Thread Rating:
  • 3 Vote(s) - 3 Average
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
420
No sign pot smoking will trigger irregular heartbeat: study
May 9, 2018 by Dennis Thompson, Healthday Reporter

[Image: nosignpotsmo.jpg]
If you have suffered a heart attack, getting high on pot won't harm your heart's regular rhythm, a new study suggests.

Marijuana users who have suffered a heart attack had about the same risk as nonusers of a rapid and irregular rhythm in the lower chambers of the heart, known as the ventricles, the researchers found.
"We found no difference in the two populations," said senior researcher Dr. Christine Tompkins, a cardiologist with the University of Colorado School of Medicine.
Further, marijuana users appeared to have lower rates of atrial fibrillation, an irregular rhythm in the upper chambers of the heart (the atria).
Half as many pot users had atrial fibrillation, about 4.5 percent compared with 8.7 percent of nonusers. Atrial fibrillation increases a person's risk of stroke and heart attack.
Don't feel free to get baked just yet, though. Both the researchers and a heart expert stressed that the jury is still out on exactly what the heart risks of smoking pot might be.
In fact, earlier research in the same group of patients found that marijuana use appears to increase the chances of having an earlier heart attack, Tompkins added.
The average age of a first heart attack was about 57 for the straight-laced, but 47 for cannabis users, Tompkins said.
"At this point, I have to say we don't know the full cardiac effects of marijuana use," Tompkins said. "We need to do additional studies."
Colorado was one of the first states in the nation to legalize recreational marijuana, in 2012. At this point, a total of nine states have approved recreational pot use.
Given the wave of legalization, Tompkins and her colleagues decided this was the perfect time to assess the heart effects of marijuana use.
"We felt an obligation to look at the cardiac effects of cannabis use," Tompkins said. "We still don't know the long-term impact it has on one's heart health."
There's strong evidence that weed has become more popular among people in late middle age and senior citizens. Federal data shows a 455 percent increase in marijuana use among U.S. adults aged 55 to 64 and a 333 percent jump in those aged 65 and older between 2002 and 2014.
The researchers reviewed medical records for nearly 1.3 million patients treated for heart attack between 1994 and 2013. Pot users were identified because they either admitted to use or had a positive toxicology screen for marijuana, Tompkins said.
There was no difference in risk for either an irregular or rapid heart rhythm in the ventricles between pot users and nonusers, and there was a decreased risk for atrial fibrillation in users, researchers found.
The findings were to be presented Thursday at the Heart Rhythm Society's annual meeting, in Boston. Such research is considered preliminary until it is published in a peer-reviewed journal.
Animal studies have found cannabinoid receptors reduce the risk of abnormal heart rhythm, Tompkins said. Pot also has been shown to alter the autonomic nervous system, which oversees the stability of heart rhythm.
On the other hand, the chemicals in marijuana also have been shown to promote clotting and cause blood vessels to constrict in some patients, two factors that increase heart attack risk, Tompkins said.
And other studies also have linked pot use to higher blood pressure and increased heart rate, said Dr. Mark Estes, director of the New England Cardiac Arrhythmia Center at Tufts University Medical Center in Boston.
"The information on the cardiovascular effects of marijuana is very, very limited, but the best evidence available would indicate there's the potential for harm," Estes said. "I don't think people should be reassured by any means that smoking marijuana is safe."
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: PTSD may raise odds for irregular heartbeat
More information: Christine Tompkins, M.D., cardiologist, University of Colorado School of Medicine; Mark Estes, M.D., director, New England Cardiac Arrythmia Center, Tufts University Medical Center, Boston; May 10, 2018, presentation, Heart Rhythm Society annual meeting, Boston
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
A thing people are discussing is "cannabis hyperemesis",
which is supposedly almost non-stop vomiting,
to the point of dry heaves...from "too much pot".
The blue light forum has a big thread on it.
Reply
https://www.thecannabist.co/2018/06/08/d...en/104541/
Reply
[Image: buXp7nn.jpg]

Sung to Davy Crocket

"Dennis...Dennis Rodman made fools of them all !"
Reply
...which reminds me...

found out this Durban Poison I've got
is supposed to be high in THCV,
reputed to stimulate visual effects
as well as appetite suppression.
 Damned
Reply
THCV

https://www.leafly.com/news/cannabis-101...annabinoid
Reply
History Will Be Made on October 17
Dear Reader,
Earlier this year, Canada became the first large, industrialized Western country to legalize marijuana outright. And on October 17—less than a week from today—legal cannabis goes live.
It will no doubt go down as a historic day in Canadian and world history. It's the most significant development since most governments prohibited cannabis in the 1930s.
Crucially, it will turbocharge the first-mover advantage Canadian cannabis companies already enjoy in this $150 billion global industry.
In this month's issue, I'll show you how to profit from this monumental trend with a leading company that will dominate the industry.
READ ONLINE
Until next time,
[Image: nickg-sig.jpg]
[Image: nick-giambruno.jpg]
Nick Giambruno
Chief Analyst
The Casey Report



EA - You're going to be VERY VERY Happy Oct 17, 2018 !!!

Dance004 Reefer Bong7bp

If I knew anyone close to Montreal I go visit them that day to HIGH !!! Hi 

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Reply
Canada makes final preparations before cannabis becomes legal
October 12, 2018


[Image: 2-cannabis.jpg]
Credit: CC0 Public Domain Canada will soon become the second country in the world to legalize cannabis—with the provinces left to work out the details of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau's landmark measure.



From October 17, Canadians will be allowed to grow, possess and consume marijuana for recreational purposes—five years after Uruguay passed pioneering legislation on the issue.

Derivative products such as edibles, cosmetics and e-cigarette products containing pot will not be allowed until 2019.

But nonetheless, legalization is expected to boost the Canadian economy, generating $816 million to $1.1 billion in the fourth quarter—without taking into account the black market, which is expected to account for a quarter of all joints smoked in Canada, according to Statistics Canada.

A $400 million tax revenue windfall is forecast as a result—with the provinces, municipalities and federal government all getting a slice.

In total, Statistics Canada says 5.4 million Canadians will buy cannabis in legal dispensaries in 2018—about 15 percent of the population. 4.9 million already smoke.

And the world will be watching how Canada gets on.

"There is a lot of interest from our allies in what we're doing," Trudeau, who has admitted to smoking cannabis himself a handful of times, told AFP in May.

"They recognize that Canada is being daring... and recognize that the current regime (of prohibition) does not work, that it's not preventing young people from having easy access to cannabis."

Provinces decide

Preparations are underway ahead of the reform, promised by Trudeau's Liberal Party, with businesses and local authorities forced to review their rules and regulations.

That's because even though the cannabis ban, in force since 1923, was overturned by the federal government, how legalization plays out in practice has been left to Canada's 10 provinces and three territories to decide.

Several have already said they will not fully implement the law.

For example, even though federal law will permit each household to grow up to four cannabis plants, central Manitoba and Quebec in the east say they will ban it—and go all the way to the Supreme Court over the matter.

Like with alcohol and tobacco, the question of legal age also falls to the provinces. Nineteen seems to be the standard, but it is 18 in Alberta—while Quebec, whose new government will enter office the day after legalization, wants to raise the age to 21.

With regards to sales, some provinces such as Quebec will implement a public monopoly—while others, including Ontario and Nova Scotia, have decided to trust the market to the private sector.

As for law enforcement, federal police will be ordered to abstain for 28 days before working, as will police in Toronto.

Officers in Montreal, however, are simply asked to not show up to work high.

Another issue for the provinces to mull over is open consumption, with Montreal deciding to impose the same rules as those for tobacco—while people in other provinces will have to light up at home.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Canada poised to legalize recreational marijuana





THC amounts identical in most cannabis strains, study finds
October 10, 2018 by Patty Wellborn, University of British Columbia

[Image: thcamountsid.jpg]
Susan Murch is a chemistry professor at UBC Okanagan. Credit: UBC Okanagan
A rose by any other name is still a rose. The same, it turns out, can be said for cannabis.



Newly published research from UBC's Okanagan campus has determined that many strains of cannabis have virtually identical levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), despite their unique street names.

"It is estimated that there are several hundred or perhaps thousands of strains of cannabis currently being cultivated," says Professor Susan Murch, who teaches chemistry at UBC Okanagan. "We wanted to know how different they truly are, given the variety of unique and exotic names."

Cannabis breeders have historically selected strains to produce THC, CBD or both, she explains. But the growers have had limited access to different types of plants and there are few records of the parentage of different strains.

"People have had informal breeding programs for a long time," Murch says. "In a structured program we would keep track of the lineage, such as where the parent plants came from and their characteristics. With unstructured breeding, which is the current norm, particular plants were picked for some characteristic and then given a new name."

Until now, the chemical breakdown of many strains has been unknown because of informal breeding.

Elizabeth Mudge, a doctoral student working with Murch and Paula Brown, Canada Research Chair in Phytoanalytics at the British Columbia Institute of Technology, examined the cannabinoid—a class of chemical compounds that include THC and CBD—profiles of 33 strains of cannabis from five licensed producers.

The research shows that most strains, regardless of their origin or name, had the same amount of THC and CBD. They further discovered that breeding highly potent strains of cannabis impacts the genetic diversity within the crop, but not THC or CBD levels.

However, Mudge says that they found differences in a number of previously unknown cannabinoids—and these newly discovered compounds, present in low quantities, could be related to pharmacological effects and serve as a source of new medicines.

"A high abundance compound in a plant, such as THC or CBD, isn't necessarily responsible for the unique medicinal effects of certain strains," says Mudge. "Understanding the presence of the low abundance cannabinoids could provide valuable information to the medical cannabis community."

Currently licensed producers are only required to report THC and CBD values. But Murch says her new research highlights that the important distinguishing chemicals in cannabis strains are not necessarily being analysed and may not be fully identified.

Murch says while patients are using medical cannabis for a variety of reasons, they actually have very little information on how to base their product choice. This research is a first step towards establishing an alternative approach to classifying medical cannabis and providing consumers with better information.

Murch's research was recently published in Nature's Scientific Reports.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: What you need to know about CBD oil

More information: E. M. Mudge et al. Chemometric Analysis of Cannabinoids: Chemotaxonomy and Domestication Syndrome, Scientific Reports (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-31120-2

Journal reference: Scientific Reports [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: University of British Columbia


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-10-thc-amount...s.html#jCp

10/17 LilD


[Image: 800x-1.jpg]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
I'm going to take a short trip to Hemmingford sometime after Oct 17 just to take a look around and also check in with both little Custom booths with an empty plastic pill container that used to hold my own meds and ask if they'd arrest me if all I brought BACK that they'd make a FEDERAL case out of it, by confiscating it, charging me, all the paperwork since I would not just hand it over to officers for themselves.

When I do this I'll post what happens.

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Reply
Re: "unknown cannabinoids"

The research above doesn't mention THCV (tetrahydrocannabivarin)
which strains such as Durban Poison and other sativa plants contain in significant amounts.
I've read that it cuts appetite and increases creativity among other effects.

IMO that Canadian study is meant to support developing a standard product that fits in
with the government fixation with regulating every detail.
Reply
...

Quote:IMO that Canadian study is meant to support developing a standard product
that fits in with the government fixation with regulating every detail.


yea, Susan Murch's THC study is absolute Tp  nonsense.
why is Susie Qubit's study absolute nonsense?
because 
she isn't smoking the high grade potency,
or the low grade,
she isn't smoking shit! ... certainly not any of the test products.

Susie Q is quantifying very limited available science.
Perhaps there is a funding trail to follow.


...
Reply
...gives plausible deniability that sum weed ~= others.

Quote:Perhaps there is a funding trail to follow.

but not in that sense.
more like the variety Arrow  all bux stops here @ Ca$h Crop$
It is very "Highly Likely" that Canada is set to cha-ching change the bizznazz!
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
10/17!!!

Reefer
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
High Hi  there Arrow  67 people and me reading this thread right now.

Quote:Update : that was then this is...
Users browsing this thread: EA, 75 Guest(s)






I didn't vote for Justin Beiber either.

Thanx Trudeau = ~ True Dough / Bux $top here. CanaCa$h!

...uh.

There's never been ~75 -ish people in one thread @ once...  that Eye can recall: Holycowsmile

If any are a new guest(s)... welcome.

smoke a spliff and stick around, bookmark the site/cite/sight. See?

Peruse your allusions.

Watch our solar system and itza history be re-written.

Poke Smot.

Quote:Users browsing this thread: EA, 81 Guest(s)

Bookmark Arrow  http://thehiddenmission.com/forum/index.php

THM on THC

Shamelessly promoting Keith-Kind LilD

To any and all new readers.

Users browsing this thread: EA, 86 Guest(s)

[Image: HMF_logo.jpg]

Zep Tepi is the 'first time' itz legal  like a horus ain't an eagle.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=50U7qqtuS64





zep-tepi sirius bark spark one up! and read THM!
Newbies?
Users browsing this thread: EA, 92 Guest(s)


Where we goin...???









LilD
Higher!!!

You are inducted
Users browsing this thread: EA, 111 Guest(s)
youareaduck

Join [Image: arrow.png]  http://thehiddenmission.com/forum/index.php now.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
now 131 guests Hi
 
New way for water to grow along the OCEAN ANYWHERE on the planet:

https://www.scientificamerican.com/artic...from-salt/


Desalination Breakthrough: Saving the Sea from Salt
A chemist finds a way to cut supersalty discharge and CO2 as the Middle East relies ever more on seawater desalination [Image: 44A0B541-343B-4CC8-A16567E23A665F56_sour...7BE2769DAD]


Farid Benyahia wants to solve two environmental problems at once: excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and excess salt in the Persian Gulf (aka the Arabian Gulf). Oil and natural gas drive the region’s booming economies—hence the excess CO2—and desalination supplies the vast majority of drinking water, a process that creates concentrated brine waste that is usually dumped back into the gulf.

Benyahia, a chemical engineer at Qatar University, thinks he may have hit on a neatly efficient way to address the problem. “The goal is to solve two nasty environmental problems with one smart solution and generate useful, marketable products to offset partially the cost of storing CO2,” he says.

The secret is a variant of the Solvay process, a 150-year-old, seven-step chemical conversion method that is widely used to produce sodium carbonate for industrial applications, and that many chemists are working to refine. Benyahia has simplified the process in part by aiming for sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) rather than sodium carbonate, thus reducing the needed chemical conversion steps to just two. In the presence of ammonia he reacts pure carbon dioxide with the waste brine from desalination, creating solid baking soda and ammonium chloride solution. In a second step he reacts the ammonium chloride solution with calcium oxide to produce calcium chloride solution and ammonia gas. Recovering the ammonia allows him to reuse it in the first step, reducing the cost of the process.

Benyahia’s process is unusual in that it reduces the need for brine disposal by nearly 100 percent, ending up with sodium bicarbonate, calcium chloride and ammonia for reuse in the first step. It also uses pure CO2, whereas other similar processes use flue gas from power plants—which is about 10 percent CO2 and contains other gases. Using flue gas adds a step of separating out the pure CO2, making the process more expensive. Qatar already has natural gas processing plants venting pure CO2 close to brine disposal stations, making Benyahia's solution potentially cost-effective, at least in places with similar infrastructure.

Brine disposal is a big problem in much of the Middle East. The gulf, along with the Red and Mediterranean seas, are turning saltier because of desalination by-products—and the region is the epicenter of desalination worldwide, with the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain and Oman making up 45 percent of global desalination capacity. This brine is typically twice as salty as seawater, and advanced desalination plants still produce approximately two cubic meters of waste brine for every one cubic meter of clean water.

Also contributing to the increased salinity is the geography—these seas are largely enclosed, with low levels of water circulation—as well as decreased freshwater input from rivers including the Euphrates due to large-scale dams and diversions upstream. In some spots in the gulf salinity doubled between 1996 and 2008 and is expected to more than double again by 2050. “I believe that the estimated numbers of salt concentration at year 2050 will be even larger if the desalination projects continue at the same increment level today,” says Raed Bashitialshaaer, a water resources engineer at Lund University in Sweden who specializes in desalination. Desalination capacity in the gulf region is projected to nearly double between 2012 and 2030.

The gulf shoreline is increasingly industrialized, with oil and gas production complexes, power plants and wastewater treatment facilities. These heat the water and pollute it with oil, chemicals, nutrients and salt. Dredging for real estate developments such as the Palm and the World off the coast of Dubai is another stressor. Combined, these impacts are taking a toll. A harmful algae bloom in 2008–09 caused a massive fish kill and damaged hard corals. Studies elsewhere have shown that brine discharge harms marine life, but little research on this has been done in the gulf.

Brine dumping also threatens future drinking water supplies. “It’s harder to clean the water if it’s saltier,” Bashitialshaaer says, adding that the larger amount of energy required to do so and the need to change the membranes in reverse-osmosis plants more frequently increases the expense. The gulf is already seeing lower yields of clean water produced from a specific amount of seawater—and higher costs. “I have studied up to 2050, including all planned plants for right now,” Bashitialshaaer says. “If they continue like this in Arabian Gulf, it will be very difficult to continue.”

Bashitialshaaer recommends dilution as a way to address the pollution problem. This could be accomplished by discharging brine farther offshore or by mixing it with treated wastewater or power plant cooling water to reduce the salinity prior to discharge. He also recommends that Saudi Arabia build new plants on its Red Sea coast, which is not yet as severely affected as the gulf. He said he is not familiar with Benyahia’s work but is skeptical of Solvay-type processes ever becoming economically viable.

Benyahia disputes that assessment, however, citing economic benefits such as easy access to pure CO2 as well as sales of the products of his process: baking soda and calcium chloride. In addition to baking soda’s many well-known household applications, it is used to regulate pH in wastewater treatment and remove paint, as well as in the oil and gas industry, says James Keating, who is marketing the technology for the nonprofit Qatar Foundation's Office of Intellectual Property and Technology Transfer. Calcium chloride, recovered as a liquid, can be used as a preservative for canned vegetables and in the leather tanning industry. The process aims to produce these two products more cheaply than current suppliers and thus find use in these large industrial markets, Keating says.

“With this process we don't need a carbon tax to make this economically viable,” Keating says. He is marketing the technology internationally but says, “It's most applicable where a lot of desalination is happening, especially here in the GCC [Gulf Cooperation Council] and in areas where desalination is prevalent with very fragile marine ecosystems.”


They've had this for two years now.  CLEAN WATER from the Oceans and CLEAN water for PURER Cannabis by the seas.  Also could be used on MARS to clean the BRINES in the #2020CydoniaRover Elon Musk's CITY already has the tech to make CLEAN water at 40 degree latitude and a few longitudes West of Cydonia

Clap Bong7bp Reefer



Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Reply
Canada hasn't fallen apart as a civilization so far.

Uhoh
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
(10-18-2018, 01:16 AM)EA Wrote: Canada hasn't fallen apart as a civilization so far.

Uhoh

Hmm2 Nonono    I see immediate problems with the marketing.
I watched a clip of people being let into a dispensary
by a guard dressed head to toe in black.
A scan of available product had labels with names unrelated to
any known strains.
I looked at the Tweed site and WTF saw stuff with names like...

Argyle
Penelope
Donegal
and BOATY MCBOATFACE !!!

The insufferable British accent reeked,
showing an oppressive "official" mindset.

Ninja

Canadian legalization creates opportunities for Colorado marijuana businesses

https://www.thecannabist.co/2018/10/18/c...es/104712/
Reply
post 10/17 post: Arrow
[Image: image.jpg]
Cannabis retailers warn of lingering supply shortage


Demand for newly legal pot appears to be outstripping supply as retailers run low on some products or are cleaned out completely amid a shortfall that could last for months. 
https://www.ctvnews.ca/canada/cannabis-retailers-warn-of-lingering-supply-shortage-1.4140194


Quote:[Image: hmm2.gif] [Image: nonono.gif]    I see immediate problems with the marketing.
Itza supply side?marketing.
sum one will improvise other ~solutions.

Nine-year-old sells out of Girl Guide cookies in front of cannabis store on first day LilD LilD LilD

[Image: image.png]Nine-year-old Elina Childs poses as she sells Girl Guide Cookies outside a cannabis store in Edmonton on Wednesday, Oct. 17, 2018 in this handout photo. THE CANADIAN PRESS/HO - Seann Childs

Colette Derworiz, The Canadian Press 
Published Thursday, October 18, 2018 3:06PM EDT 
Last Updated Thursday, October 18, 2018 5:47PM EDT


EDMONTON -- She's being called one smart cookie.
As people lined up to buy cannabis at one of six Edmonton cannabis stores that opened Wednesday, a small entrepreneur stood ready to capitalize on what could be expected to be customers' future need for a sweet snack.


Nine-year-old Elina Childs had a wagon full of Girl Guide cookies for sale.



"We've sold cookies in the neighbourhood before with her and it's door to door. People aren't home. There's dogs and everything else," said her father, Seann Childs. "We thought, 'Where can we go to sell them?'

"It just so happens that legalization was coming up in a couple of days."

He and his wife talked to Elina and she thought it was a good idea.

When she got home from school, she grabbed some change from her piggybank. She and her dad loaded up a wagon with three cases of Girl Guide cookies and they walked to the nearby cannabis store.

She started walking up and down the lineup.

"It was well received," said Childs.

"People thought it was awesome. There were people telling her she was doing a great thing, that it was very innovative. There were cars stopping on the street to buy cookies from her. It was really something else. I'd never seen anything quite like that."

Childs said he expected it to go well, but he never thought they would sell out in 45 minutes.

"We were sold out in no time."

An official with the Girl Guides praised Elina's strategy.
Quote:Canada hasn't fallen apart as a civilization so far.

[Image: uhoh.gif]

"Good on her and her family for thinking of it," said Edmonton commissioner Heather Monahan. "It's fun and it's different and what better way to get rid of cookies."

A social media post on Elina outside the pot store went viral and Monahan said they started getting questions about whether it was allowed.

"Why wouldn't it be?" she said. "It wasn't like she was in the store -- that would be a whole different ball game.

"I think it's wonderful."

To make it even better, Elina's parents were able to use the experience as a teaching moment for their daughter.

"She actually has cystic fibrosis, so we encourage her to get out there and do things and be active," Childs said. "Girl Guides is one part of that."

He noted that smoking is usually harmful to her.

"This was one day she could benefit from smoking," said Childs. "We saw that as an opportunity to get out there and teach her a little about what cannabis is.
"Obviously she's not going to be using it before she's 18, I hope, but we like to have frank discussions with her, so she understands what it is and take away that mystery behind it -- just to show her people of all ages and all walks of life are doing this and it's legal in Canada now, just demystify it for her so it's not a big deal for her."

https://www.ctvnews.ca/canada/nine-year-old-sells-out-of-girl-guide-cookies-in-front-of-cannabis-store-on-first-day-1.4140128
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
I assume they changed the name from Girl Scout Cookies...
much to the chagrin of would be purchasers?
Reply
Some of these strange regulations may stem from the Canadian ITNOC movement (evolved from the Nanny State).
Reply
Legal marijuana: The world watches as Canada’s massive social experiment begins

Rich Haridy

October 20th, 2018

[Image: canada-marijuana-1.jpg?auto=format%2Ccom...5fff49e0d4]

What are the questions we hope the Canada experiment will help us answer?(Credit: Cannabis Culture / CC BY 2.0)

On Wednesday October 17, 2018, Canada became the second country in the world to legalize marijuana, joining Uruguay. While a few states in the United States have moved to legalize marijuana in recent years, this highly politicized issue has been the subject of debate and divisive science for decades. 

Those against the legalization of marijuana suggest the drug is dangerous, increasing a person's risk of mental illness and damaging to long-term memory. Making it legally accessible will mean more people will use it, more children will experiment with it and the overall perception of the drug will be that it is safe because it is legal.

Those for marijuana legalization suggest the positives far outweigh the negatives. The argument is that legalization will reduce crime, eliminate the drug's black market origins, and deliver the government hundreds of millions of new tax dollars. Pro-legalization advocates also suggest there is no evidence marijuana use will increase following legalization.

This gigantic social experiment beginning in Canada will offer the biggest insight into the pros and cons of legal recreational marijuana the world has ever seen. Over the next few years academics, law-makers and governments around the globe are sure to be watching the country closely. The legal roll-out of the drug on such a massive scale will undoubtedly offer some clearer answers to these questions that have been so vociferously debated for years.

But what are the big questions we hope the Canada experiment will answer?

[Image: canada-marijuana-6.jpg?auto=format%2Ccom...eb38b5f782]


Will use increase?

A big concern often raised over legalizing marijuana is that by removing the taboo of its illicit status more people will experiment with it, including more children and adolescents. The data up until now has been decidedly mixed on this question. In the United States, Colorado offers the best indication of what effect legalization has on general use rates. The state was one of the first to institute full recreational legalization in 2013 and the results so far have been divisive, to say the least.

One study extravagantly concluded that past-month adult use of marijuana in Colorado increased 63 percent in a two-year average post legalization compared to the two year average prior to legalization. And, in the same time period, youth marijuana use increased 20 percent.

Another more recent survey suggested that while adult use of marijuana has raised slightly since legalization, youth use has remained unchanged. The general overview from most research into Colorado use post-legalization has generally followed this pattern, a mild uptick in adult use and an interesting stability in teen and youth use.

Globally, we have seen reasonably clear evidence suggesting there is no connection between relaxed drug laws and increased use. Portugal is the most compelling case study the world has for the effects of mass drug decriminalization.

In 2001 Portugal made the huge decision to essentially decriminalize all drugs. The law moved personal use and possession of recreational drugs from a criminal offense to a health care issue. Drugs were still illegal but if you were caught with small quantities you would not go to court, but instead attend a "Commission for the Dissuasion of Drug Addiction." These panels, made up of a social worker, a psychiatrist and an attorney, were designed to divert drug users out of a criminal system and into either rehabilitation or social justice scenarios.

The long-term data from the Portugal experiment, at the very least in terms of overall drug use, was incredibly positive. There was no spike in use after criminal penalties were removed, in fact as of 2017, more young people used illicit drugs in the United Kingdom than Portugal.

However, data can be spun into a variety of conclusions, and the Portugal experiment has been rife with alternating impressions of whether country-wide decriminalization has been beneficial. One journalist suggested the data has become a "Rorschach test," where anyone "can look at these numbers and make almost whatever argument they'd like to make."

An example often raised is that personal drug use over the course of an individual's lifetime has increased nearly 50 percent since 2001, however "people reporting drug use over the last 12 months of their lives has actually gone up only slightly."

Will Canada help offer some clarity into the "use versus legalization" issue? Only time will tell. But any issue with increased use will be inevitably be linked to the constantly debated health effects of marijuana.

[Image: canada-marijuana-2.jpg?auto=format%2Ccom...c324ea9b6f]

Is it safe?

A couple of days before Canada pressed play on marijuana legalization a strongly worded editorial was published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal suggesting this was "a national, uncontrolled experiment in which the profits of cannabis producers and tax revenues are squarely pitched against the health of Canadians."

The Canadian Psychiatric Association (CPA) also joined the chorus of medical professionals concerned with the looming legalization, releasing a statement suggesting that due to the effects of the drug on developing brains it must be more restricted to those under the age of 25.

"There is a strong evidence-base showing that early and regular cannabis use can affect cognition, such as memory, attention, intelligence and the ability to process thoughts and experiences," says CPA president, Dr. Wei-Yi Song. "It can also increase the risk of developing a primary psychotic disorder as well as other mental health issues such as depression in those who are already vulnerable to these disorders."

It is reasonably clear that for those prone to mental health problems, marijuana can amplify those issues. However, what effect legalization (or decriminalization) has on these factors from an overall societal perspective is not clear. After just four or five years of legalization in parts of the United States we do not know whether rates of mental health problems are rising. It is probably fair to hypothesize that if use rates do not markedly rise then neither should rates of mental health problems.

One focused study looked at the rates of suicide and admissions into drug treatment centers across Colorado and Washington over the first two years of marijuana legalization. Suicide rates were found to trend ever so slightly up, but the report concluded that it was too marginal to correlate with marijuana legalization.

On the other hand, admissions into drug treatment centers for problematic marijuana use trended downwards after legalization. Instead of making an assumption that legalization was a cause of these trends, it is safe to say this offers an interesting metric indicating legalization does not increase abuse of the drug.

[Image: canada-marijuana-3.jpg?auto=format%2Ccom...cfff9aa30a]

But what about all the stoned drivers?

Connections between marijuana use and traffic accidents is another one of those areas jam-packed with contradictory data. This discordancy came to a head when two studies were released in the same week in 2017. Both studies were examining the impact of marijuana legalization on traffic accidents and both studies came to opposite conclusions.

The more negative study suggested a 3 percent average rise in traffic collisions could be attributed to marijuana legalization across Colorado, Washington and Oregon. The other study, examining crash fatality rates, found that no rise whatsoever in Colorado and Washington compared to the rest of the country. Perhaps it is unsurprising that mild collisions increased yet fatalities did not, however this again proved to be a litmus test of political bias with each study allowing individuals to confirm whatever prior prejudice they had on the subject.

A more broader crash and fatality rate study shows almost no statistical shift in accidents or deaths on the road prior to, and post, marijuana legalization in Washington and Colorado. Yet the chief research officer of the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, David Zuby confidently concludes: "Worry that legalized marijuana is increasing crash rates isn't misplaced. [The] findings on the early experience of Colorado, Oregon and Washington should give other states eyeing legalization pause."

Again we turn to Canada. The mass legalization across such a large country of nearly 40 million people will undoubtedly deliver some interesting data on this matter over the coming years. Despite legalization ticking into reality, Canadian police are reportedly not ready to deal with a raft of new impairment laws brought in to coincide with the legalization. It's unclear exactly how the country, on a broad scale, is planning on dealing with the issue, and everything from impairment tests to blood, saliva and urine testing are apparently about to be implemented.

[Image: canada-marijuana-4.jpg?auto=format%2Ccom...a3301a8aa8]


Legalization reduces crime though, doesn't it?

One of the big arguments often made by advocates for marijuana legalization is that it reduces crime. By eliminating the organized crime networks that distribute and sell the drug, all the negative associations that come with the presence of those networks will inevitably disappear, thus reducing overall crime rates in a community. Again, the data we have from the last few years is decidedly mixed, with politics on both sides infiltrating conclusions made.
Several studies have suggested that overall, legalization of marijuana in the US has not dramatically altered crime rates. It's incredibly difficult to claim a causal connection between legalization and violent crime rates, but both Washington and Colorado have seen decreases in murder rates and violent crime over the past few years. Some suggest this cannot be attributed to marijuana legalization as they are simply continuations of longer, more complex trends.

An interesting report examining some specific areas in California following marijuana legalization has suggested that "home invasions, violent crimes and robberies" have actually increased over the past year. This has been attributed to criminal organizations descending on outlying areas in the state, stealing cash and marijuana to move it across into other states, where the drug is still illegal and the black market thrives.

This, of course, becomes a great datapoint for anti-legalization advocates to jump on, and in 2017, rabid anti-marijuana advocate Attorney General Jeff Sessions said to the media, "We're seeing real violence around that. Experts are telling me there's more violence around marijuana than one would think and there's big money involved."

And technically, Sessions is not necessarily incorrect, although it would be fair to argue that the violence that may be accompanying the legalization of marijuana in some counties is more associated with the states that maintain prohibition that the ones that have legalized it.


[Image: canada-marijuana-5.jpg?auto=format%2Ccom...30fc3b3d30]


One fascinating knock-on effect from legalization could be an associated decrease in violent crime related to Mexican drug cartels. A 2017 study entitled "Is Legal Pot Crippling Mexican Drug Trafficking Organisations? The Effect of Medical Marijuana Laws on US Crime" examined the correlation between the introduction of broad medical marijuana laws in the United States and a decrease in violent crime across states that border Mexico.

The hypothesis is that marijuana, the largest drug market in the United States, results in competing drug cartels battling each other for supremacy along smuggling routes. This is associated with violent crime, murder and robbery. The study found that across California and Arizona border areas, drug cartel associated crime dropped between 1994 and 2012.

Critics of the study could easily suggest that those crime rate drops do not have anything to do with the spread of medical marijuana legislation across the United States. Some have also suggested that drug cartels have simply moved from the marijuana business into human trafficking, kidnapping and cultivation of other drugs such as heroin.

The unexpected effects

Legalization of marijuana is such a significant change to society that it can also result in a number of unexpected effects, both positive and negative. One study examined the efficacy of law enforcement in states post-marijuana legalization, assuming that once police were lifted of the burden of enforcing marijuana offenses, they suddenly had more time to better solve other crimes.

"Our models show no negative effects of legalization and, instead, indicate that crime clearance rates for at least some types of crime are increasing faster in states that legalized than in those that did not," write the authors of the study in Police Quarterly.

There also have been some claims that states with either medical or recreational marijuana have seen dramatic drops in opioid prescriptions and usage. Again, this is correlation and not causation, but it raises interesting questions over the role marijuana legalization could play, especially in a country such as the United States, which is suffering from a major opioid use epidemic.

Another interesting side effect of marijuana legalization could very well be decreases in general alcohol use. One study from Georgia State University concluded that alcohol sales notably dropped in states that instituted medical marijuana laws. The research suggests a drop of about 15 percent in alcohol sales could be seen over a 10 year period in states with medical marijuana legislation.

Canada, the world is watching

Ultimately, we just don't know what the effects of mass marijuana legalization are on a large society, especially over the long-term. So far the localized recreational legislations in the United States have delivered mixed results, with data that has obviously been able to support both pro and con arguments.
What we can be sure of is that the day after legalization of marijuana passes, the sky will not cave in, and society will not collapse. The Canada experiment will undeniably take several years before, at the very least, we can understand if use rates rise or crime rates are effected. And it will take many years more to understand what the mental health effects may be. But the world is watching, and Canada's success or failure with this grand experiment will undoubtedly determine the drug policies of many countries around the globe for decades to come.


Sources: https://newatlas.com/canada-legal-marijuana/56843/

Bob... Ninja Assimilated Bong7bp
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Reply
Subject: Unknown Cannabinoids

For the last 5 days I've been testing out a strain
known only for its naturally purple colorations.

Other purple/black types seemed to have the property of stimulating dreams.
Now I'm convinced.
I haven't had daily dreams for 30 years and hardly any otherwise with normal types.

Hypothesis: Lucid Awareness possible

Damned
Reply
...


Quote:Other purple/black types seemed to have the property of stimulating dreams.


way in the back when,
{decades ago}
we used to get a black Colombian weed.
It had little tiny immature white seeds in hard tight fat noogie buds.
Super high quality and very relaxing.
These guys had boxes of shake left over from the import bulk.
I had the opportunity to sift through the shake of a few big boxes,
for the best hardest fattest stray noogie buds lost in the shake.
I got several oz.s for myself.
Stashed it all.
I will never forget that weed.
At the time, some Paki gold seal hash was in town,
and I would make mixes of the Black Colombian and black Paki gold seal. 
Spectacular high, especially for sex.

...
Reply
(Today, 02:26 AM)Vianova Wrote: Spectacular high, especially for sex.

I need some of that to fight this fracking pacemaker Duel

I'd likely be dead by keeping 20 h/b/m orgasms, but I'm waiting for answer from Vermont Drs. to see uf they'll give me remote control to turn off when I NEED it to.

I'll have to buy some seeds for that type of weeds, already got 14 plants under grow LED light from 20 seeds that survived one year in little fridge I have upstairs.  Got LED grow light they LOVE so I turned all florescent, and regular white light  LEDS that were long shop lights.  I give them electric jolts 60 min several times a day, even put some fishing worms in there and play music to them.  Happy little ladies.

Found out that putting electric current through TEM Pads in "Secret Life of Plants", also some strawberry tops I cut off and buried them deep before starting the grow. They look happy and healthy, Better than my old system upstairs in 85-90 degree F especially when using wood stove.  Need double vent made outside that room to do any true grow again in that room.  Also pay off credit cards and get these multi-color LED Grow Lights. They all moved back from reaching for florescent light to grow light.

Thanx Vianova Black Colombian strain. Next buy. Next Year.

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Reply


Forum Jump:


Users browsing this thread: Kalter Rauch, 1 Guest(s)