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by Joel B. Pollak
1 Jan 2018

Recreational use of marijuana is officially legal in the State of California as of New Year’s Day — provided that consumers can find someone to sell it to them at licensed dispensaries, which are still in short supply.

On January 1, Proposition 64, which passed in November 2016, takes effect. But as Southern California Public Radio’s KPCC reports, only 88 dispensaries are licensed to sell marijuana across the state, with state and local authorities still struggling to refine regulations.

“[T]he Bureau of Cannabis Control will continue working through the weekend to process as many licenses as possible and will even issue licenses on New Year’s Day,” KPCC notes.

California already has a network of medical marijuana dispensaries, the legacy of an earlier wave of legalization, when the state was a pioneer. Today, the state lags behind others, which have already legalized the drug for recreational use. Governor Jerry Brown, whose views are far left on many issues, has long been skeptical of legalization. However, Lt. Gov. Gavin Newsom, currently leading polls to succeed Brown after the elections later this year, is a proponent of legal marijuana.

Those retailers who are able to open their doors are planning to celebrate legalization on Jan. 1. For example, the Los Angeles Times notes: “The KindPeoples Collective in Santa Cruz plans to give out T-shirts to the first 420 people who show up to buy weed Monday.”

Other dispensaries have been adding staff, while entrepreneurs have been developing new products for the legalized retail market. In San Francisco, according to Bay Area public radio station KQED, foodies have already been experimenting with marijuana-infused dinners.
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
It's all down hill for Trump from here to the trash can.
The Teflon Naploeon is going to take a steep slide fast.
Clinton had better inhale on his and her next tokes.
Fuck Jeff Sessions and Donald Trump,
and their reversal of the marijuana laws.
Everybody thinks that there will be no enforcement actions.
I, on the other hand, am moving fast to stash up a deeply staisfying supply.
No less than a quarter elbow .
Replace an oz. when one gets smoked. 
It's expensive.

I updated the image ... Reefer

[Image: ebMx2vc.jpg]

[Image: BhH4vtn.jpg]

keep your kids away from those goddam I-Phones


That's the kneejerk reaction to what seems to be
a 2-pronged strategy to deal with the issue...

Trump knows what most people think about pot
and that there's no way he's going to pull the plug on the states,
but since he has given his generals command
he's going to let Sessions take the heat,
thereby allowing Trump to ride in and cut the Gordian Knot...
...thus...saving the day......and hailed as hero.
I agree with you KA
Trump has wanted Sessions gone for Months because of lack of action on Hillary
now he will have Support to Fire Sessions in the Congress and Senate
Sessions is Toast .
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
Also...from what I've been reading,
Sessions has passed down the line
to US Attorneys in legal states the authority
to do as they see fit...and face the reaction.
FOX News hit bottom with this issue.
Laura Ingraham basically called all marijuana users stupid and worthless and brain dead.
Hannity wasn't quite as bad, 
but FOX is no different than CNN, and actually worse at this point with the way Ingraham,
handled the situation. 
Most viewers ripped her a new asshole on her commentary. 
I will never watch FOX again, and I watch CNN to keep track of the CNN Clowns and their agenda.
CNN never had any credibility, and FOX just lost all theirs,
and as far as I am concerned Trump has run out of credibility,
and he can take a long hike on a short Manhattan pier.

Sessions is a pimp for the prison for profit industry that he is so invested in.
Draining the swamp now needs to include Trump as far as I am concerned.
Swamp ratting with anti tank weapons transfer to Ukraine .. etc ...etc
It will be interesting to see what happens with NK.
In the meantime,
if you think that fed prosecutors in each state won't Big Dick their authority on the pot farms and sales outlets,
I would say that is being highly optomistic.
I will stock up regardless.
Surveillance of buyers has been going on for months.
Each shop also has camera surveillance all day, 
and all that is saved for a while for possible enforcement actions.
I think
I will Wait
until I see What happens
before getting all Worked up .
I didn't put My Signature on any Papers
lol .
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner

Ron Paul: Jeff Sessions should be fired over marijuana decision


Quote:Currently, recreational marijuana is legal in eight states and the District of Columbia. Twenty-two states also allow some form of medical marijuana, and 15 allow a lesser medical marijuana extract.

Paul told CNN's Michael Smerconish that Americans should have a choice on marijuana use, and he called Sessions' actions "unconstitutional."

"He represents something that is so un-American, as far as I'm concerned," the Texas libertarian said.

"The war on drugs, to me, is a war on liberty. I think that we overly concentrate on the issue of the drug itself, and I concentrate on the issue of freedom of choice, on doing things that are of high risk," he said. "And we permit high risk all the time. ... Generally, we allow people to eat what they want, and that is very risky. But we do overly concentrate on what people put into their bodies."
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
I bet they'll say pilots were stoned:

Bong7bp Reefer Par-ty


Bob... Ninja Alien2

Right now there are ANOTHER 4 planes at end of runway moving on top each other:,-73.79/14

No wonder 911 was so easy to pull off Holycowsmile 


More incompetence ...
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007

U.S. Attorney for Colorado: No changes on marijuana enforcement

DENVER — Colorado’s top federal prosecutor said his office won’t alter its approach to enforcing marijuana crimes after U.S. Attorney General Jeff Sessions withdrew a policy Thursday that allowed pot markets to emerge in states that legalized the drug.
The statement by U.S. Attorney Bob Troyer came amid bipartisan outrage over Sessions’ decision to end the so-called Cole memorandum, which sharply limited what charges prosecutors could pursue in legal pot states. He will allow federal prosecutors to decide how aggressively to enforce longstanding federal law banning pot.
Troyer said his office will continue to focus on “identifying and prosecuting those who create the greatest safety threats to our communities around the state.” That approach is consistent with Sessions’ guidance, he said.
“Today the Attorney General rescinded the Cole Memo on marijuana prosecutions, and directed that federal marijuana prosecution decisions be governed by the same principles that have long governed all of our prosecution decisions,” Troyer said.
The U.S. attorney for Colorado took office in August 2016 after former President Barack Obama’s appointee stepped down. President Donald Trump hasn’t nominated a replacement.
Sessions’ move infuriated Republican U.S. Sen. Cory Gardner, who said he’s placing a hold on Justice Department nominees and will try to push legislation to protect marijuana sales in states where they are legal.
The Colorado senator said Sessions promised him that he would not repeal the Obama-era policy on lenient enforcement before being confirmed as the nation’s top law enforcement official.
“What Jeff Sessions said is he didn’t think it was on Trump’s agenda to do this, he didn’t think President Trump had the bandwidth to do this, and he had no plans to repeal the Cole memorandum,” Gardner said in an interview.
Gardner noted that during the 2016 presidential campaign, Trump told a reporter that he believed marijuana should be left up to the states.
“Why does Jeff Sessions think President Trump was wrong?” he asked.
Gardner said he only found out via Twitter that Sessions was changing the policy. He said he plans to reach out to other lawmakers from Alaska, California, Massachusetts, Nevada, Oregon and Washington state to seek congressional protection for pot programs.
Congress passed legislation in 2014 protecting medical marijuana policies.
Colorado’s senior senator, Democrat Michael Bennet, also slammed Sessions’ move.
“In rescinding the Cole memo, the Attorney General failed to listen to Colorado, and will create unnecessary chaos and confusion,” he said on Twitter.
U.S. Rep. Mike Coffman of Colorado condemned the decision as an infringement on states’ rights and pledged to fight any action targeting the state’s legal market.
“Colorado had every right to legalize marijuana, and I will do everything I can to protect that right against the power of an overreaching federal government,” the Republican said in a statement.
The state’s former “marijuana czar,” Andrew Freedman, said Sessions’ only point was to create confusion but that the Justice Department cannot force states to make pot illegal.
Freedman, who formerly worked as Gov. John Hickenlooper’s director of marijuana coordination, said the uncertainty will make law-abiding people less likely to get involved in the market and make it harder for banks and insurance companies to justify the risk of working with marijuana businesses.
“It seems like a foolish step. Certainty brings better players into the market, more legitimate capital. People who want to be law-abiding will be more likely to enter into the regulated system,” he said.
Freedman said this is a time for states to increase enforcement to ensure businesses are following the law.
“We should all make sure it’s done as safely and efficiently as possible,” he said. “It’s more of a reason to double down on efforts, not to retreat.”
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
Tell Sessions that the US Government BEGGED farmers to grow Cannabis Indica aka "Hemp"


Bob... Ninja Alien2
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
I think the basic idea is to make Congress legalize pot
and if need be Trump will.
(01-07-2018, 05:43 PM)Kalter Rauch Wrote: I think the basic idea is to make Congress legalize pot
and if need be Trump will.

I am NOT so optimistic about Trump anymore doing anything THAT is SMART !!!

Better than Killlary but still looking world-wide like a Pennywise 

Bob... Ninja Alien2
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
"I am NOT so optimistic about Trump anymore doing anything THAT is SMART !!!"

Think about it......shutting down a big new industry
would be antithetical to everything Trump has said.
That's why it looks like it was Session's acute "rageful paranoid ideation"(see Nahas)
over the immediacy of California's mass thought crime emergency,
and therefore it mustn't be discounted that a "catalytic phenomenon" (see Jung)
was responsible for the symbolic fire in the Trump Tower.
You're so right about the FIRE in Trump tower as SYMBOLIC for attacking CANNABIS !!! Worship Clap Lmao

Bob... Ninja Alien2
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
[Image: Ap50Tsa.jpg]
This is a consequence of Sessions' anti-cannabis decision...

His replacement will really get the heat.

[Image: birds-anim-720.gif]

Owls Dying Near Marijuana Farms (Here's Why)

By Jasmin Malik Chua, Live Science Contributor | January 11, 2018 12:11pm ET
[Image: aHR0cDovL3d3dy5saXZlc2NpZW5jZS5jb20vaW1h...1vd2wuanBn]
Northern spotted owls in some California counties are succumbing to rat poison used by marijuana growers.
Credit: Shutterstock

If asked, spotted owls would likely vote against marijuana legalization.
New research reveals that several species, including the northern spotted owl, are succumbing to rat poison from thousands of "unpermitted private marijuana grow sites" in the northwestern California counties of Humboldt, Mendocino and Del Norte.

It's the contamination of the owls' primary food source — mice and rats, which, like humans, are attracted to the aromatic crop — that has been the animals' undoing: Scientists from the University of California, Davis, and the California Academy of Sciences have detected traces of anticoagulant rodenticide in seven of the 10 northern spotted owl carcasses they collected, according to a study published today (Jan. 11) in the journal Avian Conservation and Ecology.

The species, which is listed as threatened under federal and state endangered species acts, isn't the toxicant's sole victim, either. Barred owls, which compete for the same space and resources as their spotted kin, are also being exposed to the same poison from their communal prey. [Photos: Salmon-Eating Owls Revealed in Stunning Images]

Of the 84 dead barred owls the researchers collected, 34 — about 40 percent — tested positive for the substance, which impedes the body's ability to clot blood and can result in unchecked internal bleeding.

Making the situation worse is the fact that private, illegal or otherwise unpermitted marijuana grow sites, formerly private timberland, often overlap with designated critical habitats for northern spotted owls and their ilk.

"Spotted owls are inclined to feed along forest edges. Because grow sites break apart these forest landscapes, they are likely source points for exposure," lead study author Mourad Gabriel, of UC Davis, said in a statement.

With the rollout of Proposition 64, the 2016 voter initiative to legalize cannabis in the Golden State, resource managers say they expect to see an uptick in the number and size of these informal cultivation sites.
This trend, the researchers said, could "exacerbate the problem." Even with a legal weed marketplace, most black-market growers remain entrenched in the shadows.

Only a handful of the 4,500 to 15,000 private cultivation sites in Humboldt County alone, for instance, operate with any kind of regulatory oversight, Gabriel said.

"When you have thousands of unpermitted grows and only a handful of biologists that regulate that for multiple counties, we're deeply concerned that there aren't sufficient conservation protective measures in place," Gabriel said in the statement. "If no one is investigating the level at which private marijuana cultivators are placing chemicals out there, the fragmented forest landscapes created by these sites can serve as source points of exposure for owls and other wildlife."

The results of the study support further investigation into the fragile interrelationships that hold the natural world together.

"Access to these owl specimens allows us to explore the health of the entire regional forest system," said Jack Dumbacher, curator of ornithology and mammalogy at the California Academy of Sciences, where the necropsies were conducted. "We're using our collections to build a concrete scientific case for increased forest monitoring and species protection before it's too late to intervene."

Original article on Live Science.



Quote:From the NON-WEB-LINKED AUTHOR Of this DEA/DOJ Jeff Sessions FBI and the rest of the "gov'ment' FAKE NEWS like 911 was done by 19 Saudi Lap Dancing, drunken, cocaine sniffing, gambling, Muslims of such profound faith they commit suicide yet 8 ere found alive only hours after announcement that FBI has to change list 3 fracking times.'; WMD in Iraq, Babies in incubators in Kuwait, Fuck the EU Nuland and now I am seeing fracking COMMERCIALS asking for MORE AMERICAN MONEY- this time directly to the American People- to Give $$$ to the Israeli Broken Warriors tax-deductible funding !!!  WHO the FRACK AUTHORIZED THAT  ???




Of the 84 dead barred owls the researchers collected, 34 — about 40 percent — tested positive for the substance, which impedes the body's ability to clot blood and can result in unchecked internal bleeding.


[Image: 215.gif]

Bob... Ninja Alien2
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Patent No. 6,630,507: Why the U.S. government holds a patent on cannabis plant compounds

[Image: seeds-patent-medical.jpg]
Marijuana proponents allege that the U.S. government is exhibiting hypocrisy by owning a cannabis-related patent while also denying marijuana's rescheduling. Pictured: In this 2014 file photo, Lafayette-based Centennial Seeds seed developer Ben Holmes displays his Otto II seeds, a high-cannabinoid strain of hemp he hoped to patent in the coming year. (Denver Post file)

Marijuana proponents have been highlighting the government-owned Patent No. 6,630,507. But the issue and the patent itself aren't black and white.

Published: Aug 22, 2016, 6:23 am • Updated: 11 months ago

By Alicia Wallace, The Cannabist Staff
It may not have quite the same ring to it as a certain seven-digit number made famous in song in 1981, but 6,630,507 has been growing increasingly internet-famous since last week.

Following the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration’s inaction on rescheduling marijuana, legalization proponents have responded by taking to the internet to highlight Patent No. 6,630,507 — telling the DEA to “talk to the hand” by writing “6,630,507” on their palms, hashtagging the number and linking to past articles on the topic.

Since not all Americans are intimately familiar with patents — and because of the reams of misinformation out there regarding this patent in particular — here’s a handy explainer about Patent No. 6,630,507:
U.S. Patent No. 6,630,507 covers the potential use of non-psychoactive cannabinoids — chemical compounds found within the plant species cannabis sativa — to protect the brain from damage or degeneration caused by certain diseases, such as cirrhosis.

U.S. Patent No. 6,630,507 was granted to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services in 2003.
The recent social media flurry has consisted of posts varying in allegations and accuracy — some have claimed that the government patented the marijuana plant in its entirety. But the overall intent is one that is symbolic in nature, said Sam Mendez, an intellectual property and public policy lawyer who serves as the executive director of the University of Washington’s Cannabis Law & Policy Project.

“Naturally, it shows that there is a certain amount of hypocrisy that there is ‘no accepted medical use’ for cannabis according to federal law,” Mendez said. “And yet here you have the very same government owning a patent for, ostensibly a medical use for marijuana.

“It’s certainly hypocritical, but there’s no laws against doing so.”

Mendez, patent lawyers, the research arm of the HHS and the New York biopharmaceutical firm that’s working as an exclusive licensee under the patent also caution that the existence of Patent No. 6,630,507 isn’t necessarily so black and white.

“(The federal government is) a very large organization with hundreds of thousands of federal employees and innumerable number of departments,” he said. “It’s much more complicated than to think about them as a single organism. … The government is allowed to file and obtain patents, and that has no bearing on the Controlled Substances Act.”

More broadly, the existence of Patent No. 6,630,507 shines a light on what could result from legalization — an explosion of marijuana-related patents, he said.

No. 6,630,507’s inception

The National Institutes of Health has roughly 6,000 doctoral-level scientists in its employ, working mostly in Maryland, said Mark Rohrbaugh, who holds doctorates in biochemistry and law and is special adviser for technology transfer at the NIH. When one of those scientists invents a new technology or makes a new discovery, the NIH evaluates the result and determines whether to file for a patent.

Over the years, the NIH has conducted and funded research involving cannabis — both as a drug of abuse and for its potential therapeutic properties, said Renate Myles, an NIH spokeswoman.

In this case, the researchers discovered that non-psychoactive compounds in cannabis may potentially have antioxidant properties that could be beneficial in the treatment of certain neurological diseases, she said.

“This patent describes the therapeutic potential for cannabinoid chemical compounds that are structurally similar to THC, but without its psychoactive properties, thereby treating specific conditions without the adverse side effects associated with smoked marijuana,” Myles wrote via e-mail. “It should be noted that the patent is for the use of cannabinoid compounds similar to and including those that naturally occur in marijuana (cannabis), but not for the whole marijuana plant.”

The DEA’s decision has nothing to do with the NIH’s cannabis-related patent, Rohrbaugh said. The patent doesn’t yet prove the chemical compound is effective in the stated treatment, he said, adding that the compound would have to be purified, synthesized in a lab setting, subjected to extensive testing in animals and humans, and ultimately require U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval to show that it’s safe and effective for the intended purpose.

The intent behind patenting and licensing NIH discoveries is to not have technology that could potentially benefit the public sit idle, he said.

To ensure this, it sometimes requires looping in the private sector, he said. Laws in the 1980s further established the technology-transfer capabilities of entities such as the federal government and universities to have discoveries accessible to others who are in a better position to progress research and potentially commercialize the developments. The entities behind the discoveries typically receive payments as part of the licensing agreement.

[Image: willie-pot-patent-1-1.jpg]
Willie Nelson holds up a container of his branded marijuana with “6630507” written on it. Following the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration’s inaction on rescheduling marijuana, legalization proponents have responded by taking to the internet to highlight Patent No. 6,630,507, which covers the potential use of non-psychoactive cannabinoids. (Photo courtesy of Willie’s Reserve)

NIH’s Technology Transfer Office advertises patents — including those related to cannabinoids — available for licensing on its website, and officials sometimes conduct outreach as well. The licenses often are packaged with some elements of exclusivity, Rohrbaugh said.

“It’s like a piece of land,” he said. “You wouldn’t build a million-dollar house on a piece of land you wouldn’t have some title to.”

DEA spokesman Russ Baer declined to comment about the patent, directing queries to the NIH.

The licensee

Five years ago, the NIH granted New York-based Kannalife Sciences Inc. an exclusive license to utilize part of the technology outlined in the patent to develop cannabinoid- and cannabidiol-based drugs for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy — brain damage that could result from conditions such as cirrhosis. Kannalife also has a non-exclusive license to develop drugs to treat chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a rare and progressive degenerative brain condition likely caused by repeated head trauma, Myles said.

“NIH allows investigators inside and outside NIH to conduct ongoing research with the patented technology, and other companies may also apply for licenses to use this patented technology to develop drugs to treat other neurological diseases where antioxidant properties of cannabinoid drugs may be beneficial,” she said. “The patent expires on April 21, 2019, after which anyone would be free to develop drugs based on these cannabinoids that, like all drugs, would require FDA approval to demonstrate safety and effectiveness in humans.”

No other companies have yet licensed portions of the 6,630,507 patent, she said.

Headed by a former VP of the firm depicted in the film “The Wolf of Wall Street,” Kannalife was recently featured in a football-related Sports Illustrated report regarding its CTE efforts.

Kannalife CEO Dean Petkanas did not disclose the specific terms of the license agreement, but he told The Cannabist this week that the agreement does include milestone payments, a percentage of sales as well as royalties in “the six figures” to the government. The patent is valid in several jurisdictions, including the United Kingdom and Australia, he said.

Petkanas said his company “could not have gotten a better ruling” from the DEA.

“We’ve been building our business from the pharmaceutical side from Day One,” he said. “We want to be on the pharmaceutical side; everything we do has to be by the book.”

Kannalife is about to begin raising $15 million in private investments, which would allow it to start clinical trials related to hepatic encephalopathy as soon as the first quarter of 2018, he said, adding that Kannalife anticipates eventually seeking orphan drug status — a special FDA designation for treating rare conditions. Petkanas also is evaluating the potential of conducting CTE-related trials in Europe.

“Does marijuana have medicinal benefit? Well, yeah,” Petkanas said. “But it can’t be targeted and qualified for repetitive use (without the FDA-approved research).”

Petkanas said there is a concern that cannabinoid chemicals could exhibit toxicity at high dosing, so he believes additional research is beneficial.

Staking a claim

That one arm of the federal government is poised to make money from cannabis-derived compounds — and another arm has approved synthetic cannabinoid drugs such as Marinol and Syndros — tells a different story than that told by the DEA, which lumped together the hundreds of chemical compounds of cannabis as a Schedule I substance, said Gregory F. Wesner, a Seattle-based patent and trademark attorney for Lane Powell PC.

“The interesting thing here is basically the government being two-faced,” Wesner said.

Embodying that contradiction is the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, he said. Patents have been granted for the utility of cannabinoids and other compounds.

However, the issuance of trademarks will be murky until the legalization of marijuana is resolved on a federal level, he said.

If and when national legalization comes, it’ll trigger a swarm of patent applications, said the UW Cannabis Law Project’s Mendez.

“That’s massive growth that does not occur every day or every year; That’s the kind of growth you’re talking about once in a generation,” he said of the potential sales growth in the industry. “As part of that, you’re going to see many people and many businesses research this far more intensely and file for patents.”

An analysis conducted by Christopher Freerks, a Lane Powell patent administrator, shows that the PTO already has granted at least four dozen cannabis-related utility patents, including HHS’ Patent No. 6,630,507. The analysis does not include plant patents, which have been tougher to come by for some cultivators.

Likely surge

Earlier this year, Vice took a deep dive into the “looming patent war” and examined Patent No. 9,095,554, the “first-ever patent for a plant containing significant amounts of THC:”

Quote:Concern is rising among legal-pot pioneers about the need to lawyer up to defend their creations from imitators and patent trolls, as well as from multinational corporations in the agriculture, tobacco and pharmaceutical industries that are thought to be watching the fast-growing industry from the sidelines, despite overt denials.
“If the laws change and the big companies move in, I think we’ll have a period of turmoil around ownership, patenting, the whole business,” said Erich Veitenheimer, a patent lawyer and partner at Cooley LLP in Washington, DC, who represented the patent holders of No. 9095554.

The Vice article noted the rise of the Open Cannabis Project, an organization that is cataloging and classifying marijuana strains already in existence and, hence, the public domain.

Patent attorney Dale C. Hunt, an Open Cannabis Project board member who has degrees in botany, genetics and biology, told The Cannabist that one would need to develop a completely new strain in order to land a patent. But beyond strains, legalization likely will open the doors to protection of intellectual property across all aspects of the industry, said Hunt, an attorney for Hahn Loeser’s office in San Diego.

“I think there will be a greater emphasis on innovation,” he said.

If legal, it’s realistic to believe that the innovation could carry on in the laboratories of NIH scientists; but for now, the federal government’s technology transfer and patenting actions around cannabis do not appear to be widespread, he said.

“This happens all the time,” Hunt said. “It obviously doesn’t happen all the time in cannabis.”


Old but important since patent runs out next year.


Bob... Ninja Bong7bp
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I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
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Cannabinoids are easier on the brain than booze, study finds
February 9, 2018 by Cay Leytham-Powell, University of Colorado at Boulder

[Image: cannabinoids.jpg]
Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder

Marijuana may not be as damaging to the brain as previously thought, according to new research from the University of Colorado Boulder and the CU Change Lab.

The research, which was published in the journal Addiction, examined the brains of more than 1,000 participants of varying ages, and found that long-term alcohol use is much more damaging to the brain than marijuana, contradicting years of research into the effects of marijuana and other cannabinoid products on the brain.
These findings, and other conclusions suggesting the potential public health benefits of marijuana, come amid the recent back-and-forth on federal marijuana policy and the nation's opioid crisis.
Yet scientists are still hesitant to say that cannabinoid usage, specifically as it pertains to marijuana and its associated products, is beneficial.
"Particularly with marijuana use, there is still so much that we don't know about how it impacts the brain," said Rachel Thayer, a graduate student in clinical psychology at CU Boulder and the lead author of the study. "Research is still very limited in terms of whether marijuana use is harmful, or beneficial, to the brain."
While the negative effects of alcohol on the brain have been known by researchers for years, it has been assumed that cannabinoids are as damaging to long-term brain health—if not more—given the immediate psychoactive effects of the THC (the chemical that gets a person high) in marijuana.
However, this may not necessarily be true.
"When you look at the research much more closely, you see that a lot of it is probably not accurate," said study co-author Kent Hutchison, a professor of behavioral neuroscience at CU Boulder and co-director of the CU Change Lab, which explores the factors linked with health and risk behavior.
"When you look at these studies going back years, you see that one study will report that marijuana use is related to a reduction in the volume of the hippocampus. The next study then comes around, and they say that marijuana use is related to changes in the cerebellum or the whatever."
"The point is that there's no consistency across all of these studies in terms of the actual brain structures."
To combat this misconception in the existing literature, the researchers gave a fresh look at some existing neurological imaging data from the MRIs of both adolescents and adults to see how, using the same variables and controls, the influence of cannabinoids on the brain compared to or contrasted with alcohol. 
"With alcohol, we've known it's bad for the brain for decades," said Hutchison. "But for cannabis, we know so little."

To see any potential difference, the researchers used the data to examine the most important neurological components: gray matter and white matter.
Gray and white matter are the two main types of tissue that make up the brain and central nervous system. Gray matter is the "stuff"—the cell bodies, dendrites and axon terminals—that enable functionality. White matter, then, is how the grey matter communicates between clusters. Any loss of size or integrity in either can make the brain not work quite like it should.
The study found that alcohol use was significantly associated with a decrease in gray matter size and white matter integrity, particularly for adults who may have decades of exposure. Marijuana and associated cannabinoid products, on the other hand, were not shown to have any long-term impact on the amount of gray matter in the brain or on the integrity of the white matter.
The research demonstrated that, "while marijuana may also have some negative consequences, it definitely is nowhere near the negative consequences of alcohol," according to Hutchison.
Despite marijuana not being as harmful as once thought, and definitely not as damaging as other legal and illegal products, the research has not yet proved any possible benefits. This is particularly the case as it relates to the different products on the market (both THC and non-THC-containing cannabinoid products), their usage with pain and addiction treatment and the effect on different ages—especially as cannabinoid usage is on the rise among older populations.
"Considering how much is happening in the real world with the legalization movement, we still have a lot of work to do," Hutchison said.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Recent study in Oregon reveals public considers alcohol more harmful than marijuana
More information: Rachel E. Thayer et al. Structural neuroimaging correlates of alcohol and cannabis use in adolescents and adults, Addiction (2017). DOI: 10.1111/add.13923

Journal reference: Addiction [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: University of Colorado at Boulder
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Quote:the research has not yet proved any possible benefits.

FRACKING BULLSHAT   Horsepoop Poop     Angel
Fracking Corpwhorational DRUG POISONERS !!!

Bob... Ninja Alien2
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
DEA fake science supported by fake religious decisions about "sin".

Politics is actually a complex plane
measured in both horizontal and vertical scales.

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(02-13-2018, 02:49 AM)rhw007 Wrote:
Quote:the research has not yet proved any possible benefits.

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Cannabis compound reduces seizures
February 27, 2018 by Leigh Macmillan, Vanderbilt University

[Image: cannabiscomp.jpg]
Credit: Vanderbilt University
About one third of patients treated for epilepsy continue to have seizures. Cannabidiol (CBD), one of the many active compounds in the cannabis (marijuana) plant, has gained attention as a treatment for epilepsy. Purified CBD is being tested, but artisanal formulations of CBD (oils) are already available and being used by patients.

To evaluate the efficacy of artisanal CBD for patients with epilepsy, Robert Carson, MD, PhD, and colleagues performed a retrospective study of medical records obtained from Vanderbilt's BioVU resource.
They found that among 108 pediatric patients with epilepsy, 39 percent who added CBD oil to their treatments experienced a 50 percent reduction in seizures, 10 percent became seizure-free, and 22 percent were able to decrease doses of other anti-seizure medications.
The findings, reported in Epilepsy & Behavior, support the efficacy of CBD oil for seizure reduction with few side effects. The authors suggest caution for patients who use unregulated natural products, such as artisanal CBD, and advise clinicians who treat epilepsy to actively inquire about CBD use.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: More than a third of patients do not respond to antiepileptics
More information: Giulia S. Porcari et al. Efficacy of artisanal preparations of cannabidiol for the treatment of epilepsy: Practical experiences in a tertiary medical center, Epilepsy & Behavior (2018). DOI: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2018.01.026

Provided by: Vanderbilt University
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