday that they have discovered a major prehistoric monument under the earth near Stonehenge that could shed new light on the origins of the mystical stone circle in southwestern England.

Experts from a group of British universities led by the University of Bradford say the site consists of at least 20 huge shafts, more than 10 meters (32 feet) in diameter and 5 meters (16 feet) deep, forming a circle more than 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) in diameter.
The new find is at Durrington Walls, the site of a Neolithic village about 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) from Stonehenge,
Researchers say the shafts appear to have been dug around 4,500 years ago, and could mark the boundary of a sacred area or precinct around a circular monument known as the Durrington Walls henge.
Richard Bates, of the University of St. Andrews School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, said the findings—made with remote sensing and sampling—provided "an insight to the past that shows an even more complex society than we could ever imagine."
University of Bradford archaeologist Vince Gaffney said it was "remarkable" that Stonehenge, one of the most studied archaeological landscapes in the world, could yield such a major new discovery.
"When these pits were first noted it was thought they might be natural features—solution hollows in the chalk," he said. But geophysical surveys allowed scientists to "join the dots and see there was a pattern on a massive scale."
Britain is dotted with stone circles build thousands of years ago for reasons that remain mysterious.
The most famous is Stonehenge, a huge monument built between 3000 B.C. and 1600 B.C. that is one of Britain's most popular tourist attractions.
It's also a spiritual home for thousands of druids and mystics who visit at the summer and winter solstices—though this weekend's summer solstice celebrations were scuttled by a ban on mass gatherings because of the coronavirus pandemic.




Explore further
Stonehenge archeologists find huge neolithic site



© 2020 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without permission.




https://phys.org/news/2020-06-evidence-h...ocean.html
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Reply
#19
ancient organic patina and megaliths???
[Image: merlin.jpg?w=1154]

AUGUST 11, 2020
Storing energy in red bricks
[Image: storingenerg.jpg]Red brick device developed by chemists at Washington University in St. Louis lights up a green light-emitting diode. The photo shows the core-shell architecture of a nanofibrillar PEDOT-coated brick electrode. Credit: D'Arcy laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Washington University in St. Louis
Imagine plugging in to your brick house.

Red bricks—some of the world's cheapest and most familiar building materials—can be converted into energy storage units that can be charged to hold electricity, like a battery, according to new research from Washington University in St. Louis.
Brick has been used in walls and buildings for thousands of years, but rarely has been found fit for any other use. Now, chemists in Arts & Sciences have developed a method to make or modify "smart bricks" that can store energy until required for powering devices. A proof-of-concept published Aug. 11 in Nature Communications shows a brick directly powering a green LED light.
"Our method works with regular brick or recycled bricks, and we can make our own bricks as well," said Julio D'Arcy, assistant professor of chemistry. "As a matter of fact, the work that we have published in Nature Communications stems from bricks that we bought at Home Depot right here in Brentwood (Missouri); each brick was 65 cents."
Walls and buildings made of bricks already occupy large amounts of space, which could be better utilized if given an additional purpose for electrical storage. While some architects and designers have recognized the humble brick's ability to absorb and store the sun's heat, this is the first time anyone has tried using bricks as anything more than thermal mass for heating and cooling.

A tandem device comprised of three PEDOT-coated brick supercapacitors and connected in series lights up a white light-emitting diode for 10 min. Credit: Wang et al.
D'Arcy and colleagues, including Washington University graduate student Hongmin Wang, first author of the new study, showed how to convert red bricks into a type of energy storage device called a supercapacitor.
"In this work, we have developed a coating of the conducting polymer PEDOT, which is comprised of nanofibers that penetrate the inner porous network of a brick; a polymer coating remains trapped in a brick and serves as an ion sponge that stores and conducts electricity," D'Arcy said.
The red pigment in bricks—iron oxide, or rust—is essential for triggering the polymerisation reaction. The authors' calculations suggest that walls made of these energy-storing bricks could store a substantial amount of energy.
"PEDOT-coated bricks are ideal building blocks that can provide power to emergency lighting," D'Arcy said. "We envision that this could be a reality when you connect our bricks with solar cells—this could take 50 bricks in close proximity to the load. These 50 bricks would enable powering emergency lighting for five hours.
"Advantageously, a brick wall serving as a supercapacitor can be recharged hundreds of thousands of times within an hour. If you connect a couple of bricks, microelectronics sensors would be easily powered."
The paper, "Energy storing bricks for stationary PEDOT supercapacitors," has been scheduled for publication in Nature Communications on 11 August 2020.




Explore further
Bricks can act as 'cameras' for characterizing past presence of radioactive materials



[b]More information:[/b] Energy storing bricks for stationary PEDOT supercapacitors, Nature Communications (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-17708-1 , www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-17708-1
[b]Journal information:[/b] Nature Communications [/url]

Provided by 
Washington University in St. Louis



https://techxplore.com/news/2020-08-ener...ricks.html



MUST READ!!! Arrow https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-17708-1



Abstract
Fired brick is a universal building material, produced by thousand-year-old technology, that throughout history has seldom served any other purpose. Here, we develop a scalable, cost-effective and versatile chemical synthesis using a fired brick to control oxidative radical polymerization and deposition of a nanofibrillar coating of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). A fired brick’s open microstructure, mechanical robustness and ~8 wt% α-Fe2O3 content afford an ideal substrate for developing electrochemical PEDOT electrodes and stationary supercapacitors that readily stack into modules. Five-minute epoxy serves as a waterproof case enabling the operation of our supercapacitors while submerged underwater and a gel electrolyte extends cycling stability to 10,000 cycles with ~90% capacitance retention.


Introduction
Fired brick, typically used for construction and architectural esthetics, is one of the most durable materials with a 5000-year history dating back to Neolithic China1. This masonry building block is commonly found in various red tones and mostly comprised of fused particles of silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3) and hematite (α-Fe2O3)2. The red color of a brick originates from hematite, a pigment first utilized by humans 73,000 years ago3,4 and serving today as a low-cost naturally abundant inorganic precursor for catalysts5, magnets6, and alloys7. State-of-the-art energy storage materials are also produced from hematite. For example, FeNx, FeP, and Li5FeO4 are synthesized via anionic or cationic exchange for potassium-ion batteries, Zn–air batteries, pseudocapacitors, and lithium-ion batteries8,9,10,11; electrochemical transformation of hematite leads to FeOOH supercapacitor anodes12.
This work is inspired by our recently published rust-assisted vapor phase polymerization13. Chemistries enabled by hematite provide an opportunity for developing cutting-edge functionalities on a fired brick where 8 wt% α-Fe2O3 content and a 3D porous microstructure afford an ideal substrate for engineering a mechanically robust electrode. Here, we develop a supercapacitor using a brick’s hematite microstructure as reactant to vapor-deposit a nanofibrillar coating of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Vapor-phase synthesis leads to PEDOT coatings exhibiting a high electronic conductivity14 and facile charge transfer, making it an ideal route for producing electrodes


https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-17708-1



[Image: 41467_2020_17708_Fig1_HTML.png?as=webp]

3D-printed Stonehenge model tests monument’s acoustics
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Tune in to the mystery of Stonehenge.

By Jason Goodyer
14th Au


[Image: 50-cf55c14.jpg?webp=true&quality=90&resize=620%2C937]
Sound engineers at the University of Salford have created a tiny model of Stonehenge in order to investigate the ancient monument’s acoustic properties.
[Image: 1-9d66ee7.jpg?webp=true&quality=90&resize=620%2C551]
The 157 stones were made by pouring a plaster-polymer mix into individual 3D-printed silicone moulds, which were constructed using highly accurate laser scan data provided by Historic England. The 1:12 scale model is just over 2.5m across and includes representations of many stones that are now missing from the original monument.
Prof Trevor Cox and his team created the model to test its acoustic properties, in an attempt to shed light on what Stonehenge may have been used for. “There have been very few studies into the sounds created at Stonehenge,” said Cox.
[Image: 10-3471f69.jpg?webp=true&quality=90&resize=620%2C414]
“We know, for example, that reflections from the stones should have helped to reinforce speech. But by how much? This scale model, which uses archeological mapping techniques to better understand the site’s layout, will give us new insights into what our ancestors would have heard in the stone circles.”
[img=0x0]https://images.immediate.co.uk/production/volatile/sites/4/2019/08/50-cf55c14.jpg?quality=90&resize=620%2C937[/img]

© Andrew Brooks/University of Salford
Prof Trevor Cox tested the acoustic properties of the scale model using ultrasonic soundwaves.
[img=0x0]https://images.immediate.co.uk/production/volatile/sites/4/2019/08/10-3471f69.jpg?quality=90&resize=620%2C414[/img]

© Andrew Brooks/University of Salford
The 157 stones were carefully positioned to faithfully replicate the structure of the real-life Stonehenge.
[img=0x0]https://images.immediate.co.uk/production/volatile/sites/4/2019/08/1-9d66ee7.jpg?quality=90&resize=620%2C551[/img]

© Andrew Brooks/University of Salford
The completed model was placed into an anechoic chamber for acoustic analysis. The pattern of spikes on the walls are specially designed to completely absorb all sound waves.

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#20
This idea could lead to a metamaterial incorporating fullerene force fields*...

https://phys.org/news/2020-10-physicists...phene.html

Goldwing_smilie

*This article describes fullerene force fields...

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/.../wcms.1207 (see p. 108)

Mentioned in the last link is the Fullerene program (freeware)...

http://ctcp.massey.ac.nz/index.php?group...fullerenes
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