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On the matter of MATTER Vs. ANTI-MATTER : A nihilist annihilates duality reality.
#1
What if matter and anti-matter don't always  immediately self-destruct but instead they immediately mediate?

To differentiate the two.

Mind your matters.

Find shorn tatters...

The fabricated fabric of duality as causality of reality.

Triality?

Can matter and anti-matter recombine as trine?

A hybrid state of physicality.

Instantly ancient.

This idea anew.

The big-bang/yin-yan dark opposed to light.

Never knew this clever clue was a third insight.



I just thought this subject up after a beer and a toke on a lark of a joke.
Eye Wander/I Wonder what the forum thinks would happen if matter and antimatter could co-exist?  Cry


A thought experiment.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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#2
MARCH 10, 2020
Solved: The mystery of the expansion of the universe
[Image: 5e677f5397ada.jpg]M106. Credit: NASA
The Earth, solar system, the entire Milky Way and the few thousand galaxies closest to us move in a vast "bubble" that is 250 million light years in diameter, where the average density of matter is half as high as for the rest of the universe. This is the hypothesis advanced by a theoretical physicist from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) to solve a conundrum that has been splitting the scientific community for a decade: At what speed is the universe expanding? Until now, at least two independent calculation methods have arrived at two values that are different by about 10% with a deviation that is statistically irreconcilable. This new approach, which is set out in the journal Physics Letters B, erases this divergence without making use of any "new physics."

The universe has been expanding since the Big Bang occurred 13.8 billion years ago—a proposition first made by the Belgian canon and physicist Georges Lemaître (1894-1966), and first demonstrated by Edwin Hubble (1889-1953). The American astronomer discovered in 1929 that every galaxy is pulling away from us, and that the most distant galaxies are moving the most quickly. This suggests that there was a time in the past when all the galaxies were located at the same spot, a time that can only correspond to the Big Bang. This research gave rise to the Hubble-Lemaître law, including the Hubble constant (H0), which denotes the universe's rate of expansion. The best H0 estimates currently lie around 70 (km/s)/Mpc (meaning that the universe is expanding 70 kilometers a second more quickly every 3.26 million light years). The problem is that there are two conflicting methods of calculation.
[b]Sporadic supernovae[/b]
The first is based on the cosmic microwave background: This is the microwave radiation that comes at us from everywhere, emitted at the time the universe became cold enough for light to be able to circulate freely (about 370,000 years after the Big Bang). Using the precise data supplied by the Planck space mission, and given the fact that the universe is homogeneous and isotropic, a value of 67.4 is obtained for H0 using Einstein's theory of general relativity to run through the scenario. The second calculation method is based on the supernovae that appear sporadically in distant galaxies. These very bright events provide the observer with highly precise distances, an approach that has made it possible to determine a value for H0 of 74.
Lucas Lombriser, a professor in the Theoretical Physics Department in UNIGE's Faculty of Sciences, explains: "These two values carried on becoming more precise for many years while remaining different from each other. It didn't take much to spark a scientific controversy and even to arouse the exciting hope that we were perhaps dealing with a 'new physics.'" To narrow the gap, professor Lombriser entertained the idea that the universe is not as homogeneous as claimed, a hypothesis that may seem obvious on relatively modest scales. There is no doubt that matter is distributed differently inside a galaxy than outside one. It is more difficult, however, to imagine fluctuations in the average density of matter calculated on volumes thousands of times larger than a galaxy.
[b]The "Hubble Bubble"[/b]
"If we were in a kind of gigantic 'bubble,'" continues professor Lombriser, "where the density of matter was significantly lower than the known density for the entire universe, it would have consequences on the distances of supernovae and, ultimately, on determining H0."
All that would be needed would be for this "Hubble bubble" to be large enough to include the galaxy that serves as a reference for measuring distances. By establishing a diameter of 250 million light years for this bubble, the physicist calculated that if the density of matter inside was 50% lower than for the rest of the universe, a new value would be obtained for the Hubble constant, which would then agree with the one obtained using the cosmic microwave background. "The probability that there is such a fluctuation on this scale is one in 20 to one in 5, which means that it is not a theoretician's fantasy. There are a lot of regions like ours in the vast universe," says professor Lombriser




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Providing a solution to the worst-ever prediction in physics



[b]More information:[/b] Lucas Lombriser. Consistency of the local Hubble constant with the cosmic microwave background, Physics Letters B (2020). DOI: 10.1016/j.physletb.2020.135303
[b]Journal information:[/b] Physics Letters B [/url]

Provided by [url=https://phys.org/partners/university-of-geneva/]University of Geneva

https://phys.org/news/2020-03-mystery-ex...verse.html
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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#3
MARCH 10, 2020
Paper sheds light on infant universe and origin of matter
[Image: 1-papershedsli.jpg]The rotation of the QCD axion (black ball) produces an excess of matter (colored balls) over antimatter, allowing galaxies and human beings to exist. Credit: Graphic: Harigaya and Co; Photo: NASA
A new study, conducted to better understand the origin of the universe, has provided insight into some of the most enduring questions in fundamental physics: How can the Standard Model of particle physics be extended to explain the cosmological excess of matter over antimatter? What is dark matter? And what is the theoretical origin of an unexpected but observed symmetry in the force that binds protons and neutrons together?

In the paper "Axiogenesis," scheduled to be published in Physical Review Letters on March 17, 2020, researchers Keisuke Harigaya, Member in the School of Natural Sciences at the Institute for Advanced Study, and Raymond T. Co of the University of Michigan, have presented a compelling case in which the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) axion, first theorized in 1977, provides several important answers to these questions.
"We revealed that the rotation of the QCD axion can account for the excess of matter found in the universe," stated Harigaya. "We named this mechanism axiogenesis."
Infinitesimally light, the QCD axion—at least one billion times lighter than a proton—is nearly ghost-like. Millions of these particles pass through ordinary matter every second without notice. However, the subatomic level interaction of the QCD axion can still leave detectable signals in experiments with unprecedented sensitivities. While the QCD axion has never been directly detected, this study provides added fuel for experimentalists to hunt down the elusive particle.
"The versatility of the QCD axion in solving the mysteries of fundamental physics is truly amazing," stated Co. "We are thrilled about the unexplored theoretical possibilities that this new aspect of the QCD axion can bring. More importantly, experiments may soon tell us whether the mysteries of nature truly hint towards the QCD axion."
Harigaya and Co have reasoned that the QCD axion is capable of filling three missing pieces of the physics jigsaw puzzle simultaneously. First, the QCD axion was originally proposed to explain the so-called strong CP problem—why the strong force, which binds protons and neutrons together, unexpectedly preserves a symmetry called the Charge Parity (CP) symmetry. The CP symmetry is inferred from the observation that a neutron does not react with an electric field despite its charged constituents. Second, the QCD axion was found to be a good candidate for dark matter, offering what could be a major breakthrough in understanding the composition of approximately 80 percent of the universe's mass that has never been directly observed. In their work on the early universe, Harigaya and Co have determined that the QCD axion can also explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry problem.
As matter and antimatter particles interact, they are mutually annihilated. In the first fraction of a second following the Big Bang, matter and antimatter existed in equal amounts. This symmetry prevented the predominance of one type of matter over the other. Today, the universe is filled with matter, indicating that this symmetry must have been broken. Harigaya and Co cite the QCD axion as the culprit. Kinetic energy, resulting from the motion of the QCD axion, produced additional baryons or ordinary matter. This slight tipping of the scale in favor of matter would have had a pronounced cascade effect, paving the way for the universe as it is known today.
Greater understanding of the newly discovered dynamics of the QCD axion could potentially change the expansion history of the universe and thus inform the study of gravitational waves. Future work on this topic could also provide further insight into other enduring questions of fundamental physics, such as the origin of the tiny neutrino mass.
"Since theoretical and experimental particle physicists, astrophysicists, and cosmologists began studying the QCD axion, great progress has been made. We hope that our work further advances these interdisciplinary research efforts," added Harigaya.




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Could the mysteries of antimatter and dark matter be linked?



[b]More information:[/b] Axiogenesis, arXiv:1910.02080 [hep-ph] arxiv.org/abs/1910.02080
[b]Journal information:[/b] Physical Review Letters [/url]

Provided by [url=https://phys.org/partners/institute-for-advanced-study/]Institute for Advanced Study
 

https://phys.org/news/2020-03-paper-infa...verse.html
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#4
Quote:This kind of work had been done in two-dimensional systems, but this is the first time a 3-D system had been studied in this way. The research showed that the dominant topological structures in the system were loop structures that emerge spontaneously, expand and then self-annihilate.

The loops are related to the kinds of defects that emerge in better-studied 2-D systems, but they differ in a key way, the researchers say. In 2-D, defects arise in pairs of points that have opposing characteristics or "charges," a bit like particles and antiparticles. Once they form, they exist until they eventually run into a defect with the opposite charge, which causes them to annihilate.
The loops that form in 3-D, in contrast, have no charge. As a result, they form and annihilate all on their own. They're still related to the 2-D defects structures, however. In fact, the 3-D loops can be thought of as extensions of 2-D point defects. Imagine two point defects sitting on a 2-D surface. Now connect those two points with an arc that rises up out of the 2-D surface, and a second arc on the underside of the surface. The result is a loop that has both charges of the points, but is itself charge neutral. That enables nucleation and annihilation all on their own.

MARCH 9, 2020
Study reveals collective dynamics of active matter systems
by Kevin Stacey, Brown University
[Image: 6-researchreve.jpg]A new study characterizes the defect patterns in an active matter system. The defects tend form loops that form and annihilate spontaneously. Credit: Duclos et. al.
Flocks of starlings that produce dazzling patterns across the sky are natural examples of active matter—groups of individual agents coming together to create collective dynamics. In a study featured on the cover of the March 6 issue of the journal Science, a team of researchers that includes Brown University physicists reveals new insights into what happens inside active matter systems.

The research describes experiments using a three-dimensional active nematic. Nematic describes a state of matter that emerges in the kind of liquid crystals widely used in smartphone and television displays. The cigar-shaped molecules in liquid crystals are able to move as in a liquid, but tend to stay ordered more or less in the same direction, a little like a crystal.
In a normal liquid crystal, the molecules are passive, meaning they don't have the ability to self-propel. But the system involved in this new study replaces those passive molecules with tiny bundles of microtubules, each with the ability to consume fuel and propel themselves. The goal of the research was to study how those active elements affect the order of the system.
"These microtubules tend to align, but also continually destroy their own aligning order with their movement," said study co-author Daniel Beller, an assistant professor of physics at University of California, Merced, who began work on the research while he was a postdoctoral researcher at Brown. "So there are collective motions that create defects in the alignment, and that's what we study here."
As the system evolves, the defects appear to come to life in some sense, creating lines, loops and other structures that meander through the system. The researchers studied the structures using topology, a branch of math concerned with how things deform without breaking.
"If your goal is to understand the dynamics of these systems, then one way to do that is to focus on these emerging topological structures as a way to characterize the dynamics," said Robert Pelcovits, a professor of physics at Brown and a study coauthor. "If we can get guiding principles from this simple system, that might help guide us in understanding more complicated ones."
Beller, Pelcovits and Thomas Powers, a professor of engineering and physics at Brown, led the theoretical work for the study. The experimental work was performed by researchers from Brandeis University and the University of California, Santa Barbara. Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, the University of Chicago, Brandeis and Eindhoven University of Technology contributed computer modeling expertise.
This kind of work had been done in two-dimensional systems, but this is the first time a 3-D system had been studied in this way. The research showed that the dominant topological structures in the system were loop structures that emerge spontaneously, expand and then self-annihilate.
The loops are related to the kinds of defects that emerge in better-studied 2-D systems, but they differ in a key way, the researchers say. In 2-D, defects arise in pairs of points that have opposing characteristics or "charges," a bit like particles and antiparticles. Once they form, they exist until they eventually run into a defect with the opposite charge, which causes them to annihilate.
The loops that form in 3-D, in contrast, have no charge. As a result, they form and annihilate all on their own. They're still related to the 2-D defects structures, however. In fact, the 3-D loops can be thought of as extensions of 2-D point defects. Imagine two point defects sitting on a 2-D surface. Now connect those two points with an arc that rises up out of the 2-D surface, and a second arc on the underside of the surface. The result is a loop that has both charges of the points, but is itself charge neutral. That enables nucleation and annihilation all on their own.
The researchers are hopeful that this new understanding of this system's dynamics will be applicable in real-world systems like bacterial colonies, structures and systems in the human body, or other systems.
"What we found here is a quite general set of behaviors that we think will be fully present in similar systems that have this tendency to align, but that are also turning stored energy into motion," Beller said.




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Wriggling microtubules help understand coupling of 'active' defects and curvature



[b]More information:[/b] Guillaume Duclos et al, Topological structure and dynamics of three-dimensional active nematics, Science (2020). DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz4547
[b]Journal information:[/b] Science [/url]

Provided by 
Brown University 



https://phys.org/news/2020-03-reveals-dynamics.html


Jeeze!  Holycowsmile This thread's improv was instantly prescient from the git-go! what a beer and a toke will do for ya! lol...  Arrow


Quote:The second measurement was a search for a difference between the mass of the hypertriton and its antimatter counterpart, the antihypertriton (the first nucleus containing an antistrange quark, discovered at RHIC in 2010). Physicists have never found a mass difference between matter-antimatter partners so seeing one would be a big discovery. It would be evidence of "CPT" violation—a simultaneous violation of three fundamental symmetries in nature pertaining to the reversal of charge, parity (mirror symmetry), and time.

"Physicists have seen parity violation, and violation of CP together (each earning a Nobel Prize for Brookhaven Lab[), but never CPT," said Brookhaven physicist Zhangbu Xu, co-spokesperson of RHIC's STAR experiment, where the hypertriton research was done.
But no one has looked for CPT violation in the hypertriton and antihypertriton, he said, "because no one else could yet."
MARCH 9, 2020
'Strange' glimpse into neutron stars and symmetry violation
[Image: strangeglimp.jpg]Inner vertex components of the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (righthand view) allow scientists to trace tracks from triplets of decay particles picked up in the detector's outer regions (left) to their origin in a rare "antihypertriton" particle that decays just outside the collision zone. Measurements of the momentum and known mass of the decay products (a pi+ meson, antiproton, and antideuteron) can then be used to calculate the mass and binding energy of the parent particle. Doing the same for the hypertriton (which decays into different "daughter" particles) allows precision comparisons of these matter and antimatter varieties. Credit: Brookhaven National Laboratory
New results from precision particle detectors at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) offer a fresh glimpse of the particle interactions that take place in the cores of neutron stars and give nuclear physicists a new way to search for violations of fundamental symmetries in the universe. The results, just published in Nature Physics, could only be obtained at a powerful ion collider such as RHIC, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science user facility for nuclear physics research at DOE's Brookhaven National Laboratory.

The precision measurements reveal that the binding energy holding together the components of the simplest "strange-matter" nucleus, known as a "hypertriton," is greater than obtained by previous, less-precise experiments. The new value could have important astrophysical implications for understanding the properties of neutron stars, where the presence of particles containing so-called "strange" quarks is predicted to be common.
The second measurement was a search for a difference between the mass of the hypertriton and its antimatter counterpart, the antihypertriton (the first nucleus containing an antistrange quark, discovered at RHIC in 2010). Physicists have never found a mass difference between matter-antimatter partners so seeing one would be a big discovery. It would be evidence of "CPT" violation—a simultaneous violation of three fundamental symmetries in nature pertaining to the reversal of charge, parity (mirror symmetry), and time.
"Physicists have seen parity violation, and violation of CP together (each earning a Nobel Prize for Brookhaven Lab[), but never CPT," said Brookhaven physicist Zhangbu Xu, co-spokesperson of RHIC's STAR experiment, where the hypertriton research was done.
But no one has looked for CPT violation in the hypertriton and antihypertriton, he said, "because no one else could yet."
The previous CPT test of the heaviest nucleus was performed by the ALICE collaboration at Europe's Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with a measurement of the mass difference between ordinary helium-3 and antihelium-3. The result, showing no significant difference, was published in Nature Physics in 2015.
Spoiler alert: The STAR results also reveal no significant mass difference between the matter-antimatter partners explored at RHIC, so there's still no evidence of CPT violation. But the fact that STAR physicists could even make the measurements is a testament to the remarkable capabilities of their detector.

[b]Strange matter[/b]
The simplest normal-matter nuclei contain just protons and neutrons, with each of those particles made of ordinary "up" and "down" quarks. In hypertritons, one neutron is replaced by a particle called a lambda, which contains one strange quark along with the ordinary up and down varieties.
Such strange matter replacements are common in the ultra-dense conditions created in RHIC's collisions—and are also likely in the cores of neutron stars where a single teaspoon of matter would weigh more than 1 billion tons. That's because the high density makes it less costly energy-wise to make strange quarks than the ordinary up and down varieties.
For that reason, RHIC collisions give nuclear physicists a way to peer into the subatomic interactions within distant stellar objects without ever leaving Earth. And because RHIC collisions create hypertritons and antihypertritons in nearly equal amounts, they offer a way to search for CPT violation as well.
But finding those rare particles among the thousands that stream from each RHIC particle smashup—with collisions happening thousands of times each second—is a daunting task. Add to the challenge the fact that these unstable particles decay almost as soon as they form—within centimeters of the center of the four-meter-wide STAR detector.

[Image: 1-strangeglimp.jpg]
The Heavy Flavor Tracker at the center of RHIC's STAR detector. Credit: Brookhaven National Laboratory
[b]Precision detection[/b]
Fortunately, detector components added to STAR for tracking different kinds of particles made the search a relative cinch. These components, called the "Heavy-Flavor Tracker," are located very close to the STAR detector's center. They were developed and built by a team of STAR collaborators led by scientists and engineers at DOE's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab). These inner components allow scientists to match up tracks created by decay products of each hypertriton and antihypertriton with their point of origin just outside the collision zone.
"What we look for are the 'daughter' particles—the decay products that strike detector components at the outer edges of STAR," said Berkeley Lab physicist Xin Dong. Identifying tracks of pairs or triplets of daughter particles that originate from a single point just outside the primary collision zone allows the scientists to pick these signals out from the sea of other particles streaming from each RHIC collision.
"Then we calculate the momentum of each daughter particle from one decay (based on how much they bend in STAR's magnetic field), and from that we can reconstruct their masses and the mass of the parent hypertriton or antihypertriton particle before it decayed," explained Declan Keane of Kent State University (KSU). Telling the hypertriton and antihypertriton apart is easy because they decay into different daughters, he added.
"Keane's team, including Irakli Chakeberia, has specialized in tracking these particles through the detectors to 'connect the dots,'" Xu said. "They also provided much needed visualization of the events."
As noted, compiling data from many collisions revealed no mass difference between the matter and antimatter hypernuclei, so there's no evidence of CPT violation in these results.
But when STAR physicists looked at their results for the binding energy of the hypertriton, it turned out to be larger than previous measurements from the 1970s had found.
The STAR physicists derived the binding energy by subtracting their value for the hypertriton mass from the combined known masses of its building-block particles: a deuteron (a bound state of a proton and a neutron) and one lambda.
"The hypertriton weighs less than the sum of its parts because some of that mass is converted into the energy that is binding the three nucleons together," said Fudan University STAR collaborator Jinhui Chen, whose Ph.D. student, Peng Liu, analyzed the large datasets to arrive at these results. "This binding energy is really a measure of the strength of these interactions, so our new measurement could have important implications for understanding the 'equation of state' of neutron stars," he added.
For example, in model calculations, the mass and structure of a neutron star depends on the strength of these interactions. "There's great interest in understanding how these interactions—a form of the strong force—are different between ordinary nucleons and strange nucleons containing up, down, and strange quarks," Chen said. "Because these hypernuclei contain a single lambda, this is one of the best ways to make comparisons with theoretical predictions. It reduces the problem to its simplest form."




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Simple math, antimatter, and the birth of the Universe



[b]More information:[/b] Measurement of the mass difference and the binding energy of the hypertriton and antihypertriton, Nature Physics (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41567-020-0799-7 , https://nature.com/articles/s41567-020-0799-7
[b]Journal information:[/b] Nature Physics 

Provided by [url=https://phys.org/partners/brookhaven-national-laboratory/]Brookhaven National Laboratory


https://phys.org/news/2020-03-strange-gl...metry.html
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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#5
...


Quote:cores of neutron stars,
where a single teaspoon of matter would weigh more than 1 billion tons




Single neutron star merger supplied half the Solar System’s plutonium

https://arstechnica.com/science/2019/05/...plutonium/

We are all, as Carl Sagan said, star-dust.
You might think that since most stars are pretty much the same,
all star-dust is equal.
But we have evidence that some star-dust is more equal than others.
Yes, some elements seem to have a very special origin:
neutron star Hugs mergers.

Most stars are pretty much all hydrogen.
Near their center, fusion busily turns hydrogen into helium.
Eventually, that hydrogen will run out and,
like a pub that runs out of beer,
the real destruction begins.
The star starts turning helium into heavier elements,
at an increasingly feverish rate.
The end,
no matter how hot and heavy the star, comes when the star’s core is made of iron.

Up to iron,
the process of fusion releases more energy than it consumes.
But after iron,
fusion consumes more energy than it releases,
which essentially shuts the star down.
Once this was understood,
scientists were left wondering Stars
where the remaining 80 odd elements that are heavier than iron came from.

Bring on the neutron stars:
Heavier stars end their life in a supernova—a violent explosion.
These explosions can create many of the elements heavier than iron.
However, a supernova will still only get us as far along the periodic table as molybdenum,
leaving about 40 elements unexplained.

Then, a neutron star merger was observed,
first via gravitational waves and later with various other hardware.
It seemed that the merger produced the right conditions,
to create the remaining elements via a process called rapid neutron capture.

Imagine an iron atom sitting around minding its own business.
Iron has 26 protons—the number of protons determines the element—and 30 neutrons,
which act to glue the protons into the nucleus.
Suddenly, thanks to a heavy neutron bombardment,
the iron nucleus starts accumulating neutrons at a rapid rate.
When the iron nucleus hits 32 neutrons,
one of the neutrons emits an electron to turn into a proton.
That turns the ion nucleus into a cobalt nucleus.

The capture and decay process can continue to encompass all the naturally occurring elements.
But it only happens if there's a large source of neutrons to bombard the atom,
which a neutron star merger provides.
We've only observed one neutron star merger at this point Slap2 though,
which leaves things a bit uncertain.

How special are neutron star mergers?

[Image: Neutron_Star_Merger_Still_2_new_1080-800x450.jpg]


In the new study,
researchers have examined the ratio of elements found in asteroids.
Asteroids are a bit like time capsules from the past.
These rocks have floated around the Solar System doing basically nothing Dance2
at least until some of them had the luck to land on Earth.

Over that time, the radioactive elements will decay,
leaving behind stable isotopes of different elements.
For some elements with very long half-lives,
some of the original radioactive material is still around in asteroids.

A team of researchers was able to estimate the abundance of actinides—elements,
with atomic numbers,
from 89 upwards—in asteroids,
and thus what it must have been in the primeval Solar System.
That analysis showed that supernovae are almost certainly not the source of the actinides.

This conclusion is based on a reasonably long chain of logic.
First, if supernovae are a major contributor to actinide formation,
then there should be an average amount of actinide production per explosion.
Stars follow a predictable life,
so the researchers can estimate how many stars went kaboom Whip
in time to contribute material to the formation of our Solar System.
But the numbers simply don’t work out:
if actinides were produced by supernovae,
it would lead to a higher abundance of these elements than we actually observe.

On the other hand,
the researchers are also able to estimate the number of neutron star mergers,
that could contribute material to the formation of the Solar System.
Neutron stars are (from a computational point of view) nearly ideal stars,
so we can model their behavior pretty well.
Combine those models with our observations of a single neutron star merger,
and researchers have a pretty good idea of actinide production.

Here the numbers seem to work out:
the number of mergers that could have contributed to our early Solar System
(a number based on how often these things seem to occur)
produces an actinide abundance that brackets the one estimated from asteroids.

It gets even better.
It seems that nearly half the plutonium in the Solar System,
came from a single neutron star merger.
That is fascinating:
with such low numbers of neutron star mergers contributing to actinide abundance,
the variation from solar system to solar system must be huge.
Imagine, we could have ended up in a solar system with almost no uranium or plutonium.

Now, a note of caution  Naughty  in this research,
the scientists compared standard supernova with neutron star mergers.
But there is a special class of supernova,
called collapsars  Whistle
that are a different story.
Collapsars may also be able to supply actinides,
but we still don't know a lot about the physics there.
And the researchers behind this paper suggest that they are too infrequent,
to have supplied the observed amount of actinides.
This leaves neutron star mergers as the most likely option.

...
Reply
#6
RE: On the matter of: "systems that are driven   Sheep away from equilibrium" MATTER Vs. ANTI-MATTER


This observation violates the standard model of physics that explains the basic fundamental forces of the universe and classifies all known elementary particles.

According to their calculations, there could be two possibilities for new particles. In one scenario, they suggest that the Kaon might decay into a pion—a subatomic particle with a mass about 270 times that of an electron—and some sort of invisible particle. Or, the researchers in the KOTO experiment could have witnessed the production and decay of something completely unknown to physicists.

MARCH 5, 2020
Researchers propose new physics to explain decay of subatomic particle
by Kathleen Haughney, Florida State University
[Image: 6-researchersp.jpg]FSU physicists proposed a new particle (yellow) to explain recently reported rare kaon (blue) decays to neutral pions (orange). Credit: Florida State University
Florida State University physicists believe they have an answer to unusual incidents of rare decay of a subatomic particle called a Kaon that were reported last year by scientists in the KOTO experiment at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex.

FSU Associate Professor of Physics Takemichi Okui and Assistant Professor of Physics Kohsaku Tobioka published a new paper in the journal Physical Review Letters that proposes that this decay is actually a new, short-lived particle that has avoided detection in similar experiments.
"This is such a rare disintegration," Okui said. "It's so rare, that they should not have seen any. But if this is correct, how do we explain it? We think this is one possibility."
Kaons are particles made of one quark and one antiquark. Researchers study how they function—which includes their decay—as a way to better understand how the world works. But last year, researchers in the KOTO experiment reported four instances of a particular rare decay that should have been too rare to be detected yet.
This observation violates the standard model of physics that explains the basic fundamental forces of the universe and classifies all known elementary particles.
According to their calculations, there could be two possibilities for new particles. In one scenario, they suggest that the Kaon might decay into a pion—a subatomic particle with a mass about 270 times that of an electron—and some sort of invisible particle. Or, the researchers in the KOTO experiment could have witnessed the production and decay of something completely unknown to physicists.
Researchers in Japan are conducting a special data run to confirm whether the previous observations were true detections of new particles or simply noise.
"If it's confirmed, it's very exciting because it's completely unexpected," Tobioka said. "It might be noise, but it might not be. In this case, expectation of noise is very low, so even one event or observation is very striking. And in this case there were four."
Okui and Tobioka's co-authors on this study were Teppei Kitahara and Yotam Soreg from the Israel Institute of Technology and Gilad Perez from the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel.



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Ultra-rare kaon decay could lead to evidence of new physics



[b]More information:[/b] Teppei Kitahara et al. New Physics Implications of Recent Search for KL→π0νν¯ at KOTO, Physical Review Letters (2020). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.071801
[b]Journal information:[/b] Physical Review Letters [/url]

Provided by 
Florida State University 

https://phys.org/news/2020-03-physics-su...ticle.html




"However, this work not only sheds light on how swimming microorganisms interact with passive particles, like nutrients or degraded plastic, but reveals more generally how randomness arises in an active non-equilibrium environment. This finding could help us to understand the behaviour of other systems that are driven away from equilibrium, which occur not only in physics and biology, but also in financial markets for example."
English botanist Robert Brown first described Brownian motion in 1827, when he observed the random movements displayed by pollen grains when added to water.
Decades later the famous physicist Albert Einstein developed the mathematical model to explain this behaviour, and in doing so proved the existence of atoms, laying the foundations for widespread applications in science and beyond.

MARCH 18, 2020
Mathematicians develop new theory to explain real-world randomness
[Image: randomness.jpg]Credit: CC0 Public Domain
Brownian motion describes the random movement of particles in fluids, however, this revolutionary model only works when a fluid is static, or at equilibrium.

In real-life environments, fluids often contain particles that move by themselves, such as tiny swimming microorganisms. These self-propelled swimmers can cause movement or stirring in the fluid, which drives it away from equilibrium.
Experiments have shown that non-moving 'passive' particles can exhibit strange, loopy motions when interacting with 'active' fluids containing swimmers. Such movements do not fit with the conventional particle behaviours described by Brownian motion and so far, scientists have struggled to explain how such large-scale chaotic movements result from microscopic interactions between individual particles.
Now researchers from Queen Mary University of London, Tsukuba University, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne and Imperial College London, have presented a novel theory to explain observed particle movements in these dynamic environments.
They suggest the new model could also help make predictions about real-life behaviours in biological systems, such as the foraging patterns of swimming algae or bacteria.
Dr. Adrian Baule, Senior Lecturer in Applied Mathematics at Queen Mary University of London, who managed the project, said: "Brownian motion is widely used to describe diffusion throughout physical, chemical and biological sciences; however it can't be used to describe the diffusion of particles in more active systems that we often observe in real life."
By explicitly solving the scattering dynamics between the passive particle and active swimmers in the fluid, the researchers were able to derive an effective model for particle motion in 'active' fluids, which accounts for all experimental observations.
Their extensive calculation reveals that the effective particle dynamics follow a so-called 'Lévy flight', which is widely used to describe 'extreme' movements in complex systems that are very far from typical behaviour, such as in ecological systems or earthquake dynamics.
Dr. Kiyoshi Kanazawa from the University of Tsukuba, and first author of the study, said: "So far there has been no explanation how Lévy flights can actually occur based on microscopic interactions that obey physical laws. Our results show that Lévy flights can arise as a consequence of the hydrodynamic interactions between the active swimmers and the passive particle, which is very surprising."
The team found that the density of active swimmers also affected the duration of the Lévy flight regime, suggesting that swimming microorganisms could exploit the Lévy flights of nutrients to determine the best foraging strategies for different environments.
Dr. Baule added: "Our results suggest optimal foraging strategies could depend on the density of particles within their environment. For example, at higher densities active searches by the forager could be a more successful approach, whereas at lower densities it might be advantageous for the forager to simply wait for a nutrient to come close as it is dragged by the other swimmers and explores larger regions of space.
"However, this work not only sheds light on how swimming microorganisms interact with passive particles, like nutrients or degraded plastic, but reveals more generally how randomness arises in an active non-equilibrium environment. This finding could help us to understand the behaviour of other systems that are driven away from equilibrium, which occur not only in physics and biology, but also in financial markets for example."
English botanist Robert Brown first described Brownian motion in 1827, when he observed the random movements displayed by pollen grains when added to water.
Decades later the famous physicist Albert Einstein developed the mathematical model to explain this behaviour, and in doing so proved the existence of atoms, laying the foundations for widespread applications in science and beyond.




Explore further
Swimming microbes steer themselves into mathematical order



[b]More information:[/b] 'Loopy Lévy flights enhance tracer diffusion in active suspensions.' K Kanazawa, T Sano, A Cairoli, and A Baule. NatureDOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2086-2 , http://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2086-2
[b]Journal information:[/b] Nature 

Provided by [url=https://phys.org/partners/queen-mary--university-of-london/]Queen Mary, University of London










Quote:[b]Vianova

Single neutron star merger supplied half the Solar System’s plutonium[/b]


https://arstechnica.com/science/2019/05/...plutonium/

MARCH 10, 2020
Team obtains the best measurement of neutron star size to date
[Image: neutronstarw.jpg]A typical neutron star with a radius of eleven kilometres is about as large as a medium-sized German city. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
An international research team led by members of the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute; AEI) has obtained new measurements of how big neutron stars are. To do so, they combined a general first-principles description of the unknown behavior of neutron star matter with multi-messenger observations of the binary neutron star merger GW170817. Their results, which appeared in Nature Astronomy today, are more stringent by a factor of two than previous limits and show that a typical neutron star has a radius close to 11 kilometers. They also find that neutron stars merging with black holes are in most cases likely to be swallowed whole, unless the black hole is small and/or rapidly rotating. This means that while such mergers might be observable as gravitational-wave sources, they would be invisible in the electromagnetic spectrum.



https://phys.org/news/2020-03-neutron-star-kilometers-radius.html

Magnetars are neutron stars endowed with the strongest magnetic fields observed in the universe, but their origin remains controversial.
MARCH 16, 2020

A new theory of magnetar formation

[Image: 10-.jpg]Figure 1: 3D snapshots of the magnetic field lines in the convective zone inside a newborn neutron star. Inward (outward) flows are represented by the blue (red) surfaces. Left: strong field dynamo discovered for fast rotation periods of a few milliseconds, where the dipole component reaches 1015 G. Right: for slower rotation, the magnetic field is up to ten times weaker. Credit: CEA Sacley
Magnetars are neutron stars endowed with the strongest magnetic fields observed in the universe, but their origin remains controversial. In a study published in Science Advances, a team of scientists from CEA, Saclay, the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics (MPA), and the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris developed a new and unprecedentedly detailed computer model that can explain the genesis of these gigantic fields through the amplification of pre-existing weak fields when rapidly rotating neutron stars are born in collapsing massive stars. The work opens new avenues to understand the most powerful and most luminous explosions of such stars.
https://phys.org/news/2020-03-theory-mag...ation.html



[Image: neutron.jpg]

Study identifies a transition in the strong nuclear force that illuminates the structure of a neutron star's core
Most ordinary matter is held together by an invisible subatomic glue known as the strong nuclear force—one of the four fundamental forces in nature, along with gravity, electromagnetism, and the weak force. The strong nuclear ...
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#7
PLUTONIUM EH?
WHAT IF THERE IS A 'MAGIC ANGLE' THAT WOULD STABILIZE MATTER VS ANTIMATTER 


"Physics has seven magic numbers: 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82 and 126. Atomic nuclei with these numbers of neutrons or protons are exceptionally stable. This stability makes them ideal for research purposes in general."

Scientists at ATLAS will be generating N = 126 nuclei to test a reigning theory of astrophysics—that the rapid capture of neutrons during the explosion and collapse of massive stars and the collision of neutron stars is responsible for the formation of about half the heavy elements
 from iron through uranium.


Quote:
Vianova

It gets even better.
It seems that nearly half the plutonium in the Solar System,
came from a single neutron star merger.
That is fascinating:
with such low numbers of neutron star mergers contributing to actinide abundance,
the variation from solar system to solar system must be huge.
Imagine, we could have ended up in a solar system with almost no uranium or plutonium.


"Physics has seven magic numbers: 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82 and 126. Atomic nuclei with these numbers of neutrons or protons are exceptionally stable. This stability makes them ideal for research purposes in general."

Scientists at ATLAS will be generating N = 126 nuclei to test a reigning theory of astrophysics—that the rapid capture of neutrons during the explosion and collapse of massive stars and the collision of neutron stars is responsible for the formation of about half the heavy elements from iron through uranium.

MARCH 6, 2020
Argonne's pioneering user facility to add magic number factory
by Joseph E. Harmon, Argonne National Laboratory
[Image: argonnespion.jpg]Credit: NASA images
One of the big questions in physics and chemistry is, how were the heavy elements from iron to uranium created? The Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory is being upgraded with new capabilities to help find the answer to that question and many others.

Of five DOE Office of Science user facilities at Argonne, ATLAS is the longest lived. "Inaugurated in 1978, ATLAS is ever changing and developing new technological advances and responding to emerging research opportunities," says ATLAS director Guy Savard. It is now being outfitted with an "N = 126 factory," scheduled to go online later this year. This new capability will soon be producing beams of heavy atomic nuclei consisting of 126 neutrons. This is made possible, in part, by the addition of a cooler-buncher that cools the beam and converts it from continuous to bunched.
For many decades, ATLAS has been a leading U.S. facility for nuclear structure research and is the world-leading facility in the provision of stable beams for nuclear structure and astrophysics research. ATLAS can accelerate beams ranging across the elements, from hydrogen to uranium, to high energies, then it smashes them into targets for studies of various nuclear structures.
Since its inception, ATLAS has brought together the world's leading scientists and engineers to solve some of the most complex scientific problems in nuclear physics and astrophysics. In particular, it has been instrumental in determining properties of atomic nuclei, the core of matter and the fuel of stars.
The forthcoming N = 126 factory will be generating beams of atomic nuclei with a "magic number" of neutrons, 126. As Savard explains, "Physics has seven magic numbers: 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82 and 126. Atomic nuclei with these numbers of neutrons or protons are exceptionally stable. This stability makes them ideal for research purposes in general."
Scientists at ATLAS will be generating N = 126 nuclei to test a reigning theory of astrophysics—that the rapid capture of neutrons during the explosion and collapse of massive stars and the collision of neutron stars is responsible for the formation of about half the heavy elements from iron through uranium.
The N = 126 factory will be accelerating a beam composed of a xenon isotope with 82 neutrons into a target composed of a platinum isotope with 120 neutrons. The resulting collisions will transfer neutrons from the xenon beam into a platinum target, yielding isotopes with 126 neutrons and close to that amount. The very heavy neutron-rich isotopes are directed to experimental stations for study.
"The planned studies at ATLAS will provide the first data on neutron-rich isotopes with around 126 neutrons and should play a critical role in understanding the formation of heavy elements, the last stage in the evolution of stars," said Savard. "These and other studies will keep ATLAS at the frontier of science."
The architects of the "N = 126 factory" include Savard, as well as Maxime Brodeur (University of Notre Dame), Adrian Valverde (joint appointment with University of Manitoba), Jason Clark (joint appointment with University of Manitoba), Daniel Lascar (Northwestern University) and Russell Knaack (Argonne's Physics division).
The authors recently published two papers on the subject in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, "The N = 126 Factory: A New Facility to Produce Very Heavy Neutron-Rich Isotopes" and "A Cooler-Buncher for the N = 126 Factory at Argonne National Laboratory."




Explore further
ISOLDE steps into unexplored region of the nuclear chart to study exotic isotopes



[b]More information:[/b] G. Savard et al, The N = 126 factory: A new facility to produce very heavy neutron-rich isotopes, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms (2019). DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2019.05.024

A.A. Valverde et al. A cooler-buncher for the N=126 factory at Argonne National Laboratory, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms (2019). DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2019.04.070

Provided by Argonne National Laboratory

https://phys.org/news/2020-03-argonne-us...ctory.html





MARCH 4, 2020
25 years on: A single top quark partners with the Z boson
[Image: 25yearsonasi.jpg]Figure 1: The neural network output (ONN) distribution for one of the signal regions. Data is shown in black. The simulated signal is shown in magenta. Backgrounds are shown in other colours. The high part of the ONN spectrum is dominated by signal events. Credit: ATLAS Collaboration/CERN
A quarter-century after its discovery, physicists at the ATLAS Experiment at CERN are gaining new insight into the heaviest-known particle, the top quark. The huge amount of data collected during Run 2 of the LHC (2015-2018) has allowed physicists to study rare production processes of the top quark in great detail, including its production in association with other heavy elementary particles.

In a new paper, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the observation of a single top quark produced in association with a Z boson (tZq) using the full Run-2 dataset, thereby confirming earlier results by ATLAS and CMS using smaller datasets. To achieve this new result, physicists studied over 20 billion collision events recorded by the ATLAS detector, looking for events with three isolated leptons (electrons or muons), a momentum imbalance in the plane perpendicular (transverse) to the proton beam, and two or three jets of hadrons originating from the fragmentation of quarks (with one jet originating from a b-quark). Only about 600 candidate events with such a signature were identified (i.e. the signal region) and, despite strict selection criteria, only about 120 of those are expected to come from the tZq production process.
To best separate their signal from background processes, ATLAS physicists trained an artificial neural network to identify tZq events using precisely simulated data. The neural network provided each event with a score (ONN) that represented how much it looked like the signal process. To check that the simulation fed to the neural network gave a good description of the real data, physicists looked at events with similar signatures (control regions) that are dominated by background processes. Various kinematic distributions of the 600 selected signal-region events were also checked.

[Image: 1-25yearsonasi.jpg]
Figure 2: Distribution of the reconstructed Z boson transverse momentum for events with a neural network output (ONN) > 0.4. Data is shown in black. The simulated signal is shown in magenta. Backgrounds are shown in other colours. Credit: ATLAS Collaboration/CERN
Researchers evaluated the neural network score in both signal (Figure 1) and control regions so that the background levels could be constrained using real data. The tZq signal was extracted and the rate of such events being produced in the given data sample (i.e. the cross-section) was computed. The uncertainty on the extracted cross-section is 14%. This is over a factor of two more precise than the previous ATLAS result, which was based on almost four times less data (from 2015 and 2016). The cross-section was found to be in agreement with the prediction from Standard Model, confirming that even the heaviest particles in the Standard Model still behave as point-like elementary particles.
Further, by selecting for events identified by the neural network as very likely to be tZq events (ONN > 0.4), ATLAS physicists could examine whether the kinematic distributions are well described by the Standard Model calculations. Figure 2 shows that this is indeed the case.
With the observation of the tZq production process now confirmed, ATLAS researchers can anticipate its study in even greater detail. Measurements of the cross-section as a function of kinematic variables will allow physicists to carefully probe the top quark's interactions with other particles. Will more data unveil some unexpected features? Look forward to seeing what Nature is hiding in the top world.




Explore further
Zooming in on top-quark production



[b]More information:[/b] Observation of the associated production of a top quark and a Z boson in proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector (arXiv: 2002.07546): arxiv.org/abs/2002.07546
Provided by ATLAS Experiment

https://phys.org/news/2020-03-years-quar...boson.html

Magic twist angles???



[Image: neutronstar.jpg]

Tracking down the mystery of matter
Researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI have measured a property of the neutron more precisely than ever before. In the process they found out that the elementary particle has a significantly smaller electric dipole ...




Nanophysics
MAR 11, 2020

Graphene is 200 times stronger than steel and can be as much as six times lighter. These characteristics alone make it a popular material in manufacturing. Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign recently ..






[Image: twisted2dmat.jpg]

Twisted 2-D material gives new insights into strongly correlated 1-D physics
Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) in Hamburg, the RWTH Aachen University (both in Germany) and the Flatiron institute in the U.S. have revealed that the possibilities ...



[Image: quantumresea.jpg]

Quantum researchers able to split one photon into three
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo report the first occurrence of directly splitting one photon into three.




[Image: darkmatter.jpg]

Scientists shed light on mystery of dark matter
Scientists have identified a sub-atomic particle that could have formed the "dark matter" in the Universe during the Big BaNG



[Image: gravity.jpg]

Witnessing the birth of baby universes 46 times: The link between gravity and soliton
Scientists have been attempting to come up with an equation to unify the micro and macro laws of the Universe; quantum mechanics and gravity. We are one step closer with a paper that demonstrates that this unification is ...
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#8
Magic angles: 

Quote:of course, with a small offset.

The matching masses of hypertritons and antihypertritons reaffirms the solid footing of a pillar of physics known as charge-parity-time, or CPT, symmetry. To visualize such symmetry, imagine taking the universe and swapping out all the particles with their antimatter opposites, flipping it in a mirror and running time backward. If you could do that, the universe would behave identically to its nonflipped version, physicists believe. If CPT symmetry were discovered not to hold, physicists would need to reconsider their theories of the universe.
Quote:WHAT ABOUT A SPECIAL EXAMPLE OF A MIRROR??? Arrow There is still symmetry in 3d
[Image: corner_reflectors.png]
To visualize such symmetry, imagine taking the universe and swapping out all the particles with their antimatter opposites, flipping it in a mirror and running time backward.
retroreflector, unlike a mirror, has the property that it always reflects a ray back in the direction from which it came. The specular property of a combination of mirrors can be used to make a corner reflector retroreflector, as shown in the figure. In cases where the incoming ray is constrained to a narrow range of angles, the corner reflector can be truncated into a triangular corner reflector, also shown in the figure. I once used such a triangular corner reflector in a radar rangefinder, since they can be made to work for any electromagnetic radiation, not just light.

[img=665x0]http://tikalon.com/blog/2014/corner_reflectors.png[/img]


A corner reflector (left) and a triangular corner reflector (right). The specular reflection property of mirrors guarantees that a beam will reflect back to the source; of course, with a small offset. (Modified versions of a Wikimedia Commons image.)




Even a weird hypernucleus confirms a fundamental symmetry of nature
A new study could also support the idea that exotic particles called hyperons lie at the centers of neutron stars


[Image: 030620_EC_hypertriton_Feat-1028x579.jpg]

Exotic atomic nuclei called hypernuclei, spotted with the STAR detector (central piece shown), have confirmed a symmetry between matter and antimatter. The result could also hint at the inner workings of neutron stars.

BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY/FLICKR (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

By Emily Conover
MARCH 9, 2020 AT 12:00 PM

An exotic version of an atomic nucleus is doing double duty. A study of the hypertriton simultaneously confirms a basic symmetry of nature and potentially reveals new insights into what lurks inside ultradense neutron stars. 
The hypertriton is a twin of the antihypertriton — the antimatter version of the nucleus. Both hypernuclei have the same mass, researchers with the STAR Collaboration report March 9 in [i]Nature Physics[/i]. 
A hypernucleus is an atomic nucleus in which a proton or neutron has been swapped out with a particle called a hyperon. Like protons and neutrons, hyperons are each made of three smaller particles called quarks. Whereas protons and neutrons contain common varieties known as up quarks and down quarks, hyperons are more unusual. They contain at least one quark of a type called a strange quark. 
The matching masses of hypertritons and antihypertritons reaffirms the solid footing of a pillar of physics known as charge-parity-time, or CPT, symmetry. To visualize such symmetry, imagine taking the universe and swapping out all the particles with their antimatter opposites, flipping it in a mirror and running time backward. If you could do that, the universe would behave identically to its nonflipped version, physicists believe. If CPT symmetry were discovered not to hold, physicists would need to reconsider their theories of the universe.
[Image: cta-module-sm@2x.jpg]
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So far, scientists have not found any hints of CPT symmetry violation ([i]SN: 2/19/20[/i]), but they’ve never before tested it in nuclei that contain strange quarks, so they couldn’t be sure it held there. “It is conceivable that a violation of this symmetry would have been hiding in this little corner of the universe and it would never have been discovered up to now,” says physicist Declan Keane of Kent State University in Ohio. But the equal masses of hypertritons and antihypertritons — found in experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, RHIC, at Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, N.Y. — means that CPT symmetry was upheld.
In collisions of gold nuclei at RHIC, Keane and colleagues identified the hypernuclei by looking for the particles produced when the hypernuclei decayed inside of the 1,200–metric ton STAR detector. In addition to confirming that CPT symmetry prevailed, the researchers determined how much energy would be needed to liberate the hyperon from the hypernucleus: about 0.4 million electron volts. Previous measurements — which are now decades old — suggested that amount, called binding energy, was significantly lower, with measurements mostly scattered below 0.2 million electron volts. (For comparison, the binding energy of a nucleus consisting of a proton and neutron is about 2.2 million electron volts.)
The new number could alter scientists’ understanding of neutron stars, remnants of exploded stars that cram a mass greater than the sun’s into a ball about as wide as the length of Manhattan. Neutron stars’ hearts are so dense that it’s impossible to re-create that matter in laboratory experiments, says Morgane Fortin of the Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw. So, “there is a big question mark what’s at the very center of neutron stars.”
Some scientists think the cores of neutron stars might contain hyperons ([i]SN: 12/1/17[/i]). But the presence of hyperons would soften the matter inside neutron stars. Softer neutron stars would more easily collapse into black holes, so neutron stars couldn’t become as massive. That feature makes hyperons’ potential presence difficult to reconcile with the largest neutron stars seen in the cosmos — which range up to about two solar masses.
But the newly measured, larger binding energy of the hyperon helps keep alive the idea of a hyperon-filled center to neutron stars. The result suggests that hyperons’ interactions with neutrons and protons are stronger than previously thought. That enhanced interaction means neutron stars with hyperons are stiffer and could reach higher masses, Fortin says. So neutron stars may still have strange hearts.


https://www.sciencenews.org/article/hype...-of-nature





MARCH 19, 2020
Chandra data tests 'theory of everything'
[Image: chandradatat.jpg]Credit: NASA/CXC/Univ. of Cambridge/C. Reynolds et al.
One of the biggest ideas in physics is the possibility that all known forces, particles, and interactions can be connected in one framework. String theory is arguably the best-known proposal for a "theory of everything" that would tie together our understanding of the physical universe.

Despite having many different versions of string theory circulating throughout the physics community for decades, there have been very few experimental tests. Astronomers using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, however, have now made a significant step forward in this area.
By searching through galaxy clusters, the largest structures in the universe held together by gravity, researchers were able to hunt for a specific particle that many models of string theory predict should exist. While the resulting non-detection does not rule out string theory altogether, it does deliver a blow to certain models within that family of ideas.
"Until recently I had no idea just how much X-ray astronomers bring to the table when it comes to string theory, but we could play a major role," said Christopher Reynolds of the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom, who led the study. "If these particles are eventually detected it would change physics forever."
The particle that Reynolds and his colleagues were searching for is called an "axion." These as-yet-undetected particles should have extraordinarily low masses. Scientists do not know the precise mass range, but many theories feature axion masses ranging from about a millionth of the mass of an electron down to zero mass. Some scientists think that axions could explain the mystery of dark matter, which accounts for the vast majority of matter in the universe.
One unusual property of these ultra-low-mass particles would be that they might sometimes convert into photons (that is, packets of light) as they pass through magnetic fields. The opposite may also hold true: photons may also be converted into axions under certain conditions. How often this switch occurs depends on how easily they make this conversion, in other words, on their "convertibility."
Some scientists have proposed the existence of a broader class of ultra-low-mass particles with similar properties to axions. Axions would have a single convertibility value at each mass, but "axion-like particles" would have a range of convertibility at the same mass.

"While it may sound like a long shot to look for tiny particles like axions in gigantic structures like galaxy clusters, they are actually great places to look," said co-author David Marsh of Stockholm University in Sweden. "Galaxy clusters contain magnetic fields over giant distances, and they also often contain bright X-ray sources. Together these properties enhance the chances that conversion of axion-like particles would be detectable."

To look for signs of conversion by axion-like particles, the team of astronomers examined over five days of Chandra observations of X-rays from material falling towards the supermassive black hole in the center of the Perseus galaxy cluster. They studied the Chandra spectrum, or the amount of X-ray emission observed at different energies, of this source. The long observation and the bright X-ray source gave a spectrum with enough sensitivity to have shown distortions that scientists expected if axion-like particles were present.
The lack of detection of such distortions allowed the researchers to rule out the presence of most types of axion-like particles in the mass range their observations were sensitive to, below about a millionth of a billionth of an electron's mass.
"Our research doesn't rule out the existence of these particles, but it definitely doesn't help their case," said co-author Helen Russell of the University of Nottingham in the UK. "These constraints dig into the range of properties suggested by string theory, and may help string theorists weed their theories."
The latest result was about three to four times more sensitive than the previous best search for axion-like particles, which came from Chandra observations of the supermassive black hole in M87. This Perseus study is also about a hundred times more powerful than current measurements that can be performed in laboratories here on Earth for the range of masses that they have considered.
Clearly, one possible interpretation of this work is that axion-like particles do not exist. Another explanation is that the particles have even lower convertibility values than this observation's detection limit, and lower than some particle physicists have expected. They also could have higher masses than probed with the Chandra data.
A paper describing these results appeared in the February 10th, 2020 issue of The Astrophysical Journal.





Explore further
Is dark matter made of axions? Black holes may reveal the answer




[b]More information:[/b] Christopher S. Reynolds et al. Astrophysical Limits on Very Light Axion-like Particles from Chandra Grating Spectroscopy of NGC 1275, The Astrophysical Journal (2020). DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab6a0c , On Arxiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/1907.05475]
[b]Journal information:[/b] Astrophysical Journal 

https://phys.org/news/2020-03-chandra-theory.html
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#9
Does Triality (if itz possible to exist) cause Duality?


Quote:Instantly ancient.

This idea anew.


If three or more objects move around each other, history cannot be reversed.


MARCH 23, 2020
Time symmetry and the laws of physics
[Image: physicslawsc.jpg]Two computer simulations of three black holes that influence each other. The red line is the simulation in which the computer goes back in time. The white line is the simulation where the computer moves forward in time. After 35 million years (situation on the left), there is still no deviation. The red line completely covers the white line. After 37 million years (middle), the orbits deviate slightly and the white line becomes visible. The time symmetry is broken because disturbances the size of the Planck length have an exponential effect. After 40 million years (right), the deviation is obvious. Credit: Astronomie.nl/Tjarda Boekholt
If three or more objects move around each other, history cannot be reversed. That is the conclusion of an international team of researchers based on computer simulations of three black holes orbiting each other. The researchers, led by the Dutch astronomer Tjarda Boekholt, publish their findings in the April issue of the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Most basic laws in physics have no problem with the direction in which they run. They are, as scientists call it, symmetric with respect to time, or time symmetric. In practice, however, everyone knows that time cannot simply be turned back. For example, a cup that falls into hundred pieces really does not fly back into your hand spontaneously and undamaged. Until now, scientists explained the lack of time symmetry by the statistical interaction between large numbers of particles. Three astronomers now show that only three particles are enough to break the time symmetry.
Tjarda Boekholt (University of Coimbra, Portugal), Simon Portegies Zwart (Leiden University) and Mauri Valtonen (University of Turku, Finland) calculated the orbits of three black holes that influence each other. This is done in two simulations. In the first simulation, the black holes start from rest. Then they move towards each other and past each other in complicated orbits. Finally one black hole leaves the company of the two others. The second simulation starts with the end situation of two black holes and the escaped third black hole and tries to turn back the time to the initial situation.
It turns out that time cannot be reversed in 5% of the calculations. Even if the computer uses more than a hundred decimal places. The last 5% is therefore not a question of better computers or smarter calculation methods, as previously thought.

[b]Planck length[/b]
The researchers explain the irreversibility using the concept of Planck length. This is a principle known in physics that applies to phenomena at the atomic level and smaller. Lead researcher Boekholt: "The movement of the three black holes can be so enormously chaotic that something as small as the Planck length will influence the movements. The disturbances the size of the Planck length have an exponential effect and break the time symmetry."
Co-author Portegies Zwart adds: "So not being able to turn back time is no longer just a statistical argument. It is already hidden in the basic laws of nature. Not a single system of three moving objects, big or small, planets or black holes, can escape the direction of time."




Explore further
New way to form close double black holes



[b]More information:[/b] T C N Boekholt et al. Gargantuan chaotic gravitational three-body systems and their irreversibility to the Planck length, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2020). DOI: 10.1093/mnras/staa452
[b]Journal information:[/b] Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society [/url]

Provided by 
Netherlands Research School for Astronomy



Quote:Triality?

Can matter and anti-matter recombine as trine?

A hybrid state of physicality.

unconventional superconductors

MARCH 23, 2020 FEATURE
Evidence for broken time-reversal symmetry in a topological superconductor

by Ingrid Fadelli , Phys.org
[Image: evidenceforb.jpg]A phase diagram of UPt3 indicating the three vortex phases (A, B, and C) for H II c. Credit: Avers et al.
Chiral superconductors are unconventional superconducting materials with distinctive topological properties, in which time-reversal symmetry is broken. Two of the first materials to be identified as chiral superconductors are UPtand Sr2RuO4. So far, experimental evidence for broken time-reversal symmetry in both these materials was based primarily on surface measurements collected at a magnetic field equal to zero.

Researchers at the University of Notre Dame and Northwestern University, however, recently set out to gather new evidence for the chiral superconductivity of the material UPt3, moving beyond surface measurements at conditions with a zero magnetic field. Their paper, published in Nature Physics, contains the results of truly bulk measurements of UPt3 with an applied magnetic field, which provide direct evidence of broken time-reversal symmetry in the material.
"The measurements we collected are the conclusion of a decade long-term collaboration between William Halperin at Northwestern University and myself, driven by previous (William Gannon) and current (Keenan Avers) graduate students," Morten Eskildsen, one of the researchers who carried out the study, told Nature Physics. "They are especially timely given that recent thermal conductivity and 17O Knight shift measurements call into question the earlier determination of odd parity pairing in Sr2RuO4."
Compared to Sr2RuO4, odd parity f-wave pairing is well established in UPt3. While in UPt3 the B phase is predicted to be a chiral ground state, evidence for BTRS has come, as mentioned above, from surface probe measurements with zero applied magnetic field.

[Image: 1-evidenceforb.jpg]
Vortex-lattice (VL) diffraction patterns. Credit: Avers et al
In their experiments, Eskildsen and his colleagues collected bulk measurements of UPt3 using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), a technique that enables the characterization of material structures at a mesoscopic scale. The specific measurement protocol they used, which entails a comparison between field reduction and field reversal measurements, was devised by James Sauls at Northwestern University, who co-authored the paper.

Vortices introduced in superconducting materials by applying a magnetic field can serve as sensitive probes of the superconducting state in the host material. In their study, Eskildsen and his colleagues used vortices to probe the superconducting state in ultraclean UPt3 crystals, specifically by applying SANS studies of the material's vortex lattice.
"Vortices allow measurements as a function of magnetic field strength and probe bulk superconducting properties, as opposed to surface properties," Eskildsen said. "Our measurements were collected at two of the leading neutron scattering facilities: Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee (US) and Institut Laue Langevin in Grenoble (France). "The measurements were made possible by a long-term effort at Northwestern University to produce single crystals of UPt3 with an unprecedented high quality."

[Image: 2-evidenceforb.jpg]
Graph showing the field dependence of the vortex-lattice (VL) configuration. Credit: Avers et al.
The recent study by Eskildsen and his colleagues offers the first direct evidence of BTRS in the material UPtbased on bulk measurements, ultimately demonstrating an internal degree of freedom in its superconductivity (i.e. the ability to obtain different vortex lattice splitting depending on the field history). In addition to confirming the BTRS of UPt3, these findings could encourage other research teams to use similar measurement techniques to study other unconventional superconductors.
"We do not currently have further plans for this material, but the kind of measurement protocols could be used in small-angle neutron scattering studies of other superconductors that might break time reversal symmetry," Eskildsen said.




Explore further
Observation of non-trivial superconductivity on surface of type II Weyl semimetal



[b]More information:[/b] K. E. Avers et al. Broken time-reversal symmetry in the topological superconductor UPt3Nature Physics (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41567-020-0822-z

E. Hassinger et al. Vertical Line Nodes in the Superconducting Gap Structure of Sr2RuO4Physical Review X (2017). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.7.011032
A. Pustogow et al. Constraints on the superconducting order parameter in Sr2RuO4 from oxygen-17 nuclear magnetic resonance, Nature (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1596-2
[b]Journal information:[/b] Nature Physics  Physical Review X  Nature




Hmmm another article. 

Posted by EA - 3 minutes ago
Does Triality (if itz possible to exist) cause Duality?

Quote: Wrote:Instantly ancient.
This idea anew.
If three or more objects move around each other, history cannot be reversed.
MARCH 23, 2020
Time symmetry and the laws of physics
by Netherlands Research School for Astronomy
[Image: physicslawsc.jpg]Two computer simulations of three black holes that influence each other. The red line is the simulation in which the computer goes back in time. The white line is the simulation where the computer moves forward in time. After 35 million years (situation on the left), there is still no deviation. The red line completely covers the white line. After 37 million years (middle), the orbits deviate slightly and the white line becomes visible. The time symmetry is broken because disturbances the size of the Planck length have an exponential effect. After 40 million years (right), the deviation is obvious. Credit: Astronomie.nl/Tjarda Boekholt
If three or more objects move around each other, history cannot be reversed. That is the conclusion of an international team of researchers based on computer simulations of three black holes orbiting each other. The researchers, led by the Dutch astronomer Tjarda Boekholt, publish their findings in the April issue of the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.  https://phys.org/news/2020-03-symmetry-l...ysics.html



If three or more objects move around each other, history cannot be reversed.
 
Eye Wander  how  irreverseable history now is?Arrow

Note that one object interacts as a seperate entity that always ejects a pair of twinned objects.

Now read the next article in view of a tri-particle mealstrom...lol.
"The biggest stars live a short time and very quickly evolve into stellar black holes, as large as several scores of solar masses; they are small, but many form in these galaxies." The dense gas that surrounds them, explain Boco and Lapi, has a very powerful definitive effect of dynamic friction and causes them to migrate very quickly to the centre of the galaxy. The majority of the numerous black holes that reach the central regions merge, creating the supermassive black hole seed.
MARCH 23, 2020
Supermassive black holes shortly after the Big Bang: How to seed them
[Image: supermassive.jpg]According to classical theories, these space giants would not have had the time to develop in the young Universe. Yet, observations say they were already present. A new study by SISSA proposes a response to the fascinating question Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
They are billions of times larger than our Sun: how is it possible that, as recently observed, supermassive black holes were already present when the Universe, now 14 billion years old, was "just" 800 million years old? For astrophysicists, the formation of these cosmic monsters in such a short time is a real scientific headache, which raises important questions on the current knowledge of the development of these celestial bodies.

A recent article published in The Astrophysical Journal, by the SISSA Ph.D. student Lumen Boco and his supervisor Andrea Lapi, offers a possible explanation to the thorny issue. Thanks to an original model theorized by the scientists from Trieste, the study proposes a very fast formation process in the initial phases of the development of supermassive black holes, those up to now considered slower. Proving, mathematically, that their existence was possible in the young Universe, the results of the research reconcile the timing required for their growth with the limits imposed by the age of the Cosmos. The theory can be fully validated thanks to future gravitational wave detectors namely the Einstein Telescope and LISA, but tested in several basic aspects also with the current Advanced LIGO/Virgo system.
[b]The cosmic monster that grows at the centre of galaxies[/b]
The scientists started their study with a piece of well-known observational evidence: the growth of supermassive black holes occurs in the central regions of galaxies, progenitors of the current elliptical galaxies, which had a very high gas content and in which the stellar formation was extremely intense. "The biggest stars live a short time and very quickly evolve into stellar black holes, as large as several scores of solar masses; they are small, but many form in these galaxies." The dense gas that surrounds them, explain Boco and Lapi, has a very powerful definitive effect of dynamic friction and causes them to migrate very quickly to the centre of the galaxy. The majority of the numerous black holes that reach the central regions merge, creating the supermassive black hole seed.
Boco and Lapi continue: "According to classical theories, a supermassive black hole grows at the centre of a galaxy capturing the surrounding matter, principally gas, "growing it" on itself and finally devouring it at a rhythm which is proportional to its mass. For this reason, during the initial phases of its development, when the mass of the black hole is small, the growth is very slow. To the extent that, according to the calculations, to reach the mass observed, billions of times that of the Sun, a very long time would be required, even greater than the age of the young Universe." Their study, however, showed that things could go much faster than that.

[b]The crazy dash of black holes: What the scientists have discovered[/b]
"Our numerical calculations show that the process of dynamic migration and fusion of stellar black holes can make the supermassive black hole seed reach a mass of between 10,000 and 100,000 times that of the Sun in just 50-100 million years." At this point, the researchers say, "the growth of the central black hole according to the aforementioned direct accretion of gas, envisaged by the standard theory, will become very fast, because the quantity of gas it will succeed in attracting and absorbing will become immense, and predominant on the process we propose. Nevertheless, precisely the fact of starting from such a big seed as envisaged by our mechanism speeds up the global growth of the supermassive black hole and allows its formation, also in the Young Universe. In short, in light of this theory, we can state that 800 million years after the Big Bang, supermassive black holes could already populate the Cosmos."
[b]"Looking" at the supermassive black hole seeds grow[/b]
The article, besides illustrating the model and demonstrating its efficacy, also proposes a method for testing it: "The fusion of numerous stellar black holes with the seed of the supermassive black hole at the centre will produce gravitational waves which we expect to see and study with current and future detectors," explain the researchers. In particular, the gravitational waves emitted in the initial phases, when the central black hole seed is still small, will be identifiable by the current detectors like Advanced LIGO/Virgo and fully characterisable by the future Einstein Telescope. The subsequent development phases of the supermassive black hole could be investigated thanks to the future detector LISA, which will be launched in space around 2034. In this way, explain Boco and Lapi, "the process we propose can be validated in its different phases, in a complementary way, by future gravitational wave detectors."
"This research" concludes Andrea Lapi, coordinator of the Astrophysics and Cosmology group of SISSA, "shows how the students and researchers of our group are fully approaching the new frontier of gravitational waves and multi-messenger astronomy. In particular, our main goal will be to develop theoretical models, like that devised in this case, which serve to capitalise on the information originating from the experiments of current and future gravitational waves, thereby hopefully providing solutions for unresolved issues connected with astrophysics, cosmology and fundamental physics."




Explore further
Supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy may have a friend



[b]More information:[/b] L. Boco et al, Growth of Supermassive Black Hole Seeds in ETG Star-forming Progenitors: Multiple Merging of Stellar Compact Remnants via Gaseous Dynamical Friction and Gravitational-wave Emission, The Astrophysical Journal (2020). DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab7446
[b]Journal information:[/b] Astrophysical Journal 

Provided by [url=https://phys.org/partners/international-school-of-advanced-studies--sissa-/]International School of Advanced Studies (SISSA) 





Quote:I just thought this subject up after a beer and a toke on a lark of a joke.
fun-da-mental physics LilD
For astrophysicists, the formation of these cosmic monsters in such a short time is a real scientific headache, which raises important questions on the current knowledge of the development of these celestial bodies.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#10
Quote: Wrote:I just thought this subject up after a beer and a toke on a lark of a joke.
fun-da-mental physics [Image: lilD.gif]


Quote:Moving forward, the NUS team is endeavouring to develop efficient circuits that mimics functions of the human brain.
eye endeavour to never end ever the quest for gnosis.




the singularity and the planck length.
they still must vector to an ideological x,y,z. coordinate system irregardless of nano-scale.

      so when the universe was possibly a single nano-point my point is that even in the macrocosm things in the relative microcosm of the nano now knows:
      that scale might be a sign superimposed like on a snake a sang song or just plain ol' all ma'at @ that.

If there is X,Y,Z< why is there only duality?
[Image: corner_reflectors.png]
Symmetry when in mirror form is chiral yet when a retro-reflector with three facets instead of one is assumed Can "TIME" be reflected???refracted???


On the scale of things and all things being equal a nano-surface today is no bigger than our initial size before the big bang.

and symmetry breaks again...   so whatz up with that?





Arrow

MARCH 24, 2020
Scientists invent symmetry-breaking for the first time in a nanoscale device that can mimic human brain
[Image: 1-nusscientist.jpg]Professor Venkatesan (left) discussing the charge disproportionation mechanism with Dr Sreetosh Goswami (right). Credit: National University of Singapore
Over the last decade, artificial intelligence (AI) and its applications such as machine learning have gained pace to revolutionize many industries. As the world gathers more data, the computing power of hardware systems needs to grow in tandem. Unfortunately, we are facing a future where we will not be able to generate enough energy to power our computational needs.

"We hear a lot of predictions about AI ushering in the fourth industrial revolution. It is important for us to understand that the computing platforms of today will not be able to sustain at-scale implementations of AI doink-head on massive datasets. It is clear that we will have to rethink our approaches to computation on all levels: materials, devices and architecture. We are proud to present an update on two fronts in this work: materials and devices. Fundamentally, the devices we are demonstrating are a million times more power efficient than what exists today," shared Professor Thirumalai Venky Venkatesan, the lead Principal Investigator of this project who is from the National University of Singapore (NUS).
In a paper published in Nature Nanotechnology on 23 March 2020, the researchers from the NUS Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative (NUSNNI) reported the invention of a nanoscale device based on a unique material platform that can achieve optimal digital in-memory computing while being extremely energy efficient. The invention is also highly reproducable and durable, unlike conventional organic electronic devices.
The molecular system that is key to this invention is a brainchild of Professor Sreebrata Goswami of the Indian Association for Cultivation of Science in Kolkata, India. "We have been working on this family of molecules of redox active ligands over the last 40 years. Based on the success with one of our molecular systems in making a memory device that was reported in the journal Nature Materials in 2017, we decided to redesign our molecule with a new pincer ligand. This is a rational de novo design strategy to engineer a molecule that can act as an electron sponge," said Professor Goswami.
Dr. Sreetosh Goswami, the key architect of this paper who used to be a graduate student of Professor Venkatesan and now a research fellow at NUSNNI, said, "The main finding of this paper is charge disproportionation or electronic symmetry breaking. Traditionally, this has been one of those phenomena in physics which holds great promise but fails to translate to the real world as it only occurs at specific conditions, such as high or low temperature, or high pressure."

"We are able to achieve this elusive charge disproportionation in our devices, and modulate it using electric fields at room temperature. Physicists have been trying to do the same for 50 years. Our ability to realise this phenomenon in nano-scale results in a multifunctional device that can operate both as a memristor or a memcapacitor or even both concomitantly," Dr. Sreetosh explained.
"The complex intermolecular and ionic interactions in these molecular systems offer this unique charge disproportionation mechanism. We are thankful to Professor Damien Thompson at the University of Limerick who modelled the interactions between the molecules and generated insights that allow us to tweak these molecular systems in many ways to further engineer new functionalities," said Prof Goswami.
"We believe we are only scratching the surface of what is possible with this class of materials," added Professor Venkatesan. "Recently, Dr. Sreetosh has discovered that he can drive these devices to self-oscillate or even exhibit purely unstable, chaotic regime. This is very close to replicating how our human brain functions."
"Computer scientists now recognise that our brain is the most energy efficient, intelligent and fault-tolerant computing system in existence. Being able to emulate the brain's best properties while running millions of times faster will change the face of computing as we know it. In discussions with my longtime friend and collaborator Professor Stan Williams from Texas A&M University (who is a co-author in this paper), I realise that our organic molecular system might eventually be able to outperform all the oxide and 'ovonic' materials demonstrated to date," he concluded.
Moving forward, the NUS team is endeavouring to develop efficient circuits that mimics functions of the human brain.




Explore further
Researchers discover unusual 'quasiparticle' in common 2-D material



[b]More information:[/b] Sreetosh Goswami et al. Charge disproportionate molecular redox for discrete memristive and memcapacitive switching, Nature Nanotechnology (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41565-020-0653-1
[b]Journal information:[/b] Nature Nanotechnology  Nature Materials

https://phys.org/news/2020-03-scientists...mimic.html



Beer Reefer
speaking of mimicking the human brain eye hope this thread mimics a beer and a toke on a lark of a joke to the algo-rythmic A.I. that has to read this itza.
recall:
Quote: Wrote:Triality?

Can matter and anti-matter recombine as trine?

A hybrid state of physicality.

unconventional superconductors
 
MARCH 23, 2020 FEATURE
Evidence for broken time-reversal symmetry in a topological superconductor

 unconventional superconductors manifest.Arrow https://phys.org/news/2020-03-scientists...rites.html
MARCH 24, 2020
Scientists observe superconductivity in meteorites
[Image: 5-scientistsob.jpg]Artistic rendition of a piece of the Mundrabilla meteorite over a protoplanetary nebula; Mundrabilla over Galaxy 4. Credit: James Wampler, UC San Diego (Lens flare from: https://shutr.bz/3bpa4LV; Galactic disc from L. Calcada/ESO: https://bit.ly/2Uv6vNt https://bit.ly/2QGjzyC; Chunk of Mundrabilla, image by James Wampler
Scientists at UC San Diego and Brookhaven Laboratory in New York went searching for superconducting materials where researchers have had little luck before. Setting their sights on a diverse population of meteorites, they investigated the 15 pieces of comets and asteroids to find "Mundrabilla" and "GRA 95205"—two meteorites with superconductive grains.

While meteorites—due to their extreme origins in space—present researchers with a wide variety of material phases from the oldest states of the solar system, they also present detection challenges because of the potentially minute measurability of the phases. The research team overcame this challenge using an ultrasensitive measurement technique called magnetic field modulated microwave spectroscopy (MFMMS). Details of their work are published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).
In their paper, UC San Diego researchers Mark Thiemens, Ivan Schuller and James Wampler, along with Brookhaven Lab's Shaobo Cheng and Yimei Zhu, characterize the meteorites' phases as alloys of lead, tin and indium (the softest non-alkali metal). They say their findings could impact the understanding of several astronomical environments, noting that superconducting particles in cold environments could affect planet formation, shape and origin of magnetic fields, dynamo effects, motion of charged particles and more.
"Naturally occurring superconductive materials are unusual, but they are particularly significant because these materials could be superconducting in extraterrestrial environments," said Wampler, a postdoctoral researcher in the Schuller Nanoscience Group and the paper's first author.

[Image: 6-scientistsob.jpg]
Superconductive grains were found in this piece of the Mundrabilla meteorite, the first identification of extraterrestrial superconductive grains. Credit: James Wampler
Schuller, a distinguished professor in the Department of Physics with expertise in superconductivity and neuromorphic computing, guided the methodological techniques of the study. After mitigating the detection challenge with MFMMS, the researchers subdivided and measured individual samples, enabling them to isolate the grains containing the largest superconductivity fraction. Next, the team characterized the grains with a series of scientific techniques including vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and numerical methods.
"These measurements and analysis identified the likely phases as alloys of lead, indium and tin," said Wampler.
According to Thiemens, a distinguished professor of chemistry and biochemistry, meteorites with extreme formation conditions are ideal for observing exotic chemical species, such as superconductors—materials that conduct electricity or transport electrons without resistance. He noted, however, the uniqueness of superconductive materials occurring in these extraterrestrial [minor] planets.

"My part of the project was to determine which of the tens of thousands of meteorites of many classes was a good candidate and to discuss the relevance for planetary processes; one from the iron nickel core of a planet, the other from the more surficial part that has been heavily bombarded and was among the first meteorites where diamonds were observed," said Thiemens.

[Image: 7-scientistsob.jpg]
MFMMS data shows superconductivity in Mundrabilla meteorite grains at 5K. Credit: James Wampler
According to the cosmological chemist, who has a meteorite named after him—Asteroid 7004Markthiemens—Mundrabilla is an iron-sulfide-rich meteorite from a class formed after melting in asteroidal cores and cooling very slowly. GRA 95205, on the other hand, is a ureilite meteorite—a rare stony-like piece with unique mineral makeup—that underwent heavy shocks during its formation.
According to Schuller, superconductivity in natural samples is extremely unusual.
"Naturally collected materials are not phase-pure materials. Even the simplest superconducting mineral, lead, is only rarely found in its native form," Schuller explained.
The researchers agreed that they knew of only one prior report of natural superconductivity, in the mineral covellite; however, because the superconducting phases they report in the PNAS article exists in two such dissimilar meteorites, it likely exists in other meteorites.




Explore further
Meteorites lend clues to solar system's origin



[b]More information:[/b] James Wampler et al. Superconductivity found in meteorites, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2020). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1918056117
[b]Journal information:[/b] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences


unconventional superconductors
https://phys.org/news/2020-03-scientists...rites.html

recall:

Quote:The tiny, wormlike creature, named Ikaria wariootia, is the earliest bilaterian, or organism with a front and back, two symmetrical sides, and openings at either end connected by a gut. The paper is published today in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The earliest multicellular organisms, such as sponges and algal mats, had variable shapes. Collectively known as the Ediacaran Biota, this group contains the oldest fossils of complex, multicellular organisms.


Just like the body of evidence RE: On the matter of MATTER Vs. ANTI-MATTER may have or may still be variable...
The advent of chiral Symmetry as a body of evidence on triality. Arrow

The development of bilateral symmetry was a critical step in the evolution of animal life, giving organisms the ability to move purposefully and a common, yet successful way to organize their bodies. A multitude of animals, from worms to insects to dinosaurs to humans, are organized around this same basic bilaterian body plan.

Evolutionary biologists studying the genetics of modern animals predicted the oldest ancestor of all bilaterians would have been simple and small, with rudimentary sensory organs. Preserving and identifying the fossilized remains of such an animal was thought to be difficult, if not impossible.


MARCH 23, 2020
Ancestor of all animals identified in Australian fossils
[Image: ancestorofal.jpg]Artist's rendering of Ikaria wariootia. Credit: Sohail Wasif/UCR
A team led by UC Riverside geologists has discovered the first ancestor on the family tree that contains most familiar animals today, including humans.

The tiny, wormlike creature, named Ikaria wariootia, is the earliest bilaterian, or organism with a front and back, two symmetrical sides, and openings at either end connected by a gut. The paper is published today in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
The earliest multicellular organisms, such as sponges and algal mats, had variable shapes. Collectively known as the Ediacaran Biota, this group contains the oldest fossils of complex, multicellular organisms. However, most of these are not directly related to animals around today, including lily pad-shaped creatures known as Dickinsonia that lack basic features of most animals, such as a mouth or gut.
The development of bilateral symmetry was a critical step in the evolution of animal life, giving organisms the ability to move purposefully and a common, yet successful way to organize their bodies. A multitude of animals, from worms to insects to dinosaurs to humans, are organized around this same basic bilaterian body plan.
Evolutionary biologists studying the genetics of modern animals predicted the oldest ancestor of all bilaterians would have been simple and small, with rudimentary sensory organs. Preserving and identifying the fossilized remains of such an animal was thought to be difficult, if not impossible.

[Image: 2-ancestorofal.jpg]
A 3D laser scan that showing the regular, consistent shape of a cylindrical body with a distinct head and tail and faintly grooved musculature. Credit: Droser Lab/UCR
For 15 years, scientists agreed that fossilized burrows found in 555 million-year-old Ediacaran Period deposits in Nilpena, South Australia, were made by bilaterians. But there was no sign of the creature that made the burrows, leaving scientists with nothing but speculation.
Scott Evans, a recent doctoral graduate from UC Riverside; and Mary Droser, a professor of geology, noticed miniscule, oval impressions near some of these burrows. With funding from a NASA exobiology grant, they used a three-dimensional laser scanner that revealed the regular, consistent shape of a cylindrical body with a distinct head and tail and faintly grooved musculature. The animal ranged between 2-7 millimeters long and about 1-2.5 millimeters wide, with the largest the size and shape of a grain of rice—just the right size to have made the burrows.

"We thought these animals should have existed during this interval, but always understood they would be difficult to recognize," Evans said. "Once we had the 3-D scans, we knew that we had made an important discovery."
The researchers, who include Ian Hughes of UC San Diego and James Gehling of the South Australia Museum, describe Ikaria wariootia, named to acknowledge the original custodians of the land. The genus name comes from Ikara, which means "meeting place" in the Adnyamathanha language. It's the Adnyamathanha name for a grouping of mountains known in English as Wilpena Pound. The species name comes from Warioota Creek, which runs from the Flinders Ranges to Nilpena Station.

[Image: 1-ancestorofal.jpg]
Ikaria wariootia impressions in stone. Credit: Droser Lab/UCR
"Burrows of Ikaria occur lower than anything else. It's the oldest fossil we get with this type of complexity," Droser said. "Dickinsonia and other big things were probably evolutionary dead ends. We knew that we also had lots of little things and thought these might have been the early bilaterians that we were looking for."
In spite of its relatively simple shape, Ikaria was complex compared to other fossils from this period. It burrowed in thin layers of well-oxygenated sand on the ocean floor in search of organic matter, indicating rudimentary sensory abilities. The depth and curvature of Ikaria represent clearly distinct front and rear ends, supporting the directed movement found in the burrows.
The burrows also preserve crosswise, "V"-shaped ridges, suggesting Ikaria moved by contracting muscles across its body like a worm, known as peristaltic locomotion. Evidence of sediment displacement in the burrows and signs the organism fed on buried organic matter reveal Ikaria probably had a mouth, anus, and gut.
"This is what evolutionary biologists predicted," Droser said. "It's really exciting that what we have found lines up so neatly with their prediction."




Explore further
Study sheds light on Earth's first animals



[b]More information:[/b] Scott D. Evans el al., "Discovery of the oldest bilaterian from the Ediacaran of South Australia," PNAS (2020). www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.2001045117
[b]Journal information:[/b] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [/url]

Provided by [url=https://phys.org/partners/university-of-california---riverside/]University of California - Riverside

https://phys.org/news/2020-03-ancestor-a...ssils.html


Variable is as improv was.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#11
non-local yokels?


Quote:The common feature of all these effects is the contact of particles at one point in space, which follows the simple intuition of interaction (for example, in particle theory, this comes down to interaction vertices). Hence the belief that the consequences of symmetrization can only be observed in this way. However, interaction by its very nature causes entanglement. Therefore, it is unclear what causes the observed effects and non-classical correlations: Is it an interaction in itself, or is it the inherent indistinguishability of particles?





MARCH 25, 2020
Is nonlocality inherent in all identical particles in the universe?
[Image: entanglement.jpg]Identity of particles entails their entanglement, which can also be observed in pure form without interaction. Credit: Shutter2U/Vecteezy
What is interaction, and when does it occur? Intuition suggests that the necessary condition for the interaction of independently created particles is their direct touch or contact through physical force carriers. In quantum mechanics, the result of the interaction is entanglement—the appearance of non-classical correlations in the system. It seems that quantum theory allows entanglement of independent particles without any contact. The fundamental identity of particles of the same kind is responsible for this phenomenon.

Quantum mechanics is currently the best and most accurate theory used by physicists to describe the world around us. Its characteristic feature, however, is the abstract mathematical language of quantum mechanics, notoriously leading to serious interpretational problems. The view of reality proposed by this theory is still a subject of scientific dispute that, over time, is only becoming hotter and more interesting. New research motivation and intriguing questions are brought forth by a fresh perspective resulting from the standpoint of quantum information and the enormous progress of experimental techniques. These allow verification of the conclusions drawn from subtle thought experiments directly related to the problem of interpretation. Moreover, researchers are now making enormous progress in the field of quantum communication and quantum computer technology, which significantly draws on non-classical resources offered by quantum mechanics.
Pawel Blasiak from the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Krakow and Marcin Markiewicz from the University of Gdansk focus on analyzing widely accepted paradigms and theoretical concepts regarding the basics and interpretation of quantum mechanics. The researchers are trying to determine to what extent the intuitions used to describe quantum mechanical processes are justified in a realistic view of the world. For this purpose, they try to clarify specific theoretical ideas, often functioning in the form of vague intuitions, using the language of mathematics. This approach often results in the appearance of inspiring paradoxes. Of course, the more basic the concept to which a given paradox relates, the better, because it opens up new doors to deeper understanding a given problem.
In this spirit, both scientists considered the fundamental question: What is interaction, and when does it occur? In quantum mechanics, the result of interaction is entanglement, which is the appearance of non-classical correlations in the system. Imagine two particles created independently in distant galaxies. It would seem that a necessary condition for the emergence of entanglement is the requirement that at some point in their evolution, the particles touch one another, or at least that indirect contact should take place through another particle or physical field to convey the interaction. How else can they establish the mysterious bond of quantum entanglement? Paradoxically, however, it turns out that this is possible. Quantum mechanics allows entanglement to occur without the need for any contact, even indirect.

To justify such a surprising conclusion requires a scheme in which the particles show non-local correlations at a distance (in a Bell-type experiment). The subtlety of this approach is to exclude the possibility of an interaction understood as some form of contact along the way. Such a scheme should also be economical, so it must exclude the presence of force carriers that could mediate this interaction, including a physical field or intermediate particles. Blasiak and Markiewicz showed how this can be done by starting from the original considerations of Yurke and Stoler, which they reinterpreted as a permutation of paths traversed by the particles from different sources. This new perspective allows the generation of any entangled states of two and three particles, avoiding any contact. The proposed approach can easily be extended to more particles.
How is it possible to entangle independent particles at a distance without their interaction? One hint is suggested by quantum mechanics itself, in which the identity—the fundamental indistinguishability of all particles of the same kind—is postulated. This means, for example, that all photons (as well as other families of elementary particles) in the entire universe are the same, regardless of their distance. From a formal perspective, this boils down to symmetrization of the wave function for bosons or its antisymmetrization for fermions.
Effects of particle identity are usually associated with their statistics having consequences for a description of interacting multi-particle systems (such as Bose-Einstein condensates or solid-state band theory). In the case of simpler systems, the direct result of particle identity is the Pauli exclusion principle for fermions or bunching in quantum optics for bosons. The common feature of all these effects is the contact of particles at one point in space, which follows the simple intuition of interaction (for example, in particle theory, this comes down to interaction vertices). Hence the belief that the consequences of symmetrization can only be observed in this way. However, interaction by its very nature causes entanglement. Therefore, it is unclear what causes the observed effects and non-classical correlations: Is it an interaction in itself, or is it the inherent indistinguishability of particles? The scheme proposed by the scientists bypasses this difficulty, eliminating interaction that could occur through any contact. Hence, the conclusion that non-classical correlations are a direct consequence of the postulate of particle identity. It follows that a way exists for purely activating entanglement from their fundamental indistinguishability.
This type of view, starting from questions about the basics of quantum mechanics, can be practically applied to generate entangled states for quantum technologies. The article shows how to create any entangled state of two and three qubits, and these ideas are already implemented experimentally. It seems that the considered schemes can be successfully extended to create any entangled many-particle states. As part of further research, the scientists intend to analyze in detail the postulate of identical particles, both from the standpoint of theoretical interpretation and practical applications.
Surprisingly, the postulate of the indistinguishability of particles is not only a formal mathematical procedure, but in its pure form, leads to the consequences observed in laboratories. Is nonlocality inherent in all identical particles in the universe? The photon emitted by the monitor screen and the photon from the distant galaxy at the depths of the universe seem to be entangled only by their identical nature. This is a great mystery that science will soon confront.




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[b]More information:[/b] Pawel Blasiak et al, Entangling three qubits without ever touching, Scientific Reports (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-55137-3
[b]Journal information:[/b] Scientific Reports
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