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Top-Hats and Dunce Caps...Honestly, Of Whom am I Thinkin' ?
Our soul's activity comes from two main organs..imho..the Brain and Heart.

The CREATOR placed the ENTIRE Universe is subject to "waves" of energy.

It is how we can create the "Consensus Reality" between humans.

Now, how one is brought up, life experiences, and personal activities are PART of that...but also I believe that the Creation of the Universe is also still at work. Angel 

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
(04-04-2018, 08:20 PM)EA Wrote: Some researchers thought that these ultra-slow waves were no more than an artifact of the MRI technique itself. MRI gauges brain activity indirectly by measuring the flow of oxygen-rich blood over a period of seconds, a very long timescale for an organ that sends messages at one-tenth to one-hundredth of a second. Rather than a genuinely slow process, the reasoning went, the waves could be the sum of many rapid electrical signals over a relatively long time.
First author Anish Mitra, PhD, and Andrew Kraft, PhD - both MD/PhD students at Washington University - and colleagues decided to approach the mystery of the ultra-slow waves using two techniques that directly measure electrical activity in mice brains. In one, they measured such activity on the cellular level. In the other, they measured electrical activity layer by layer along the outer surface of the brain.
They found that the waves were no artifact: Ultra-slow waves were seen regardless of the technique, and they were not the sum of all the faster electrical activity in the brain.
Instead, the researchers found that the ultra-slow waves spontaneously started in a deep layer of mice's brains and spread in a predictable trajectory. As the waves passed through each area of the brain, they enhanced the electrical activity there. Neurons fired more enthusiastically when a wave was in the vicinity.
Moreover, the ultra-slow waves persisted when the mice were put under general anesthesia, but with the direction of the waves reversed.

"There is a very slow process that moves through the brain to create temporary windows of opportunity for long-distance signaling," Mitra said. "The way these ultra-slow waves move through the cortex is correlated with enormous changes in behavior, such as the difference between conscious and unconscious states."

[Image: Sketch-of-the-different-types-of-wakes-a...ship-3.png]
The fact that the waves' trajectory changed so dramatically with state of consciousness suggests that ultra-slow waves could be fundamental to how the brain functions.

[Image: jfkkub.jpg]
 If brain areas are thought of as boats bobbing about on a slow-wave sea, the choppiness and direction of the sea surely influences how easily a message can be passed from one boat to another, and how hard it is for two boats to coordinate their activity.

The researchers now are studying whether abnormalities in the trajectory of such ultra-slow waves could explain some of the differences seen on MRI scans between healthy people and people with neuropsychiatric conditions such as dementia and depression.

"If you look at the brain of someone with schizophrenia, you don't see a big lesion, but something is not right in how the whole beautiful machinery of the brain is organized," said Raichle, who is also a professor of biomedical engineering, of neurology, of neuroscience and of psychological and brain sciences. "What we've found here could help us figure out what is going wrong. These very slow waves are unique, often overlooked and utterly central to how the brain is organized. That's the bottom line."
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: 'Waves' of neural activity give new clues about Alzheimer's
More information: Neuron (2018). DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2018.03.015

Journal reference: Neuron [/url]
[b]Provided by:
Washington University School of Medicine

right where we left off Arrow

A heavy working memory load may sink brainwave 'synch'

April 5, 2018, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

[Image: aheavyworkin.jpg]
Three regions are involved in producing visual working memory, but when the system breaks down above its maximum capacity. Credit: Picower Institute for Learning and Memory
Everyday experience makes it obvious - sometimes frustratingly so - that our working memory capacity is limited. We can only keep so many things consciously in mind at once. The results of a new study may explain why: They suggest that the "coupling," or synchrony, of brain waves among three key regions breaks down in specific ways when visual working memory load becomes too much to handle.

"When you reach capacity there is a loss of feedback coupling," said senior author Earl Miller, Picower Professor of Neuroscience at MIT's Picower Institute for Learning and Memory. That loss of synchrony means the regions can no longer communicate with each other to sustain working memory.
Maximum working memory capacity - for instance the total number of images a person can hold in working memory at the same time - varies by individual but averages about four, Miller said. Researchers have correlated working memory capacity with intelligence.
Understanding what causes working memory to have an intrinsic limit is therefore important because it could help explain the limited nature of conscious thought and optimal cognitive performance, Miller said.
And because certain psychiatric disorders can lower capacity, said Miller and lead author Dimitris Pinotsis, a research affiliate in Miller's lab, the findings could also explain more about how such disorders interfere with thinking.
"Studies show that peak load is lower in schizophrenics and other patients with neurological or psychiatric diseases and disorders compared to healthy people," Pinotsis said. "Thus, understanding brain signals at peak load can also help us understand the origins of cognitive impairments."
The study's other author is Timothy Buschman, assistant professor at the Princeton University Neuroscience Institute and a former member of the Miller lab.
How working memory stops working
The new study published in the journal Cerebral Cortex is a detailed statistical analysis of data the Miller lab recorded when animal subjects played a simple game: They had to spot the difference when they were shown a set of squares on a screen and then, after a brief blank screen, a nearly identical set in which one square had changed color. The number of squares involved, hence the working memory load of each round, varied so that sometimes the task exceeded the animals' capacity.

As the animals played, the researchers measured the frequency and timing of brain waves produced by ensembles of neurons in three regions presumed to have an important - though as yet unknown - relationship in producing visual working memory: the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the frontal eye fields (FEF), and the lateral intraparietal area (LIP).
The researchers' goal was to characterize the crosstalk among these three areas, as reflected by patterns in the brain waves, and to understand specifically how that might change as load increased to the point where it exceeded capacity.
Though the researchers focused on these three areas, they didn't know how they might work with each other. Using sophisticated mathematical techniques, they tested scores of varieties of how the regions "couple," or synchronize, at high- and low-frequencies. The "winning" structure was whichever one best fit the experimental evidence.
[Image: 1-aheavyworkin.jpg]
Three brain regions, the the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the frontal eye fields (FEF), and the lateral intraparietal area (LIP), share feedback and feedforward signals in visual working memory. Credit: Pinotsis et. al.
"It was very open ended," Miller said. "We modeled all different combinations of feedback and feedforward signals among the areas and waited to see where the data would lead."
They found that the regions essentially work as a committee, without much hierarchy, to keep working memory going. They also found changes as load approached and then exceeded capacity.
"At peak memory load, the brain signals that maintain memories and guide actions based on these memories, reach their maximum," Pinotsis said. "Above this peak, the same signals break down."
In particular, above capacity the PFC's coupling to other regions at low frequency stopped, Miller said.
Other research suggests that the PFC's role might be to employ low-frequency waves to provide the feedback the keeps the working memory system in synch. When that signal breaks down, Miller said, the whole enterprise may as well. That may explain why memory capacity has a finite limit. In prior studies, he said, his lab has observed that the information in neurons degrades as load increases, but there wasn't an obvious cut-off where working memory would just stop functioning.
"We knew that stimulus load degrades processing in these areas, but we hadn't seen any distinct change that correlated with reaching capacity," he said. "But we did see this with feedback coupling. It drops off when the subjects exceeded their capacity. The PFC stops providing feedback coupling to the FEF and LIP."
Two sides to the story

Because the study game purposely varied where the squares appeared on the left or right side of the visual field, the data also added more evidence for a discovery Miller and colleagues first reported back in 2009: Visual working memory is distinct for each side of the visual field. People have independent capacities on their left and their right, research has confirmed.
The Miller Lab is now working on a new study that tracks how the three regions interact when working memory information must be shared across the visual field.

The insights Miller's lab has produced into visual working memory led him to start the company SplitSage, which last month earned a patent for technology to measure people's positional differences in visual working memory capacity. The company hopes to use insights from Miller's research to optimize heads-up displays in cars and to develop diagnostic tests for disorders like dementia among other applications. Miller is the company's chief scientist and Buschman is chair of the advisory board.
The more scientists learn about how working memory works, and more generally about how brain waves synchronize higher level cognitive functions, the more ways they may be able to apply that knowledge to help people, Miller said.
"If we can figure out what things rhythms are doing and how they are doing them and when they are doing them, we may be able to find a way to strengthen the rhythms when they need to be strengthened," he said.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Neuroscientists suggest a model for how we gain volitional control of what we hold in our minds
More information: Dimitris A Pinotsis et al, Working Memory Load Modulates Neuronal Coupling, Cerebral Cortex (2018). DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bhy065

Journal reference: Cerebral Cortex [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Recall:   three key regions
Dimitris A Pinotsis et al, Working Memory Load Modulates Neuronal Coupling, Cerebral Cortex (2018). DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bhy065

[url=][Image: 40390095375_862d483cd2_b.jpg]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
you can overcome
"peak load memory" and the breakdown of brain capacity they refer to {last post},
unique inspiration -- and the inspiration can be maintained almost indefinitely,
as long as there is a prime motivation factor,
similar to a spiritual experience accelerating the inspiration.  

unique inspiration -- 
which catalyzes -- exponential insight applied to memory load focus -- perceptual multi tasking ...

sometimes can border on obsessive compulsive when younger

but no matter what .. at some point of exponential over accomplished brain function,
there has to be some ... rest ... sleep on it ... 
balanced inspiration,
but at some point ... there has to be some ... crash and burnout ... fizzzzzzle ... and ... poof 

been there done that
too many times
but I always enjoy the inspiration

A physics professor challenged me to do my harmonic code once ... 
on the Cabibbo angle -- 13.04 degrees.
I was quite inspired.
No more than a few hours later ...
I found a fabulous angle tangent good to 10 decimals -- 13.04000000 degrees


and I didn't crash and burn.

Because the study game purposely varied where the squares appeared on the left or right side of the visual field, the data also added more evidence for a discovery Miller and colleagues first reported back in 2009: Visual working memory is distinct for each side of the visual field. People have independent capacities on their left and their right, research has confirmed.

[/b]The Miller Lab is now working on a new study that tracks how the three regions interact when working memory information must be shared across the visual field.

A cosmic gorilla effect could blind the detection of aliens

Date:April 10, 2018Source:FECYT - Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology

[Image: 180410132835_1_540x360.jpg]
Inside the Occator crater of the dwarf planet Ceres appears a strange structure, looking like a square inside a triangle.
[Image: 40390095375_862d483cd2_b.jpg]

Credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech

A well-known experiment with young people bouncing a ball showed that when an observer focuses on counting the passes, he does not detect if someone crosses the stage disguised as a gorilla. According to researchers at the University of Cádiz (Spain), something similar could be happening to us when we try to discover intelligent non-earthly signals, which perhaps manifest themselves in dimensions that escape our perception, such as the unknown dark matter and energy.
One of the problems that have long intrigued experts in cosmology is how to detect possible extraterrestrial signals. Are we really looking in the right direction? Maybe not, according to the study that the neuropsychologists Gabriel de la Torre and Manuel García, from the University of Cádiz, publish in the journal Acta Astronautica.
"When we think of other intelligent beings, we tend to see them from our perceptive and conscience sieve; however we are limited by our sui generis vision of the world, and it's hard for us to admit it," says De la Torre, who prefers to avoid the terms 'extraterrestrial' or aliens by its Hollywood connotations and use another more generic, as 'non-terrestrial'.
"What we are trying to do with this differentiation is to contemplate other possibilities -- he says-, for example, beings of dimensions that our mind cannot grasp; or intelligences based on dark matter or energy forms, which make up almost 95% of the universe and which we are only beginning to glimpse. There is even the possibility that other universes exist, as the texts of Stephen Hawking and other scientists indicate."
The authors state that our own neurophysiology, psychology and consciousness can play an important role in the search for non-terrestrial civilizations; an aspect that they consider has been neglected until now.
In relation to this, they conducted an experiment with 137 people, who had to distinguish aerial photographs with artificial structures (buildings, roads ...) from others with natural elements (mountains, rivers ...). In one of the images, a tiny character disguised as a gorilla was inserted to see if the participants noticed.
This test was inspired by the one carried out by the researchers Christopher Chabris and Daniel Simons in the 90s to show the inattention blindness of the human being. A boy in a gorilla costume could walk in front of a scene, gesticulating, while the observers were busy in something else (counting the ball passes of players in white shirts), and more than half did not notice.
"It is very striking, but very significant and representative at the same time, how our brain works," says De la Torre, who explains how the results were similar in the case of his experiment with the images. "In addition, our surprise was greater," he adds, "since before doing the test to see the inattentional blindness we assessed the participants with a series of questions to determine their cognitive style (if they were more intuitive or rational), and it turned out that the intuitive individuals identified the gorilla of our photo more times than those more rational and methodical."
"If we transfer this to the problem of searching for other non-terrestrial intelligences, the question arises about whether our current strategy may result in us not perceiving the gorilla," stresses the researcher, who insists: "Our traditional conception of space is limited by our brain, and we may have the signs above and be unable to see them. Maybe we're not looking in the right direction."
Another example presented in the article is an apparently geometric structure that can be seen in the images of Occator, a crater of the dwarf planet Ceres famous for its bright spots. "Our structured mind tells us that this structure looks like a triangle with a square inside, something that theoretically is not possible in Ceres," says De la Torre, "but maybe we are seeing things where there are none, what in psychology is called pareidolia."
However, the neuropsychologist points out another possibility: "The opposite could also be true. We can have the signal in front of us and not perceive it or be unable to identify it. If this happened, it would be an example of the cosmic gorilla effect. In fact, it could have happened in the past or it could be happening right now."
Three types of intelligent civilizations
In their study, the authors also pose how different classes of intelligent civilizations could be. They present a classification with three types based on five factors: biology, longevity, psychosocial aspects, technological progress and distribution in space.
An example of Type 1 civilizations is ours, which could be ephemeral if it mishandles technology or planetary resources, or if it does not survive a cataclysm. But it could also evolve into a Type 2 civilization, characterized by the long longevity of its members, who control quantum and gravitational energy, manage space-time and are able to explore galaxies.
"We were well aware that the existing classifications are too simplistic and are generally only based on the energy aspect. The fact that we use radio signals does not necessarily mean that other civilizations also use them, or that the use of energy resources and their dependence are the same as we have," the researchers point out, recalling the theoretical nature of their proposals.
The third type of intelligent civilization, the most advanced, would be constituted by exotic beings, with an eternal life, capable of creating in multidimensional and multiverse spaces, and with an absolute dominion of dark energy and matter.

Journal Reference:
  1. Gabriel G. De la Torre, Manuel A. Garcia. The cosmic gorilla effect or the problem of undetected non terrestrial intelligent signals. Acta Astronautica, 2018; 146: 83 DOI: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2018.02.036
FECYT - Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology. "A cosmic gorilla effect could blind the detection of aliens." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 10 April 2018. <>.

Tobias Owen Sheep  To Bias Own

Because the study game purposely varied where the squares appeared on the left or right side of the visual field, the data also added more evidence for a discovery Miller and colleagues first reported back in 2009: Visual working memory is distinct for each side of the visual field. People have independent capacities on their left and their right, research has confirmed.

The Miller Lab is now working on a new study that tracks how the three regions interact when working memory information must be shared across the visual field.

The emotions we feel may shape what we see

April 11, 2018, Association for Psychological Science

[Image: 5863ab20c0cdf.jpg]
Credit: CC0 Public Domain
Our emotional state in a given moment may influence what we see, according to findings published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science. In two experiments, researchers found that participants saw a neutral face as smiling more when it was paired with an unseen positive image.

The research shows that humans are active perceivers, say psychological scientist Erika Siegel of the University of California, San Francisco and her coauthors.
"We do not passively detect information in the world and then react to it - we construct perceptions of the world as the architects of our own experience. Our affective feelings are a critical determinant of the experience we create," the researchers explain. "That is, we do not come to know the world through only our external senses - we see the world differently when we feel pleasant or unpleasant."
In previous studies, Siegel and colleagues found that influencing people's emotional states outside of conscious awareness shifted their first impressions of neutral faces, making faces seem more or less likeable, trustworthy, and reliable. In this research, they wanted to see if changing people's emotional states outside awareness might actually change how they see the neutral faces.
Using a technique called continuous flash suppression, the researchers were able to present stimuli to participants without them knowing it. In one experiment, 43 participants had a series of flashing images, which alternated between a pixelated image and a neutral face, presented to their dominant eye. At the same time, a low-contrast image of a smiling, scowling, or neutral face was presented to their nondominant eye - typically, this image will be suppressed by the stimulus presented to the dominant eye and participants will not consciously experience it.
At the end of each trial, a set of five faces appeared and participants picked the one that best matched the face they saw during the trial.
The face that was presented to participants' dominant eye was always neutral. But they tended to select faces that were smiling more as the best match if the image that was presented outside of their awareness showed a person who was smiling as opposed to neutral or scowling

In a second experiment, the researchers included an objective measure of awareness, asking participants to guess the orientation of the suppressed face.
[Image: image049.jpg]
Those who correctly guessed the orientation at better than chance levels were not included in subsequent analyses. Again, the results indicated that unseen positive faces changed participants' perception of the visible neutral face.

Given that studies often show negative stimuli as having greater influence on behavior and decision making, the robust effect of positive faces in this research is intriguing and an interesting area for future exploration, the researchers note.
Siegel and colleagues add that their findings could have broad, real-world implications that extend from everyday social interactions to situations with more severe consequences, such as when judges or jury members have to evaluate whether a defendant is remorseful.
Ultimately, these experiments provide further evidence that what we see is not a direct reflection of the world but a mental representation of the world that is infused by our emotional experiences.
More information: Erika H. Siegel et al, Seeing What You Feel: Affect Drives Visual Perception of Structurally Neutral Faces, Psychological Science (2018). [url=]DOI: 10.1177/0956797617741718

Journal reference: Psychological Science [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: Association for Psychological Science
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
walking backwards Sheep looking forwards.

Scientists discover hidden structure of enigmatic 'backwards' neural connections
April 16, 2018, Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown

[Image: 34-scientistsdi.jpg]
The existence of 'backwards' neural connections linking distant areas of the neocortex -- the part of the brain responsible for higher cognitive functions -- have baffled scientists for decades. Credit: Marques et al.
For decades, the neuroscience community has been baffled by the existence of dense connections in the brain that seem to be going "backwards." These connections, which span extensively across distant areas of the neocortex, are clearly conveying important information. But until now, the organization of the connections, and therefore their possible role, was largely unknown.

In a study published today in the scientific journal Nature Neuroscience, scientists at the Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown in Lisbon report for the first time that these connections form an exquisitely organised map of the visual space and provide important insights into how they may be involved in visual perception.
"Our current understanding of the visual system suggests a hierarchical model," explains Leopoldo Petreanu, the leading researcher of the study. "According to this model, lower structures receive an image from the eyes, which is then processed and relayed forward to higher structures of the neocortex for the extraction of key features, such as contours, objects, and so on."
Petreanu adds, "This could have been a great model, if it weren't for the elephant in the room—that there are as many, if not more, connections that go backward, from higher to lower areas. The function of these so-called feedback connections has been a mystery for neuroscientists for decades."
Previous attempts to elucidate the nature of these connections made things even more confusing. "Feedback connections are very messy," says Petreanu. "Under the microscope, they look like an extensive mesh of wires intertwined like a spaghetti bowl. And to make matters even worse, intermingled wires encode a variety of signals. It really wasn't clear whether there was any order in this mess."
Many theories have been proposed for the role of these feedback connections in cognition, including attention, expectation and awareness. However, it was impossible to tell which of the theories were true since the connectivity map was unknown.
To solve the mystery, Petreanu, together with Tiago Marques and Julia Nguyen, the first co-authors of the study, used a unique method that was developed by Petreanu a few years ago. With this method, the researchers measured the activity in the actual connection points made between higher and lower structures.
"This method has provided us with groundbreaking insight into how feedback connections are organised and how this organisation might shape visual perception," says Marques. "Hidden in the tangle of wires we found that there is a beautiful organisation, where feedback connections target specific neurons in lower structures depending on the signals they carry."

But what, exactly, is this organisation, and what might be its role in visual perception? Petreanu and Marques report several insights that shed light onto this long-standing mystery.
Feedback connections tell the big picture
The first insight occurred when the researchers asked whether the connections follow any particular pattern. Their guess was that they do.
"In many separate structures of the visual system, beginning with the eye itself, neighboring neurons encode neighboring areas of the visual space. This way, the individual structures contain an almost one-to-one map of the image," Marques explains.
This map exists in the primary visual cortex (also called V1), which is the entry point of visual information to the neocortex. This was the researchers' starting point. They asked: whether feedback connections matched the visual map encoded in V1.
"The answer we found was yes and no," Marques says. "The majority of feedback inputs formed the same spatial map as the areas they connected to in V1. In other words, the V1 and feedback maps were superimposed on each other. This observation had already been reported in other species, such as primates, so we weren't surprised. However, in the mouse, we also observed something new. The feedback connections also encoded information from further locations in the visual space. Since the technique we used is novel and has only been applied here, it is likely that this might be found in the future in other species as well."
This finding suggests that feedback signals sent from higher cortical areas are used to provide lower structures with context. "According to the hierarchical structure of the visual system, lower structures would only have access to local, low-level information," Marques explains. "What the feedback connections give them is the whole picture. This way, the activity of neurons in lower structures can be altered according to the current context. This type of contextual information is very important for visual perception. For instance, a round, green shape seen at a distance would be readily identified as a tennis ball when seen in the context of a tennis court, or as an apple if seen in the context of a fruit bowl."
Telling the brain where not to look
This first discovery motivated the researchers to look even further into what other types of information the feedback connections might be sending to V1. This time, they asked whether these connections might help V1 neurons find objects. "The world is made up of objects," Petreanu explains. "The phone in your hand, the cars on the road, these are all objects that are defined by continuous lines. Therefore, it's not surprising that neurons in the visual system care a lot about these lines."
How could feedback connections help accentuate the lines that make up objects? There are two possibilities—they can either amplify the activity in V1 where the lines are, or they can dampen activity where they are not supposed to be.
"We found that the second option is the most likely to be true," says Petreanu. "The feedback connections were abundant in V1 in areas outside the lines. We therefore hypothesise that this organisation is probably silencing neurons in the areas that lie outside the line, and thereby enhancing the contrast between objects and their surroundings."
Next, the researchers asked whether feedback connections might participate in motion detection. To their surprise, they found not only that they do, but that they use the same strategy to do it. "This time, the visual feature was different, but the feedback connections played the same role," says Marques. "We observed that feedback connections that respond to moving objects were enriched in V1 in regions opposite to the direction of movement."
Together, these results suggest something of a clairvoyant role for these feedback connections. How do they know which neurons should be active at any given moment in time?
"We believe that these results imply that this set of feedback connections learn through experience what to expect from the world and then use this knowledge to shape incoming visual information," says Petreanu. "In the world, objects are defined by continuous lines, not scattered dots, and moving objects tend to maintain their trajectory, not move around randomly. So feedback connections try to accentuate these particular features that they have learned to anticipate. Surprisingly, they do so by pointing to locations that are opposite to the expected ones."
From biological vision to machine vision
The results of Petreanu and Marques provide an important piece of the puzzle of how the neocortex is organized and suggest how visual perception could be generated in the brain. According to Petreanu, these findings not only contribute to our understanding of biology, but might also carry implications for the field of machine vision.
"The relationship between machine vision and neuroscience has always been a close one," says Petreanu. "Our knowledge of how the circuitry of the brain, and in particular the neocortex, is organized, has helped inspire doink-head that have been increasingly more successful in enabling machines to 'see.""
According to Petreanu, while current machine vision doink-head are pretty good they can not yet match the performance of humans. "Paralleling the neuroscientists' understanding, modern machine vision doink-head usually don't make use of feedback connections. Our findings might inspire new doink-head that will take advantage of these connections, which might make the future arrive a bit sooner," he concludes.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Neural connections mapped with unprecedented detail
More information: Tiago Marques et al, The functional organization of cortical feedback inputs to primary visual cortex, Nature Neuroscience (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41593-018-0135-z

Journal reference: Nature Neuroscience [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown

We think we're the first advanced earthlings—but how do we really know?

April 16, 2018, University of Rochester

[Image: wethinkweret.jpg]
How do we really know there weren't previous industrial civilizations on Earth that rose and fell long before human beings appeared? That's the question posed in a scientific thought experiment by University of Rochester astrophysicist Adam …more
Imagine if, many millions of years ago, dinosaurs drove cars through cities of mile-high buildings. A preposterous idea, right? Over the course of tens of millions of years, however, all of the direct evidence of a civilization—its artifacts and remains—gets ground to dust. How do we really know, then, that there weren't previous industrial civilizations on Earth that rose and fell long before human beings appeared?

It's a compelling thought experiment, and one that Adam Frank, a professor of physics and astronomy at the University of Rochester, and Gavin Schmidt, the director of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, take up in a paper published in the International Journal of Astrobiology.

"Gavin and I have not seen any evidence of another industrial civilization," Frank explains. But by looking at the deep past in the right way, a new set of questions about civilizations and the planet appear: What geological footprints do civilizations leave? Is it possible to detect an industrial civilization in the geological record once it disappears from the face of its host planet? "These questions make us think about the future and the past in a much different way, including how any planetary-scale civilization might rise and fall."

In what they deem the "Silurian Hypothesis," Frank and Schmidt define a civilization by its energy use. Human beings are just entering a new geological era that many researchers refer to as the Anthropocene, the period in which human activity strongly influences the climate and environment. In the Anthropocene, fossil fuels have become central to the geological footprint humans will leave behind on Earth. By looking at the Anthropocene's imprint, Schmidt and Frank examine what kinds of clues future scientists might detect to determine that human beings existed. In doing so, they also lay out evidence of what might be left behind if industrial civilizations like ours existed millions of years in the past.

Human beings began burning fossil fuels more than 300 years ago, marking the beginnings of industrialization. The researchers note that the emission of fossil fuels into the atmosphere has already changed the carbon cycle in a way that is recorded in carbon isotope records. Other ways human beings might leave behind a geological footprint include:
  • Global warming, from the release of carbon dioxide and perturbations to the nitrogen cycle from fertilizers
  • Agriculture, through greatly increased erosion and sedimentation rates
  • Plastics, synthetic pollutants, and even things such as steroids, which will be geochemically detectable for millions, and perhaps even billions, of years
  • Nuclear war, if it happened, which would leave behind unusual radioactive isotopes
"As an industrial civilization, we're driving changes in the isotopic abundances because we're burning carbon," Frank says. "But burning fossil fuels may actually shut us down as a civilization. What imprints would this or other kinds of industrial activity from a long dead civilization leave over tens of millions of years?"


The questions raised by Frank and Schmidt are part of a broader effort to address climate change from an astrobiological perspective, and a new way of thinking about life and civilizations across the universe. Looking at the rise and fall of civilizations in terms of their planetary impacts can also affect how researchers approach future explorations of other planets.

"We know early Mars and, perhaps, early Venus were more habitable than they are now, and conceivably we will one day drill through the geological sediments there, too," Schmidt says. "This helps us think about what we should be looking for."

Schmidt points to an irony, however: if a civilization is able to find a more sustainable way to produce energy without harming its host planet, it will leave behind less evidence that it was there.

"You want to have a nice, large-scale civilization that does wonderful things but that doesn't push the planet into domains that are dangerous for itself, the civilization," Frank says. "We need to figure out a way of producing and using energy that doesn't put us at risk."

That said, the earth will be just fine, Frank says. It's more a question of whether humans will be.

Can we create a version of civilization that doesn't push the earth into a domain that's dangerous for us as a species?

"The point is not to 'save the earth,'" says Frank. "No matter what we do to the planet, we're just creating niches for the next cycle of evolution. But, if we continue on this trajectory of using fossil fuels and ignoring the climate change it drives, we human beings may not be part of Earth's ongoing evolution."

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Earth as hybrid planet: New classification places Anthropocene era in astrobiological context

More information: Gavin A. Schmidt et al. The Silurian hypothesis: would it be possible to detect an industrial civilization in the geological record?, International Journal of Astrobiology (2018). DOI: 10.1017/S1473550418000095

Journal reference: International Journal of Astrobiology [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: University of Rochester

Read more at:
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
[Image: avatar_52.jpg?dateline=1429826092]
A tip o' the hat to ya! Wook!  
Thank you for your instruction.

Trump's divisive pick to run NASA wins narrow confirmation
April 19, 2018 by Seth Borenstein

[Image: nasalogo.gif]
NASA's latest nail-biting drama was far from orbit as the Senate narrowly confirmed President Donald Trump's choice of a tea party congressman to run the space agency in an unprecedented party-line vote.

In a 50-49 vote Thursday, Oklahoma Rep. James Bridenstine, a Navy Reserve pilot,
[Image: gerald-rannels-last-pic-shared-xmas-2017.jpg]
was confirmed as NASA's 13th administrator, an agency that usually is kept away from partisanship. His three predecessors—two nominated by Republicans—were all approved unanimously. Before that, one NASA chief served under three presidents, two Republicans and a Democrat.

The two days of voting were as tense as a launch countdown.

A procedural vote Wednesday initially ended in a 49-49 tie—Vice President Mike Pence, who normally breaks a tie, was at Trump's Mar-a-Lago estate in Florida—before Arizona Republican Jeff Flake switched from opposition to support, using his vote as leverage to address an unrelated issue.

Thursday's vote included the drama of another delayed but approving vote by Flake, a last-minute no vote by Illinois Democrat Tammy Duckworth—who wheeled onto the floor with her 10-day-old baby in tow—and the possibility of a tie-breaker by Pence, who was back in town.

NASA is a couple years away from launching a new giant rocket and crew capsule to replace the space shuttle fleet that was retired in 2011.

"I look forward to working with the outstanding team at NASA to achieve the president's vision for American leadership in space," Bridenstine said in a NASA release after the vote.

Democrats opposing Bridenstine said his outspoken divisiveness, earlier rejection of mainstream climate change science and lack of space experience made him unqualified. Republicans praised him as a qualified war hero.

"His record of behavior in the Congress is as divisive as any in Washington, including his attacks on members of this body from his own party," Florida Democrat Bill Nelson said. "It's hard to see how that record will endear, and by extension NASA, him to Congress, and most importantly, endear him to the American people. "

Sen. Edward Markey, a Massachusetts Democrat, cited past Bridenstine comments that rejected mainstream climate science, invoking the movie "Apollo 13."

"Houston, we have a problem," Markey said. "NASA's science, NASA's mission and American leadership will be in jeopardy under Congressman Bridenstine's leadership."

During his confirmation hearing, Bridenstine said he acknowledges that global warming is real and man-made, but wouldn't say that it was mostly human-caused, as the overwhelming majority of scientists and scientific literature do. And Bridenstine told Nelson, "I want to make sure that NASA remains, as you said, apolitical."

Texas Republican Ted Cruz praised the NASA nominee as "a war hero."

"NASA needs a strong leader and it will have that strong leader in Jim Bridenstine," Cruz said.

Sean O'Keefe, who was NASA chief under President George W. Bush and was confirmed unanimously, said the close vote "is a consequence of an erosion of comity in the Congress, particularly in the Senate. Political fights will always break out, but now most policy choices are more likely to emerge based on the party with the majority than the power of the idea."

Alan Ladwig, a top NASA political appointee under Democrats, said this was a case of both party politics and a divisive nominee who doesn't accept science.

[/url]Explore further: Senate committee narrowly backs Trump pick for NASA chief

Read more at:

Neuroscientists train a deep neural network to process sounds like humans do

April 19, 2018, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

[Image: 800px-brain_surface_gyri.svg.jpg]
The Primary Auditory Cortex is highlighted in magenta, and has been known to interact with all areas highlighted on this neural map. Credit: Wikipedia.
Using a machine-learning system known as a deep neural network, MIT researchers have created the first model that can replicate human performance on auditory tasks such as identifying a musical genre.

This model, which consists of many layers of information-processing units that can be trained on huge volumes of data to perform specific tasks, was used by the researchers to shed light on how the human brain may be performing the same tasks.
"What these models give us, for the first time, is machine systems that can perform sensory tasks that matter to humans and that do so at human levels," says Josh McDermott, the Frederick A. and Carole J. Middleton Assistant Professor of Neuroscience in the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences at MIT and the senior author of the study. "Historically, this type of sensory processing has been difficult to understand, in part because we haven't really had a very clear theoretical foundation and a good way to develop models of what might be going on."
The study, which appears in the April 19 issue of Neuron, also offers evidence that the human auditory cortex is arranged in a hierarchical organization, much like the visual cortex. In this type of arrangement, sensory information passes through successive stages of processing, with basic information processed earlier and more advanced features such as word meaning extracted in later stages.
MIT graduate student Alexander Kell and Stanford University Assistant Professor Daniel Yamins are the paper's lead authors. Other authors are former MIT visiting student Erica Shook and former MIT postdoc Sam Norman-Haignere.
Modeling the brain
When deep neural networks were first developed in the 1980s, neuroscientists hoped that such systems could be used to model the human brain. However, computers from that era were not powerful enough to build models large enough to perform real-world tasks such as object recognition or speech recognition.
Over the past five years, advances in computing power and neural network technology have made it possible to use neural networks to perform difficult real-world tasks, and they have become the standard approach in many engineering applications. In parallel, some neuroscientists have revisited the possibility that these systems might be used to model the human brain.

"That's been an exciting opportunity for neuroscience, in that we can actually create systems that can do some of the things people can do, and we can then interrogate the models and compare them to the brain," Kell says.
The MIT researchers trained their neural network to perform two auditory tasks, one involving speech and the other involving music. For the speech task, the researchers gave the model thousands of two-second recordings of a person talking. The task was to identify the word in the middle of the clip. For the music task, the model was asked to identify the genre of a two-second clip of music. Each clip also included background noise to make the task more realistic (and more difficult).
After many thousands of examples, the model learned to perform the task just as accurately as a human listener.
"The idea is over time the model gets better and better at the task," Kell says. "The hope is that it's learning something general, so if you present a new sound that the model has never heard before, it will do well, and in practice that is often the case."
The model also tended to make mistakes on the same clips that humans made the most mistakes on.
The processing units that make up a neural network can be combined in a variety of ways, forming different architectures that affect the performance of the model.
The MIT team discovered that the best model for these two tasks was one that divided the processing into two sets of stages. The first set of stages was shared between tasks, but after that, it split into two branches for further analysis—one branch for the speech task, and one for the musical genre task.
Evidence for hierarchy
The researchers then used their model to explore a longstanding question about the structure of the auditory cortex: whether it is organized hierarchically.
In a hierarchical system, a series of brain regions performs different types of computation on sensory information as it flows through the system. It has been well documented that the visual cortex has this type of organization. Earlier regions, known as the primary visual cortex, respond to simple features such as color or orientation. Later stages enable more complex tasks such as object recognition.
However, it has been difficult to test whether this type of organization also exists in the auditory cortex, in part because there haven't been good models that can replicate human auditory behavior.
"We thought that if we could construct a model that could do some of the same things that people do, we might then be able to compare different stages of the model to different parts of the brain and get some evidence for whether those parts of the brain might be hierarchically organized," McDermott says.
The researchers found that in their model, basic features of sound such as frequency are easier to extract in the early stages. As information is processed and moves farther along the network, it becomes harder to extract frequency but easier to extract higher-level information such as words.
To see if the model stages might replicate how the human auditory cortex processes sound information, the researchers used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure different regions of auditory cortex as the brain processes real-world sounds. They then compared the brain responses to the responses in the model when it processed the same sounds.
They found that the middle stages of the model corresponded best to activity in the primary auditory cortex, and later stages corresponded best to activity outside of the primary cortex. This provides evidence that the auditory cortex might be arranged in a hierarchical fashion, similar to the visual cortex, the researchers say.
"What we see very clearly is a distinction between primary auditory cortex and everything else," McDermott says.
The authors now plan to develop models that can perform other types of auditory tasks, such as determining the location from which a particular sound came, to explore whether these tasks can be done by the pathways identified in this model or if they require separate pathways, which could then be investigated in the brain.

Explore further: [url=]Visual cues amplify sound
Provided by Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Neuroscientists train a deep neural network to process sounds like humans do
  looks like / same hear  
Researchers find the brain processes sight and sound in same manner

April 18, 2018, Georgetown University Medical Center

[Image: 2-brain.jpg]
Credit: Wikimedia Commons
Although sight is a much different sense than sound, Georgetown University Medical Center neuroscientists have found that the human brain learns to make sense of these stimuli in the same way.

The researchers say in a two-step process, neurons in one area of the brain learn the representation of the stimuli, and another area categorizes that input so as to ascribe meaning to it—like first seeing just a car without a roof and then analyzing that stimulus in order to place it in the category of "convertible." Similarly, when a child learns a new word, it first has to learn the new sound and then, in a second step, learn to understand that different versions (accents, pronunciations, etc.) of the word, spoken by different members of the family or by their friends, all mean the same thing and need to be categorized together.
"A computational advantage of this scheme is that it allows the brain to easily build on previous content to learn novel information," says the study's senior investigator, Maximilian Riesenhuber, PhD, a professor in Georgetown University School of Medicine's Department of Neuroscience. Study co-authors include first author, Xiong Jiang, PhD; graduate student Mark A. Chevillet; and Josef P. Rauschecker, PhD, all Georgetown neuroscientists.
Their study, published in Neuron, is the first to provide strong evidence that learning in vision and audition follows similar principles. "We have long tried to make sense of senses, studying how the brain represents our multisensory world," says Riesenhuber.
In 2007, the investigators were first to describe the two-step model in human learning of visual categories, and the new study now shows that the brain appears to use the same kind of learning mechanisms across sensory modalities.
The findings could also help scientists devise new approaches to restore sensory deficits, Rauschecker, one of the co-authors, says.
"Knowing how senses learn the world may help us devise workarounds in our very plastic brains," he says. "If a person can't process one sensory modality, say vision, because of blindness, there could be substitution devices that allow visual input to be transformed into sounds. So one disabled sense would be processed by other sensory brain centers."
[Image: 1-howdoesthebr.jpg]
Functional MRI response from a representative subject during a listening task. Credit: Xiong Jiang, Georgetown University
The 16 participants in this study were trained to categorize monkey communication calls— real sounds that mean something to monkeys, but are alien in meaning to humans. The investigators divided the sounds into two categories labeled with nonsense names, based on prototypes from two categories: so-called "coos" and "harmonic arches." Using an auditory morphing system, the investigators were able to create thousands of monkey call combinations from the prototypes, including some very similar calls that required the participants to make fine distinctions between the calls. Learning to correctly categorize the novel sounds took about six hours.

Before and after training, fMRI data were obtained from the volunteers to investigate changes in neuronal tuning in the brain that were induced by categorization training. Advanced fMRI techniques, functional magnetic resonance imaging rapid adaptation (fMRI-RA) and multi-voxel pattern analysis, were used along with conventional fMRI and functional connectivity analyses. In this way, researchers were able to see two distinct sets of changes: a representation of the monkey calls in the left auditory cortex, and tuning analysis that leads to category selectivity for different types of calls in the lateral prefrontal cortex.
"In our study, we used four different techniques, in particular fMRI-RA and MVPA, to independently and synergistically provide converging results. This allowed us to obtain strong results even from a small sample," says co-author Jiang.
Processing sound requires discrimination in acoustics and tuning changes at the level of the auditory cortex, a process that the researchers say is the same between humans and animal communication systems. Using monkey calls instead of human speech forced the participants to categorize the sounds purely on the basis of acoustics rather than meaning.
"At an evolutionary level, humans and animals need to understand who is friend and who is foe, and sight and sound are integral to these judgments," Riesenhuber says.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: After learning new words, brain sees them as pictures
More information: Neuron (2018). DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2018.03.014

Journal reference: Neuron [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: Georgetown University Medical Center

Right where we Left off

There is a Wook neuron write here on my mind.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...

Not recommended for Stu while he is counting craters.
Psychedelic Saturn Audio.

shut your eyes and listen to this ... a few times ... :

video / audio link unavailable for copy and paste, you have to listen at the link,
somebody should make a copy.

Sound of Saturn: Radio Emissions of the Planet and Enceladus

New research from the up-close Grand Finale orbits of NASA’s Cassini mission 
shows a surprisingly powerful interaction of plasma waves  Hi
moving from Saturn to its moon Enceladus. 

Researchers converted the recording of plasma waves into a “whooshing” audio file Jawdrop
that we can hear -- 
in the same way a radio translates electromagnetic waves into music. 

Much like air or water, plasma (the fourth state of matter) generates waves to carry energy. 
The recording was captured by the Radio Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) instrument Sept. 2, 2017, 
two weeks before Cassini was deliberately plunged into the atmosphere of Saturn.

Quote:somebody should make a copy.

Actually you can download the mp4 file at that link:

I downloaded the link I just put above and works fine.  Now to Bong7bp and put it on loop Split_spawn

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Not recommended for  the "Other" Stu while he is quantum creators

Lol. To coin a phrase:

***Whenever you Meant-Shun Dawn Old Krapps name or screen name Arrow  a l g o  it appears as 'doink head!
Algorithm - Wikipedia
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems. doink-head can perform calculation, ...
Recall: Linke is Left eh Stu 2?

Parrondo's paradox with a three-sided coin
July 11, 2018 by Lisa Zyga, feature

[Image: parrondosgame.jpg]
In a quantum version of a Parrondo’s game played with a three-state coin (a qutrit), the two losing strategies (a) and (b) are combined into a winning strategy ©. Credit: Rajendran et al. ©2018 EPL

Physicists have demonstrated that Parrondo's paradox—an apparent paradox in which two losing strategies combine to make a winning strategy—can emerge as a coin game with a single coin in the quantum realm, but only when the coin has three states (heads, tails, and a side) rather than the conventional two.

In general, Parrondo's paradox, also called a Parrondo's game, only works when the two losing strategies are somehow dependent on each other and are combined in such a way as to change the conditions that lead to them losing. Ever since it was discovered by physicist Juan Parrondo in 1996, Parrondo's paradox has found applications in engineering, finance, and evolutionary biology, among other areas.

One of the simplest ways to implement a Parrondo's game is described in this Wikipedia entry. Suppose you have $100, and you can choose to play any combination of two games. In the first game, you lose $1 every time you play. In the second game, you win $3 if you have an even number of dollars left, and you lose $5 if you have an odd number of dollars left. If you only play the first game or only play the second game, you will eventually lose all your money, so playing each game by itself is a losing strategy. However, if you alternate between the two games, starting with the second game, then you will win $2 for every two games you play, so the two losing strategies can combine into a winning strategy.

In the new study, physicists Jishnu Rajendran and Colin Benjamin at the National Institute of Science Education and Research, HBNI, in India, have demonstrated a Parrondo's game using a three-state coin, which they represent with a qutrit, a quantum system with three states.

"Parrondo's games have been seen in a classical context," Benjamin told "Our aim in this work was to show how to implement it in a quantum context, in particular in a quantum walk. Unfortunately, the quantum version of this game when implemented with a single coin (qubit) in a quantum walk failed in the asymptotic limits. What we show in this work is that a qutrit can implement this Parrondo's game in a quantum walk."
[Image: banksy_aristorat.jpg] Right where  Sheep  Eye Left off...

In the quantum walk, a player starts at the origin and moves either right (positive direction) or left (negative direction) according to the result of a coin toss. If heads, the player moves right; if tails, left; and if the result is "side," then the player interprets that as a "wait state" and stays in the same place. As the qutrit is a quantum system, it can also be in a superposition of these states, in which case the player moves to a corresponding position, somewhere in between a full step left or right. At the end of the game, if the probability that the player is found to the right of the origin is greater than the probability of being found to the left of the origin, the player wins. Otherwise, they lose.


Using some of the standard methods in particle physics to define the concepts of a coin toss and game rules with a superposition of states, the physicists demonstrated several examples of games that result in losing when played individually, but when combined in an alternating sequence result in a winning outcome. They also demonstrated examples of the reverse. For example, two games that result in a win and a draw when played individually can result in a losing outcome when combined.

The physicists also showed that, although it's not possible to implement a Parrondo's game using a single two-sided coin (qubit), it is possible to implement a Parrondo's game using two two-sided coins (two qubits). The additional states essentially provide additional flexibility with which to combine strategies that can overcome the conditions of losing.

Given the broad applications of classical Parrondo's games, the physicists expect that quantum version may lead to new insight into designing quantum doink-head.

"Parrondo's game is a recipe for proving one need not always search for a winning strategy (or algorithm) in a game," Benjamin said. "Classically, there are many applications of Parrondo's games, ranging from explaining physiological processes in the cell to increasing our understanding of Brownian motors and even in diversified portfolio investing. Classically, Parrondo's paradox has been shown to work using classical random walks.

"Implementing a Parrondo's game in a quantum walk would have implications for devising better or faster quantum doink-head. An doink-headwhich uses quantum principles like superposition and/or entanglement is a quantum algorithm. An algorithm, if it can be implemented on a quantum walk, would be more lucrative than one which can only be implemented on a classical random walk. As quantum walks spread quadratically faster than classical random walks, an doink-headimplemented on a quantum walk will take much shorter time to complete than one on a classical random walk. Further, the successful implementation of Parrondo's game on a quantum walk provides an algorithmic explanation for quantum ratchets [systems that have motion in one direction only]."

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Quantum strategy offers game-winning advantages, even without entanglement

More information: Jishnu Rajendran and Colin Benjamin. "Playing a true Parrondo's game with a three-state coin on a quantum walk." EPL. DOI: 10.1209/0295-5075/122/40004
Also at arXiv:1710.04033 [quant-ph]

Journal reference: Europhysics Letters (EPL)

Read more at:
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
"Our aim in this work was to show how to implement it in a quantum context, in particular in a quantum walk. Unfortunately, the quantum version of this game when implemented with a single coin (qubit) in a quantum walk failed in the asymptotic limits. What we show in this work is that a qutrit can implement this Parrondo's game in a quantum walk."

This post is from over 6 months ago...

I can't remember why I used "asymptotic".
Wednesday, December 20th, 2017, 10:19 pm
"Asymptotic Involution"

[Image: JHlpgfM.png]

[Image: g40889.gif]
Recall: = ~19.5


Issue No. 04 - July/August (2002 vol. 22)
ISSN: 0272-1716
pp: 88-97
DOI Bookmark:
Andrew Glassner's
[Image: g40888.gif]
When ducks swim on a smooth deep lake, they create a V-shaped ripple of waves behind them. Boats and ships do the same thing, as do human swimmers. I saw a duck swimming across a glass-smooth pond a few weeks ago, and I wondered what it might be like if I could choreograph a flock of trained ducks to swim as I wanted. Could the ducks be induced to make interesting patterns out of their overlapping wakes?

A. Glassner's, "Duck!," in IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 22, no. , pp. 88-97, 2002.

In analytic geometry, an asymptote of a curve is a line such that the distance between the curve and the line approaches zero as one or both of the x or y coordinates tends to infinity

[Image: g40883.gif]


or as·ymp·tot·i·cal
[as-im-tot-ik or as-im-tot-i-kuh l]
See more synonyms on Thesaurus.comadjective Mathematics.
  1. of or relating to an asymptote.
  2. (of a function) approaching a given value as an expression containing a variable tends to infinity.
  3. (of two functions) so defined that their ratio approaches unity as the independent variable approaches a limit or infinity.

noun: involution; plural noun: involutions
  1. 1.
    the shrinkage of an organ in old age or when inactive, e.g., of the uterus after childbirth.
  2. 2.
    a function, transformation, or operator that is equal to its inverse, i.e., which gives the identity when applied to itself.
Quote: I can't remember why I used "asymptotic".

Recall: a function, transformation, or operator that is equal to its inverse, i.e.,
...Right where  Sheep  we Left off...
[Image: images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQTHfVe5iXR5oZs2ZFmLg0...QqcbjaBrSw]
Recall: which gives the identity when applied to itself.

It writes itself... Arrow
[Image: images?q=tbn:ANd9GcT9F0rqUiaJTwFvCjynCwx...I1quYLFtxw]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
How could you find an ACE in a five card face down drawing?

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
"I can't remember why I used "asymptotic". "

Not only that...but I partially knew what Involution meant,
and only connected the two words for surreal effect.

If I read you correctly, 
"asymptotic involution"
is real...
yet seems to imply that chaos increases as unity approaches...?
Kinda looks like a webbed duck foot interfacing with the sub-surface of water.
[Image: JHlpgfM.png]

Quote:How could you find an ACE in a five card face down drawing?

Bob... [Image: ninja.gif] [Image: assimilated.gif]
The driver of the duck boat — Robert “Captain Bob” Williams — loved meeting people on his job.
How can you duck a canard as the wild-card?

face down drowning is Cry  as face down drawing was.
[Image: images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQTHfVe5iXR5oZs2ZFmLg0...QqcbjaBrSw] Aye Eye  Sheep   ain't A.I. [Image: images?q=tbn:ANd9GcT9F0rqUiaJTwFvCjynCwx...I1quYLFtxw]
Don't fear the improvi-sphere.

[Image: g40888.gif]
This post particularly collapsed  wave.

Full Circle.
Quote:If I read you correctly, 
"asymptotic involution"
is real...
yet seems to imply that chaos increases as unity approaches...?
[Image: duck-ht-2-er-180720_hpMain_16x9_992.jpg]
Don't gamble with improv.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Cry On a lighter note...

Itza Great Grammar Spellz Recall: @ Duck-Boat Lake Wake of ~19.5

As seen previously on:

Kinda looks like a webbed great-gramma-duck foot interfacing with the sub-surface of water.....................................
  ....with ~76 followers @ see level.
[Image: JHlpgfM.png]

[b]the great-grandmother!!![/b]

IL Grandmother Drowned Saving Girl, 12, From Sinking Duck Boat

Leslie Dennison, 64, pushed her granddaughter upward after the boat capsized last week in Branson, Missouri.
By Shannon Antinori, Patch National Staff | Jul 23, 2018 5:57 pm ET | Updated Jul 24, 2018 10:26 am ET

Female mergansers leave their ducklings in the care of one female, said David Rave with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources.

"She'd be kind of like the great-grandmother," Rave said.

Man snaps photo of mama duck with 76 ducklings
Posted: Jul 26, 2018 4:16 AM Updated: Jul 26, 2018 4:56 AM
Ashleigh Jackson, Digital Producer, Meredith
[url=][Image: 17277860_G.png?auto=webp&disable=upscale...0726061436]

This June 27, 2018, photo provided by Brent Cizek shows a common merganser and a large group of ducklings following her, on Lake Bemidji in Bemidji, Minn. (Brent Cizek/ via AP)

(AP/Meredith) — An amateur photographer's patience paid off with a stunning photo of a female duck followed by dozens of ducklings on a northern Minnesota lake.
Brent Cizek of Bemidji, Minnesota, said he took his tiny boat out on windy Lake Bemidji in late June when he spotted "a big blob of birds." Cizek later returned and saw the birds grouped in a circle.
As the ducks headed out, Cizek took close to 50 shots — the best showing a common merganser, a freshwater duck, trailed by 76 ducklings in a row.
"I knew the image was special when I took it," Cizek said. It is featured on the National Audubon Society's website.
Richard O. Prum, an ornithologist at Yale University, told The New York Times that many ducklings together is "an extraordinary sighting."
The duck in the photo could not be the mother to all those ducklings. Females can lay between 6 and 13 eggs at a time, according to the National Audubon Society.
Female mergansers leave their ducklings in the care of one female, said David Rave with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources.
"She'd be kind of like the great-grandmother," Rave said.

This free-style was captured on June 27th... they can probably fly by now.

[Image: 17277860_G.png?auto=webp&disable=upscale...0726061436]
Recall: @ Wake of ~19.5
Life goes on...
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Can YOU solve the '100 hat riddle'? Google reveals its AI has cracked puzzle it uses to spot the super smart in interviews
  • Deep neural network demonstrated ability to learn communication protocol
  • Network solved complex riddles, which involved collaborative strategizing
  • In riddles, group of prisoners must develop plan to optimize their survival 
By Cheyenne Macdonald For
Arrow Published: 15:47 EDT, 19 February 2016 | Updated: 20:23 EDT, 19 February 2016

A pair of riddles used during job interviews for Google and Goldman Sachs may have many applicants perplexed, but it's no problem for artificial intelligence.
Google's deep neural network was put through the tests of the 'hats riddle' and the 'switch riddle' both which require complex-problem solving to determine the fates of hypothetical prisoners.
The answers to these riddles are based upon coordinated strategy, and the researchers say the AI's ability to master such tasks reveals a step in the direction of collaborative systems. 
Read the question below - and scroll down for the answer 
[Image: 315FDFF600000578-3455171-The_prisoners_c...786345.jpg]

The prisoners can see the hats of the people lined up in from of them, but they cannot look at the hats behind them, or at their own. The executioner asks the last prisoner to state the colour of his hat. In order to live, the prisoner must answer correctly. If he doesn't, he is killed 'instantly and silently'
100 prisoners are lined up by an executioner, who places a red or blue hat upon each of their heads.
The prisoners can see the hats of the people lined up in from of them, but they cannot look at the hats behind them, or at their own.
Starting at the back of the line, the executioner asks the last prisoner to state the colour of his hat.
In order to live, the prisoner must answer correctly. If he doesn't, he is killed 'instantly and silently.'
This means that the other prisoners will hear the answer, but will not know whether or not it was correct. 
The night before the line-up, the prisoners can discuss a strategy to help them survive. What should they do?
AI called 'deep distributed recurrent Q-networks,' (DDRQN) have demonstrated for the first time that they can work together to solve problems, a team from the University of Oxford, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, and Google DeepMind proposes.
The neutral network was presented with two riddles, and had to learn communication protocols in order to complete them.
In the '100 hats' riddle, 100 prisoners are lined up by an executioner, who places a red or blue hat upon each of their heads.
The prisoners can see the hats of the people lined up in from of them, but they cannot look at the hats behind them, or at their own.
Starting at the back of the line, the executioner asks the last prisoner to state the colour of his hat.
In order to live, the prisoner must answer correctly. If he doesn't, he is killed 'instantly and silently.'
This means that the other prisoners will hear the answer, but will not know whether or not it was correct. 
The night before the line-up, the prisoners can discuss a strategy to help them survive. What should they do?
The answer to this riddle, and the similar 'switch riddle' also given to the AI, is not straightforward.
[Image: 1E6F2D6700000578-3455171-image-m-4_1455910157075.jpg]
Google's deep neural network was put through the tests of the 'hats riddle' and the 'switch riddle' both which require complex-problem solving to determine the fates of hypothetical prisoners. The answers to these riddles are based upon coordinated strategy

Working out a strategy to save the most prisoners required that the network sort through complex sequences, and rely on communications between the individual agents of the scenario.
In both situations, the AI was found to solve the tasks, and even outperform 'baseline methods,' proving it can come up with communications protocols internally.
'One hundred prisoners have been newly ushered into prison. 
The warden tells them that starting tomorrow, each of them will be placed in an isolated cell, unable to communicate amongst each other. 
Each day, the warden will choose one of the prisoners uniformly at random with replacement, and place him in a central interrogation room containing only a light bulb with a toggle switch. 
The prisoner will be able to observe the current state of the light bulb. If he wishes, he can toggle the light bulb. He also has the option of announcing that he believes all prisoners have visited the interrogation room at some point in time. 
If this announcement is true, then all prisoners are set free, but if it is false, all prisoners are executed. The warden leaves and the prisoners huddle together to discuss their fate. 
Can they agree on a protocol that will guarantee their freedom?' 
[Image: 315FDFEE00000578-0-image-a-1_1455909597452.jpg]

'Every day one prisoner gets sent to the interrogation room where he can see the switch and choose between actions 'On', 'Off', 'Tell' and 'None,' the study explains. If they announce correctly, all prisoners are set free. But if they're wrong, all prisoners are executed

Still working out the answer?

The researchers say that in the optimal situation, 99 of the prisoners can be saved for certain, while the remaining prisoner has a 50/50 chance.
To ensure this, the prisoners must agree on the message communicated with each colour: the first prisoner to speak will say 'blue,' if the number of blue hats he sees in front of him is even, or 'red' if he sees otherwise.

[Image: geographic-landslide1.png]

Then, the rest of the prisoners on the line can figure out their own hat colours based on the responses of the prisoners behind them, and the hats they see in front of them.

As the work progresses, the team writes that more must be done in order to understand the solutions of the network, and improve the scalability for sets of larger numbers.
'It's basically a first step toward having AIs that can communicate and collaborate,' Jakob Foerster of the University of Oxford, told New Scientist.
'In the long run it will give them a lot more scalability and allow them to solve tasks that previously weren't possible.'
In the future, this type of AI can be put to the test of other scenarios that involve 'real world data.' 
For the '100 hats riddle, the best strategy will present a situation where 99 of the prisoners can be saved with 100 percent certainty, while the remaining prisoner will have a 50/50 chance of survival.
To ensure this, the prisoners must agree upon a communication protocol: the first prisoner to speak will say 'blue,' if the number of blue hats he sees in front of him is even, or 'red' if he sees otherwise.
With this information, the rest of the prisoners can figure at their own hat colours based on the hats they see in front of them, and the responses they've heard behind. 
In this case, everyone except the first prisoner will definitely answer correctly, the researchers say.
To solve the 'switch riddle,' the team says that many strategies have been worked out to optimize the survival of the hypothetical prisoners. 
'One wellknown strategy is for one prisoner to be designated the counter,' the authors write. 
'Only he is allowed to turn the switch off while each other prisoner turns it on only once. Thus, when the counter has turned the switch off n−1 times, he can 'Tell.' 


Quote:LEAKED VIDEO: Google Leadership’s Dismayed Reaction to Trump Election

24181[/url] 12 Sep 2018[url=]27,776
A video recorded by Google shortly after the 2016 presidential election reveals an atmosphere of panic and dismay amongst the tech giant’s leadership, coupled with a determination to thwart both the Trump agenda and the broader populist movement emerging around the globe.
The video is a full recording of Google’s first all-hands meeting following the 2016 election (these weekly meetings are known inside the company as “TGIF” or “Thank God It’s Friday” meetings). Sent to Breitbart News by an anonymous source, it features co-founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin, VPs Kent Walker and Eileen Naughton, CFO Ruth Porat, and CEO Sundar Pichai. It can be watched in full above. It can and should be watched in full above in order to get the full context of the meeting and the statements made.
It was reported earlier this week that Google tried to boost turnout among the Latino population to help Hillary Clinton, only to be dismayed as the usually solid Democratic voting bloc switched to the GOP in record numbers. This video shows a similar level of dismay among Google’s most high-profile figures.

These individuals, who preside over a company with unrivaled influence over the flow of information, can be seen disparaging the motivations of Trump voters and plotting ways to use their vast resources to thwart the Trump agenda.
Co-founder Sergey Brin can be heard comparing Trump supporters to fascists and extremists. Brin argues that like other extremists, Trump voters were motivated by “boredom,” which he says in the past led to fascism and communism.
The Google co-founder then asks his company to consider what it can do to ensure a “better quality of governance and decision-making.”
VP for Global Affairs Kent Walker argues that supporters of populist causes like the Trump campaign are motivated by “fear, xenophobia, hatred, and a desire for answers that may or may not be there.”

Later, Walker says that Google should fight to ensure the populist movement – not just in the U.S. but around the world – is merely a “blip” and a “hiccup” in a historical arc that “bends toward progress.”
CEO Sundar Pichai states that the company will develop machine learning and A.I. to combat what an employee described as “misinformation” shared by “low-information voters.”
Key moments from the video can be found at the following timestamps:
  • (00:00:00 – 00:01:12) Google co-founder Sergey Brin states that the weekly meeting is “probably not the most joyous we’ve had” and that “most people here are pretty upset and pretty sad.”
  • (00:00:24) Brin contrasts the disappointment of Trump’s election with his excitement at the legalization of cannabis in California, triggering laughs and applause from the audience of Google employees.
  • (00:01:12) Returning to seriousness, Brin says he is “deeply offen[ded]” by the election of Trump, and that the election “conflicts with many of [Google’s] values.”
  • (00:09:10) Trying to explain the motivations of Trump supporters, Senior VP for Global Affairs, Kent Walker concludes: “fear, not just in the United States, but around the world is fueling concerns, xenophobia, hatred, and a desire for answers that may or may not be there.”
  • (00:09:35) Walker goes on to describe the Trump phenomenon as a sign of “tribalism that’s self-destructive [in] the long-term.”
  • (00:09:55) Striking an optimistic tone, Walker assures Google employees that despite the election, “history is on our side” and that the “moral arc of history bends towards progress.”
  • (00:10:45) Walker approvingly quotes former Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi’s comparison between “the world of the wall” with its “isolation and defensiveness” and the “world of the square, the piazza, the marketplace, where people come together into a community and enrich each other’s lives.”
  • (00:13:10) CFO Ruth Porat appears to break down in tears when discussing the election result.
  • (00:15:20) Porat promises that Google will “use the great strength and resources and reach we have to continue to advance really important values.” Doh
  • (001650) Stating “we all need a hug,” she then instructs the audience of Google employees to hug the person closest to them.
  • (00:20:24) Eileen Naughton, VP of People Operations, promises that Google’s policy team in DC is “all over” the immigration issue and that the company will “keep a close watch on it.”
  • (00:21:26) Naughton jokes about Google employees asking, ‘Can I move to Canada?’ after the election. She goes on to seriously discuss the options available to Google employees who wish to leave the country.
  • (00:23:12) Naughton does acknowledge “diversity of opinion and political persuasion” and notes that she has heard from conservative Google employees who say they “haven’t felt entirely comfortable revealing who [they] are.” and urged “tolerance.” (Several months later, the company would fire James Damore allegedly for disagreeing with progressive narratives.)
  • (00:27:00) Responding to a question about “filter bubbles,” Sundar Pichai promises to work towards “correcting” Google’s role in them
  • (00:27:30) Sergey Brin praises an audience member’s suggestion of increasing matched Google employee donations to progressive groups.
  • (00:34:40) Brin compares Trump voters to “extremists,” arguing for a correlation between the economic background of Trump supporters and the kinds of voters who back extremist movements. Brin says that “voting is not a rational act” and that not all of Trump’s support can be attributed to “income disparity.” He suggests that Trump voters might have been motivated by boredom rather than legitimate concerns.
  • (00:49:10) An employee asks if Google is willing to “invest in grassroots, hyper-local efforts to bring tools and services and understanding of Google products and knowledge” so that people can “make informed decisions that are best for themselves.” Pichai’s response: Google will ensure its “educational products” reach “segments of the population [they] are not [currently] fully reaching.”
  • (00:54:33) An employee asks what Google is going to do about “misinformation” and “fake news” shared by “low-information voters.” Pichai responds by stating that “investments in machine learning and AI” are a “big opportunity” to fix the problem.
  • (00:56:12) Responding to an audience member, Walker says Google must ensure the rise of populism doesn’t turn into “a world war or something catastrophic … and instead is a blip, a hiccup.”
  • (00:58:22) Brin compares Trump voters to supporters of fascism and communism, linking the former movement to “boredom,” which Brin previously linked to Trump voters. “It sort of sneaks up sometimes, really bad things” says Brin.
  • (01:01:15) A Google employee states: “speaking to white men, there’s an opportunity for you right now to understand your privilege” and urges employees to “go through the bias-busting training, read about privilege, read about the real history of oppression in our country.” He urges employees to “discuss the issues you are passionate about during Thanksgiving dinner and don’t back down and laugh it off when you hear the voice of oppression speak through metaphors.” Every executive on stage – the CEO, CFO, two VPs and the two Co-founders – applaud the employee.
  • (01:01:57) An audience member asks if the executives see “anything positive from this election result.” The audience of Google employees, and the executives on stage, burst into laughter. “Boy, that’s a really tough one right now” says Brin.
Update — After Breitbart News published this article, a Google spokesperson replied to a request for comment with the following statement:
“At a regularly scheduled all hands meeting, some Google employees and executives expressed their own personal views in the aftermath of a long and divisive election season. For over 20 years, everyone at Google has been able to freely express their opinions at these meetings. Nothing was said at that meeting, or any other meeting, to suggest that any political bias ever influences the way we build or operate our products. To the contrary, our products are built for everyone, and we design them with extraordinary care to be a trustworthy source of information for everyone, without regard to political viewpoint.”
No simple solution?
Saturn’s Moon Dione Has Some Weird Stripes
something appears to be etching oddly straight lines across the icy surface of Dione.

The lines — or linear virgae,
 to use the proposed technical term — 
stretch for up to hundreds of kilometers, and yet are less than 5 kilometers wide. 

They all run parallel to the equator and reside only at lower latitudes. 
They are brighter than everything else around them,
and appear to be laid atop extant features such as ridges and craters, 
which means they’ve been emplaced fairly recently. 

And it’s not clear yet how they got there.
“We are not really sure how to get such straight lines,” 
says Emily Martin (National Air and Space Museum),
coauthor on an upcoming paper describing the surface scoring in Geophysical Research Letters.
 “Linear virgae are really unlike anything else we see in the solar system.”

Saturn’s moon Enceladus has its famous tiger stripes
wavy ridges through which water erupts from an underground ocean. 
Neptune’s moon Triton has dark streaks, likely marked by deposits from plumes.
 Dione’s lines are too long, too wide, too bright, or placed too weirdly.

The placement parallel to the equator suggests that the most likely culprit 
is something that was already in the same plane as Dione’s orbit,
and then 
gently rained down on the surface Stars  Huh  Stars

That leaves only a few  Tp  options. 
Material from Saturn’s rings could be sprinkling down,
 though it’s not clear what mechanism would drive material out away from the rings and toward Dione. 

There could be some transfer of material from satellites Helene or Polydeuces, 
the moons that share Dione’s orbit. 
Or perhaps the lines are debris from a comet that just happened to pass by.  Doh

“If we can find linear virgae elsewhere in the Saturn system, 
we might learn a little more about the sources for material that could drape across the surfaces of these moons,”
 Patthoff says.
 “We don’t have a chance to get more images right now, 
but we can explore the whole archive of images that we do have from Cassini.”

[Image: Figure1B-crop-768x759.jpg]
Cause of long, potentially damaging channels on Antarctic ice shelves found
November 1, 2018 by Hayley Dunning, Imperial College London

[Image: causeoflongp.jpg]
As the ice, flowing from upper-left to lower-right, encounters a hill beneath the ice (light grey shape), a cavity is created under the ice shelf. Water (red and blue arrows) feeds into the cavity, melting a channel that is reflected on the ice surface (dark grey channel). Credit: Imperial College London

Large rock hills deep below glaciers can cause huge channels on the ice surface – even if the hills are buried under two kilometres of ice.

Glaciers in Antarctica are remote and difficult to study, which means much about their behaviour is unknown. These knowledge gaps mean scientists cannot be sure how they will respond to climate change.

However, with new technology researchers are able to study them in greater detail than ever before, even looking through kilometres-thick glaciers to view processes occurring at their bases.

The team, including researchers from universities in the UK and the US, used ice-penetrating radar mounted on planes to peer through the glacier and work out what is happening at its base.

In a study published today in Nature Communications, researchers led by Imperial College London have connected a huge 130-km-long channel (the distance between London and Birmingham) on the surface of an Antarctic floating ice shelf to the landscape two kilometres below the ice sheet upstream.

The channel, and associated features on the ice surface, are thought to be a point of instability on the ice shelf. If the surface ice melts, water will preferentially run down these features, carving out a deeper channel and creating further weaknesses.

Identifying instabilities

Ice-shelf surface channels are seen across Antarctica, so the process uncovered in the research is likely to be commonplace. Now the cause has been identified, researchers can investigate similar channels for signs of instability elsewhere in Antarctica, especially in regions known to be vulnerable to change.

Project lead Professor Martin Siegert, from the Grantham Institute – Climate Change and the Environment at Imperial, said: "This finding will help us pinpoint potential regions of Antarctica that may be of enhanced risk of change because of ice shelf channelling. It also reminds us that we can't ignore subsurface processes – even if they are below two kilometres of ice in some of the most remote places on Earth."

He added: "Surface melting on Antarctic ice shelves has been noticed in the last few years, and further warming of atmospheric conditions would lead to increased levels – adding to the need to restrain global warming to 1.5C above pre-industrial levels."

Holding back the ice

The region the team studied – centered on the Foundation Ice Stream – is one of the poorest known parts of Antarctica, near the edge of the 'grounded' ice sheet, resting on land rather than water. The grounded ice sheet feeds ice into the ocean, and so contributes to sea level change.

Holding the ice sheet back are the floating ice shelves, which provide a 'back force' to reduce the speed of the grounded ice. Weakness in the floating ice shelf can therefore lead to accelerated flow of the grounded ice, and sea level rise.

The Foundation Ice Stream is also the type of glacier that can have water at its base, flowing between the bottom of the glacier and the underlying rock. The team found that when the base of the glacier encountered a large solitary hill at the same point it starts to float,a gap emerged under the ice downstream of the hill.

This gap was filled by water from around the base of the glacier, which carved a gouge upwards into the ice. This gouge was 800 metres high in some places, and led to the extensive channel seen on the surface of the ice.

"Hard rock landforms generate 130 km ice shelf channels through water focusing in basal corrugations' by Hafeez Jeofry, Neil Ross, Anne Le Brocq, Alastair Graham, Jilu Li, Prasad Gogineni, Mathieu Morlighem, Thomas Jordan & Martin J. Siegert is published in Nature Communications.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Climate change accelerating rise in sea levels

More information: Hafeez Jeofry et al. Hard rock landforms generate 130 km ice shelf channels through water focusing in basal corrugations, Nature Communications(2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-06679-z 

Journal reference: Nature Communications [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: Imperial College London

Read more at:

Making a map of the brain—First-of-its-kind cellular atlas identifies neuron types, location and even function

November 1, 2018, Harvard University

[Image: 2-brain.jpg]
Credit: Wikimedia Commons
For decades, scientists have viewed the brain as a veritable black box—and now Catherine Dulac and Xiaowei Zhuang are poised to open it.

Dulac, the Higgins Professor of Molecular and Cellular Biology and Lee and Ezpeleta Professor of Arts and Sciences, and Zhuang, the David B. Arnold, Jr. Professor of Science, are the senior authors of a new study that has created a first-of-its-kind cellular atlas of an important region in the brains of mice.

Using a cutting-edge imaging technology, Dulac, Zhuang and colleagues examined more than 1 million cells in a 2-millimeter by 2-millimeter by 0.6 millimeter block of brain, and not only identified more than 70 different types of neurons, but also pinpointed where the cells were located and their various functions. The study is described in a November 1 paper in Science.

"This give us a granular view of the cellular, molecular and functional organization of the brain—nobody had combined those three views before," Dulac said. "This work in itself is a breakthrough because we now understand several behaviors in ways that we never did before, but it's also a breakthrough because this technology can be used anywhere in the brain for any type of function."

The study grew out of a desire to address what Dulac called a fundamental biological problem and a technological challenge that comes with it.

"The problem is that people realized quite a while ago that, in order to study the brain, you need to understand its components, and those components are the cells," she said. "So if you take a piece of tissue and look at the genes expressed by the cells, that tells you how many cell types there are...but that still leaves you with a big problem."

That problem, she said, is that such techniques require researchers to disassociate cells from the tissue, and in the process they lose an invaluable piece of information—how the cells were organized in the tissue.

"If you really want to understand the brain, you need the spatial context, because the brain is not like the liver or other organs, where the cells are organized in a symmetrical way," Dulac said. "The brain is unusual in that it has this topological arrangement of we want to be able to look at a section of the brain and see what cells are there, but also where they are and what types of cells are surrounding them."

Luckily, Dulac said, Zhuang's lab in recent years developed the perfect tool for the job—Multiplexed Error-Robust Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization—or MERFISH for short.

Following her development of STORM, a super-resolution imaging technique that allowed researchers to image individual molecules with nanometer-scale resolution, Zhuang set her sights on imaging not just single types of molecules, but all of the molecules at work in the cell.

"We don't have just one or two different kinds of molecules in our cells, we have thousands to tens of thousands of genes that are expressed to make the molecular machinery that give cells their function," she said. "I wanted to be able to image all those genes simultaneously, that's why we developed MERFISH."

The MERFISH method works by assigning "barcodes" to the cell's RNAs, hybridizing them with a library of DNA probes to represent these barcodes, and then reading out those barcodes by imaging to determine the identity of individual RNA molecules. Numerous different barcodes are read out simultaneously through multiple rounds of imaging.

"An amazing property of this method is the exponential scaling between the number of genes that can be imaged and the number of imaging rounds ," she said. "If you wanted to look at 10,000 genes, you could try the brute force approach and do it one at a time, but of course no one would ever try that. The MERFISH approach is very powerful because it allows us to image and distinguish thousands of different RNAs in just about 10 rounds of imaging."

Zhuang and colleagues built an error correction method into MERFISH in an effort to ensure the barcodes would be read correctly. Rather than using all possible barcodes, in which a single error could cause one code to be misread as another valid code—the team selects a subset of barcodes which can only be misread if multiple errors occur simultaneously, dramatically reducing the chance of mis-identifying a gene.

"One of the main applications that we invented MERFISH for is to identify cell types in situ because different cell types have different gene expression profiles. Hence, these gene expression profiles provide a quantitative and systematic way for cell type identification," Zhuang said. "And because we can do this in intact tissues by MERFISH imaging, we can provide the spatial organization of these cell types too."

Armed with MERFISH, Dulac, Zhuang and colleagues set about tackling those fundamental biological questions that have long plagued scientists attempting to understand how the brain works.

"There are areas in the brain that have been studied, like the cortex, where people noticed that cells were organized in a particular way, but there are a lot of brain areas for which we don't know the principles of organization," Dulac said. "The area we looked at in this study, the hypothalamus, is absolutely essential for many controls things like thirst, feeding, sleep, and social behaviors like parenting and reproduction, but we don't know how this structure is organized."

To unravel that mystery, Dulac and Zhuang combined MERFISH with another method called single-cell RNA sequencing, which allows unbiased quantification of gene expression profiles for cells. "This not only allowed the cell types to be cataloged in the hypothalamus, but also provided molecular signatures of these cell types and facilitated the selection of gene panels for MERFISH imaging," said Zhuang.

Based on these molecular signatures and other genes of functional importance, they used MERFISH to simultaneously image more than 150 genes throughout the preoptic region of the hypothalamus to identify cell types in situ and create a spatial map of where cells were located.

"Both scRNAseq and MERFISH enabled us to identify around 70 different neuronal subtypes, most of which were previously unknown" said Zhuang, "and MERFISH imaging allowed us to additionally see the spatial distributions of all 70 neuronal types, as well as those of the non-neuronal cell types."

"What you can see is that there is an exquisite spatial organization—it leaps right out at you," Zhuang said. "You can see which neurons are neighboring each other...and not only that, but because our images are molecular, you can identify how these cells are communicating with each other. Moreover, because MERFISH imaging has a very high sensitivity, we were able to identify lowly expressed genes that are critical to cell function."

With that information in hand, the team set out to link specific cells with specific behaviors, and the solution came in the form of a gene called c-Fos, Dulac and Zhuang said.

Known as what's called an "immediate early" gene, c-Fos transcription is increased during neural activity, Dulac said, so if researchers are able to track which cells show increases in the gene, they can identify cells that are activated during particular behaviors.

So we allow an animal to perform some behavior—like parenting, for example—and when we look at which cells are c-Fos-positive, we know only those cells are part of the parenting behavior," Dulac said. "But thanks to MERFISH, we know which genes are expressed in those cells.

"So we can define which cells are involved in a particular behavior in ways that we could not before," she continued. "This is extraordinarily precise, extremely quantitative, and we can see where those cells are... so it's a cellular map, a molecular map, and a functional map, all together."

In addition to parenting, Dulac, Zhuang and colleagues identified cells responsible for other behaviors, including aggression and mating, and while they found surprising commonalities, there were also intriguing differences depending on whether mice were parents or virgin males or females.

Going forward, Dulac and Zhuang hope to further explore the structure of the hypothalamus, including devising ways to better understand how cells are connected to one another.

As significant as the study's findings are, both Dulac and Zhuang said the work should also serve as an example of the power of collaboration.

"This is really the best collaboration one could hope for," Zhuang said. "Ours are two labs whose expertise complement each other very well, and we both learned a great deal from each other. As this point, we feel like we know quite a bit about the hypothalamus, and likewise Catherine's lab knows a great deal about MERFISH imaging, so this has been a truly exciting, rewarding process."

 Explore further: How mice are hardwired for parenting

More information: "Molecular, spatial and functional single-cell profiling of the hypothalamic preoptic region" Science (2018). … 1126/science.aau5324 

Journal reference: Science 
Provided by: Harvard University
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
RE: Top-Hats and Dunce Caps...Honestly, Of Whom am I Thinkin' ?

Navigating our thoughts: Fundamental principles of thinking
November 8, 2018, Max Planck Society

[Image: navigatingou.jpg]
Credit: Ella Maru Studio & MPI CBS /Doellerlab

Quote:Doeller and his team combine individual threads of evidence... [Image: Trump-sewing-the-flag.jpg?fit=255%2C253]
A Sixth Sense? Magneto Receptive Humans??? (Pages: 1 2 )EA form a theory of human thinking. 

It is one of the most fundamental questions in neuroscience: How do humans think? Until recently, we seemed far from a conclusive answer. However, scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences (MPI CBS) and collaborators offer a new proposal in the current issue of the journal Sciencehumans think using their brain's navigation system.

[Image: 18NavigatorL-BL-Destination_4026-286146.jpg?]
2019 Lincoln Navigator

When navigating an environment, two important cell types are active in the brain. Place cells in the hippocampus and grid cells in the neighboring entorhinal cortex form a circuit that allows orientation and navigation. The scientists suggest that the inner navigation system does much more. They propose that this system is also key to thinking, explaining why our knowledge seems to be organized in a spatial fashion.

A Sixth Sense? Magneto Receptive Humans??? (Pages: 1 2 )EA
"We believe that the brain stores information about our surroundings in so-called cognitive spaces. This concerns not only geographical data, but also relationships between objects and experience," explains Christian Doeller, senior author of the paper and the new director at the MPI CBS.

The term 'cognitive spaces' refers to mental maps in which people arrange experience. Everything that we encounter has physical properties, and can therefore be arranged along different dimensions. "If I think about cars, I can order them based on their engine power and weight, for example. We would have racing cars with strong engines and low weights as well as caravans with weak engines and high weight, as well as all combinations in between," says Doeller. 
[Image: RMCharlieThomasCollection2012_214_Lincol...182011.jpg]
1947 Lincoln
"We can think about our family and friends in a similar way; for example, on the basis of their height, humor, or income, coding them as tall or short, humorous or humorless, or more or less wealthy." Depending on the dimensions of interest, individuals might be stored mentally closer together or further away.

A theory of human thinking

In their proposal, Doeller and his team combine individual threads of evidence to form a theory of human thinking. The theory begins with the Nobel Prize-winning discoveries of place and grid cells in rodents' brains, 

which were subsequently shown to exist in humans. Both cell types show patterns of activity representing the animal's position in space, for example, while foraging for food. 

Each position in space is represented by a unique pattern of activity. Together, the activity of place and grid cells allows the formation of a mental map of the surroundings, 
[Image: image049.jpg]

which is stored and reactivated during later visits.

The very regular activation pattern of grid cells can also be observed in humans—but importantly, not only during navigation through geographical spaces. Grids cells are also active while learning new concepts, as shown by a study from 2016. In that study, volunteers learned to associate pictures of birds, which only varied in the length of their necks and legs, with different symbols, such as a tree or a bell. A bird with a long neck and short legs was associated with the tree, whereas a bird with a short neck and long legs belonged to the bell. Thus, a specific combination of bodily features came to be represented by a symbol.
[Image: banksy_aristorat.jpg]
In a subsequent memory test performed in a brain scanner, volunteers indicated whether birds were associated with one of the symbols. Interestingly, the entorhinal cortex was activated, in much the same way as it is during navigation, providing a coordinate system for our thoughts.
A little bird told me... a funny story of evolution. EA
[Image: darwin.jpg]
"By connecting all these previous discoveries, we came to the assumption that the brain stores a mental map, regardless of whether we are thinking about a real space or the space between dimensions of our thoughts. Our train of thought can be considered a path though the spaces of our thoughts, along different mental dimensions," Jacob Bellmund, the first author of the publication, explains.

Mapping New Experience

"These processes are especially useful for making inferences about new objects or situations, even if we have never experienced them," the neuroscientist continues. Using existing maps of cognitive spaces, humans can anticipate how similar something new is to something they already know by putting it in relation to existing dimensions. If they've already experienced tigers, lions or panthers, but have never seen a leopard, they would place the leopard in a similar position as the other big cats in the cognitive space. 

[Image: Hominid-Lion.JPG]

Based on knowledge about the concept "big cat" already stored in a mental map, they can adequately react to the encounter with the leopard. "We can generalize to novel situations, which we constantly face, and infer how we should behave," says Bellmund.

 Explore further: How the grid cell system of the brain maps mental spaces

More information: "Navigating cognition: Spatial codes for human thinking" Science(2018). … 1126/science.aat6766 

Journal reference: Science 
Provided by: Max Planck Society
itza rewrite itself.

Two days ago (a second before midnight) there were 33 days left to go until the new year in the current system of things.

The Clock struck 12 and Yesterday was Day 333(Nov. 29)
November 29

November 29 is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 32 days remaining until the end of the year.
[/url]November 29 - Wikipedia

Today is the new Now.

Rewriting the brain pathway for consciousness
November 28, 2018,(...33 days to a new orbit around sun...)  [url=]University of Iowa

[Image: 5bfedb228d4e3.jpg]
Credit: University of Iowa
With a finding that will "rewrite neuroanatomy textbooks," University of Iowa neurologist Aaron Boes, MD, Ph.D., and his colleagues show that the thalamus is not a critical part of the brain pathway involved in keeping humans awake and conscious.

[Image: source.gif]

The finding upends decades of medical dogma that placed the thalamus as a critical relay point for the signals originating in the brainstem and ending in the cortex that maintain consciousness (wakefulness).

The new study, published online Nov. 12 as a preprint in the Annals of Neurology, provides the first systematic evidence from humans that questions the routing of this critical pathway. The study evaluates patients with strokes of the thalamus and shows that even extensive injury to the thalamus does not severely impair consciousness.

"Beyond just challenging a long-standing dogma that has persisted for decades, what's really exciting about this finding is that it has implications for clinical care for patients," says Boes, UI assistant professor of pediatrics and neurology and a member of the Iowa Neuroscience Institute. "Based on the old understanding, people have tried to stimulate the thalamus for disorders of consciousness without much success. Our results suggest that was the wrong target to go after and that the hypothalamus or basal forebrain would be better targets."

Consciousness has two main elements—wakefulness and awareness. The more basic of the two, keeping the brain in a state of wakefulness, is what the UI team focused on in the current study. When this basic function is lost the result is coma, or loss of consciousness.

The idea that the wakefulness pathway runs from the brainstem to thalamus to cortex came from influential studies done in the 1940s-50s that correctly identified the brainstem as a critical area for arousing the cortex. The researchers suggested that projections from the brainstem likely passed through the thalamus to reach the cerebral cortex. Because the brainstem evidence was so strong, the assumption was that the thalamus evidence was strong, too.

Despite a lack of concrete evidence, this pathway subsequently became textbook knowledge for students learning neuroanatomy. However, recent work in animals has shown that the thalamus may not be a critical part of the pathway, challenging the model.

To evaluate the role of the thalamus in the neural circuitry of arousal in humans, the UI team led by Boes and Joel Geerling, MD, Ph.D., assistant professor of neurology, searched medical records to identify 33 patients who had had a stroke that affected the thalamus. They used the patients' MRI images to map the precise brain areas damaged by the stroke and assessed the level of consciousness for each patient within the first 12 hours of the stroke.

There were four patients with severely impaired arousal (coma, or stupor), all of whom had damage that extended beyond the thalamus into the hypothalamus and brainstem. In contrast, none of the patients with damage confined purely to the thalamus experienced severe impairment of arousal (wakefulness).

"It looks like the pathway most critical for maintaining consciousness runs from the brainstem through the hypothalamus and basal forebrain into the cortex," Boes says. "I hope future studies will now focus on this new pathway. I think that could change the management of patients in a coma, and those with other disorders of consciousness."

The new study is part of a larger effort by Boes and Geerling to investigate the brain pathways critical for maintaining consciousness. The researchers think that the other pathway (brainstem to thalamus to cortex) might have more of a role in attention and awareness.

"A key aspect of our study is identifying a similarity between the human brain and basic neuroscience findings in other mammals, mice included," says Geerling, who also is a member of the Iowa Neuroscience Institute. "This means human wakefulness probably emerges from a network with the same basic wiring principles that evolved in other mammals, which suggests that our detailed studies of this network in mice or other model species will help identify new ways to treat human patients."

An accompanying editorial written by Nicholas Schiff, professor of neuroscience at Weill Cornell Medical College, suggests that other neurologists also find the study convincing. Boes is hopeful this might mean that the next edition of neuroanatomy textbooks explaining disorders of consciousness will update the pathway to account for the new findings.

"Usually that kind of change takes years, but we are hopeful this time might be much faster," he says.

Explore further: Study reveals a network within the brain that plays a role maintaining consciousness

More information: Joseph Hindman et al, Thalamic Strokes that Severely Impair Arousal Extend into the Brainstem, Annals of Neurology (2018). DOI: 10.1002/ana.25377 

Journal reference: Annals of Neurology
Provided by: University of Iowa

Study suggests physical changes to the brain due to learning happen differently than thought
November 30, 2018 by Bob Yirka, Medical Xpress report

[Image: neocortex.jpg]
Credit: CC0 Public Domain
A team of researchers from the University of Tübingen and the Max-Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, both in Germany, has found evidence that suggests new-learning plasticity of the brain occurs faster than has been previously thought—and in different ways. In their paper published in the journal Science, the group describes their study of the brain using a less well-known kind of MRI. Yaniv Assaf from Tel Aviv University has written a Perspective piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue.

Prior research has suggested that learning is progressive—as people absorb new information, it is stored in physical locations in the brain that already exist. The brain changes to accommodate new knowledge as more learning occurs. Assaf notes that prior research has also shown that the hippocampus is the main brain region involved in memory retention. In this new effort, the researchers challenge both of these assumptions. But Assaf also points out that at this time, nobody really knows how memories are stored in the brain.

To learn more about what happens physically in the brain when a person is learning something new, the researchers studied volunteers with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI). This less well-known MRI technique detects how water is diffused in the body. The researchers used it to watch how water was diffused in the brain as volunteers learned new material. They suggest the results offer a new view of plasticity in the brain.

The researchers report that they were able to see physical changes in the brain that occurred within hours of the volunteer's exposure to the new material. They also found that brain plasticity was occurring in the posterior parietal cortex, not the hippocampus. They further report that they found that memory engram (the physical changes the brain undergoes when learning something new) was also localized, which, Assaf suggests, strengthens theories that memory is not stored in brain "memory banks," but is instead stored in localized places throughout the brain.

Assaf suggests that studying water diffusion in the brain using DW-MRI offers a new and perhaps better way of studying brain microanatomy, allowing for a more comprehensive and detailed view of what happens inside our skulls as we interact with the world around us.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Better connectivity of brain regions with training

More information: S. Brodt et al. Fast track to the neocortex: A memory engram in the posterior parietal cortex, Science (2018). DOI: 10.1126/science.aau2528 

Journal reference: Science

Bigger brains are smarter, but not by much
November 30, 2018 by Katherine Unger Baillie, University of Pennsylvania

[Image: 4-brain.jpg]

The English idiom "highbrow," derived from a physical description of a skull barely able to contain the brain inside of it, comes from a long-held belief in the existence of a link between brain size and intelligence.

For more than 200 years, scientists have looked for such an association. Begun using rough measures, such as estimated skull volume or head circumference, the investigation became more sophisticated in the last few decades when MRIs offered a highly accurate accounting of brain volume.

Yet the connection has remained hazy and fraught, with many studies failing to account for confounding variables, such as height and socioeconomic status. The published studies are also subject to "publication bias," the tendency to publish only more noteworthy findings.

A new study, the largest of its kind, led by Gideon Nave of the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School and Philipp Koellinger of Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, has clarified the connection. Using MRI-derived information about brain size in connection with cognitive performance test results and educational-attainment measures obtained from more than 13,600 people, the researchers found that, as previous studies have suggested, a positive relationship does exist between brain volume and performance on cognitive tests. But that finding comes with important caveats.

"The effect is there," says Nave, an assistant professor of marketing at Wharton. "On average, a person with a larger brain will tend to perform better on tests of cognition than one with a smaller brain. But size is only a small part of the picture, explaining about 2 percent of the variability in test performance. For educational attainment the effect was even smaller: an additional 'cup' (100 square centimeters) of brain would increase an average person's years of schooling by less than five months." Koellinger says "this implies that factors other than this one single factor that has received so much attention across the years account for 98 percent of the other variation in cognitive test performance."

"Yet, the effect is strong enough that all future studies that will try to unravel the relationships between more fine-grained measures of brain anatomy and cognitive health should control for total brain volume. Thus, we see our study as a small, but important, contribution to better understanding differences in cognitive health."

Nave and Koellinger's collaborators on the work, which is published in the journal Psychological Science, included Joseph Kable, Baird Term Professor in Penn's Department of Psychology; Wi Hoon Jung, a former postdoctoral researcher in Kable's lab; and Richard Karlsson Linnér, a postdoc in Koellinger's lab.

From the outset, the researchers sought to minimize the effects of bias and confounding factors in their research. They pre-registered the study, meaning they published their methods and committed to publishing ahead of time so they couldn't simply bury the results if the findings appeared to be insignificant. Their analyses also systematically controlled for sex, age, height, socioeconomic status, and population structure, measured using the participant's genetics. Height is correlated with higher better cognitive performance, for example, but also with bigger brain size, so their study attempted to zero in on the contribution of brain size by itself.

Earlier studies had consistently identified a correlation between brain size and cognitive performance, but the relationship seemed to grow weaker as studies included more participants, so Nave, Koellinger, and colleagues hoped to pursue the question with a sample size that dwarfed previous efforts.

The study relied on a recently amassed dataset, the UK Biobank, a repository of information from more than half-a-million people across the United Kingdom. The Biobank includes participants' health and genetic information as well as brain scan images of a subset of roughly 20,000 people, a number that is growing by the month.

"This gives us something that never existed before," Koellinger says. "This sample size is gigantic—70 percent larger than all prior studies on this subject put together—and allows us to test the correlation between brain size and cognitive performance with greater reliability."

Measuring cognitive performance is a difficult task, and the researchers note that even the evaluation used in this study has weaknesses. Participants took a short questionnaire that tests logic and reasoning ability but not acquired knowledge, yielding a relatively "noisy" measure of general cognitive performance.

Using a model that incorporated a variety of variables, the team looked to see which were predictive of better cognitive performance and educational attainment. Even controlling for other factors, like height, socioeconomic status, and genetic ancestry, total brain volume was positively correlated with both.

The findings are somewhat intuitive. "It's a simplified analogy, but think of a computer," Nave says. "If you have more transistors, you can compute faster and transmit more information. It may be the same in the brain. If you have more neurons, this may allow you to have a better memory, or complete more tasks in parallel.

"However, things could be much more complex in reality. For example, consider the possibility that a bigger brain, which is highly heritable, is associated with being a better parent. In this case, the association between a bigger brain and test performance may simply reflect the influence of parenting on cognition. We won't be able to get to the bottom of this without more research."

One of the notable findings of the analysis related to differences between male and females. "Just like with height, there is a pretty substantial difference between males and females in brain volume, but this doesn't translate into a difference in cognitive performance," Nave says.

A more nuanced look at the brain scans may explain this result. Other studies have reported that in females, the cerebral cortex, the outer layer of the front part of the brain, tends to be thicker than in males.

"This might account for the fact that, despite having relatively smaller brains on average, there is no effective difference in cognitive performance between males and females," Nave says. "And of course, many other things could be going on."

The authors underscore that the overarching correlation between brain volume and "braininess" was a weak one; no one should be measuring job candidates' head sizes during the hiring process, Nave jokes. Indeed, what stands out from the analysis is how little brain volume seems to explain. Factors such as parenting style, education, nutrition, stress, and others are likely major contributors that were not specifically tested in the study.

"Previous estimates of the relationship between brain size and cognitive abilities were uncertain enough that true relationship could have been practically very important, or, alternatively, not much different from zero," says Kable. "Our study allows the field to be much more confident about the size of this effect and its relative importance moving forward."

In follow-up work, the researchers plan to zoom in to determine whether certain regions of the brain, or connectivity between them, play an outsize role in contributing to cognition.

They're also hopeful that a deeper understanding of the biological underpinnings of cognitive performance can help shine a light on environmental factors that contribute, some of which can be influenced by individual actions or government policies.

"Suppose you have necessary biology to become a fantastic golf or tennis player, but you never have the opportunity to play, so you never realize your potential," Nave says.

Adds Koellinger: "We're hopeful that, if we can understand the biological factors that are linked to cognitive performance, it will allow us to identify the environmental circumstances under which people can best manifest their potential and remain cognitively health. We've just started to scratch the surface of the iceberg here."

 Explore further: Brain size mediates the association between height and cognitive ability

More information: Gideon Nave et al, Are Bigger Brains Smarter? Evidence From a Large-Scale Preregistered Study, Psychological Science (2018). DOI: 10.1177/0956797618808470 

Journal reference: Psychological Science 
Provided by: University of Pennsylvania
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
This is the kind of FDA trials I want to be part of for brain training:

Luv     Drool

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Missions to the ice giants are being proposed.
The one to Uranus forecasts 1 billion dollars budget,
and to Triton,
500 million.
They are both ... Fly  Hi Bye's ... which is pathetic.

I say, scrap the Uranus mission and take that 1 billion,
add it on the Triton mission,
and design an orbiter Whip 

or even a lander Jawdrop

Triton is larger than Pluto.

The Uranus nonsense:

Quote:That's why a team of early-career   Tp  scientists and engineers, 
spent part of their summer scoping out what $1 billion could buy them, 
when it comes to the ice giant. 

They figured out that NASA could fit a Uranus mission into such a tight budget 
by jumping on a helpful planetary alignment ... 2038

"early career scientists and engineers" -- con man game after 1 billion $.
Pass on Uranus.
spend all the money on Triton for an orbiter.

the Triton mission -- Fuck the Fly Nonono Bye
NASA proposes mission to Neptune moon Triton
Quote:On March 19, 2019, at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 2019 (LPSC 50), 
NASA announced a proposed flyby mission called Trident 
to investigate whether Triton does, 
as suspected, 
have a subsurface ocean, 
an ocean with the potential for habitability.

The mission, if approved, would be part of NASA’s Discovery Program, 

which supports lower  Tp  cost missions for under $500 million.   
Those missions are launched every two years.

Great image at link with good magnification

[Image: fig1-3.jpg]

If this info was posted already I missed it.
The link has a lot of excellent photos <---
a video
Scientists dissect 42,000 year old extinct male foal 
preserved in permafrost for cloning bid - video

Quote:It was during this laboratory autopsy that they discovery of liquid blood in the baby horse,
 boosting hopes of cloning the extinct Lenskaya horse species back to life 
and paving the way for a similar attempt with the woolly mammoth.

Liquid blood was taken from the heart vessels, 
and then muscle tissue from the permafrost-preserved foal - 
still with its red colour as if the animal died yesterday - was dissected.
{42000 years old}

He said: 
Our studies showed that at the moment of death the foal was from one to two weeks old, 
so he was just recently born,’ said the scientist. 
‘As in previous cases of really well-preserved remains of prehistoric animals, 
the cause of death was drowning in mud which froze and turned into permafrost.  

[Image: 5.jpg]

The foal was found in the Batagai depression in Yakutia.

[Image: 10.jpg]

[Image: Trump-sewing-the-flag.jpg]Kickin' it Ye Olde School Recall:

Quote:Sunday, October 19th, 2008, 12:30 am
This is the Education of Lincoln.
Courtesy of the Hidden Mission Members. [Image: bump.gif]

[Image: Fouth-of-July-Getty-640x479.jpg]
Fly-Bye  Hi of This "Lincoln" of whom you are thinkin' Memorial 
Top-Hats and Dunce Caps...Honestly, Of Whom am I Thinkin' ? Ex-Pats SUCK! Bad Actors like Boothe as Sad Truth to your youth.

Forget Nike , This Company’s Flag Support Can’t Be Wavered: Betsy Ross Sneakers On Sale, With Proceeds To Benefit Veterans’ Charity

Another company has come out with Betsy Ross flag-era sneakers, in a direct counter to Nike who recalled their flag-themed kicks when former NFL quarterback Colin Kaepernick said the design was reminiscent of the slave era. While other companies are likely concerned with making a profit off of a massive political statement, there’s a small time company that is 100 percent American owned and operated with a very different mission at hand. PrintedKicks, is a proudly Pro-Trump,Pro-Police, and Pro Military company, so it should come as no shock that they felt pretty opinionated about the Betsy Ross sneakers being removed so close to the 4th of July.
I spoke with PrintedKicks’ CEO and founder at length about the issue since PrintedKicks already sells really cool Trump sneakers (see here) and I wanted to see if they had any comments or plans revolving around the Betsy Ross controversy. He revealed that sneakers were in the works, but unlike other companies mass producing shoes in China for huge profits off of hard-working conservatives, I have been promised that 100 percent (not a single penny less) of the profit that PrintedKicks makes off the sale of these stylish Betsy Ross sneakers, will go to support a charity that helps veterans suffering from PTSD. In summarizing his remarks, the CEO stated that while he realizes there is demand for Betsy Ross Flag-themed Sneakers and that he is proud his company prints and embroiders its products in the USA, he wanted his company to give back to the country that has given us all so much.

[Image: image-620x620.png]
On Sale for $69.99 (Photo via PrintedKicks)

These sneakers look stunning and all profit will go towards a charity supporting veterans suffering from PTSD. Also save 20 percent off the entire store when you use the promo code ‘Merica’ at checkout! 
Personally, I think these sneakers look like are better quality ( I owe the Trump sneakers) than the Nike knockoffs that everybody else is pushing out, which is unsurprising given the better quality of American craftsmanship in general. I have already ordered three pairs for myself and friends, and personally I can’t think of a better way to stick it to the anti-american complainers in our lives than to buy sneakers  with the original Betsy Ross flag design (that everybody is saying is offensive), from an All-American company (while most companies operate in China), on sale for 4th of July, and with all proceeds supporting medical care for the veterans who proudly served our country.
Truly what a great day to be an American. Happy 4th of July everyone! 
If you love this company’s commitment to America, be sure to check out other products they have on sale as right now you can save 20 percent off on most items you order when you use the promo code ‘Merica’ at checkout 

[Image: Screenshot-2019-05-13-at-6.30.06-PM-e155...20x265.png]
(Photo via PrintedKicks)
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Sew far psychics is as physics was...Ex-Pats 

JULY 2, 2019
Physicist finds loose thread of string theory puzzle
by Cay Leytham-Powell, University of Colorado at Boulder
[Image: physicistfin.jpg]Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder
A University of Colorado Boulder physicist is one step closer to solving a string theory puzzle 20 years in the making.

Paul Romatschke, an associate professor of physics at CU Boulder, has devised an alternative set of tools to those that created stringtheory's three-quarters dilemma, a mathematical puzzle that has plagued scientists for years and has kept them from fully understanding and proving this possible "theory of everything."
While not necessarily applicable to the everyday world, the results, which were published this week in Physical Review Letters, open the door for higher-level equations that could have implications on the way we approach and understand important aspects of physics like string theory or quantum field theories, which are a set of theories in physics that describe the dynamics of fields, or objects that permeate everything.
"While it would be nice to really get at the meaning of three-quarters, this is at least a very suggestive picture, so maybe that's, if not the solution for three-quarters, at least a step towards sort of resolving it," said Romatschke.
Since the 1960s, scientists have been puzzling over string theory, a theoretical framework of reality that involves tiny, wriggling one-dimensional objects—called strings—that make up the fabric of everything. [Image: precision-needle-thread.jpg]First studied as a broad way to address a number of questions in fundamental physics, it has since been applied to topics ranging from black hole physics to nuclear physics to the very origins of the universe.
But, arguably, one of its biggest breakthroughs is the discovery that black holes and matter are roughly two sides of the same coin.
This so-called "duality" allows physicists to map properties of matter (such as pressure) to properties of the black holes found in Einstein's general relativity, which would open up string theory for even greater mathematical exploration. There is, however, a big caveat—while physicists think that it works, no one's been able to prove it.
Since the discovery of this duality was made 20 years ago, string theorists have been trying to clear this roadblock with progressively more complicated equations. Every time they compare this duality, though, they all get the exact same result: The free energy (a system's ability to do work) from a strong interaction (or coupling) of the two is roughly three-quarters the strength of a weak coupling.
Romatschke, though, thinks he may finally have an answer to this puzzle—he just had to change dimensions.
Romatschke worked in a world that only has two dimensions—a "flatland" if you will. Using some of the equations from existing research on the subject, as well as modern quantum field theory techniques, he was able to prove a relationship exists by forcing matter (in this case, pressure) to interact from zero interaction to infinite interaction.
This research found that the pressure of infinite coupling is exactly four-fifths of that at zero coupling, meaning that not only is there a stronger connection in this lesser dimension than what was previously found, it also may provide a standard approach to solving these types of puzzles.
Romatschke acknowledges that this may be caused by the differences in dimensions, but is still optimistic about its usefulness to quantum field theory and cracking open the long-held string theory puzzle.
"This is basic research. Most of the things we try don't work," said Romatschke. "Nevertheless, if there's something that has at least has the potential to work, then I think we should pursue it."


Explore further
Study unveils new supersymmetry anomalies in superconformal quantum field theories[/size]

More information: Paul Romatschke. Finite-Temperature Conformal Field Theory Results for All Couplings: O(N) Model in 2+1 Dimensions, Physical Review Letters (2019). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.231603
Journal information: Physical Review Letters [/url]

Provided by [url=]University of Colorado at Boulder

Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...


how many times have I talked about ice worms under the surface on Mars?
for the last ten years?
The 41,000-year-old nematode worm in the Arctic has great significance for space travel

[Image: 55d268a674f434.img.jpg]

Mosses and bacteria returning from hibernation are not really surprising to scientists, 
but a recent finding challenged our understanding of life limits, 
and could one day be has great significance for deep space exploration.

Tatiana Vishnivetskaya, 
a microbiologist at the University of Tennessee, 
said that extracting bacteria from ice cores is millions of years old and able to bring them up.

While studying these microscopic creatures, 
Tatiana Vishnivetskaya stumbled upon tiny round worms  Holycowsmile  that were struggling to revive. 

These simple animals were at least 41,000 years old Jawdrop
and were burrowing in the soil when the Neanderthals were still thriving.

“These worms are the oldest living animals on Earth.
Of course, we were very surprised and very excited, ”said Vishnivetskaya.

And if the nematode cells can survive the freezing and thawing process, 
it will increase the likelihood that future astronauts may undergo a similar process to help them survive. 
long interplanetary journeys or even interstellar trips.

Gentbrugge, an expert on nematodes, agrees with Vishnivetskaya. 
The researcher stressed that while worms’ revival is a great surprise, 
the survival of these tiny animals in such harsh conditions Uhoh
is a suggestion,
that we can find similar creatures on Mars.

(04-13-2016, 02:16 AM)EA Rite here on your neuron Lincoln.  EA Wrote: The Hamnet Players - Wikipedia

[Image: wikipedia.png]
Stuart Harris. The founder of The Hamnet Players Stuart Harris, gained three years' experience as a semi-professional actor on the festival circuit, and two more as a professional in London and in provincial repertory theatre, with further experience as a director in television .

Hamlet -William Shakespeare
  A two-stage model  HamNet - will i am bannedhere

Michael Herzog at EPFL, working with Frank Scharnowski at the University of Zurich, have now developed a new paradigm, or "conceptual framework," of how consciousness might actually work.

[Image: globe.gif]
All Stu's brain is a stage and he thought he was a player(s).
[Image: shakespeare_headline-shirts-250x287.jpg]The Hamnet Players - Wikipedia

[Image: wikipedia.png]
Stuart Harris. The founder of The Hamnet Players Stuart Harris, gained three years' experience as a semi-professional actor on the festival circuit, and two more as a professional in London and in provincial repertory theatre, with further experience as a director in television .[/url]

Arrow JULY 25, 2019
To become, or not to become a neuron Hmm2
VIB (the Flanders Institute for Biotechnology)
[Image: 3-neuron.jpg]Credit: CC0 Public Domain
Researchers led by Pierre Vanderhaeghen and Jérôme Bonnefont (VIB-KU Leuven and ULB) have unraveled a mechanism controlling the switch between growth and differentiation of neural stem cells during brain development. They discovered a specific factor that makes stem cells 'deaf' to proliferative signals, which in turn causes them to differentiate into neurons. The findings, published in this week's edition of Neuron, shed new light on the understanding of brain developmental processes and have important implications for stem cell biology.

The brain is an incredibly complex organ consisting of billions of cells with a diverse range of functions. The mechanisms that orchestrate the formation of this intricate network during development have kept neuroscientists awake for decades.
One such neuroscientist is Prof. Pierre Vanderhaeghen (VIB-KU Leuven), whose team studies the development of the brain cortex, the outer layer of neuronal tissue that contributes in an essential way to who we are, as a species and as individuals.
"During neural development, a complex cocktail of signals determines the fate of neuronal progenitor cells," explains Vanderhaeghen. "These stem cells receive many 'proliferative' signals that instruct them to keep on dividing, generating more and more cells for the growing brain, but at some point, they also need to stop doing this and differentiate. In other words, they need to specialize to become a specific type of brain cell."

Right hear on your neuron Lefty. 
Turning deaf at the right time to mature into a nerve cell
Vanderhaeghen's team set out to understand how this switch between growth and differentiation is regulated and identified a molecular factor, called Bcl6, that essentially makes progenitor cells "deaf" for the proliferative signals that tell them to keep on dividing, thereby ensuring that differentiation occurs efficiently.
Jérôme Bonnefont, a postdoctoral researcher in Vanderhaeghen's lab, says, "We used an extensive set of genomic and cellular tools and found that a protein called Bcl6 acts as a global repressor of a repertoire of signaling components and pathways that are known to promote self-renewal. Since Bcl6 is expressed only in specific subsets of progenitors and neurons during brain development, it allows for the precise fine-tuning of brain developmental processes."
Fate transition, stem cells, and cancer
Vanderhaeghen is enthusiastic about the findings: "These results provide important insight into the molecular logic of so-called neurogenic conversion. Thanks to this ingenious switch, differentiation can occur in a robust way despite the presence of many, and sometimes even contradictory, extrinsic cues."
"We made this discovery focusing on neural stem cells, but I would predict that similar factors act in many stem cells in the embryo and even in adults to ensure proper differentiation," he continues. "This may be also important in the context of cancer biology, since stem cells and cancer cells usually respond to the same proliferative cues that are precisely inhibited by Bcl6."
Future work should determine whether and how other repressors in other parts of the nervous system and body can modulate responsiveness to extrinsic cues in a similar way. This will reveal more about differentiation, not only during development, but also beyond in the adult brain and in cancer cells.


Explore further
Discovery of the cell fate switch from neurons to astrocytes in the developing brain[/size]

More information: Cortical neurogenesis requires Bcl6-mediated transcriptional repression of multiple self-renewal-promoting extrinsic pathways, Bonnefont et al. Neuron 2019
Journal information: Neuron 

Provided by VIB (the Flanders Institute for Biotechnology)[/size]


Today is happy Face Day!!!
[Image: faceonmars550.jpg]

[url=]Geologic 'Face on Mars' Formation - NASA's Mars Exploration Program

July 31, 1976 NASA's Viking 1 Orbiter spacecraft photographed this region in the northern latitudes of Mars on July 251976 while searching for a landing site for the Viking 2 Lander. The speckled appearance of the image is due to missing data, called bit errors, caused by problems in transmission of the photographic data from Mars to Earth.

Thread went full circle Improv as again gnosis provides.

Write here on your neuron Lincoln. Arrow 
Itza Rite Itself. -EA
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
July 31, 1976 NASA's Viking 1 Orbiter spacecraft photographed this region in the northern latitudes of Mars on July 25, 1976 while searching for a landing site for the Viking 2 Lander. The speckled appearance of the image is due to missing data, called bit errors, caused by problems in transmission of the photographic data from Mars to Earth.

Thread went full circle Improv as again gnosis provides.

NO ALIEN SOLICITATIONS ALLOWED & Joker Pirates Looting things STILL say :


NASA has attempted to downplay this image from the start. After showing the JPL press corp a slide of this remarkable image, Viking project scientist Gerald Soffen attempted to explain it away by saying that a picture transmitted a few hours later, of the same region, revealed that the image in the first photo “…was just a trick, just the way the light fell on it.”

STILL being kept hidden and lied about long after Poor Gerald Soffen has passed along before 911 so he didn't get to see even more dastardly deeds keeping the public in the lies.

NOBODY in the press corps said ANYTHING and Hoagland was in the Audience he didn't say land there; only one person spoke out that maybe THAT is where we SHOULD LAND !!!



Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Bob...    Bump  Arrow     Alien2    Arrow    Marsrover   Arrow   Food-smiley-004 


I wonder if improv can help worm that into jpl/nasa minds.

speaking of spread itza everyplace!!!
Johan van den Hoogen et al. Soil nematode abundance and functional group composition at a global scale, 
A new study of soil nematodes co-authored by Adams reveals that there are 57 billion of them for every single living human being—much greater than previously estimated. 

JULY 26, 2019
Understanding nematodes to address climate change
by Todd Hollingshead, Brigham Young University
[Image: 49-understandin.jpg]BYU biology professor Byron Adams travels annually to Antarctica and the Arctic north to carry out research. Credit: BYU
Fun fact: The microscopic worms BYU professor Byron Adams studies are not only the most abundant animal species on earth, they also make up four-fifths of animal life on this planet. That's right, four out of every five animals on earth are nematode worms.

A new study of soil nematodes co-authored by Adams reveals that there are 57 billion of them for every single living human being—much greater than previously estimated. They also have a total biomass of about 300 million tons, approximately 80 percent of the combined weight of Earth's human population.
The study, co-authored by Adams and published Wednesday in Nature, provides conclusive evidence that the majority of these tiny animals live somewhere experts did not expect: high latitude arctic and sub-arctic soils (i.e. tundra, boreal and temperate forests, and grasslands).
"Until recently, life beneath our feet has pretty much been terra incognita" says Adams. "Since we didn't know much about life in the soil, most scientists just assumed that patterns of abundance below ground would match what we see above ground. We figured the tropics must be where it's at. Turns out, that's not true at all. The reason this paper is kind of a big deal is that we show just the opposite is true."
Knowing where these tiny worms live matters because nematodes play a critical role in the cycling of carbon and nutrients and heavily influence CO2 emissions. An important finding of the paper is that nematode abundance is strongly correlated with soil carbon (more carbon = more worms). Understanding the little organisms at a global level is critical if humans are going to understand and address climate change.
[Image: understandin.gif]

Microscopic soil nematodes in action. Credit: Brigham Young University
[size=undefined][Image: 3-neuron.jpg]
For the study, researchers took 6,759 soil samples representing every continent, and every environment, from arctic tundra to tropical rainforest. They used microscopes to analyze the density of each type of nematode and generate a representative global dataset. Using the information, they built models which predict nematode populations for each square kilometerand create the first global high-resolution maps of soil nematode density.
For the past 17 years Adams, has traveled annually to the ice-free areas of Antarctica to study nematodes, tardigrades (water bears) and other microscopic creatures. His research program studies the roles these animals play in fundamental ecosystem processes as well as how they survive in extremely cold and dry environments.[/size]

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New study shows how climate change could affect impact of roundworms on grasslands[/size]

More information: Johan van den Hoogen et al. Soil nematode abundance and functional group composition at a global scale, Nature (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1418-6
Journal information: Nature [/url]

Provided by [url=]Brigham Young University
One of the many reasons I take a vitamin B-Complex is the fact it does affect and good for brain function such as a brain cell should look like with synapses and neurons via the Bcl6 molecules in the DNA/RNA full cellular construction.

This we are nothing but "sparks across the holes of our minds".

I'm on O2 right now after a week of tests ER visits by driving myself there for a C-Pak therapy. Blood work that they can't get all the right vessels.  CVPH sucks still.

I am close to finishing RSO Phoenix Tears, about 2.5 inches of liquid left to boil a bit more.  Right now loosing the alcohol by being refrigerated in canning jar with rubber between glass parts and spring to hold the lid on.

But with Bcl6 maybe that's how EBE's are able to do REAL telepathy or remote viewing.

The Russians and Europeans are also doing a Nuclear Rover beside NASA/JPL.... Doh

Who's going where ???



I wonder if improv can help worm that into jpl/nasa minds.

I think we could get at least ONE of Rovers to be THE



But how do we go about this the right way ?

Be nice and polite I'm a bit angry about old Russia and Europe can Land in Downtown Cydonia and then CLAIM THE ENTIRE QUADRANT RUSSIAN & EUROPEAN PROPERTY.

Sound MEGA ?

No US "Space Force" is CHICKEN craps, fly-bye-bye, Pluto, going for a NOSE bugger in deep space.

Who will pick Cydonia?  Elon is we know that, only West of Cydonia.

Improv sparks need happening...Prevogen's brain has no Synapses...need Bcl6 synapses

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
(07-27-2019, 11:36 PM)rhw007 Wrote: One of the many reasons I take a vitamin B-Complex is the fact it does affect and good for brain function such as a brain cell should look like with synapses and neurons via the Bcl6 molecules in the DNA/RNA full cellular construction.

This we are nothing but "sparks across the holes of our minds".

I'm on O2 right now after a week of tests ER visits by driving myself there for a C-Pak therapy. Blood work that they can't get all the right vessels.  CVPH sucks still.

I am close to finishing RSO Phoenix Tears, about 2.5 inches of liquid left to boil a bit more.  Right now loosing the alcohol by being refrigerated in canning jar with rubber between glass parts and spring to hold the lid on.

But with Bcl6 maybe that's how EBE's are able to do REAL telepathy or remote viewing.

 It comes down to some of the new infrared radar systems that we're putting on some of our new jets are detecting some things out there."  

GOP lawmaker says he's 'concerned' over reported UFO sightings by Navy pilots

By Victor Garcia | Fox News
What does the US military actually know about UFOs?
North Carolina Rep. Mark Walker demands answers about the military's probe into UFO sightings.
Rep. Mark Walker, R-N.C., told Fox News Friday that he is "concerned" about recent reports by U.S. Navy pilots of encounters with unidentified aircraft that some have speculated could be otherworldly.
"We are concerned about it," Walker, a member of the House Homeland Security Committee, said on "Tucker Carlson Tonight."  "As the ranking member of terrorism and counterintelligence, we have questions. It comes down to some of the new infrared radar systems that we're putting on some of our new jets are detecting some things out there."

In a letter to Navy Secretary Richard Spencer earlier this month, Walker relayed his concerns and asked for more information on what he referred to as unidentified aerial phenomenon (UAP).
Specifically, Walker asked whether the Navy was still logging the reported sightings, fully investigating the origins of the accounts, and dedicating resources to track and investigate the claims.
[Image: 694940094001_6058446453001_6058445562001-vs.jpg][color=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.2)]Video

Walker also asked Spencer in the letter if investigators had "found physical evidence or otherwise that substantiates these claims."
The Pentagon confirmed the existence of a program to investigate UFOs in 2017, but it is unclear if that is still operating.
The New York Times recently reported that Navy pilots said they saw “strange objects” with “no visible engine or infrared exhaust plumes” flying at hypersonic speeds at an elevation of 30,000 feet along the East Coast.
Politico reported last month that three senators received a briefing from the Pentagon on the encounters.

"There must be theories about what these objects are what these aircraft are," Carlson told Walker. "What's the most plausible theory, do you think?"
"We don't know for sure," Walker said. "The question that we're wanting to get to is, is this something that's a defense mechanism from another country?"
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
(07-27-2019, 11:36 PM)rhw007 Wrote:


I wonder if improv can help worm that into jpl/nasa minds.

But how do we go about this the right way ?

Be nice and polite I'm a bit angry about old Russia and Europe can Land in Downtown Cydonia and then CLAIM THE ENTIRE QUADRANT RUSSIAN & EUROPEAN PROPERTY.

Who will pick Cydonia?  Elon is we know that, only West of Cydonia.

Improv sparks need happening...Prevogen's brain has no Synapses...need Bcl6 synapses

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
Elon Answers...July 29, 2019(Real Top-Hat Image!)

Photos: SpaceX completes resupply run to International Space Station
July 29, 2019
A SpaceX Dragon capsule packed with more than 5,000 pounds of hardware, provisions and experiments launched July 25 from Cape Canaveral and arrived at the International Space Station two days later.
https://mk0spaceflightnoa02a.kinstacdn.c...3bd7_k.jpg[Image: 48380511427_eeafd03bd7_k.jpg]
Credit: SpaceX
The Top-Hat has Landed!

Right Hear on your neuron.
[Image: Lincoln-in-Top-Hat-1.jpg]

Full Circle Improv. Sheep  (Eh Lefty?)
Top-Hats and Dunce Caps...Honestly, Of Whom am I Thinkin' ? (Pages: 1 2 3 4 ... 29 )

Quote:But how do we go about this the right way ?

Be nice and polite I'm a bit angry about old Russia and Europe can Land in Downtown Cydonia and then CLAIM THE ENTIRE QUADRANT RUSSIAN & EUROPEAN PROPERTY.

Lest Ye Forget...


[Image: 3020584058_04cf5b80fa.jpg]  

Eye Work for YOU.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
(07-27-2019, 11:36 PM)rhw007 Wrote: Improv sparks need happening...Prevogen's brain has no Synapses...need Bcl6 synapses

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
[Image: 34623245166_4c85833331_b.jpg]

Mars in our Night Sky
[Image: 77_20061020_SolarConjunction.jpg]
Every day for over two decades, the U.S. has had a presence at Mars, using spacecraft to understand this extreme world and its potential as a past or present habitat for life.
During that time, all spacecraft have become virtually incommunicado for about two weeks every two years. The reason is solar conjunction.
Solar conjunction is the period when Earth and Mars, in their eternal march around the Sun, are obscured from each other by the fiery orb of the Sun itself. Like dancers on either side of a huge bonfire, the two planets are temporarily invisible to each other.
The solar conjunction moratorium on commanding all Mars spacecraft is between Aug. 28 and Sept. 7, 2019, when Mars is within 2 degrees of the Sun.
Mission controllers at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory respond in a variety of ways. They turn off some instruments. They collect data from others and store it. In some cases, they continue sending data to Earth, knowing that some data will be lost. Whether they get a break from everyday operations depends on what mission they're supporting.
No one attempts to send new instructions to Mars during solar conjunction. It's impossible to predict what information might be lost due to interference from charged particles from the Sun, and that lost information could potentially endanger the spacecraft. Instead, prior to solar conjunction, engineers send two weeks' worth of instructions and wait.
While that may seem risky, automatic pilot has come a long way. Engineers have become skilled at letting spacecraft be on their own. Like parents who raise youngsters to be responsible and let them go on a short vacation with their friends, they've done all they can to ensure the voyagers will be healthy and safe. Before solar conjunction, the mission team sends up any necessary commands. Many then consider it an opportune time to take a few, well-deserved vacation days.



Quote:However, the 'neuronal drama' of such synchronized hippocampal bursts clearly points to their central role in memory formation and recall."

EA #4
Sunday, October 19th, 2008, 04:18 am

Since you Fashion yourself as an american icon online...

[Image: Lincoln-in-Top-Hat-1.jpg]

I will Fashion a Head-Dress for You then,to contain the thoughts that will synchronized hippocampal burst from your new mind.


Tobias Owen Sheep To Bias Own

Quote:During the experiment, the patients were presented with pictures, rich in color and visual detail, of either faces of famous people (e.g., Barack Obama, Uma Thurman) or famous monuments (e.g., the Statue of Liberty, the Leaning Tower of Pisa). 
What if it was both?:

Saturday, January 24th, 2009, 09:00 pm

  ???Face<<< FAMOUS >>>Monument???

[Image: 27967088100_8299f445d8_z.jpg]

AUGUST 15, 2019

Scientists uncover neuronal mechanism central to human free recall

by Weizmann Institute of Science

[Image: 5d557dac23a5d.jpg]The image illustrates the central role of sharp wave ripples in Human memory formation and recall. Ripples are brief oscillatory fluctuations in electric field reflecting rapid bursts of neuronal activity in the hippocampus, a brain region central to human episodic memory. During the time window of the ripple, the cortex and hippocampus interact to reinstate the content of the memory. Credit: Tal Bigdary
Extraterrestrial scientists landing in a football stadium would be struck by the sight of the crowd suddenly standing up and shouting in unison. In a similar manner, since the nineties, researchers have observed a special pattern of neuronal activity in rodents: tens of thousands of nerve cells firing in unison in a part of the brain called the hippocampus. But, like an alien scientist, the researchers have not been able to understand the "language" of the rodents' minds when these mysterious synchronous bursts occurred.

Recently Weizmann Institute scientists succeeded in recording these rapid bursts of activity—called "hippocampal ripples"—in the human brain, and they were able to demonstrate their importance as a neuronal mechanism underlying the engraving of new memories and their subsequent recall. These findings appear today in Science.
"The ripple is an amazing event in its intensity and timing. It is an orchestrated burst of synchronous activation by about 15% of hippocampal neurons—all firing together within about a tenth of a second. It's a nerve-cell fireworks display," explains Prof. Rafi Malach of the Institute's Neurobiology Department. It was first revealed that they emerge during mental states of sleep and rest, and that they play an important role in rodents' spatial navigational memory. Only recently it was found that such synchronous electrical activity in large groups of neurons also occurs in the primate hippocampus during the awake state. However, until now, scientists have been kept in the dark as to the roles the ripples play in human cognition and mental activity.
[Image: fireworkmemo.jpg]

Electrode (yellow dots) implanted in the hippocampus of a patient undergoing epilepsy monitoring, viewed with MRI. Colors indicate sub regions of the hippocampus. Sharp wave ripples appear most prominently in the CA1 region, shown in red. Credit: Weizmann Institute of Science

Humans can, of course, communicate their thoughts, but most research methods do not give scientists a detailed view of what happens at the same time within the brain. Yitzhak Norman, a Ph.D. student in Malach's lab, who led the current research in collaboration with the group of Prof. Ashesh Mehta from the Feinstein Institute for Medical Research in the US, recruiting patients who undergo invasive recordings in the course of their medical diagnosis. In this clinical procedure, patients suffering from intractable epilepsy get electrodes implanted in multiple brain regions to locate the epileptic focus and surgically remove it. These patients freely volunteered to participate in the memory experiments while they waited in the hospital between seizures.
During the experiment, the patients were presented with pictures, rich in color and visual detail, of either faces of famous people (e.g., Barack Obama, Uma Thurman) or famous monuments (e.g., the Statue of Liberty, the Leaning Tower of Pisa). The patients were asked to try to remember these pictures in as much detail as possible. After this picture-viewing stage, and following a short distraction task, they were asked, with their eyes covered, to freely recall the pictures and describe them in detail. Throughout the experiment, the talking of the patients was recorded simultaneously with their corresponding brain activity, which was revealed through the electrodes implanted both in the hippocampus, as well as other regions in the cerebral cortex.

Correlating the brain's activity and the patient's verbal reports revealed a number of striking observations. First, it was found that ripple-bursts had a critical role in the free recall process: about a second or two before the patients recalled and began describing a new picture, there was a significant increase in the ripple rate anticipating their recall. Importantly, the hippocampal ripples re-expressed the content of the pictures: pictures that elicited a higher number of ripples during the viewing stage also elicited a higher number of ripples during the subsequent recall.
[Image: 5d557dc9aaf9d.jpg][/size]

This image depicts intracranial electrodes (red circles) that measure changes in the electric field of the cortex when viewing a picture and when freely recalling the same picture later. During the recollection visual activity is reinstated when the hippocampus elicits a rapid burst of synchronized neuronal activity (ripple). Credit: Yitzhak Norman

Since brain activity was recorded simultaneously in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex, the researchers were able to demonstrate that the ripples were synchronized with cortical activation, specifically in the visual centers of the brain where the detailed visual information is likely to be stored. Furthermore, high-level visual centers are known to be specialized in representing specific visual categories—for example, faces are represented in one cortical region and monuments in another region. Accordingly, when patients recalled a face, for example, Barack Obama, or alternatively, a monument, such as the Eiffel Tower, cortical activity was selectively enhanced in the corresponding visual centers. Norman explains: "An orchestrated action across a number of centers is revealed during free recall, with the hippocampus playing the role of the conductor."
The findings substantially expand our understanding of the function of the hippocampus. They emphasize the importance of synchronized neuronal group activity. The hippocampal burst, it should be remembered, involves the synchronous activation of hundreds of thousands of nerve cells. "This constitutes a major advance in our understanding of neuronal mechanisms underlying human memory," summarizes Malach. "Engraving memories, their storage and their recall are naturally dependent on a complex set of processes. However, the 'neuronal drama' of such synchronized hippocampal bursts clearly points to their central role in memory formation and recall."[/size]


Explore further
The brain's auto-complete function[/size]

More information: Y. Norman el al., "Hippocampal sharp-wave ripples linked to visual episodic recollection in humans," Science (2019). … 1126/science.aax1030
Journal information: Science 

Provided by [url=]Weizmann Institute of Science
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...

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