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Who were the builders of off World ruins found in this Solar system?
#1
We've all discussed possible ruins seen on the Moon and Mars. What is the source of these ruins and artifacts?
Are they Alien? Were they indigenous beings that arose on Mars? Is what we believe we see the work of early man's (Antediluvian) exploration and colonization attempts?
When the presence of these mysteries are finally confirmed, how likely are you to believe Academia's explanation concerning them?
So, the words Autumn and Fall are not to be capitalized?
They are in my world!

What has been is what will be, and what has been done is what will be done; and there is nothing new under the sun.
Is there a thing of which it is said, "See, this is new?"It has been already, in the ages before us. Ecc 1: 9-10
Reply
#2
...

you posted the same thread twice,
pick this one for a response.
-------------------------------------

Could be more than one source of ancient constructs.
Mars?
well ...
maybe they were Martians  Hi

Human? .... they are us?

Humanoid? ...  Alien2

Then there are the Anunnaki. 
WTF happened to the Anunnaki? ... are they all pushing up daises on Planet Ecks for centuries gone by?


sci fi critter jitters everywhere out there, they can stay out there

no matter what, it all took a lot of labor  Horsepoop

The distant ancient histories of this solar system would certainly be interesting,
but I would rather get my hands on the artifacts before anyone else buries them in a museum basement.
Would those be high tech ?
Or caches of gold and jewels in royal tombs ?

What are their spiritual art forms and items ... found as artifacts ... 

were the Anunnaki ... atheists?  Lol

Maybe they are just blood thirsty and greedy plunderers and pillagers,
maybe they gave mankind mathematics and seeds to grow vegetables, grains, and fruit.
Maybe, maybe not.

We need to see some skeleton parts laying around on Mars!

[Image: giphy.gif]




Alien mummies would be cool.
As long as they stay dead.

Dem dry bones




...
Reply
#3
Seeing as modern man has been around for at least 200000 Years, it would seem absurd to think that we did nothing until 6000 years ago. Therefore I think it highly likely that we achieved many other civilisations in the past. Did they make it off Planet? Hard to say, but, I am thinking that we probably did.
Reply
#4
(03-02-2020, 05:35 AM)The Watcher Wrote: Seeing as modern man has been around for at least 200000 Years, it would seem absurd to think that we did nothing until 6000 years ago. Therefore I think it highly likely that we achieved many other civilisations in the past. Did they make it off Planet? Hard to say, but, I am thinking that we probably did.
"Did they make it off planet?"

I'm thinking they probably did too. Whoever created the actual machines that served as a source model for these sculpted figurines had already done so, or were about to with the highly advanced technology apparent in the configuration of their design. Less than a generation from these to Solar System exploration.
https://static.wixstatic.com/media/bdd04...4~mv2.webp
The eyes and teeth found on many of these model craft are also found on many of man's warbirds since the very early days of fixed wing flight
https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/nmacX6...GA4scGt9Ku


These were not handheld toy gliders, but craft incorporating knowledge of highly advanced engineering of Supersonic speed displaying leading edge (Wing) Vortex as seen in the designs carved/cast into the very wing itself in this model craft
https://external-preview.redd.it/xXdN8gi...6b855f10ff
http://www.flytime.ca/files/2013/05/wing...iancom.jpg
So, the words Autumn and Fall are not to be capitalized?
They are in my world!

What has been is what will be, and what has been done is what will be done; and there is nothing new under the sun.
Is there a thing of which it is said, "See, this is new?"It has been already, in the ages before us. Ecc 1: 9-10
Reply
#5
I wont look too far and drive theories too complicated.

Ancient Martian Aliens - visited Earth, made some dna improvements to our ancestors.... that would explain lot of ancient unexplained stuff.
After Mars disaster crews left alive on Earth and Moon etc.  for some time , Earth conditions were not the best match to them.
So they are all gone. They maybe never got to know what happened on their home planet.
We are hybrids, Martians were few feets taller, bald and they had darker yellow skin.
Reply
#6
Thanx FSB for the spin-off thread.

This thread has great potential as opposed to a similar strain in your thought provoking "Humanzee" epic.

Leaving the "question" open to discussion is a tact that may unveil new answers and avenues of exploration as compared to the near foregone conclusion reached as the humanzee hypothesis.

Certain leeway is given with ample opportunity to evolve given the opening title subject: "WHO?".

Who is part of the "W-5" Who What Where When Why which helps formulate the summation of the question of "HOW"


Three questions have already been answered What Where and When.

WHEN?
I am not much of a lunar anomalist researcher per se and I am sure Keith and others can cover our satellite moon structures but for Mars and especially Cydonia I am the researcher who actually found the Mariner-9 image of Cydonia and can state with certainty that it is written in stone that The features we study can be locked in as previous to that date. All future inages until the present correspond to the exact same features as that initial "First Light" Image.
WHERE?
Luna and Cydonia et all...
WHAT?
Anomalistic features and possible artificial landforms.


Two questions remain: 
WHO? 
WHY?

Who requires a history even if it turns out to be Us/We or Martians/Aliens.
Why requisite a mystery even if it turns out to be Natural/Supernatural.

How is the devil in the details.


The whole thread can be encapsulated in a nutshell.

Nothing Discussed took place unless it was placed on or within a spherical miracle.

No matter any of the W-5's all subject matter to be considered occured on a Planet or moon that has obtained an oblate spheroidal shape.

The W-5's must coordinate Space with Temporal coordinates and Spherical coordinates.

The Spherical coordinates separate the frame-dragged outer-space from the surface bound world as a teaching aide.

An axial guide and temporal timepiece localized and specialized to the surrounding cosmos for contrast and comparison to other nearby orbs and orbits.

WHEN:

The three Articles below help constrain the answer that life may be either galactic(localized) or Extra-galactic(non-local yokels)


Quote:"When you look up at the night sky, some of the individual stars and star clusters that you can see were actually formed outside of our galaxy—alien objects if you like, but now part of the Milky Way galaxy as we know it," says Professor Forbes.




MARCH 3, 2020 REPORT
Protein discovered inside a meteorite
by Bob Yirka , Phys.org
[Image: 5e5e3da17cadd.jpg]Model of the 2320 hemolithin molecule after MMFF energy minimization. Top: in space-filling mode; Center: ball and stick; Bottom: enlarged view of iron, oxygen and lithium termination. White = H; orange = Li; grey = C; blue = N; red = O and green = Fe. Hydrogen bonds are shown by dotted lines. Credit: arXiv:2002.11688 [astro-ph.EP]
A team of researchers from Plex Corporation, Bruker Scientific LLC and Harvard University has found evidence of a protein inside of a meteorite. They have written a paper describing their findings and have uploaded it to the arXiv preprint server.

In prior research, scientists have found organic materials, sugars and some other molecules considered to be precursors to amino acids in both meteorites and comets—and fully formed amino acids have been found in comets and meteorites, as well. But until now, no proteins had been found inside of an extraterrestrial object. In this new effort, the researchers have discovered a protein called hemolithin inside of a meteorite that was found in Algeria back in 1990.
The hemolithin protein found by the researchers was a small one, and was made up mostly of glycine, and amino acids. It also had oxygen, lithium and iron atoms at its ends—an arrangement never seen before. The team's paper has not yet been peer reviewed, but once the findings are confirmed, their discovery will add another piece to the puzzle that surrounds the development of life on Earth. Proteins are considered to be essential building blocks for the development of living things, and finding one on a meteorite bolsters theories that suggest either life, or something very close to it, came to Earth from elsewhere in space.
Proteins are considered by chemists to be quite complex, which means a lot of things would have to happen by chance for protein formation. For hemolithin to have formed naturally in the configuration found would require glycine to form first, perhaps on the surface of grains of space dust. After that, heat by way of molecular clouds might have induced units of glycine to begin linking into polymer chains, which at some point, could evolve into fully formed proteins. The researchers note that the atom groupings on the tips of the protein form an iron oxide that has been seen in prior research to absorb photons—a means of splitting water into oxygen and hydrogen, thereby producing an energy source that would also be necessary for the development of life.




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New insights into the origin of life



[b]More information:[/b] Hemolithin: a Meteoritic Protein containing Iron and Lithium, arXiv:2002.11688 [astro-ph.EP] arxiv.org/abs/2002.11688

https://phys.org/news/2020-03-protein-meteorite.html




You don't need a wormhole to get here from wayyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy over there.

Patience.

MARCH 3, 2020
Milky Way's warp caused by galactic collision, Gaia suggests
[Image: 6-.jpg]The galactic disc of the Milky Way, our galaxy, is not flat but warped upwards on one side and downwards on the other. Data from ESA's galaxy-mapping spacecraft Gaia provides new insights into the behaviour of the warp and its possible origins. The two smaller galaxies in the lower right corner are the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, two satellite galaxies of the Milky Way. Credit: Stefan Payne-Wardenaar; Magellanic Clouds: Robert Gendler/ESO
Astronomers have pondered for years why our galaxy, the Milky Way, is warped. Data from ESA's star-mapping satellite Gaia suggest the distortion might be caused by an ongoing collision with another, smaller, galaxy, which sends ripples through the galactic disc like a rock thrown into water.
Astronomers have known since the late 1950s that the Milky Way's disc—where most of its hundreds of billions of stars reside—is not flat but somewhat curved upwards on one side and downwards on the other. For years, they debated what is causing this warp. They proposed various theories including the influence of the intergalactic magnetic field or the effects of a dark matter halo, a large amount of unseen matter that is expected to surround galaxies. If such a halo had an irregular shape, its gravitational force could bend the galactic disc.
[b]Faster than expected[/b]
With its unique survey of more than one billion stars in our galaxy, Gaia might hold the key to solving this mystery. A team of scientists using data from the second Gaia data release has now confirmed previous hints that this warp is not static but changes its orientation over time. Astronomers call this phenomenon precession and it could be compared to the wobble of a spinning top as its axis rotates.

Data from ESA’s star-observing satellite Gaia shows that the warped galactic disc of the Milky Way precesses, or wobbles, similarly to the motion of a spinning top. The warp moves around the centre of the Milky Way faster than previously expected, completing one rotation in 600 to 700 million years. That’s however, still slower than the speed at which the stars in the disc orbit the galactic centre. Our mother star, the Sun (shown in the animation as the small yellow dot), for example, completes one orbit in only 220 million years. The speed of the warp’s precession led astronomers to believe that it must be caused by something rather powerful, such as an ongoing collision with a smaller galaxy. Credit: Stefan Payne-Wardenaar
Moreover, the speed at which the warp precesses is much faster than expected—faster than the intergalactic magnetic field or the dark matter halo would allow. That suggests the warp must be caused by something else. Something more powerful—like a collision with another galaxy.
"We measured the speed of the warp by comparing the data with our models. Based on the obtained velocity, the warp would complete one rotation around the center of the Milky Way in 600 to 700 million years," says Eloisa Poggio of the Turin Astrophysical Observatory, Italy, who is the lead author of the study, published in Nature Astronomy. "That's much faster than what we expected based on predictions from other models, such as those looking at the effects of the non-spherical halo."
[b]The star power of Gaia[/b]
The warp's speed is, however, slower than the speed at which the stars themselves orbit the galactic center. The sun, for example, completes one rotation in about 220 million years.
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On 25 April 2018, ESA’s Gaia mission will publish its much awaited second data release, including high-precision measurements of nearly 1.7 billion stars in our Galaxy. Scientists who have been working on creating and validating the data contained in the catalogue tell us why they are waiting for this extraordinary release. Featured in the video: Antonella Vallenari (INAF, Astronomical Observatory of Padua), Anthony Brown (Leiden University), Timo Prusti (European Space Agency), Annie Robin (Institut UTINAM, OSU THETA Franche-Comté-Bourgogne), Laurent Eyer (University of Geneva) and Federica Spoto (IMCCE, Observatory of Paris). Credit: European Space Agency
Such insights were only possible thanks to the unprecedented ability of the Gaia mission to map our galaxy, the Milky Way, in 3-D, by accurately determining positions of more than one billion stars in the sky and estimating their distance from us. The flying saucer-like telescope also measures the velocities at which individual stars move in the sky, allowing astronomers to 'play' the movie of the Milky Way's history back- and forward in time over millions of years.

"It's like having a car and trying to measure the velocity and direction of travel of this car over a very short period of time and then, based on those values, trying to model the past and future trajectory of the car," says Ronald Drimmel, a research astronomer at the Turin Astrophysical Observatory and co-author of the paper. "If we make such measurements for many cars, we could model the flow of traffic. Similarly, by measuring the apparent motions of millions of stars across the sky we can model large scale processes such as the motion of the warp."
[b]Sagittarius?[/b]
The astronomers do not yet know which galaxy might be causing the ripple nor when the collision started. One of the contenders is Sagittarius, a dwarf galaxy orbiting the Milky Way, which is believed to have burst through the Milky Way's galactic disc several times in the past. Astronomers think that Sagittarius will be gradually absorbed by the Milky Way, a process which is already underway.

[Image: 7-.jpg]
The Sagittarius dwarf galaxy, a small satellite of the Milky Way that is leaving a stream of stars behind as an effect of our Galaxy’s gravitational tug, is visible as an elongated feature below the Galactic centre and pointing in the downwards direction in the all-sky map of the density of stars observed by ESA’s Gaia mission between July 2014 to May 2016. Scientists analysing data from Gaia’s second release have shown our Milky Way galaxy is still enduring the effects of a near collision that set millions of stars moving like ripples on a pond. The close encounter likely took place sometime in the past 300–900 million years, and the culprit could be the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. Credit: ESA/Gaia/DPAC, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO
"With Gaia, for the first time, we have a large amount of data on a vast amount stars, the motion of which is measured so precisely that we can try to understand the large scale motions of the galaxy and model its formation history," says ESA's Gaia deputy project scientist Jos de Bruijne. "This is something unique. This really is the Gaia revolution."
As impressive as the warp and its precession appear on the galactic scale, the scientists reassure us that it has no noticeable effects on life on our planet.
[b]Far enough[/b]
"The sun is at the distance of 26 000 light years from the galactic center where the amplitude of the warp is very small," Eloisa says. "Our measurements were mostly dedicated to the outer parts of the galactic disc, out to 52 000 light years from the galactic center and beyond."

[Image: 8-.jpg]
The structure of our galaxy, the Milky Way, with its warped galactic disc, where the majority of its hundreds of billions of stars reside. Data from ESA's star-observer Gaia recently proved that the disc's warp is precessing, essentially moving around similarly to a wobbling spinning top. The speed of the warp's rotation is so high that it must have been caused by a rather powerful event, astronomers believe, perhaps an ongoing collision with another, smaller, galaxy which sends ripples through the disc like a rock thrown into water. Credit: Stefan Payne-Wardenaar; Inset: NASA/JPL-Caltech; Layout: ESA
Gaia previously uncovered evidence of collisions between the Milky Way and other galaxies in the recent and distant past, which can still be observed in the motion patterns of large groups of stars billions of years after the events occurred.
Meanwhile, the satellite, currently in the sixth year of its mission, keeps scanning the sky and a Europe-wide consortium is busy processing and analyzing the data that keeps flowing towards Earth. Astronomers across the world are looking forward to the next two Gaia data releases, planned for later in 2020 and in the second half of 2021, respectively, to tackle further mysteries of the galaxy we call home.




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Astronomers decode Milky Way's violent birth



[b]More information:[/b] E. Poggio et al. Evidence of a dynamically evolving Galactic warp, Nature Astronomy (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41550-020-1017-3
[b]Journal information:[/b] Nature Astronomy [/url]

Provided by 
European Space Agency

https://phys.org/news/2020-03-milky-warp...-gaia.html





MARCH 3, 2020
Milky Way galaxy 'reverse engineered'
[Image: 4-stars.jpg]Credit: CC0 Public Domain
Like taking apart a piece of technology, the Milky Way galaxy has been reverse engineered to find out how it was assembled.

Using ancient star clusters, Swinburne's Professor Duncan Forbes traced back the evolution of the Milky Way galaxy to identify those star clusters formed within the original Milky Way and those that were acquired over time as the Milky Way swallowed up small satellite galaxies.
Professor Forbes attributes most of these acquired star clusters to only five satellite galaxies—the satellite galaxies themselves have long been disrupted but their compact star clusters have lived on for billions of years.
From the motions, ages and chemical composition of the star clusters, Professor Forbes inferred that several of the satellites contained bright nuclei at their centers and contained gas, the material needed for new star formation.
One of the satellites contained star clusters on low energy orbits, which Professor Forbes has dubbed "Koala," after the Australian animal that sleeps for more than 18 hours each day.
"Although our Milky Way may have undergone a tumultuous past, as it grew by accreting and disrupting other small galaxies, the star clusters known as globular clusters are extremely robust and they largely survived intact to the present day," Professor Forbes says.

This computer simulation, by astronomers at Caltech, shows how our Milky Way galaxy may have formed. Using a supercomputer they modelled the evolution of a galaxy from its earliest formation. The main galaxy grows over time by accreting smaller satellite galaxies. The simulation ends with a rotating spiral galaxy that resembles our own Milky Way. Credit: CalTech
"It is these globular clusters that can be used to re-trace, or reverse engineer, the assembly history of our own galaxy going back billions of years.
"When you look up at the night sky, some of the individual stars and star clusters that you can see were actually formed outside of our galaxy—alien objects if you like, but now part of the Milky Way galaxy as we know it," says Professor Forbes.
This research has been published by the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.




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Fossil star clusters reveal their age



[b]More information:[/b] Duncan A Forbes. Reverse engineering the Milky Way, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2020). DOI: 10.1093/mnras/staa245
[b]Journal information:[/b] Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 

Provided by Swinburne University of Technology

https://phys.org/news/2020-03-milky-galaxy-reverse.html

(03-02-2020, 02:05 AM)Vianova Wrote: We need to see some skeleton parts laying around on Mars!

[Image: giphy.gif]
Alien mummies would be cool.
As long as they stay dead.

Dem dry bones
...

MARCH 3, 2020
Apes' inner ears could hide clues to evolutionary history of hominoids
by eLife
[Image: apesinnerear.jpg]A virtual 3-D model of a gibbon skull with part of the inner ear highlighted in red. Credit: Alessandro Urciuoli (CC BY 4.0)
Studying the inner ear of apes and humans could uncover new information on our species' evolutionary relationships, suggests a new study published today in eLife.

Humans, gorillas, chimpanzees, orangutans and gibbons all belong to a group known as the hominoids. This 'superfamily' also includes the immediate ancestors and close relatives of these species, but in many instances, the evolutionary relationships between these extinct ape species remain controversial. The new findings suggest that looking at the structure (or morphology) of the inner ears across hominoids as a whole could go some way to resolving this.
"Reconstructing the evolutionary history of apes and humans and determining the morphology of the last common ancestor from which they evolved are challenging tasks," explains lead author Alessandro Urciuoli, a researcher at the Institut Català de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont (ICP) in Barcelona, Spain. "While DNA can help evolutionary biologists work out how living species are related to one another, fossils are typically the principle source of information for extinct species, although they must be used with caution."
The bony cavity that houses the inner ear, which is involved in balance and hearing and is fairly common in the fossil record, has proven useful for tracing the evolution of certain groups of mammals. But until now, no studies have explored whether this structure could provide insights into the evolutionary relatedness among living and extinct hominoids.
To address this, Urciuoli and his team used a 3-D imaging technique to capture the complex shapes of the inner ear cavities of 27 species of monkeys and apes, including humans and the extinct ape Oreopithecus and fossil hominin Australopithecus. Their results confirmed that the shape of these structures most closely reflected the evolutionary relationships between the species and not, for example, how the animals moved.
The team next identified features of these bony chambers that were shared among several hominoid groups, and estimated how the inner ears of these groups' ancestors might have looked. Their findings for Australopithecus were consistent with this species being the most closely related to modern humans than other apes, while those for Oreopithecus supported the view that this was a much older species of ape related in some respects with other apes still alive today.
"Our work provides a testable hypothesis about inner ear evolution in apes and humans that should be subjected to further scrutiny based on the analysis of additional fossils, particularly for great apes that existed during the Miocene," says senior author David Alba, Director of the ICP. The Miocene period, which extends from about 23 to five million years ago, is when the evolutionary path to hominoids became distinct.
Urciuoli adds that, in years to come, disentangling the kinship relationships between Miocene apes will be essential for improving our understanding of the evolution of hominoids, including humans and our closest living relatives, the chimpanzee and bonobo.




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Fossil suggests apes, old world monkeys moved in opposite directions from shared ancestor



[b]More information:[/b] Alessandro Urciuoli et al, The evolution of the vestibular apparatus in apes and humans, eLife (2020). DOI: 10.7554/eLife.51261
[b]Journal information:[/b] eLife 

Provided by eLife

https://phys.org/news/2020-03-apes-ears-clues-evolutionary-history.html



Quote:Posted by The Watcher - Monday, March 2nd, 2020, 08:35 am
Seeing as modern man has been around for at least 200000 Years, it would seem absurd to think that we did nothing until 6000 years ago. Therefore I think it highly likely that we achieved many other civilisations in the past. Did they make it off Planet? Hard to say, but, I am thinking that we probably did.
The new study has solved that puzzle and in doing so, it has documented the earliest known interbreeding event between ancient human populations—a group known as the "super-archaics" in Eurasia interbred with a Neanderthal-Denisovan ancestor about 700,000 years ago.





[Image: arrow.png]
The new study has solved that puzzle and in doing so, it has documented the earliest known interbreeding event between ancient human populations—a group known as the "super-archaics"

[Image: holycowsmile.gif] [i]"super-archaics"[/i]
FEBRUARY 20, 2020
Earliest interbreeding event between ancient human populations discovered

[Image: 5745df410eed8.jpg]Credit: C0 Public Domain
For three years, anthropologist Alan Rogers has attempted to solve an evolutionary puzzle. His research untangles millions of years of human evolution by analyzing DNA strands from ancient human species known as hominins. Like many evolutionary geneticists, Rogers compares hominin genomes looking for genetic patterns such as mutations and shared genes. He develops statistical methods that infer the history of ancient human populations.

In 2017, Rogers led a study which found that two lineages of ancient humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans, separated much earlier than previously thought and proposed a bottleneck population size. It caused some controversy—anthropologists Mafessoni and Prüfer argued that their method for analyzing the DNA produced different results. Rogers agreed, but realized that neither method explained the genetic data very well.
"Both of our methods under discussion were missing something, but what?" asked Rogers, professor of anthropology at the University of Utah.
The new study has solved that puzzle and in doing so, it has documented the earliest known interbreeding event between ancient human populations—a group known as the "super-archaics" in Eurasia interbred with a Neanderthal-Denisovan ancestor about 700,000 years ago. The event was between two populations that were more distantly related than any other recorded. The authors also proposed a revised timeline for human migration out of Africa and into Eurasia. The method for analyzing ancient DNA provides a new way to look farther back into the human lineage than ever before.
"We've never known about this episode of interbreeding and we've never been able to estimate the size of the super-archaic population," said Rogers, lead author of the study. "We're just shedding light on an interval on human evolutionary history that was previously completely dark."
The paper was published on Feb. 20, 2020, in the journal [i]Science Advances
.
[b]Out of Africa and interbreeding[/b]
Rogers studied the ways in which mutations are shared among modern Africans and Europeans, and ancient Neanderthals and Denisovans. The pattern of sharing implied five episodes of interbreeding, including one that was previously unknown. The newly discovered episode involves interbreeding over 700,000 years ago between a distantly related "super-archaic" population which separated from all other humans around two million years ago, and the ancestors of Neanderthals and Denisovans.
The super-archaic and Neanderthal-Denisovan ancestor populations were more distantly related than any other pair of human populations previously known to interbreed. For example, modern humans and Neanderthals had been separated for about 750,000 years when they interbred. The super-archaics and Neanderthal-Denisovan ancestors were separated for well over a million years.
"These findings about the timing at which interbreeding happened in the human lineage is telling something about how long it takes for reproductive isolation to evolve," said Rogers.
The authors used other clues in the genomes to estimate when the ancient human populations separated and their effective population size. They estimated the super-archaic separated into its own species about two million years ago. This agrees with human fossil evidence in Eurasia that is 1.85 million years old.
The researchers also proposed there were three waves of human migration into Eurasia. The first was two million years ago when the super-archaics migrated into Eurasia and expanded into a large population. Then 700,000 years ago, Neanderthal-Denisovan ancestors migrated into Eurasia and quickly interbred with the descendants of the super-archaics. Finally, modern humans expanded to Eurasia 50,000 years ago where we know they interbred with other ancient humans, including with the Neanderthals.
"I've been working for the last couple of years on this different way of analyzing genetic data to find out about history," said Rogers. "It's just gratifying that you come up with a different way of looking at the data and you end up discovering things that people haven't been able to see with other methods."
[/i]





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New look at archaic DNA rewrites human evolution story




[b]More information:[/b] A.R. Rogers el al., "Neanderthal-Denisovan ancestors interbred with a distantly related hominin," [i]Science Advances
 (2020). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aay5483 , https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/8/eaay5483
[b]Journal information:[/b] Science Advances 

Provided by 
University of Utah


[/i]

[/url]
[url=https://phys.org/news/2020-03-apes-ears-clues-evolutionary-history.html]
https://phys.org/news/2020-02-earliest-i...human.html
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#7
And that's the way it is, until it's not.
So, the words Autumn and Fall are not to be capitalized?
They are in my world!

What has been is what will be, and what has been done is what will be done; and there is nothing new under the sun.
Is there a thing of which it is said, "See, this is new?"It has been already, in the ages before us. Ecc 1: 9-10
Reply
#8
Being two separate worlds with moon(s) (mars may have once been a tidal locked moon itself) we will assume for now mars was a standalone planet and not a moon of another object.

This brings constraints.
Temporal and chemical wich eventually leads to the biological question.

There is no question there is life on Earth but it looks very possible Mars may have had a civilization.

This fresh-start thread is timely because there is new news!

WHO:?
On the matter of life on other planets and possible indigenous martian builders... Arrow


"We studied the surface of all the minerals tested and we have strong evidence the reactions are catalytic and occur on the mineral surface" explains Tüysüz. "In the hydrothermal process of CO2 fixation hydrogen acts as an electron- and energy donor, just like in biology. It's truly astonishing," Preiner adds.

The researchers' findings suggest that simple abiotic geochemical reactions could have paved the way for early metabolism that microbes still use today.

MARCH 2, 2020
When rocks lay the groundwork for the origin of life
by University Of Strasbourg, University of Strasbourg
[Image: 500?cb=20160910034237] Jabba
[Image: whenrockslay.jpg]Mineral catalysts found in deep-sea vents convert carbon dioxide and hydrogen to biomolecules, showing striking parallels to known biological pathways. Credit: Susan Lang, U. of SC. / NSF / ROV Jason / 2018 © Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Mineral catalysts found in deep-sea vents convert CO2 and H2 to biomolecules, showing striking parallels to known biological pathways.

An international collaboration of researchers in Germany, France and Japan investigated the catalytic activities of minerals found in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. The results suggest that mineral-driven chemical reactions might be closely mapped onto microbial carbon metabolism.
Life on Earth could not have started without metabolism. Alkaline hydrothermal vents have been proposed as a possible environment where a primitive form of metabolism (protometabolism) predating cellular life could have emerged. The first steps of metabolism, which would have started as geological chemistry, might still be conserved in biochemical pathways that evolutionary biologists have identified as being ancient. One of them is the acetyl-CoA pathway. Microorganisms use it to convert carbon dioxide (CO2) to acetate and pyruvate, serving as an entry point to a more complex carbon metabolism. Interestingly, it is the only known biological carbon fixation route that uses hydrogen (H2) as a source of electrons, and H2 is very abundant in alkaline hydrothermal vent systems. Still, geochemically realistic CO2fixation leading to higher-carbon biomolecules under biologically relevant deep-sea vent conditions has been challenging.
Looking for a bridge between the abiotic (non-life) and biotic (life), the researchers in Germany, France and Japan became inspired by the characteristics of the biological acetyl-CoA pathway. In biology, complex enzymes facilitate the reaction between COand H2, but hydrothermal minerals can serve as catalysts for the non-enzymatic version of the same reaction. Prof. Joseph Moran, an organic chemist interested in the protometabolic origin of life and leader of the Laboratory of Chemical Catalysis at the University of Strasbourg (France) explains: "What acetyl-CoA pathway enzymes and hydrothermal minerals have in common is transition metals like iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni). These metals are also commonly used as catalysts in organic chemistry to promote notoriously difficult reactions." The Strasbourg-based team had already explored fixing CO2 alone using metallic iron in the origin of life context. It was the right time to move on to geologically abundant mineral catalysts.

Biologist Prof. William Martin from the Heinrich Heine University in Düsseldorf has been investigating the parallels between biochemical and geochemical CO2 fixation for two decades. "Under physiological conditions, H2 alone is not reducing enough to fix CO2. We wanted to find catalysts that could have supported life at the very beginning, before the complex biological mechanisms were in place," says Martin. Together with chemist Dr. Martina Preiner (co-first author of the paper), they reached out to a research group at the Max Planck Institute for Coal Research in Mülheim, Germany, led by Dr. Harun Tüysüz, who specializes in heterogeneous catalysis. After some brainstorming, Martin, Moran and Tüysüz decided the experiments would begin with H2, CO2 and minerals found in alkaline hydrothermal vents: awaruite and magnetite. However, the three teams were not the only ones with a similar goal. Researchers in Tsukuba and Sapporo (Bioproduction Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology) had started reducing CO2 with H2 over iron sulfide catalysts (e.g. greigite mineral), which are also common in deep-sea vent systems. Microbiologist Dr. Kensuke Igarashi (co-first author of the study), who performed experiments with greigite in Sapporo, explains: "It was clear we can achieve a deeper understanding of our findings if we share our results with each other."
Indeed, this open-minded approach proved to be very fruitful. Although CO2 fixation with H2 over three hydrothermal minerals—awaruite (Ni3Fe), magnetite (Fe3O4) and greigite (Fe3S4)—was performed in three different laboratories all over the world, the results lead to the same conclusion. "All these minerals catalyze the fixation of COwith H2 in water and yield products which correspond to those of the biological acetyl-CoA pathway: formate, acetate and pyruvate," says Dr. Kamila Muchowska, a Strasbourg-based chemist and co-first author of the paper, responsible for magnetiteexperiments. "We studied the surface of all the minerals tested and we have strong evidence the reactions are catalytic and occur on the mineral surface" explains Tüysüz. "In the hydrothermal process of CO2 fixation hydrogen acts as an electron- and energy donor, just like in biology. It's truly astonishing," Preiner adds.
The researchers' findings suggest that simple abiotic geochemical reactions could have paved the way for early metabolism that microbes still use today. Hydrothermal minerals could have functioned as geochemical primers for the later emergence of the enzymatic acetyl-CoA pathway. These results might not only be relevant for terrestrial hydrothermal systems, and the scientists do not exclude the possibility that protometabolism could be initiated by a similar route elsewhere.
The study is published in the journal Nature Ecology & Evolution.




Explore further
Electricity-driven undersea reactions may have been important for the emergence of life



[b]More information:[/b] A hydrogen-dependent geochemical analogue of primordial carbon and energy metabolism, Nature Ecology & Evolution (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41559-020-1125-6
[b]Journal information:[/b] Nature Ecology & Evolution [/url]

Provided by 
University of Strasbourg 






WHO:?


On the matter of life on other planets and possible indigenous martian builders...
MARCH 5, 2020
Organic molecules discovered by Curiosity Rover consistent with early life on Mars: study
[Image: curiosityrov.jpg]This self-portrait of NASA's Mars rover Curiosity combines dozens of exposures taken by the rover's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) during the 177th Martian day, or sol, of Curiosity's work on Mars (Feb. 3, 2013), plus three exposures taken during Sol 270 (May 10, 2013) to update the appearance of part of the ground beside the rover. Credit: NASA
Organic compounds called thiophenes are found on Earth in coal, crude oil and oddly enough, in white truffles, the mushroom beloved by epicureans and wild pigs.

Thiophenes were also recently discovered on Mars, and Washington State University astrobiologist Dirk Schulze-Makuch thinks their presence would be consistent with the presence of early life on Mars.
Schulze-Makuch and Jacob Heinz with the Technische Universität in Berlin explore some of the possible pathways for thiophenes' origins on the red planet in a new paper published in the journal Astrobiology. Their work suggests that a biological process, most likely involving bacteria rather than a truffle though, may have played a role in the organic compound's existence in the Martian soil.
"We identified several biological pathways for thiophenes that seem more likely than chemical ones, but we still need proof," Dirk Schulze-Makuch said. "If you find thiophenes on Earth, then you would think they are biological, but on Mars, of course, the bar to prove that has to be quite a bit higher."
Thiophene molecules have four carbon atoms and a sulfur atom arranged in a ring, and both carbon and sulfur, are bio-essential elements. Yet Schulze-Makuch and Heinz could not exclude non-biological processes leading to the existence of these compounds on Mars.
Meteor impacts provide one possible abiotic explanation. Thiophenes can also be created through thermochemical sulfate reduction, a process that involves a set of compounds being heated to 248 degrees Fahrenheit (120 degrees Celsius) or more.
In the biological scenario, bacteria, which may have existed more than three billion years ago when Mars was warmer and wetter, could have facilitated a sulfate reduction process that results in thiophenes. There are also other pathways where the thiophenes themselves are broken down by bacteria.
While the Curiosity Rover has provided many clues, it uses techniques that break larger molecules up into components, so scientists can only look at the resulting fragments.
Further evidence should come from the next rover, the Rosalind Franklin, which is expected to launch in July 2020. It will be carrying a Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer, or MOMA, which uses a less destructive analyzing method that will allow for the collection of larger molecules.
Schulze-Makuch and Heinz recommend using the data collected by the next rover to look at carbon and sulfur isotopes. Isotopes are variations of the chemical elements that have different numbers of neutrons than the typical form, resulting in differences in mass.
"Organisms are 'lazy'. They would rather use the light isotope variations of the element because it costs them less energy," he said.
Organisms alter the ratios of heavy and light isotopes in the compounds they produce that are substantially different from the ratios found in their building blocks, which Schulze-Makuch calls "a telltale signal for life."
Yet even if the next rover returns this isotopic evidence, it may still not be enough to prove definitively that there is, or once was, life on Mars.
"As Carl Sagan said 'extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence,'" Schulze-Makuch said. "I think the proof will really require that we actually send people there, and an astronaut looks through a microscope and sees a moving microbe."




Explore further
Life in world's driest desert seen as sign of potential life on Mars



[b]More information:[/b] Jacob Heinz et al, Thiophenes on Mars: Biotic or Abiotic Origin?, Astrobiology (2020). DOI: 10.1089/ast.2019.2139
[b]Journal information:[/b] Astrobiology 

Provided by Washington State University

https://phys.org/news/2020-03-molecules-...-life.html



The resulting carbon dioxide estimates could help solve the long-standing mystery of how an ancient Mars located so far from a faint early sun could have been warm enough for surface oceans and perhaps life. How such high levels could have been maintained and what might have lived beneath them remain important questions.


FEBRUARY 26, 2020
Ancient meteorite site on Earth could reveal new clues about Mars' past
[Image: mars.jpg]Credit: CC0 Public Domain
Scientists have devised new analytical tools to break down the enigmatic history of Mars' atmosphere—and whether life was once possible there.

A paper detailing the work was published today in the journal Science Advances. It could help astrobiologists understand the alkalinity, pH and nitrogen content of ancient waters on Mars, and by extension, the carbon dioxide composition of the planet's ancient atmosphere.
Mars of today is too cold to have liquid water on its surface, a requirement for hosting life as we know it.
"The question that drives our interests isn't whether there's life on present-day Mars," said Tim Lyons, UCR distinguished professor of biogeochemistry. "We are driven instead by asking whether there was life on Mars billions of years ago, which seems significantly more likely."
However, "Overwhelming evidence exists that Mars had liquid water oceans roughly 4 billion years ago," Lyons noted.
The central question astrobiologists ask is how that was possible. The red planet is farther from the sun than Earth is, and billions of years ago the sun generated less heat than it does today.
"To have made the planet warm enough for liquid surface water, its atmosphere would likely have needed an immense amount of greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide specifically," explained Chris Tino, a UCR graduate student and co-first-author of the paper along with Eva Stüeken, a lecturer at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland.

[Image: ancientmeteo.jpg]
Jezero Crater, landing site for the upcoming Mars 2020 rover mission. Credit: NASA/JPL/JHUAPL/MSSS/Brown University
Since sampling Mars' atmosphere from billions of years ago to learn its carbon dioxide content is impossible, the team concluded that a site on Earth whose geology and chemistry bear similarities to the Martian surface might provide some of the missing pieces. They found it in southern Germany's Nordlinger Ries crater.
Formed roughly 15 million years ago after being struck by a meteorite, Ries crater features layers of rocks and minerals better preserved than almost anywhere on Earth.
The Mars 2020 rover will land in a similarly structured, well-preserved ancient crater. Both places featured liquid water in their distant past, making their chemical compositions comparable.

According to Tino, it's unlikely that ancient Mars had enough oxygen to have hosted complex life forms like humans or animals.
However, some microorganisms could have survived if ancient Martian water had both a neutral pH level and was highly alkaline. Those conditions imply sufficient carbon dioxide in the atmosphere—perhaps thousands of times more than what surrounds Earth today—to warm the planet and make liquid water possible.
While pH measures the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution, alkalinity is a measure dependent on several ions and how they interact to stabilize pH.
"Ries crater rock samples have ratios of nitrogen isotopes that can best be explained by high pH," Stüeken said. "What's more, the minerals in the ancient sediments tell us that alkalinity was also very high."

[Image: 1-ancientmeteo.jpg]
A sample of suevite rock formed nearly 15 million years ago by the Ries Crater meteorite impact. Similarly impact-generated rocks exist on the rims of ancient crater lakes on Mars. Credit: NASA
However, Martian samples with mineral indicators for high alkalinity and nitrogen isotope data pointing to relatively low pH would demand extremely high levels of carbon dioxide in the past atmosphere.
The resulting carbon dioxide estimates could help solve the long-standing mystery of how an ancient Mars located so far from a faint early sun could have been warm enough for surface oceans and perhaps life. How such high levels could have been maintained and what might have lived beneath them remain important questions.
"Before this study, it wasn't clear that something as straightforward as nitrogen isotopes could be used to estimate the pH of ancient waters on Mars; pH is a key parameter in calculating the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere," Tino said.
Funding for this study came from the NASA Astrobiology Institute, where Lyons leads the Alternative Earths team based at UCR. Included in the study were Gernot Arp of the Georg-August University of Göttingen and Dietmar Jung of the Bavarian State Office for the Environment.
When samples from NASA's Mars 2020 rover mission are brought back to Earth, they could be analyzed for their nitrogen isotope ratios. These data could confirm the team's suspicion that very high levels of carbon dioxide made liquid water possible and maybe even some forms of microbial life long ago.
"It could be 10-20 years before samples are brought back to Earth," Lyons said. "But I am delighted to know that we have perhaps helped to define one of the first questions to ask once these samples are distributed to labs in the U.S. and throughout the world."




Explore further
Mars' water was mineral-rich and salty



[b]More information:[/b] "Nitrogen isotope ratios trace high-pH conditions in a terrestrial Mars analog site" Science Advances (2020). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aay3440 , https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/9/eaay3440
[b]Journal information:[/b] Science Advances 

Provided by University of California - Riverside




Recall:
MARCH 3, 2020 REPORT
Protein discovered inside a meteorite
by Bob Yirka , Phys.org
[Image: 5e5e3da17cadd.jpg]Model of the 2320 hemolithin molecule after MMFF energy minimization. Top: in space-filling mode; Center: ball and stick; Bottom: enlarged view of iron, oxygen and lithium termination. White = H; orange = Li; grey = C; blue = N; red = O and green = Fe. Hydrogen bonds are shown by dotted lines. Credit: arXiv:2002.11688 [astro-ph.EP]
A team of researchers from Plex Corporation, Bruker Scientific LLC and Harvard University has found evidence of a protein inside of a meteorite. They have written a paper describing their findings and have uploaded it to the arXiv preprint server.


https://phys.org/news/2020-03-protein-meteorite.html

Therefore we cannot rule out Extant(Extinct?) Martians.

Alien2

...
Vianova Wrote:
We need to see some skeleton parts laying around on Mars!

[Image: giphy.gif]
Alien mummies would be cool.
As long as they stay dead.

Dem dry bones
...


Asking WHO? the builders were in any possible theory that may concern Hominids must be constrained in the timeline of their existence.
Not having Martian bones(Yet.)yet the bones we do have place a time-limit on when any human intervention on another planet could possibly have occurred. 
You will find in the article below just how limited our history is on a geological scale.


Before a hominid could put 'Boots on the ground' he needed to evolve an arching 'foot'.

FEBRUARY 26, 2020
Overlooked arch in the foot is key to its evolution and function

[Image: 5e563eff2595b.jpg]Schematic of the foot skeleton showing the arches and typical loading pattern Credit: M. Venkadesan
long-overlooked part of the human foot is key to how the foot works, how it evolved, and how we walk and run, a Yale-led team of researchers said.

The discovery upends nearly a century of conventional thinking about the human foot and could open new avenues to explore in evolutionary biology as well as guide new designs for robotic and prosthetic feet, said the study team.




Before a hominid could utilize a tool he needed free dexterous hands to make the tools.

The ancient hominid species that includes ‘Nutcracker Man’ may have made tools
Newly described fossils are the first hand, arm and shoulder specimens from the same [i]Paranthropus boisei[/i] individual


[Image: 022720_BB_boisei-arm_feat-1028x579.jpg]

The first hand, arm and shoulder fossils found from the same [i]Paranthropus boisei[/i] individual were excavated in Kenya. These finds indicate that this ancient hominid combined powerful arms with a hand grip capable of at least simple stone-tool making.

B.G. RICHMOND [i]ET AL[/i]/[i]JOURNAL OF HUMAN EVOLUTION[/i] 2020
By Bruce Bower
MARCH 3, 2020 AT 7:00 AM

[i]Paranthropus boisei[/i], an African hominid that lived between around 2.3 million and 1.2 million years ago, may have strong-armed its way into stone-tool making with a deft touch.
That’s the implication of the first hand, arm and shoulder fossils discovered from the same [i]P. boisei[/i] individual, say paleobiologist David Green and colleagues. The fossils suggest that this extinct species combined powerful arms suited to tree climbing with grasping hands capable of fashioning stone implements, the researchers report in the April [i]Journal of Human Evolution[/i].
[i]P. boisei[/i], a distant cousin to modern humans, lacked a thick, powerfully gripping thumb characteristic of its hominid contemporary, [i]Homo erectus [/i]([i]SN: 3/24/15[/i]), a prolific maker of sophisticated stone tools. But the newly described hand bones suggest that [i]P. boisei[/i] gripped well-enough to make and use simple stone and bone tools, just as other members of the human evolutionary family may have as early as 3.3 million years ago ([i]SN: 5/20/15[/i]). That’s long before the emergence of the [i]Homo [/i]genus, which appeared around 2.8 million years ago. But reports of tool-making before [i]Homo[/i] originated are controversial.
“This is the first evidence that creatures that were almost certainly not our direct ancestors could have made tools,” says paleoanthropologist Bernard Wood of George Washington University in Washington, D.C. “So we can no longer assume — nor should we ever have assumed — that only [i]Homo[/i] could make tools,” says Wood, who was not involved with the new research.
[Image: cta-module-sm@2x.jpg]
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It’s tempting to argue that only [i]H. erectus[/i], which had a brain approaching twice the average size of [i]P. boisei[/i]’s, could have made teardrop-shaped, double-edged hand axes that date to around the same time as the two hominids. Those tools demanded more skill and planning than earlier, simpler cutting implements. But the case is not closed, says Green, of Campbell University School of Osteopathic Medicine in Buies Creek, N.C. “We’ll need to find tools that can be confidently associated with [i]P. boisei[/i] and assess its technical abilities before assuming that [i]H. erectus[/i] was the superior toolmaker.”
Excavations and surveys from 2004 to 2010 at Kenya’s Ileret site produced the new [i]P. boisei[/i] finds. Fossils were found in sediment that dates to between about 1.53 million and 1.51 million years old. Previously excavated 1.5-million-year-old footprints at Ileret may have been left by [i]H. erectus[/i] or [i]P. boisei [/i]([i]SN: 4/16/12[/i]).
A large male skull discovered in 1959 is the best-known [i]P. boisei[/i] fossil. Dubbed Nutcracker Man, the individual has wide cheekbones that project forward and a bony crest atop its braincase that once anchored huge chewing muscles. Nutcracker Man may have eaten mainly grasses and flowering plants called sedges ([i]SN: 5/2/11[/i]).
Suggestions that another member of the [i]Paranthropus[/i] genus, [i]P. robustus, [/i]crafted stone tools, based on isolated finger bones unearthed in South Africa’s Swartkrans cave complex, go back more than 30 years ([i]SN: 5/28/88[/i]). Parts of two arm bones and two leg bones from an adult male [i]P. boisei[/i] have turned up since then at Tanzania’s Olduvai Gorge ([i]SN 12/10/13[/i]). But the Ileret discoveries offer the first look at bones from throughout a [i]P. boisei[/i] individual’s upper limb. As a result, researchers can more confidently reconstruct what types of arm and hand movements that hominid could perform.
Stone artifacts are abundant at ancient [i]Homo[/i] sites, a sign that our genus relied far more heavily on toolmaking than [i]P. boisei[/i] did, says biological anthropologist Neil Roach of Harvard University, who wasn’t involved in the research. No stone artifacts have been clearly linked to [i]P. boisei[/i] fossils.
Intriguingly, Roach adds, the Ileret fossils are relatively large and thick, suggesting that [i]P. boisei[/i] was more athletic and physically active than typically presumed for a hominid species that, unlike [i]H. erectus[/i], probably did not eat meat.



...

Before a hominid thought of going to another planet it would need to evolve the cranial capacity to know a planet is not a star.


MARCH 5, 2020
Smallest Homo erectus cranium in Africa and diverse stone tools found at Gona, Ethiopia
by Jim Erickson, University of Michigan
[Image: 5-smallesthomo.jpg]The DAN5 cranium, top/frontview. Credit: Dr. Michael J. Rogers, Southern Connecticut State University
An international research team led by scientists from the U.S. and Spain, and including a University of Michigan geologist, has discovered a nearly complete cranium of an early human ancestor, estimated to about 1.5 million years ago, and a partial cranium dated to about 1.26 million years ago, from the Gona study area in Ethiopia's Afar State.

Both crania, assigned to Homo erectus, were associated with simple Oldowan-type (Mode 1) and more complex Acheulian (Mode 2) stone tool assemblages. This suggests that H. erectus had a degree of cultural/behavioral plasticity that has yet to be fully understood.
The team was led by Sileshi Semaw of the Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre la Evolución Humana (CENIEH) in Spain and Michael Rogers of Southern Connecticut State University. U-M geologist Naomi Levin coordinated the geological work to determine the age of the fossils and their environmental context.
The team's findings were published March 4 in the journal Sciences Advances.
Gona is located in the Afar Triangle of Ethiopia, adjacent to the well-known Middle Awash and Hadar study areas, where the famous skeletons "Ardi" and "Lucy" were found, respectively.
The nearly complete cranium was discovered at Dana Aoule North (DAN5), and the partial cranium at Busidima North (BSN12), sites that are 5.7 kilometers apart. The research team has been investigating the Gona deposits since 1999, and the BSN12 partial cranium was discovered by N. Toth of Indiana University during the first season. The DAN5 cranium was found a year later by the late Ibrahim Habib, a local Afar colleague, on a camel trail.

[Image: 1-smallesthomo.jpg]
GoogleEarth Map of the Gona study area, showing locations of BSN12 and DAN5. Credit: Google
The BSN12 partial cranium is robust and large, while the DAN5 cranium is smaller and more gracile, suggesting that H. erectus was probably a sexually dimorphic species. Remarkably, the DAN5 cranium has the smallest endocranial volume documented for H. erectus in Africa, about 590 cubic centimeters, probably representing a female.
The smallest Homo erectus cranium in Africa, and the diverse stone tools found at Gona, show that human ancestors were more varied, both physically and behaviorally, than previously known, according to the researchers.
This physical diversity is mirrored by the stone tool technologies exhibited by the artifacts found in association with both crania. Instead of only finding the expected large handaxes or picks, signature tools of H. erectus, the Gona team found both well-made handaxes and plenty of less-complex Oldowan tools and cores.

The toolmakers at both sites lived in close proximity to ancient rivers, in settings with riverine woodlands adjacent to open habitats. The low δ13C isotope value from the DAN5 cranium is consistent with a diet dominated by C3 plants (trees and shrubs, and/or animals that ate food from trees or shrubs) or, alternatively, broad-spectrum omnivory.
U-M's Levin joined the research team as a master's student in 2001 and ultimately became the lead geologist. She coordinated the effort to date the fossils and to determine their environmental context, working with an interdisciplinary team from several institutions.
The ages of the fossils and the associated artifacts were constrained using a variety of techniques: standard field mapping and stratigraphy, as well as analyses of the magnetic properties of the sediments, the chemistry of volcanic ashes, and the distribution of argon isotopes in volcanic ashes.

[Image: 2-smallesthomo.jpg]
The late Ibrahim Habib, an Afar colleague,showing fragments of the DAN5 cranium. Credit: Dr. Jay Quade, University of Arizona
"Constraining the age of these sites proved particularly challenging, requiring multiple experts using a range of techniques over several years of field work," said Levin, an associate professor in the U-M Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences and in the Program in the Environment.
"This is a great example of scientific detective work and how science gets done, drawing on a community of scholars and their collective knowledge of the geology of eastern Africa," said Levin, who co-directs an isotope geochemistry lab that conducts studies of ancient environments using carbon and oxygen isotopes.
Along with University of Arizona geologist Jay Quade, Levin also coordinated the environmental reconstruction of the Gona sites.
At the Gona study area in Ethiopia's Afar State, H. erectus used locally available stone cobbles to make their tools, which were accessed from nearby riverbeds. Fossil fauna were abundant at the BSN12 site, but cut marks or hammerstone-percussed bones were not identified.
At the DAN5 site, an elephant toe bone was found with stone tool cut marks, and a small antelope leg bone had a percussion notch, implying that H. erectus butchered both large and small mammals, though it is not clear whether they hunted or scavenged their prey.
There is a common view that early Homo (e.g., Homo habilis) invented the first simple (Oldowan) stone tools, but when H. erectus appeared about 1.8 to 1.7 million years ago, a new stone tool technology called the Acheulian, with purposefully shaped large cutting tools such as handaxes, emerged in Africa.

[Image: 3-smallesthomo.jpg]
Credit: University of Michigan
The timing, causes and nature of this significant transition to the Acheulian by about 1.7 million years ago is not entirely clear, though, and is an issue debated by archaeologists.
The authors of the Science Advances paper said their investigations at DAN5 and BSN12 have clearly shown that Oldowan technology persisted much longer after the invention of the Acheulian, indicative of a particular behavioral flexibility and cultural complexity practiced by H. erectus, a trait not fully understood or appreciated in paleoanthropology.
"Although most researchers in the field consider the Acheulian to have replaced the earlier Oldowan (Mode 1) by 1.7 Ma, our research has shown that Mode 1 technology actually remained ubiquitous throughout the entire Paleolithic," Semaw said.
"The simple view that a single hominin species is responsible for a single stone tool technology is not supported," Rogers said. "The human evolutionary story is more complicated."

[Image: smallesthomo.jpg]
The DAN5 cranium. Credit: Dr. Michael J. Rogers, Southern Connecticut State University
The DAN5 and BSN12 sites at Gona are among the earliest examples of H. erectus associated with both Oldowan and Acheulian stone assemblages.
"In the almost 130 years since its initial discovery in Java, H. erectus has been recovered from many sites across Eurasia and Africa. The new remains from the Gona study area exhibit a degree of biological diversity in Africa that had not been seen previously, notably the small size of the DAN5 cranium," said study co-author Scott Simpson of Case Western Reserve University.

[Image: 4-smallesthomo.jpg]
Credit: University of Michigan
"The BSN12 partial cranium also provides evidence linking the African and eastern Asian fossils, demonstrating how successful Homo erectus was."
In Africa, some argue that multiple hominin species may have been responsible for the two distinct contemporary stone technologies, Oldowan and Acheulian. To the contrary, the evidence from Gona suggests a lengthy and concurrent use of both Oldowan and Acheulian technologies by a single long-lived species, H. erectus, the variable expression of which deserves continued research, according to the researchers.
"One challenge in the future will be to understand better the stone tool attributes that are likely to be passed on through cultural tradition versus others that are more likely to be reinvented by different hominin groups," Rogers said.
The Science Advances paper is titled "Co-occurrence of Acheulian and Oldowan artifacts with Homo erectus cranial fossils from Gona, Afar, Ethiopia."




Explore further
Dating of volcanic ash at Sangiran shows Homo erectus arrived later than thought



[b]More information:[/b] Sileshi Semaw et al. Co-occurrence of Acheulian and Oldowan artifacts with Homo erectus cranial fossils from Gona, Afar, Ethiopia, Science Advances (2020). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw4694
[b]Journal information:[/b] Science Advances 

Provided by [url=https://phys.org/partners/university-of-michigan/]University of Michigan




Quote:MARCH 3, 2020 AT 7:00 AM

[i]Paranthropus boisei[/i], an African hominid that lived between around 2.3 million and 1.2 million years ago, may have strong-armed its way into stone-tool making with a deft touch.
That’s the implication of the first hand, arm and shoulder fossils discovered from the same [i]P. boisei[/i] individual, say paleobiologist David Green and colleagues. The fossils suggest that this extinct species combined powerful arms suited to tree climbing with grasping hands capable of fashioning stone implements, the researchers report in the April [i]Journal of Human Evolution[/i].
[i]P. boisei[/i], a distant cousin to modern humans, lacked a thick, powerfully gripping thumb characteristic of its hominid contemporary, [i]Homo erectus [/i]([i]SN: 3/24/15[/i]), a prolific maker of sophisticated stone tools. But the newly described hand bones suggest that [i]P. boisei[/i] gripped well-enough to make and use simple stone and bone tools, just as other members of the human evolutionary family may have as early as 3.3 million years ago ([i]SN: 5/20/15[/i]). That’s long before the emergence of the [i]Homo [/i]genus, which appeared around 2.8 million years ago. But reports of tool-making before [i]Homo[/i] originated are controversial.



Therefore mankind's possible involvement can start sum-where around ~3.3 million years ago at best.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#9
it was us.

and we still haven't gotten over it yet.
On a satellite I ride. Nothing down below can hide.
Reply
#10
or just some genes in us
Reply
#11
(03-12-2020, 11:26 AM)Keith Wrote: it was us.

and we still haven't gotten over it yet.
Arrow
the reason why this is of such interest relates directly to understanding the origins of life on Earth, how we humans came to be, and in fact, to whether we might be alone, or have neighbours in the universe.
"This is because the results show that Earth did not really become a habitable planet until relatively late in its accretionary history," he says.
"If you combine this with the evidence for very ancient life on Earth, it reveals that life got started on our planet surprisingly quickly, within only a few hundred million years. Now this might sound like a lot of time, and it is, but it is far different from what we used to think, that life took half a billion, or even a billion years to get started.
"And this gives hope for finding life on other planets that had a shorter geological history and period of 'warm and wet' conditions than Earth, because if life could get started quickly here, then perhaps it got started quickly elsewhere."

MARCH 12, 2020
Building blocks for life on Earth arrived much later than we thought, billion-year-old rocks show
[Image: buildingbloc.jpg]The rocks the team analysed are the oldest preserved mantle rocks. They allow us to see into the early history of the Earth as if through a window. Credit: UNSW
Ancient rocks from Greenland have shown that the elements necessary for the evolution of life did not come to Earth until very late in the planet's formation—much later than previously thought.

An international team of geologists—led by the University of Cologne and involving UNSW scientists—have published important new findings about the origin of oceans and life on Earth: they have found evidence that a large proportion of the elements that are essential to the formation of oceans and life—such as water, carbon and nitrogen—only came to Earth very late in its history.
Many scientists previously believed that these elements had already been there at the beginning of our planet's formation. However, the geological investigations published in Nature today have shown that most of the water in fact only came to Earth when its formation was almost complete.
Volatile elements such as water originate from asteroids, the planetary building blocks that formed in the outer solar system. There has been a lot of discussion and controversy in the scientific community around when precisely these building blocks came to Earth.
Dr. Mario Fischer-Gödde from the Institute of Geology and Mineralogy at the University of Cologne, who led the work, says we are now able to narrow down the timeframe more precisely.
"The rocks we analyzed are the oldest preserved mantle rocks. They allow us to see into the early history of the Earth as if through a window.
"We compared the composition of the oldest, approximately 3.8 billion-year-old, mantle rocks from the Archean Eon with the composition of the asteroids from which they formed, and with the composition of the Earth's mantle today."
To understand the temporal process, the researchers determined the isotope abundances of a very rare platinum metal called ruthenium, which the Archean mantle of the Earth contained.
Like a genetic fingerprint, the rare platinum metal is an indicator for the late growth phase of the Earth.
"Platinum metals like ruthenium have an extremely high tendency to combine with iron. Therefore, when the Earth formed, ruthenium must have been completely discharged into the Earth's metallic core," says Professor Fischer-Gödde.
Professor Martin Van Kranendonk, the UNSW scientist who was part of the research, says the reason why this is of such interest relates directly to understanding the origins of life on Earth, how we humans came to be, and in fact, to whether we might be alone, or have neighbours in the universe.
"This is because the results show that Earth did not really become a habitable planet until relatively late in its accretionary history," he says.
"If you combine this with the evidence for very ancient life on Earth, it reveals that life got started on our planet surprisingly quickly, within only a few hundred million years. Now this might sound like a lot of time, and it is, but it is far different from what we used to think, that life took half a billion, or even a billion years to get started.
"And this gives hope for finding life on other planets that had a shorter geological history and period of 'warm and wet' conditions than Earth, because if life could get started quickly here, then perhaps it got started quickly elsewhere."
Professor Dr. Carsten Münker, also at the University of Cologne, added: "The fact that we are still finding traces of rare platinum metals in the Earth's mantle means that we can assume they were only added after the formation of the core was completed—they were certainly the result of later collisions of the Earth with asteroids or smaller planetesimals."
Scientists refer to the very late building blocks of Earth, which arrived through these collisions, as the 'late veneer."
"Our findings suggest that water and other volatile elements such as carbon and nitrogen did indeed arrive on Earth very late in the 'late veneer' phase," Professor Fischer-Gödde says.
The new findings are the result of collaboration among scientists from Germany, Denmark, England, Australia and Japan. The scientists are planning further field trips to India, northwestern Australia, and Greenland to investigate more rock samples.




Explore further
Building blocks of the Earth: Research team re-calculates distribution of volatile elements



[b]More information:[/b] Mario Fischer-Gödde et al. Ruthenium isotope vestige of Earth's pre-late-veneer mantle preserved in Archaean rocks, Nature (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2069-3
[b]Journal information:[/b] Nature [/url]

Provided by 
University of New South Wales


https://phys.org/news/2020-03-blocks-lif...r-old.html

(03-12-2020, 04:24 PM)letosvet Wrote: or just some genes in us

An international team of researchers in Germany, New Zealand and the U.S.A. has investigated metabolic networks of primitive microbes and identified autocatalytic sets (interconnected collections of self-reinforcing reactions)  Arrow  that are older than genes.

MARCH 12, 2020

Metabolic fossils from the origin of life

by Heinrich-Heine University Duesseldorf
[Image: metabolicfos.jpg]Credit: Heinrich-Heine University Duesseldorf
Life converts food into cells via dense networks involving thousands of reactions. New research uncovers insights as to how such networks could have arisen from scratch at life's origin. An international team of researchers in Germany, New Zealand and the U.S.A. has investigated metabolic networks of primitive microbes and identified autocatalytic sets (interconnected collections of self-reinforcing reactions) that are older than genes.

Living cells are the end product of metabolic networks. Food molecules that enter the cell are converted to central intermediates that are then channeled into the pathways that produce the molecules of which cells are made. These networks typically entail more than 1000 reactions, almost all of which are performed by enzymes (proteins), which are encoded by genes (nucleic acids). The link between genes and proteins is, in turn, the universal genetic code that instructs ribosomes to make proteins according to the information stored in genes.
These components are all interlinked: the ribosome is 50% protein and 50% RNA by weight, the proteins are made of amino acids, the RNA is made of nucleic acid bases, and the amino acids and bases are made by the roughly 1000 reactions in metabolism, which are catalyzed by the enzymes that the genes encode. With so many layers of mutual interdependence, it is no wonder that scientists have been flatly stumped for over a century when it comes to the question of how such a complex system of interactions could arise at the origin of life. As with the evolution of all complex systems, it had to start from something simpler. But what? New findings by Joana C. Xavier and colleagues reported in Proceedings of the Royal Society B in London provide new inroads into this longstanding question.
The new clues come from the least expected of all places: mathematics. Almost 50 years ago the American polymath Stuart Kauffman suggested that theoretical constructs called autocatalytic sets might have been intermediates in the origin of molecular complexity of the kind that we find in metabolism and cells. Such autocatalytic sets consist of elements (members of the set) that are both products and catalysts such that they can make more of themselves given suitable starting material. The analogy to metabolism and enzymes is evident.
The existence and properties of such autocatalytic sets remained the subject of much speculation and decades of fierce debate until the mathematician Mike Steel from the University of Canterbury in New Zealand and Wim Hordijk, a computer scientist from The Netherlands, both coauthors on the study, found ways of harnessing them in the computer. They found that a particular class of autocatalytic sets called RAFs (for reflexively autocatalytic food generated networks), which are very similar in design to cellular metabolism, have the unexpected property of being downright likely to arise from scratch. "The surprise is that the elements only need to add a tiny amount of catalysis to the system before they start to make more of themselves," says Steel. "This is what physicists call self organization, a kind of holy grail in origin of life research," adds Hordijk.

With a background in the metabolic networks of real cells, Joana C. Xavier in the Institute for Molecular Evolution at the University of Düsseldorf asked whether RAFs could be detected in the metabolic networks of the most primitive microbes, strict anaerobes that live from H2 and CO2. Indeed, she found that RAFs were there in the metabolism of ancient anaerobes, but they were substantially smaller than the whole metabolic map, comprising only 394 reactions in the case of an ancient microbe that converts H2 and CO2 to acetate for a living, and 209 reactions in the case of an ancient microbe that converts H2 and CO2 to methane. "This intermediate size is interesting," says Xavier, "because it points to an intermediate state in the evolution of metabolism, something more complex than individual reactions but less complex than a cell."
The two kinds of unicellular organisms at the focus of the study, called acetogens and methanogens, have long been in the sights of microbiologists interested in the origin of life. They have been linked to the last universal common ancestor, LUCA, and to geochemical reactions at hydrothermal vents. Xavier found that the acetogen and methanogen sets overlap to form an ancient core network of 172 reactions. This ancient conserved core predates the divergence of bacteria and archaea and has intriguing properties. It can generate amino acids and nucleic acid bases from a simple starting food set, but if provided only the bases as food, no network at all emerges. "Not only have autocatalytic networks left fossils in real metabolism, they preceded both RNA and protein polymers in evolution, that is a step forward in my book," says Kauffman, coauthor of the study and autocatalysis pioneer.
William Martin at the University of Düsseldorf and coauthor of the study says "The networks that trace to LUCA's metabolism are older than genes, they point to natural order in the chemical reactions of life." Acetogens and methanogens grow under the kinds of conditions that are encountered today at hydrothermal vents. Did life arise at hydrothermal vents? "The closer we look, the more signs keep pointing in that direction" says Xavier, "the idea keeps uncovering findings that converge. These vents were probably the first bioreactors on Earth."
The identification of autocatalytic networks as components of modern metabolism takes them off the drawing board and into the real world of microbial life. That they reveal fossils from the earliest stages of chemical evolution was unexpected, and opens up new routes for the study of our deepest evolutionary past, probing the time 4 billion years ago, when life was just starting from a small set of naturally-occurring chemical reactions that took place somewhere, perhaps at a hydrothermal vent.




Explore further
When rocks lay the groundwork for the origin of life



More information: Joana C. Xavier et al, Autocatalytic chemical networks at the origin of metabolism, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2020). DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2019.2377
Journal information: Proceedings of the Royal Society B 

Provided by Heinrich-Heine University Duesseldorf

https://phys.org/news/2020-03-metabolic-fossils-life.html



btw great refreshing thread fsb

With all this new info maybe we are the martians too. Hi Arrow Alien2


MARCH 16, 2020

Scientists have discovered the origins of the building blocks of life

[Image: scientistsha.jpg]A fold (shape) that may have been one of the earliest proteins in the evolution of metabolism. Credit: Vikas Nanda/Rutgers University
Rutgers researchers have discovered the origins of the protein structures responsible for metabolism: simple molecules that powered early life on Earth and serve as chemical signals that NASA could use to search for life on other planets.

Their study, which predicts what the earliest proteins looked like 3.5 billion to 2.5 billion years ago, is published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
The scientists retraced, like a many thousand piece puzzle, the evolution of enzymes (proteins) from the present to the deep past. The solution to the puzzle required two missing pieces, and life on Earth could not exist without them. By constructing a network connected by their roles in metabolism, this team discovered the missing pieces.
"We know very little about how life started on our planet. This work allowed us to glimpse deep in time and propose the earliest metabolic proteins," said co-author Vikas Nanda, a professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and a resident faculty member at the Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine. "Our predictions will be tested in the laboratory to better understand the origins of life on Earth and to inform how life may originate elsewhere. We are building models of proteins in the lab and testing whether they can trigger reactions critical for early metabolism."
A Rutgers-led team of scientists called ENIGMA (Evolution of Nanomachines in Geospheres and Microbial Ancestors) is conducting the research with a NASA grant and via membership in the NASA Astrobiology Program. The ENIGMA project seeks to reveal the role of the simplest proteins that catalyzed the earliest stages of life.
"We think life was built from very small building blocks and emerged like a Lego set to make cells and more complex organisms like us," said senior author Paul G. Falkowski, ENIGMA principal investigator and a distinguished professor at Rutgers University-New Brunswick who leads the Environmental Biophysics and Molecular Ecology Laboratory. "We think we have found the building blocks of life—the Lego set that led, ultimately, to the evolution of cells, animals and plants."
The Rutgers team focused on two 
protein "folds" that are likely the first structures in early metabolism. They are a ferredoxin fold that binds iron-sulfur compounds, and a "Rossmann" fold, which binds nucleotides (the building blocks of DNA and RNA). These are two pieces of the puzzle that must fit in the evolution of life.
Proteins are chains of amino acids and a chain's 3-D path in space is called a fold. Ferredoxins are metals found in modern proteins and shuttle electrons around cells to promote metabolism. Electrons flow through solids, liquids and gases and power living systems, and the same electrical force must be present in any other planetary system with a chance to support life.
There is evidence the two folds may have shared a common ancestor and, if true, the ancestor may have been the first metabolic enzyme of life.




Explore further
Scientists identify protein that may have existed when life began



More information: Hagai Raanan el al., "Small protein folds at the root of an ancient metabolic network," PNAS (2020). 
www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1914982117
Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 

Provided by [url=https://phys.org/partners/rutgers-university/]Rutgers University
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#12
(03-12-2020, 11:26 AM)Keith Wrote: it was us.

and we still haven't gotten over it yet.


Was  Sheep Yet.
Improv unlocks key take-away the easy way=   AL 333-83
tempus test holding it up to the lamp ray WAS yet lamb pray IS requiring a hand to hold it to rite the writ of the wit that told it.

"This shows that the birth of the cortex has to be pushed back about 300 million years," says Professor Grillner. "This, in turn, means that the basic plan of the human brain was defined already over 500 million years ago, that's to say before the lamprey branched off from the evolutionary line that led to mammals and humans."

The study shows that all the main components of the human brain are also to be found in the lamprey brain, albeit with much fewer nerve cells in each part.
"That vital parts of the lamprey brain are conserved and organised in the same way as in the human brain was unexpected," he continues. "These findings are crucial to our understanding of how the brain evolved and how it has been designed through evolution."
When:  enters into play if indeed it was 'we'(us)

Yet,to 'get over it needs these properties/propensities.

recall:Before a hominid thought of going to another planet it would need to evolve the cranial capacity to know a planet is not a star.


fresh content to contain and constrain any possible timeline upon 'us'. 

Quote:The cortex, which is the outer layer of the brain, controls the more complex cerebral functions like vision and movement and higher skills such as language, memory and emotion.  Arrow  over it.
MARCH 16, 2020
New study reveals early evolution of cortex   
[Image: 5e6f74facb2a6.jpg]Shreyas M. Suryanarayana, Juan Pérez-Fernández and Sten Grillner, researchers at the Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden. Credit: Stefan Zimmerman
Research on the lamprey brain has enabled researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden to push the birth of the cortex back in time by some 300 million years to over 500 million years ago, providing new insights into brain evolution. Their study is published in the scientific journal Nature Ecology & Evolution.

The human brain is one of the most complex structures that evolution has created. It has long been believed that most of the forebrain evolution took place largely in mammals, and that the brains of simpler, pre-mammalian animal groups such as fish and amphibians lack a functional cortex. The cortex, which is the outer layer of the brain, controls the more complex cerebral functions like vision and movement and higher skills such as language, memory and emotion.
"We've spent a long time studying brain evolution using the lamprey, which is one of the oldest groups of extant vertebrates," says Sten Grillner, last author of the study and professor of neurophysiology at the Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet. "Here, we've made detailed studies of the lamprey brain, combining neurophysiological analyses with histochemical techniques."
In the study, the researchers show that even the lamprey, which existed hundreds of millions of years before mammals, possesses a detailed blueprint for the development of the cortex, the basal ganglia and the dopamine system—all the vital ingredients of integrative cerebral function.
The researchers also found that the lamprey's cortex has a visual area on which different parts of its visual field are represented. Sensory and motor areas have also been discovered.
"This shows that the birth of the cortex has to be pushed back about 300 million years," says Professor Grillner. "This, in turn, means that the basic plan of the human brain was defined already over 500 million years ago, that's to say before the lamprey branched off from the evolutionary line that led to mammals and humans."
The study shows that all the main components of the human brain are also to be found in the lamprey brain, albeit with much fewer nerve cells in each part.
"That vital parts of the lamprey brain are conserved and organised in the same way as in the human brain was unexpected," he continues. "These findings are crucial to our understanding of how the brain evolved and how it has been designed through evolution."




Explore further
New knowledge on how different brain cell types contribute to our movements



[b]More information:[/b] The evolutionary origin of visual and somatosensory representation in the vertebrate pallium, Nature Ecology & Evolution (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41559-020-1137-2 , https://nature.com/articles/s41559-020-1137-2
[b]Journal information:[/b] Nature Ecology & Evolution [/url]

Provided by 
Karolinska Institutet

https://phys.org/news/2020-03-reveals-early-evolution-cortex.html





The earliest anything on earth could possibly be the intelligence /slaves as builders has had the timeline set back in time. positive.

Boom! that puts possibility back for Martians too.  LilD

Compared to AL 333-83 and StW 679 might we be reminded:Before a hominid could put 'Boots on the ground' he needed to evolve an arching 'foot'.

Recent research is timely.The Hunt for WHOdunnit??? the game is afoot.

So again recall:Before a hominid thought of going to another planet it would need to evolve the cranial capacity to know a planet is not a star.
MARCH 17, 2020
'Little Foot' skull reveals how this more than 3 million year old human ancestor lived
[Image: 2-littlefootsk.jpg]Comparison of the nearly intact first cervical vertebra of 'Little Foot' and two other Australopithecus from Sterkfontein in South Africa and from Hadar in Ethiopia showing how complete 'Little Foot' is as compared to the rest of the fossil record. Credit: Amélie Beaudet/Wits University
High-resolution micro-CT scanning of the skull of the fossil specimen known as "Little Foot" has revealed some aspects of how this Australopithecus species used to live more than 3 million years ago.

The meticulous excavation, cleaning and scanning of the skull of the ~3.67 million-year-old fossil specimen has revealed the most complete Australopithecus adult first cervical vertebra yet found. A description of the vertebra by Wits University researchers Dr. Amélie Beaudet and the Sterkfontein team was published in the Scientific Reports. This research program is supported by the the Centre of Excellence in Palaeosciences, Scientific Palaeontological Trust, National Research Foundation, University of the Witwatersrand and the French National Centre for Scientific Research through the French Institute of South Africa.
The first cervical vertebra (or atlas) plays a crucial role in vertebrate biology. Besides acting as the connection between the head and the neck, the atlas also plays a role in how blood is supplied to the brain via the vertebral arteries.
By comparing the atlas of "Little Foot" with other fossils from South and East Africa as well as living humans and chimpanzees, the Wits University team shows that Australopithecus was capable of head movements that differ from modern humans.
"The morphology of the first cervical vertebra, or atlas, reflects multiple aspects of an organism's life," says Beaudet, the lead author of the study. "In particular, the nearly complete atlas of 'Little Foot' has the potential to provide new insights into the evolution of head mobility and the arterial supply to the brain in the human lineage."

[Image: 3-littlefootsk.jpg]
Pictures of the 'Little Foot' skull. The view from the bottom (right) shows the original position of the first cervical vertebra still embedded in the matrix. Credit: R.J. Clarke.
The shape of the atlas determines the range of head motions while the size of the arteries passing through the vertebrae to the skull is useful for estimating blood flow supplying the brain.
"Our study shows that Australopithecus was capable of head movements that differ from us. This could be explained by the greater ability of Australopithecus to climb and move in the trees. However, a southern African Australopithecus specimen younger than 'Little Foot' (probably younger by about 1 million years) may have partially lost this capacity and spent more time on the ground, like us today."

The overall dimensions and shape of the atlas of "Little Foot" are similar to living chimpanzees. More specifically, the ligament insertions (that could be inferred from the presence and configuration of bony tubercles) and the morphology of the facet joints linking the head and the neck all suggest that "Little Foot" was moving regularly in trees.
Because "Little Foot" is so well-preserved, blood flow supply to the brain could also be estimated for the first time, using evidence from the skull and vertebrae. These estimations demonstrate that blood flow, and thus the utilisation of glucose by the brain, was about three times lower than in living humans, and closer to the those of living chimpanzees.
"The low investment of energy into the brain of Australopithecus could be tentatively explained by a relatively small brain of the specimen (around 408cm3), a low quality diet (low proportion of animal products) or high costs of other aspects of the biology of Australopithecus (such as upright walking). In any case, this might suggest that the human brain's vascular system emerged much later in our history."




Explore further
Peering into Little Foot's 3.67 million-year-old brain



[b]More information:[/b] Amélie Beaudet et al. The atlas of StW 573 and the late emergence of human-like head mobility and brain metabolism, Scientific Reports (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-60837-2
[b]Journal information:[/b] Scientific Reports 

Provided by Wits University


Remember: Before a hominid could put 'Boots on the ground' he needed to evolve an arching 'foot'.
So from  'little foot' to boots on the ground @ Cydonia et all.
.
.Eventually lest we forget.Before a hominid could utilize a tool he needed free dexterous hands to make the tools.

MARCH 18, 2020
Ancient fish fossil reveals evolutionary origin of the human hand
[Image: ancientfishf.jpg]Complete specimen in dorsal view. Scale bar, 1 m. b, Camera lucida drawing of the postcranial anatomy of the specimen; pectoral fins have been illustrated in their position, although they are only visible ventrally. c, Reconstruction. an.fi, anal fin; cau.fi, caudal fin; op, opercular; pec.fi, pectoral fin; pel.fi, pelvic fin. Credit: Nature
An ancient Elpistostege fish fossil found in Miguasha, Canada has revealed new insights into how the human hand evolved from fish fins.

An international team of palaeontologists from Flinders University in Australia and Universite du Quebec a Rimouski in Canada have revealed the fish specimen, as described in the journal Nature, has yielded the missing evolutionary link in the fish to tetrapod transition, as fish began to foray in habitats such as shallow water and land during the Late Devonian period millions of years ago.
This complete 1.57 metre long fish shows the complete arm (pectoral fin) skeleton for the first time in any elpistostegalian fish. Using high energy CT-scans, the skeleton of the pectoral fin revealed the presence of a humerus (arm), radius and ulna (forearm), rows of carpus (wrist) and phalanges organized in digits (fingers).
"Today we announce in the journal Nature our discovery of a complete specimen of a tetrapod-like fish, called Elpistostege, which reveals extraordinary new information about the evolution of the vertebrate hand," says Strategic Professor in Palaeontology at Flinders University Professor John Long.
"This is the first time that we have unequivocally discovered fingers locked in a fin with fin-rays in any known fish. The articulating digits in the fin are like the finger bones found in the hands of most animals."
"This finding pushes back the origin of digits in vertebrates to the fish level, and tells us that the patterning for the vertebrate hand was first developed deep in evolution, just before fishes left the water."

Play

3D animation of an ancient Elpistostege fish fossil found in Miguasha, Canada has revealed new insights into how the human hand evolved from fish fins.An international team of palaeontologists from Flinders University in Australia and Universite du Quebec a Rimouski in Canada have revealed the fish specimen, as described in the journal Nature, has yielded the missing evolutionary link in the fish to tetrapod transition, as fish began to foray in habitats such as shallow water and land during the Late Devonian period millions of years ago.This complete 1.57 metre long fish shows the complete arm (pectoral fin) skeleton for the first time in any elpistostegalian fish. Using high energy CT-scans, the skeleton of the pectoral fin revealed the presence of a humerus (arm), radius and ulna (forearm), rows of carpus (wrist) and phalanges organized in digits (fingers). Credit: Professor John Long, Flinders University.
The evolution of fishes into tetrapods—four-legged vertebrates of which humans belong—was one of the most significant events in the history of life.
Vertebrates (back-boned animals) were then able to leave the water and conquer land. In order to complete this transition- one of the most significant changes was the evolution of hands and feet.
In order to understand the evolution from a fish fin to a tetrapod limb, palaeontologists study the fossils of lobe-finned fish and tetrapods from the Middle and Upper Devonian (393-359 million years ago) known as 'elpistostegalians'.

These include the well-known Tiktaalik from Arctic Canada, known only from incomplete specimens.
Co-author Richard Cloutier from Universite du Quebec a Rimouski says over the past decade, fossils informing the fish-to-tetrapod transition have helped to better understand anatomical transformations associated with breathing, hearing, and feeding, as the habitat changed from water to land on Earth.
"The origin of digits relates to developing the capability for the fish to support its weight in shallow water or for short trips out on land. The increased number of small bones in the fin allows more planes of flexibility to spread out its weight through the fin. "

[Image: 1-ancientfishf.jpg]
a, b, Comparison of the anatomy of the pectoral limb endoskeleton (a) and humerus (b) of stem-tetrapod fish (Panderichthys,Tiktaalik and Elpistostege) and an early tetrapod (Tulerpeton). Proximodistalrows of radials or digits are shown colour-coded according to the scheme inFig. 4. Red arrows in b indicate the ectepicondyle. Panderichthys data are fromref. 13; Tiktaalik data are from ref. 4; Acanthostega data are from ref. 26;Tulerpeton data are from ref. 31. Images in b are modified from ref. 49. art.sf,articulation surfaces; lat.dor, attachment ridges for latissimus dorsi muscles;sup.rid, supinator ridge; rd.ext, attachment area for radial extensors; scap-hum., attachment area for scapula and humeral muscles. Credit: Nature
"The other features the study revealed concerning the structure of the upper arm bone or humerus, which also shows features present that are shared with early amphibians. Elpistostege is not necessarily our ancestor, but it is closest we can get to a true 'transitional fossil', an intermediate between fishes and tetrapods."
Elpistostege was the largest predator living in a shallow marine to estuarine habitat of Quebec about 380 million years ago. It had powerful sharp fangs in its mouth so could have fed upon several of the larger extinct lobe-finned fishes found fossilised in the same deposits.
Elpistostege was originally named from just a small part of the skull roof, found in the fossiliferous cliffs of Miguasha National Park, Quebec, and described in 1938 as belonging to an early tetrapod.
Another part of the skull of this enigmatic beast was found and described in 1985, demonstrating it was really an advanced lobe-finned fish. The remarkable new complete specimen of Elpistostege was discovered in 2010.
Meticulous preparation of the new specimen and CT scanning of the fossil took place in Quebec in 2010 with Prof Cloutier working with Isabelle Bechard to do the initial interpretation of the scan data, and Vincent Roy and Roxanne Noel to analyse the backbone and fin structures.




Explore further
How fish fins evolved just before the transition to land



[b]More information:[/b] Elpistostege and the origin of the vertebrate hand, Nature (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2100-8 , https://nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2100-8
[b]Journal information:[/b] Nature 

Provided by Flinders University





Through the latest genetic studies we can further restrict humanity's possible ancient involvement offworld.

Great thread fsb ...eye totally feel updated!    New2



MARCH 19, 2020
Global human genomes reveal rich genetic diversity shaped by complex evolutionary history
[Image: population.jpg]Credit: CC0 Public Domain
A new study has provided the most comprehensive analysis of human genetic diversity to date, after the sequencing of 929 human genomes by scientists at the Wellcome Sanger Institute, the University of Cambridge and their collaborators. The study uncovers a large amount of previously undescribed genetic variation and provides new insights into our evolutionary past, highlighting the complexity of the process through which our ancestors diversified, migrated and mixed throughout the world.

The resource, published in Science (20 March), is the most detailed representation of the genetic diversity of worldwide populations to date. It is freely available to all researchers to study human genetic diversity, including studies of genetic susceptibility to disease in different parts of the world.
The consensus view of human history tells us that the ancestors of present-day humans diverged from the ancestors of extinct Neanderthal and Denisovan groups around 500,000-700,000 years ago, before the emergence of 'modern' humans in Africa in the last few hundred thousand years.
Around 50,000-70,000 years ago, some humans expanded out of Africa and soon after mixed with archaic Eurasian groups. After that, populations grew rapidly, with extensive migration and mixture as many groups transitioned from hunter-gatherers to food producers over the last 10,000 years.
This study is the first to apply the latest high-quality sequencing technology to such a large and diverse set of humans, covering 929 genomes from 54 geographically, linguistically and culturally diverse populations from across the globe. The sequencing and analysis of these genomes, which are part of the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP)-CEPH panel, now provides unprecedented detail of our genetic history.
The team found millions of previously unknown DNA variations that are exclusive to one continental or major geographical region. Though most of these were rare, they included common variations in certain African and Oceanian populations that had not been identified by previous studies.
Variations such as these may influence the susceptibility of different populations to disease. However, medical genetics studies have so far predominantly been conducted in populations of European ancestry, meaning that any medical implications that these variants might have are not known. Identifying these novel variants represents a first step towards fully expanding the study of genomics to underrepresented populations.
However, no single DNA variation was found to be present in 100 per cent of genomes from any major geographical region while being absent from all other regions. This finding underlines that the majority of common genetic variation is found across the globe.

Dr. Anders Bergström, of the Francis Crick Institute and an alumnus of the Wellcome Sanger Institute, said: "The detail provided by this study allows us to look deeper into human history, particularly inside Africa where less is currently known about the timescale of human evolution. We find that the ancestors of present-day populations diversified through a gradual and complex process mostly during the last 250,000 years, with large amounts of gene flow between these early lineages. But we also see evidence that small parts of human ancestries trace back to groups that diversified much earlier than this."
Hélène Blanché, Head of the Biological Resource Centre at the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) in Paris, France, said: "The Human Genome Diversity Project resource has facilitated many new discoveries about human history in the past two decades. It is exciting to see that with the latest genomic sequencing technology, these genomes will continue to help us understand our species and how we have evolved."
The study also provides evidence that the Neanderthal ancestry of modern humans can be explained by just one major 'mixing event', most likely involving several Neanderthal individuals coming into contact with modern humans shortly after the latter had expanded out of Africa. In contrast, several different sets of DNA segments inherited from Denisovans were identified in people from Oceania and East Asia, suggesting at least two distinct mixing events.
The discovery of small amounts of Neanderthal DNA in west African people, most likely reflecting later genetic backflow into Africa from Eurasia, further highlights how human genetic history is characterised by multiple layers of complexity. Until recently, it was thought that only people outside sub-Saharan Africa had Neanderthal DNA.
Dr. Chris Tyler-Smith, recently retired from the Wellcome Sanger Institute, said: "Though this resource is just the beginning of many avenues of research, already we can glimpse several tantalising insights into human history. It will be particularly important for better understanding human evolution in Africa, as well as facilitating medical research for the full diversity of human ancestries."




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Earliest interbreeding event between ancient human populations discovered



[b]More information:[/b] A. Bergström el al., "Insights into human genetic variation and population history from 929 diverse genomes," Science (2020). science.sciencemag.org/cgi/doi … 1126/science.aay5012
[b]Journal information:[/b] Science 

Provided by [url=https://phys.org/partners/wellcome-trust-sanger-institute/]Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute


Since this thread started...there has been a total re-write.
Are we the martians?
Were they 'Us"?
Reply
#13
Wow.  Holycowsmile


Crater Counting Stu has just been falsified.

Quote:"Until recently, the late instability hypothesis predominated," Ribeiro said. "Dating of the moon rocks brought back by the Apollo astronauts suggested they were created by asteroids and comets crashing into the lunar surface at the same time. This cataclysm is known as the "Late Heavy Bombardment' of the moon. If it happened on the moon, it presumably also happened on Earth and the solar system's other terrestrial planets. Because a great deal of matter in the form of asteroids and comets was projected in all directions in the solar system during the period of planetary instability, it was deduced from the moon rocks that this chaotic period occurred late, but in recent years, the idea of a "Late Bombardment' of the moon has fallen out of favor."

Now that Crater Counting has been debunked and Stu's crater count has flunked.
All of a sudden there was more time for a civilization @ Cydonia to form. LilD




Quote:Taking all this into account, we discovered that the conditions simply didn't exist for the distance between Neptune's orbit and the inner boundary of the planetesimal disk to become large enough to sustain the late instability hypothesis. This is the main contribution of our study, which shows that the instability occurred in the first 100 million years, and may have occurred, for example, before the formation of Earth and the moon," Ribeiro said.



MARCH 24, 2020
Solar system acquired current configuration not long after its formation

by José Tadeu Arantes, FAPESP
[Image: solarsystema.jpg]Model developed by Brazilian researchers shows chaotic phase that placed objects in current orbits beginning within first 100 million years after formation of giant planets. . Credit: NASA
The hypothesis that the solar system originated from a gigantic cloud of gas and dust was first floated in the second half of the 18th century by German philosopher Immanuel Kant and further developed by French mathematician Pierre-Simon de Laplace. It is now a consensus among astronomers. Thanks to the enormous amount of observational data, theoretical input and computational resources now available, it has been continually refined, but this is not a linear process.

Nor is it without controversies. Until recently, the solar system was thought to have acquired its present features as a result of a period of turbulence that occurred some 700 million years after its formation. However, some of the latest research suggests it took shape in the more remote past, at some stage during the first 100 million years.
A study conducted by three Brazilian researchers offers robust evidence of this earlier structuring. Reported in an article published in the journal Icarus, the study was supported by São Paulo Research Foundation—FAPESP. The authors are all affiliated with São Paulo State University's Engineering School (FEG-UNESP) in Guaratinguetá (Brazil).
The lead author is Rafael Ribeiro de Sousa. The other two authors are André Izidoro Ferreira da Costa and Ernesto Vieira Neto, principal investigator for the study.
"The large amount of data acquired from detailed observation of the solar system enables us to define with precision the trajectories of the many bodies that orbit the sun," Ribeiro said. "This orbital structure enables us to write the history of the formation of the solar system. Emerging from the gas and dust cloud that surrounded the sun some 4.6 billion years ago, the giant planets formed in orbits closer to each other and also closer to the sun. The orbits were also more co-planar and more circular than they are now, and more interconnected in resonant dynamic systems. These stable systems are the most likely outcome of the gravitational dynamics of planet formation from gaseous protoplanetary disks."
Izidoro offered more details: "The four giant planets—Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune—emerged from the gas and dust cloud in more compact orbits," he said. "Their motions were strongly synchronous owing to resonant chains, with Jupiter completing three revolutions around the sun while Saturn completed two. All the planets were involved in this synchronicity produced by the dynamics of the primordial gas disk and the gravitational dynamics of the planets."

However, throughout the formation region of the outer solar system, which includes the zone located beyond the current orbits of Uranus and Neptune, the solar system had a large population of planetesimals, small bodies of rock and ice considered the building blocks of planets and forerunners of asteroids, comets and satellites.
The outer planetesimal disk began disturbing the system's gravitational balance. The resonances were disrupted after the gas phase, and the system entered a period of chaos in which the giant planets interacted violently and ejected matter into space.
"Pluto and its icy neighbors were pushed into the Kuiper Belt, where they're located now, and the entire group of planets migrated to orbits more distant from the sun," Ribeiro said.
The Kuiper Belt, whose existence was proposed in 1951 by Dutch astronomer Gerard Kuiper and later confirmed by astronomical observations, is a toroidal (doughnut-shaped) structure made up of thousands of small bodies orbiting the sun.
The diversity of their orbits is not seen in any other part of the solar system. The Kuiper Belt's inner edge begins at the orbit of Neptune about 30 astronomical units (AUs) from the sun. The outer edge is about 50 AUs from the sun. One AU is approximately equal to the average distance from Earth to the sun.
Returning to the disruption of synchronicity and the onset of the chaotic stage, the question is when this happened—very early in the life of the solar system, when it was 100 million years old or less, or much later, probably about 700 million years after the planets formed?
"Until recently, the late instability hypothesis predominated," Ribeiro said. "Dating of the moon rocks brought back by the Apollo astronauts suggested they were created by asteroids and comets crashing into the lunar surface at the same time. This cataclysm is known as the "Late Heavy Bombardment' of the moon. If it happened on the moon, it presumably also happened on Earth and the solar system's other terrestrial planets. Because a great deal of matter in the form of asteroids and comets was projected in all directions in the solar system during the period of planetary instability, it was deduced from the moon rocks that this chaotic period occurred late, but in recent years, the idea of a "Late Bombardment' of the moon has fallen out of favor."
According to Ribeiro, if the late chaotic catastrophe had occurred, it would have destroyed Earth and the other terrestrial planets, or at least caused disturbances that would have placed them in totally different orbits from those we observe now.
Furthermore, the moon rocks brought back by the Apollo astronauts were found to have been produced by a single impact. If they had originated in late giant planet instability, there would be evidence of several impacts, given the scattering of the planetesimals by the giant planets.
"The starting point for our study was the idea that the instability should be dated dynamically. The instability can only have happened later if there was a relatively large distance between the inner edge of the disk of planetesimals and Neptune's orbit when the gas was exhausted. This relatively large distance proved unsustainable in our simulation," Ribeiro said.
The argument is based on a simple premise: The shorter the distance between Neptune and the planetesimal disk, the greater the gravitational influence, and hence the earlier the period of instability. Conversely, later instability requires a larger distance.
"What we did was sculpt the primordial planetesimal disk for the first time. To do so, we had to go back to the formation of the ice giants Uranus and Neptune. Computer simulations based on a model constructed by Professor Izidoro [Ferreira da Costa] in 2015 showed that the formation of Uranus and Neptune may have originated in planetary embryos with several Earth masses. Massive collisions of these super-Earths would explain, for example, why Uranus spins on its side," Ribeiro said, referring to Uranus's "tilt," with north and south poles located on its sides rather than top and bottom.
Previous studies had pointed to the importance of the distance between Neptune's orbit and the inner boundary of the planetesimal disk, but they used a model in which the four giant planets were already formed.
"The novelty of this latest study is that the model doesn't begin with completely formed planets. Instead, Uranus and Neptune are still in the growth stage, and the growth driver is two or three collisions involving objects with up to five Earth masses," Izidoro said.
"Imagine a situation in which Jupiter and Saturn are formed, but we have five to 10 super-Earths instead of Uranus and Neptune. The super-Earths are forced by the gas to synchronize with Jupiter and Saturn, but being numerous, their synchronicity fluctuates, and they end up colliding. The collisions reduce their number, making synchronicity possible. Eventually, Uranus and Neptune are left. While the two ice giants were forming in the gas, the planetesimal disk was being consumed. Part of the matter was accreted to Uranus and Neptune, and part was propelled to the outskirts of the solar system. The growth of Uranus and Neptune therefore defined the position of the inner boundary of the planetesimal disk. What was left of the disk is now the Kuiper Belt. The Kuiper Belt is basically a relic of the primordial planetesimal disk, which was once far more massive."
The proposed model is consistent with the giant planets' current orbits and with the structure observed in the Kuiper Belt. It is also consistent with the motion of the Trojans, a large group of asteroids that share Jupiter's orbit and were presumably captured during the disruption of synchronicity.
According to a paper published by Izidoro in 2017, Jupiter and Saturn were still in formation, with their growth contributing to displacement of the asteroid belt. The latest paper is a kind of continuation, starting from a stage in which Jupiter and Saturn were fully formed but still synchronized, and describing the evolution of the solar system from there on.
"Gravitational interaction between the giant planets and the planetesimal disk produced disturbances in the gas disk that spread in the form of waves. The waves produced compact and synchronous planetary systems. When the gas ran out, interaction between the planets and planetesimal disk disrupted the synchronicity and gave rise to the chaotic phase. Taking all this into account, we discovered that the conditions simply didn't exist for the distance between Neptune's orbit and the inner boundary of the planetesimal disk to become large enough to sustain the late instability hypothesis. This is the main contribution of our study, which shows that the instability occurred in the first 100 million years, and may have occurred, for example, before the formation of Earth and the moon," Ribeiro said.




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Scientists find evidence for early planetary shake-up



[b]More information:[/b] Rafael de Sousa Ribeiro et al, Dynamical evidence for an early giant planet instability, Icarus (2019). DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2019.113605
[b]Journal information:[/b] Icarus

https://phys.org/news/2020-03-solar-curr...ation.html






more on the re-write of solar system history.

[Image: howthemoonfo.jpg]

How the moon formed: New research sheds light on what happened
How the Earth got its moon is a long debated question. The giant impact theory – which states that the moon formed from the a collision between the early Earth and a rocky body called Theia—has become the front runner ...




[Image: 1-unmscientist.jpg]

Study suggests Earth and Moon not identical oxygen twins
Scientists at The University of New Mexico have found that the Earth and Moon have distinct oxygen compositions and are not identical in oxygen as previously thought according to a new study released today in Nature Geoscience.



Thanx for the thread,eye feel updated and more positively inclined towards an indigenous Martian builder. Alien2
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#14
Maybe Ancient Aliens didn't tweak our dna ?

Maybe the solar system tweaked us mars/earth?


for example...space rocks hit.

KA-BOOM a cosmic 
[Image: F.1.6c-TreeofLifepriestsW5-200.jpg] no need for anunnaki?

Nonviral Vectors for Gene Therapy

Mohammad Alsaggar, Dexi Liu, in Advances in Genetics, 2015
2.2 Gene Gun or “Biolistic” Gene Transfer
Gene gun, also called biolistic gene transfer, was first established in 1987 for plant cell transformation (Klein, Wolf, Wu, & Sanford, 1987), and later, it was successfully applied for gene transfer studies in mammalian cells in vitro as well as in vivo (Williams et al., 1991; Yang, Burkholder, Roberts, Martinell, & McCabe, 1990). Gene transfer is accomplished by bombarding target cells with DNA-coated gold particles driven by pressurized inert gas such as helium or by high-voltage electronic discharge. Efficient gene transfer necessitates fine optimization of the procedure to maintain penetration capacity, while minimizing tissue/cell damage. Among the parameters that impact the efficiency of gene transfer are the size and the density of microspheres, bombardment force, gene gun instrumentation, and microspheres to DNA ratio. Typically, these parameters vary with different types of cells and different tissues in animals



Split_spawn below is a natural gene gun article Arrow


Researchers find evidence of a cosmic impact that caused destruction of one of the world's earliest human settlements
[Image: 18-researchersf.jpg]Location of Abu Hureyra (adapted from Moore et al.. (a) Map of the Middle East, showing Abu Hureyra location (AH) in Syria. (b) Map of the Abu Hureyra tell, showing locations of excavation trenches labeled A-G near a back channel of Euphrates River that is now abandoned. Sediment samples from Trenches D, E, and G (blue rectangles) contain abundance peaks in YDB proxies, including spherules, nanodiamonds, meltglass, and platinum. Credit: Scientific Reports (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-60867-w
Before the Taqba Dam impounded the Euphrates River in northern Syria in the 1970s, an archaeological site named Abu Hureyra bore witness to the moment ancient nomadic people first settled down and started cultivating crops. A large mound marks the settlement, which now lies under Lake Assad.

But before the lake formed, archaeologists were able to carefully extract and describe much material, including parts of houses, food and tools—an abundance of evidence that allowed them to identify the transition to agriculture nearly 12,800 years ago. It was one of the most significant events in our Earth's cultural and environmental history.
Abu Hureyra, it turns out, has another story to tell. Found among the cereals and grains and splashed on early building material and animal bones was meltglass, some features of which suggest it was formed at extremely high temperatures—far higher than what humans could achieve at the time—or that could be attributed to fire, lighting or volcanism.
"To help with perspective, such high temperatures would completely melt an automobile in less than a minute," said James Kennett, a UC Santa Barbara emeritus professor of geology. Such intensity, he added, could only have resulted from an extremely violent, high-energy, high-velocity phenomenon, something on the order of a cosmic impact.

Based on materials collected before the site was flooded, Kennett and his colleagues contend Abu Hureyra is the first site to document the direct effects of a fragmented comet on a human settlement. These fragments are all part of the same comet that likely slammed into Earth and exploded in the atmosphere at the end of the Pleistocene epoch, according to Kennett. This impact contributed to the extinction of most large animals, including mammoths, and American horses and camels; the disappearance of the North American Clovis culture; and to the abrupt onset of the end-glacial Younger Dryas cooling episode.
The team's findings are highlighted in a paper published in the Nature journal Scientific Reports.
"Our new discoveries represent much more powerful evidence for very high temperatures that could only be associated with a cosmic impact," said Kennett, who with his colleagues first reported evidence of such an event in the region in 2012.
Abu Hureyra lies at the easternmost sector of what is known as the Younger Dryas Boundary (YDB) strewnfield, which encompasses about 30 other sites in the Americas, Europe and parts of the Middle East. These sites hold evidence of massive burning, including a widespread carbon-rich "black mat" layer that contains millions of nanodiamonds, high concentrations of platinum and tiny metallic spherules formed at very high temperatures. The YDB impact hypothesis has gained more traction in recent years because of many new discoveries, including a very young impact crater beneath the Hiawatha Glacier of the Greenland ice sheet, and high-temperature meltglass and other similar evidence at an archaeological site in Pilauco, located in southern Chile.

"The Abu Hureyra village would have been abruptly destroyed," Kennett said. Unlike the evidence from Pilauco, which was limited to human butchering of large animals up to but not younger than the YDB impact burn layer, Abu Hureyra shows direct evidence of the disaster on this early human settlement. An impact or an airburst must have occurred sufficiently close to send massive heat and molten glass over the entire early village, Kennett noted.
The glass was analyzed for geochemical composition, shape, structure, formation temperature, magnetic characteristics and water content. Results from the analysis showed that it formed at very high temperatures and included minerals rich in chromium, iron, nickel, sulfides, titanium and even platinum- and iridium-rich melted iron—all of which formed in temperatures higher than 2200 degrees Celsius.
"The critical materials are extremely rare under normal temperatures, but are commonly found during impact events," Kennett said. According to the study, the meltglass was formed "from the nearly instantaneous melting and vaporization of regional biomass, soils and floodplain deposits, followed by instantaneous cooling." Additionally, because the materials found are consistent with those found in the YDB layers at the other sites across the world, it's likely that they resulted from a fragmented comet, as opposed to impacts caused by individual comets or asteroids.
"A single major asteroid impact would not have caused such widely scattered materials like those discovered at Abu Hureyra," Kennett said. "The largest cometary debris clusters are proposed to be capable of causing thousands of airbursts within a span of minutes across one entire hemisphere of Earth. The YDB hypothesis proposed this mechanism to account for the widely dispersed coeval materials across more than 14,000 kilometers of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Our Abu Hureyra discoveries strongly support a major impact event from such a fragmented comet."





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Geologic evidence supports theory that major cosmic impact event occurred approximately 12,800 years ago




[b]More information:[/b] Andrew M. T. Moore et al. Evidence of Cosmic Impact at Abu Hureyra, Syria at the Younger Dryas Onset (~12.8 ka): High-temperature melting at >2200 °C, Scientific Reports (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-60867-w
[b]Journal information:[/b] Scientific Reports [/url]

Provided by 
University of California - Santa Barbara[/url] 

https://phys.org/news/2020-03-evidence-c...world.html



If we add to the gene gun scenario the further possibility of other natural gene editing cases this again raises indigenous martian plausibility,  recall:

Quote:"We humans have only recently begun to exploit nature's CRISPR-Cas systems, but as it turns out, we are not the first. These 'primitive parasites' have been using them for millions of years, long before humans. It is quite a humbling realization"


MARCH 24, 2020
Humans are not the first to repurpose CRISPR Doh aliens
[Image: researchbrea.jpg]Microbiologist Rafael Pinilla-Redondo from the University of Copenhagen Credit: Rafael Pinilla-Redondo
In recent years, the development of CRISPR technologies and gene-editing scissors in particular have taken the world by storm. Indeed, scientists have learned how to harness these clever natural systems in the biotech and pharmaceutical industries, among other areas.

New research from the University of Copenhagen shows that we are not the first to find a way to exploit the benefits of the CRISPR technique. Apparently, primitive bacterial parasites have been doing so for millions of years.
The researchers studied the least described and most enigmatic of the six CRISPR-Cas systems found in nature—Type IV CRISPR-Cas. Here, they uncovered characteristics that differ entirely from those in other systems.
[b]Redefining CRISPR[/b]
"Until recently, CRISPR-Cas was believed to be a defense system used by bacteria to protect themselves against invading parasites such as viruses, much like our very own immune system protects us. However, it appears that CRISPR is a tool that can be used for different purposes by diverse biological entities," according to 28-year-old Rafael Pinilla-Redondo, a Ph.D. at UCPH's Department of Biology who led the research.
One of these biological entities are plasmids—small DNA molecules that often behave like parasites and, like viruses, require a host bacterium to survive.
"Here we found evidence that certain plasmids use type IV CRISPR-Cas systems to fight other plasmids competing over the same bacterial host. This is remarkable because, in doing so, plasmids have managed to turn the system around. Instead of protecting bacteria from their parasites, CRISPR is exploited to perform another task," says Pinilla-Redondo, adding:
"This is similar to how some birds compete for the best nesting site in a tree, or how hermit crabs fight for ownership of a shell."
[b]"A humbling realization"[/b]
The discovery challenges the notion that CRISPR-Cas systems have only one purpose in nature, that is, acting as immune systems in bacteria. According to Rafael Pinilla-Redondo, the discovery gives some additional perspective:
"We humans have only recently begun to exploit nature's CRISPR-Cas systems, but as it turns out, we are not the first. These 'primitive parasites' have been using them for millions of years, long before humans. It is quite a humbling realization"
[b]What can we use it for?[/b]
The researchers speculate that these systems could be used to combat one of the greatest threats to humanity: multi-drug resistant bacteria. Hundreds of thousands of people die from MDR bacteria every year.
Bacteria become resistant to antibiotics by acquiring genes that make them resistant to antibiotic treatment. Very frequently, this occurs when plasmids transport antibiotic resistant genes from one bacterium to another.
"As this system appears to have evolved to specifically attack plasmids, it is plausible that we could repurpose it to fight plasmids carrying antibiotic resistant genes. This could be achieved because it is possible to program CRISPR to target what one wants" says Pinilla-Redondo.




Explore further
Researchers shed light on 'arms race' between bacteria and viruses



[b]More information:[/b] Rafael Pinilla-Redondo et al, Type IV CRISPR–Cas systems are highly diverse and involved in competition between plasmids, Nucleic Acids Research (2019). DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkz1197
[b]Journal information:[/b] Nucleic Acids Research 

Provided by [url=https://phys.org/partners/university-of-copenhagen/]University of Copenhagen







as far as ancient alien editing...snip.
we might be seein' local yokels handi-work? Alien2 naturally artificial.  
When meteors from mars hit they have gold particles that may blast dna into our biosphere...just sayin'.
Gene guns have been in use in plant transformation since the mid-1980s, according to Jeff and Wikipedia. The technology works a lot like a very small and controlled shotgun.
[Image: Plastomics-gene-gun-9-225x300.jpg]The door is shut; we’re waiting for the chamber to reach the required vacuum level to allow the shot to go off. Note our researcher has his finger on the “trigger.”
To start, you’ll coat micro-sized pellets of gold with the DNA that you want to inject into the target plant. They are on a microcarrier disc, at the top of the chamber.
The plant – we’re using tobacco leaves – is set up as the target at the bottom of the chamber.
First, a vacuum is pulled in the chamber to clear the way for high-pressure helium. Then, when the trigger is pulled, the pressure shoots the DNA-coated gold particles into a stopping screen that lets the particles – but not the microcarrier disc – go through.
Some of those particles enter the chloroplasts of the plant leaf. That’s where the biolistic transformation will occur. (And yes, “biolistic” is a kind of play on words, derived from the traditional “ballistics” or science of projectiles.)
The gene gun is a forceful way of inserting the genetic material into the target. To add even more fun, the team is using the gene gun to put the gene for the RNAi into the tobacco’s chloroplasts, rather than the nucleus. This is a new technique with great promise.
[Image: john-carter-tharks.jpg]

MARCH 16, 2020

Ancient mantis-man petroglyph discovered in Iran

[Image: ancientmanti.jpg]The 'squatter mantis man' petroglyph next to a 10 cm scale bar. Credit: Dr. Mohammad Naserifard
A unique rock carving found in the Teymareh rock art site (Khomein county) in Central Iran with six limbs has been described as part man, part mantis. Rock carvings, or petroglyphs, of invertebrate animals are rare, so entomologists teamed up with archaeologists to try and identify the motif.

 https://phys.org/news/2020-03-ancient-ma...-iran.html
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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