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Top-Hats and Dunce Caps...Honestly, Of Whom am I Thinkin' ?
Follow the logic:  Arrow



Logically itza illogical by the very nature of the Quantum Improvisphere.



In the Quantum Improvisphere ---Improv Is Fear for Lincoln.



Observe: This is the Education of Lincoln.



Recall that Lincoln(Stuart Harris) was nicknamed: Linke(Left) because Eye Am Right.

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Linke

[Image: shoyster.jpg]

I call him "Lefty" for short.



Well... because of the obvious oblivious obnoxious oxymoron he was Sinister,

https://english.stackexchange.com/questi...nt-meaning

Lefty was Right-fully "Banned" from THM for glaringly obvious oblivious reasons and was a 'Write-Off'



Picking right up where we left off he's still @ Itza!!! >>>

https://dorkmission.blogspot.com/   BLOG ARCHIVE

https://dorkmission.blogspot.com/2019/












Lefty's claim to fame was---    "Hamnet"  An online Act Of Improv.

https://everything2.com/title/Hamnet





Hamnet although ---sum may view as revolutionary--- was annexed by this thread.

This thread is likely the world's longest running improv dedicated to instruct our left pupil.





Lest he forgets...Recall:





  SEPTEMBER 4, 2019

Genetic regions associated with left-handedness identified
[Image: geneticregio.jpg]The language brain regions were more coordinated in left-handers between the two sides of the brain (in green and orange) and were also connected by the white matter tracts influenced by one genetic region related to handedness (in blue). Credit: G Douaud, University of Oxford.
A new study has for the first time identified regions of the genome associated with left-handedness in the general population and linked their effects with brain architecture. The study, led by researchers at the University of Oxford who were funded by the Medical Research Council—part of UK Research and Innovation—and Wellcome, linked these genetic differences with the connections between areas of the brain related to language.





...













AUGUST 28, 2019

Lefty, righty brains count on same area for numbers
by Maggie Maclellan, University of Western Ontario
[Image: 11-brain.jpg]Credit: CC0 Public Domain
Lefties and righties may put pen to paper from different sides of the page, but when it comes to numbers, everything adds up using the same point in the brain, according to a recent Western study. The findings offer one more clue in toward helping kids who struggle with numerical and math skills.

In a recently released registered report titled "Does writing handedness affect neural representation of symbolic number? An fMRI Adaptation Study," researchers showed that the brain's location for processing numbers is the same for both right- and left-handed individuals.






https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-08-l...-area.html



Hamnet inflected by the infected Chiral Viral strain of credulity.
[Image: trump-flag.png]

Major League Soccer Team Bans Betsy Ross Flag, Calls it a ‘Symbol for Hate Groups’
[Image: Getty-Images12-640x480.jpg]
[/url]



[url=https://www.breitbart.com/author/warner-todd-huston/]WARNER TODD HUSTON




5 Sep 2019669



2:17




America’s premier soccer league, Major League Soccer, has declared the red, white, and blue Betsy Ross flag a “symbol for hate groups” and banned a couple in Utah from waving it at games.
A Utah couple who were in attendance at a Major League Soccer Real Salt Lake game says they were told by stadium officials to put away their Betsy Ross flag because the original flag of the American Revolution is a “symbol for hate groups.”
According to Randolf and Diana Scott, the league now claims that the flag, one of America’s earliest national banners, has been adopted by “hate groups,” according to Fox News.
The pair turned up recently at Rio Tinto Stadium in Sandy, Utah, outfitted in their favorite jerseys and team colors and waving their Betsy Ross Flag.
“Diana bought it for me actually, because my other flag was kind of old and falling apart,” Randolf told Fox.
But the couple says that stadium personnel soon approached them and demanded that they hide their early version of the Stars and Stripes.
“They kept telling us if he wasn’t going to take it down, we were going to be ejected from the game,” Diana exclaimed.
“He asked me — he’s like, ‘So what’s the purpose of the flag?'” Randolf said of the stadium official. “I was like, ‘Well, ’cause we love America.'”
The league admitted to Fox that any “controversial” banner is banned from stadiums.
“Recently, and very controversially as well as surprising to us, the Colonial flag has been adopted as a symbol for hate groups,” Real Salt Lake Chief Business Officer Andy Carroll told Fox. “Any controversial flags or other similar banners or signs with symbols of hatred, divisiveness and/or intolerance whether intentional or otherwise will not be permitted in our stadiums. Period.”
Ultimately, Randolf said that the characterization of the Betsy Ross flag as a banner of hate is absurd.
“When people see me or Diana with this flag, I hope they can understand that it’s about the freedoms we have here in America,” Randolf told Fox, “the legacy that America has.”
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
...


Quote:Recall that Lincoln(Stu Harris) was nicknamed: Linke(Left) because Eye Am Right.

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Linke

[Image: shoyster.jpg]

I call him "Lefty" for short.


Picking right up where we left off he's still @ Itza!!! >>>



https://dorkmission.blogspot.com/   BLOG ARCHIVE


https://dorkmission.blogspot.com/2019/




Lefty Rofl

then I saw on the net ... a video game hero named ... Lefty.
A plastic toy creature,
by Funko Tp  company, 
produced from a goofy video game,
about a "pizzaria simulator",
run by a crater counter,
across from an opera house in the Aussie outback.

Lefty
http://www.collectiondx.com/toy_review/2018/lefty
[Image: PB071571.jpg]



Lefty has a store in downtown Expat Australia Rofl
[Image: 2Y5bKWr.jpg]



Lefty and Righty ... 
The Stu-Be-Doo brothers
[Image: zgyJQV8.jpg]


Guitar

...
Reply
Uncanny Improv!
[Image: PB071565.jpg]
An astounding 'Willfully Blind' Left Arrow Pupil. wow.Lmao!
https://www.sciencealert.com/aliens-may-...study-says
And you can't top that red top-hat no-how/know-how = gnosis.
Aliens May Have Explored The Galaxy And Visited Earth Already, Scientists Say
That is too funny... it Rights Itself Eh Lefty.
https://www.sciencealert.com/aliens-may-...study-says


As for Crater Counting  Doh Sheep Doh
Stu- explosive gas that blew out craters -Stu


SEPTEMBER 9, 2019
New models suggest Titan lakes are explosion craters
by Alana Johnson



Quote:The new, alternative models for some of the smaller lakes (tens of miles across) turns that theory upside down: It proposes pockets of liquid nitrogen in Titan's crust warmed, turning into explosive gas that blew out craters, which then filled with liquid methane. The new theory explains why some of the smaller lakes near Titan's north pole, like Winnipeg Lacus, appear in radar imaging to have very steep rims that tower above sea level—rims difficult to explain with the karstic model.
The radar data were gathered by the Cassini Saturn Orbiter—a mission managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California—during its last close flyby of Titan, as the spacecraft prepared for its final plunge into Saturn's atmosphere two years ago. An international team of scientists led by Giuseppe Mitri of Italy's G. d'Annunzio University became convinced that the karstic model didn't jibe with what they saw in these new images.
"The rim goes up, and the karst process works in the opposite way," Mitri said. "We were not finding any explanation that fit with a karstic lake basin. In reality, the morphology was more consistent with an explosion crater, where the rim is formed by the ejected material from the crater interior. It's totally a different process."

https://phys.org/news/2019-09-titan-lake...aters.html
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
News says we may have been visited before:

https://interestingengineering.com/alien...study-says

We got friends everywhere Luv 


Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
Reply
Made Manifest.

Quote:This thread is likely the world's longest running improv dedicated to instruct our left pupil.
Lest he forgets...Recall:



Picking up Right where Eye Left off... Arrow

[Image: PB071571.jpg]
Lefty
http://www.collectiondx.com/toy_review/2018/lefty

Quote:"The tendency to centre a feature of particular interest in the frame presumably derives from the fact that we humans have a single focal region of high resolution in the centre of our retinas, the fovea, providing a natural point of attraction for this largely unsuspected tendency in composing the portrait."
ITZA Self-Center Itself! Arrow

SEPTEMBER 10, 2019
Do we tend to centre our Instagram selfies on our left eye?
[Image: 5d775a6e4d2da.jpg]This is an image illustrating the 'criteria for measuring the relative position of the most-centred eye' (Figure 1. in the study article) NB: this image is not an example from the selfies analysed in the study. Credit: Pexels
Do we tend to centre our Instagram selfies on our left eye?

How Right Am Eye? Itza Right Rite Write itself.[Image: 48712349478_203ccfb3cf_o.jpg] this image is not an example from the selfies analysed in the study. Credit:- IMPROV EYES 

A new study suggests that it may not just be artists who make their eyes the centre-point of their own original work.
New research suggests that we tend to compose 'selfies' that horizontally centre on one of our eyes, particularly the left.
The study authors from City, University of London, the University of Parma, and the University of Liverpool speculate that this alignment is because our eyes provide a wealth of information about our gaze direction and what we are paying attention to, which may in turn be used to share important information with the viewer about our mood and what we are thinking about.
Previous research has suggested that painters apply the same eye-centring principle in their portraits of others and of themselves, whether knowingly or not, while other research has argued that the eye-centring phenomenon may just be a statistical artefact caused by random processes.
In the current study, the researchers analysed over 4,000 Instagram 'selfie' photos available from the website http://www.selfie.city.net, with an equal proportion taken in the major cities of New York (US), São Paulo (Brazil), Moscow (Russia), Berlin (Germany) and Bangkok (Thailand).
The study subdivided the images into 'standard selfies' taken at arm's length using a camera-phone or similar digital device, or a 'mirror selfie' taken of the creator's reflection through a mirror and including the digital device in shot. This is an important distinction, partly as it is needed to differentiate whether people have a left or right bias toward composing their selfies.
The study did not include photos commonly known as 'wefies', 'usies' or 'groupies' (i.e. with multiple friends in the shot), those taken next to pets or life-sized dolls, or self-portraits taken from unnatural angles and positions (such as with the head cocked at an extreme angle, or a full body selfie).
For each selfie the horizontal position of each eye relative to the centre-line of the image was measured, with the distance and direction of the closest eye recorded.
Statistical analyses applied to this information showed that the selfie creators tended to centre one of their eyes slightly to the left of centre of the selfie, and usually the left eye.
Interestingly, this centring tendency varied less among selfie subjects than expected if the phenomenon happened by chance, and was seen consistently across all the cities sampled in the study.
Furthermore, the slight centring of the eye to the left is consistent with a phenomenon observed in neurologically healthy people known as 'pseudoneglect' in which spatial attention tends to be shifted to the left. This is shown, for example, when people are asked to indicate the middle of a horizontal line drawn on a sheet of paper; on average, the mark is made slightly to the left.
The fact that the left eye was more commonly centred than the right is also consistent with some previous research suggesting that selfie-takers and artists of self-portraits prefer showing more of their left cheek.
The authors do however urge caution in interpretation of the findings of left-right bias due to limitations of the study, including the possibility of some of the selfie creators 'left-right' flipping their images before posting them.
Professor Christopher Tyler, Professor of Optometry and Visual Sciences at City, University of London and a collaborator in the study said:
"The core result of this study was to replicate my earlier finding that painters tend to centre one eye in portraits, throughout the centuries, in a modern version of which the selfie takers are simultaneously both the artists and the subjects of the portrait.
"This centring tendency opposes the alternative possibility of placing the symmetric face symmetrically in the frame, which would avoid leaving the non-centred eye 'out in the cold'. These results are important for understanding the perceptual principles in operation as these diverse 'portraitists' choose the framing and composition of their pictures.
"The tendency to centre a feature of particular interest in the frame presumably derives from the fact that we humans have a single focal region of high resolution in the centre of our retinas, the fovea, providing a natural point of attraction for this largely unsuspected tendency in composing the portrait."
The research is published in the journal, PLOS ONE.


Explore further
Selfies and the self: what they say about us and society

[Image: biden-bloody-eye-678x381.jpg]
[b]More information:[/b] Nicola Bruno et al, Eye centring in selfies posted on Instagram, PLOS ONE (2019). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0218663
[b]Journal information:[/b] PLoS ONE

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-09-t...-left.html
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
(09-09-2019, 09:27 PM)rhw007 Wrote: News says we may have been visited before:

https://interestingengineering.com/alien...study-says

We got friends everywhere Luv 


Bob... Ninja Assimilated



they've probably been around for awhile now...

The Milky Way cannibalized a neighboring galaxy
Ten billion years ago, our galaxy ate one of its smaller neighbors.
By Korey Haynes  |  Published: Monday, July 22, 2019
RELATED TOPICS: MILKY WAY | GALAXIES
[/url][url=http://astronomy.com/sitefiles/resources/image.aspx?item={25EAAB41-E4D1-4A67-B40E-30A2B99713BA}][img=716x0]http://astronomy.com/-/media/Images/News%20and%20Observing/News/2019/07/MilkyWayCannibal.jpg?mw=600[/img]
By pinpointing the ages and origins of stars in the Milky Way, astronomers can trace its history.
[Image: MilkyWayCannibal.jpg?mw=1000&mh=800]
Koppelman, Villalobos and Helmi/NASA/ESA/Hubble
Ten billion years ago, the Milky Way encountered another galaxy in the vast emptiness of space, and consumed it. Dubbed Gaia-Enceladus by astronomers, this stranger was roughly one-quarter the Milky Way’s size, and it forever changed the makeup and shape of our home galaxy.

Scientists have had evidence for a while that the Milky Way saw a major merger in its past. Even without direct evidence here in our home galaxy, scientists know that galaxy collisions are commonplace in the universe. These mergers are the major way that galaxies grow and evolve. But this is the first time that astronomers have been able to pinpoint the ages of different stellar populations within the Milky Way accurately enough to pin down when this merger occurred, and how exactly it affected our home galaxy. Researchers led by Carme Gallart from the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias in Spain published their findings Monday in Nature Astronomy.
Galaxies Collide
To read the Milky Way’s history, astronomers must pinpoint the ages of different populations and groups of stars within the galaxy. This is tricky because measuring stars’ ages is an inexact science. Scientists can’t really just look at a star and tell its age, even with detailed measurements. Instead, they look at batches of stars and compare them to model star populations. Stars are typically born in large litters, and by getting details about whole groups of stars, scientists can run the clock backward and get a more accurate picture of when that birth occurred

And thanks to the outpouring of new data from the Gaia mission, which is creating the most accurate stellar map yet, astronomers were able to take a big step forward in this challenge.

Armed with their new data, astronomers plotted stars from similar regions of the Milky Way. They discovered two distinct populations of stars. Some stars, which appear redder in color, appear to have formed in a larger, more metal-rich galaxy. (It’s worth remembering here that astronomers call any element not hydrogen or helium a “metal.”) The other, bluer population of stars should have formed in a smaller, more metal-poor galaxy. The fact that astronomers see these populations mixed together is a sign that the larger galaxy (the early Milky Way) encountered and consumed a smaller galaxy (Gaia-Enceladus) at some point in the past.

Astronomers had suspected such an event based on previous observations, but the new Gaia data lends more clarity. The data also back up what astronomers had suspected, that the interloper galaxy was roughly a quarter the size of the original Milky Way.

The timeline of this event was under debate, however. But the new data allowed astronomers to measure that ages of stars in the Milky Way’s halo, a sort of bubble of stars rising above and below the more familiar disk shape, all cut off at 10 billion years ago. The reason these stars orbit out of the Milky Way’s disk is because they are moving faster than other stars, and the implication is that some energetic event tossed them to these high speeds.

By combining the ages of the stars with models of galaxy evolution, astronomers can paint a timeline of the Milky Way’s history. For some 3 billion years, the young Milky Way evolved on its own, until it ran into the smaller Gaia-Enceladus 10 billion years ago. This encounter tossed some stars into the halo, and also poured gas – the fuel for new star formation – into the Milky Way’s disk, causing a burst of new star formation. Over the next few billion years, this flurry of activity eased off, though our galaxy still has enough fuel to keep making stars at a decreased rate.

Thanks to the massive amount of data Gaia collects, scientists receive the findings on a delay. The current results are based only on the first 22 months of data, collected between 2014 and 2016. Gaia will keep collecting data until at least 2022, and probably 2024 if all continues smoothly. As the project continues to release new measurements, researchers’ understanding of our galaxy can only improve. 
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
Meghan McCain Warns Democrats Ahead Of Debate: ‘The Trump Ads Write Themselves


[Image: trump-in-top-hat.png?w=611]


VIRGINIA KRUTAASSOCIATE EDITOR
September 12, 20193:01 PM ET

Meghan McCain delivered a warning to Democrats ahead of Thursday evening’s third Democratic primary debate on ABC.
McCain joined her fellow co-hosts on “The View” in critiquing the imminent debate, arguing that the far-left position many candidates have taken thus far in the primary could hurt them when they are forced to appeal to a much broader base in a general election.
[b]WATCH:[/b]



Co-host Joy Behar began by voicing her own concerns about Democratic Massachusetts Sen. Elizabeth Warren, listing two reasons why she thought Americans might not vote for her.
“Can I say something about Elizabeth? I love Elizabeth Warren very much, and I think she would make a very good president, but I don’t believe — maybe I’m in the minority with liberals on this. I don’t believe that this country will vote for her because of two things,” Behar explained. “Number one, she believes in Medicare for all without private insurance, and I have said before, Americans don’t like anything taken away from them. We like having that. She has put that out there, and she needs to take that out and say, well, you can have it if you want. As an option. Give Americans the choice, and number two, they must counteract Trump’s lie that Democrats want open borders. Democrats want legal immigration. They want people to come in legally the way we have done since this country began, starting with the Dutch, okay? And I think that those things need to be clear. Otherwise, Elizabeth is not going to capture the heart of the — the heartland.”
McCain jumped in then, suggesting that Warren’s mistake was perhaps in leaning too far to the left in order to win the primary. “Well that is always the problem,” she said. “That is always the question though is how far left you run in a primary trying to win over the base … versus how broad you can become in a general, and I would agree. There are things a lot of people are saying especially in the CNN climate change debate that I just, like, being in Republican operative circles, the ads are writing themselves, and I understand you’re trying to win a primary.”


“Against him. Against Trump,” Behar pressed.
“No, like, Trump’s ads are writing themselves,” McCain clarified. 


“When I watch some of these things and you are holding your hands up and saying, ‘I believe all undocumented immigrants should have health care’ and we don’t care about that, they’re ads that will hit the base of America that will be quite effective.” [b](RELATED: Meghan McCain Calls Huffman And Macy ‘The Poster Children For What Everyone Hates About White Privilege’)[/b]
McCain concluded by repeating her point about consideration of the eventual general election, where the average voter would not be as far to the left. “I get hit for saying, you have to think about a general election,” she said. “I understand that, like, a primary voter who is, you know, far Progressive won’t like that, but at a certain point, you’re going to be running for all of America, not just ‘the Squad.'”


https://dailycaller.com/2019/09/12/megha...hemselves/
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
Welcome To the Quantum ImproviSphere.
https://phys.org/news/2019-09-quantum-en...facts.html
Here is the test.

Do your best,in earnest or jest,damned or blessed to make ITZA manifest.

ITZA is a whatever you want to watch'ya-ma'call-it.

Your Tools are whatever you make and you make your observations over time.

Begin.
LilD https://phys.org/news/2019-09-quantum-entitled-facts.html Holycowsmile



Arrow My
SEPTEMBER 24, 2019
Quantum observers may be entitled to their own facts
[Image: quantumobser.jpg]Fig. 1 Wigner’s friend experiment.(A) A quantum system in an equal superposition of two possible states is measured by Wigner’s friend (inside the box). According to quantum theory, in each run, she will randomly obtain one of two possible measurement outcomes. This can be verified by directly looking into her laboratory and reading which result she recorded. (B) From outside the closed laboratory, however, Wigner must describe his friend and her quantum system as a joint entangled state. Wigner can also verify this state assignment through an interference experiment, concluding that his friend cannot have seen a definite outcome in the first place. © We consider an extended version of that experiment, where an entangled state is sent to two different laboratories, each involving an experimenter and their friend. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw9832
Science is based on facts that are established by independent observations agreed by everyone.

But scientists at Heriot-Watt University's Mostly Quantum Lab have now shown that, in the quantum world, facts may depend on who observes them.
Imagine tossing a coin. A quantum coin can exist in a superposition of both 'heads' and 'tails', until a definite outcome 'heads' or 'tails' is observed, which is considered a fact.
In the 1960s, the renowned scientist, Eugene Wigner, proposed an intriguing thought experiment. An observer, Wigner's friend, tosses a quantum coin inside a closed laboratory, observing as a fact one of the two outcomes. From the outside, we cannot tell what happened, and the rules of quantum mechanics allow us to describe both friend and coin as one single system. 
Massimiliano Proietti, lead author of the study and PhD student at Heriot-Watt, said, "From outside the laboratory, Wigner's friend and the coin become "entangled", which means they are in a superposition where both outcomes, 'heads' and 'tails' are still present — a fact that can be established by the outside observer. This brings about a paradoxical situation where the fact established inside the laboratory seemingly contradicts the fact observed on the outside."
To test this prediction, Heriot-Watt's team conducted a quantum test that involves four observers implemented on a small photonic quantum computer. In an experiment involving six entangled light particles Proietti and colleagues showed that, under some assumptions, the inside and outside observers really cannot agree on what happened in the experiment.
Lab leader Professor Alessandro Fedrizzi, adds: "The insight we gained is that quantum observers may indeed be entitled to their own facts. 


[Image: source.gif][/url]

If we insist that this shouldn't be the case for 'classical' human observers, the challenge now is to pin down where the two domains depart from each other. It may for example hint at 
quantum mechanics not being applicable to big, everyday objects—something that is allowed by textbook quantum physics."
Their findings were published today in the scientific journal, Science Advances.




Explore further
Bridge between quantum mechanics and general relativity still possible



[b]More information:[/b] Massimiliano Proietti et al. Experimental test of local observer independence, Science Advances (2019). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw9832
[b]Journal information:[/b] Science Advances 

Provided by Heriot-Watt University



Recall:

This is The 
Education
of
https://phys.org/news/2019-09-quantum-en...facts.html

[Image: zgyJQV8.jpg][url=https://i.imgur.com/zgyJQV8.jpg]

https://phys.org/news/2019-09-quantum-en...facts.html
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
When amateurs think they've got it all sewed up.

 Adam Schiff for neurons >>>attempts @Improv<<<

All the World(S) is(S) a stage(S) in the Quantum ImproviSphere(S).
[Image: pencil_20neck_20pencil_20neck_20adam_20s...umb200.jpg]Eye Ain't know  Doh Betsy Ross.
https://thefederalist.com/2019/09/26/ada...president/
[/url][url=https://thefederalist.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/Screen-Shot-2019-09-26-at-11.12.30-AM-1024x705.png][Image: Screen-Shot-2019-09-26-at-11.12.30-AM-1024x705.png]

Adam Schiff Performs Fake Conversation Between Trump and Ukraine President
KRISTINA WONG

26 Sep 201916,27

House Intelligence Committee Chairman Adam Schiff (D-CA) performed an entirely made-up conversation between President Trump and Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky during his opening statement at a committee hearing Thursday morning.
The White House released a transcript of a phone call between Trump and Zelensky on Wednesday, but Schiff made up and fabricated his own transcript that he read at the hearing, which sought to create the quid pro quo that Democrats have accused the president of making.
“This is the essence of what the president communicates,” Schiff began.
“We’ve been very good to your country. Very good. No other country has done as much as we have. But you know what? I don’t see much reciprocity here. I hear what you want. I have a favor I want from YOU though. And I’m going to say this only seven times so you better listen good,” Schiff read from his fabricated conversation.
“I want you to make up dirt on my political opponent, understand? Lots of it,” he continued.
“On this and on that. I’m gonna put you in touch with people and not just any people,” he continued, affecting an accent meant to resemble Trump’s. “I’m going to put you with the attorney general of the United States, my attorney general Bill Barr. He’s got the whole weight of the American law enforcement behind him.”
“And I’m gonna put you in touch with Rudy, you’re gonna love him, trust me,” Schiff said, still avoiding any real quotations from the transcript. “You know what I’m asking, so I’m only going to say this a few more times, in a few more ways. And by the way don’t call me again. I’ll call you when you’ve done what I’ve asked.”
Schiff said of his made-up conversation, “This is in sum and character what the president was trying to communicate.”
Republican lawmakers slammed Schiff for making up the conversation entirely, instead of going off the transcript of what was actually said between Trump and Zelensky.
Rep. Mike Turner (R-OH) called the statement “fiction”:


Quote:While the chairman was speaking, I actually had someone text me, ‘Is he just making this up?’ And yes, yes he was. Because sometimes fiction is better than the actual words or the text. But luckily the American people are smart. They have the transcript, they’ve read the conversation, they know when someone is just making it up.
After Turner’s scolding, Schiff said his “summary of the president’s call was at least meant to be in part parody.”
He added, “The fact that that’s not clear is a separate problem in and of itself. Of course the president never said, “If you didn’t understand me, I’m going to say it seven more times.’ My point is, that’s the message the Ukrainian president was receiving in not so many words.”
Rep. Brad Wenstrup (R-OH) accused Schiff of being intentionally misleading.
“I think it’s a shame that we started off this hearing with fictional remarks — the implication of a conversation that took place between a president and foreign leader, putting words into it that didn’t exist, they’re not in the transcript. And I would contend that they were intentionally not clear,” he said.
“The chairman described it as parody, and I don’t think this is the time or place for parody when we are trying to seek facts,” he added.
“And unfortunately today, many innocent Americans are going to turn on their TV and the media’s only going to show that section of what the chairman had to say, but I’m also glad to know that many Americans have seen this movie too many times and are tired of it.”



https://www.breitbart.com/politics/2019/...president/
[Image: D21cPw1UkAAJY3_?format=jpg&name=small]

[b]Whistleblower Is CIA Officer Who Was Detailed to White House...
Complaint alleges White House officials acted to 'lock down' record of call......
STORED ON SEPARATE COMPUTER NETWORK...
READ IT...
LAYS OUT OTHER DOCUMENTS, WITNESSES...
'Unique and unprecedented'...
Trump Attacks Whistleblower's Sources...
Alludes to Punishment for Spies...
Majority of House members now support impeachment...
First Republican governor comes out in support...
RUDY: 'These morons -- when this is over, I will be the hero'...
Voters react with joy, fury, ambivalence...
WORKPLACES TURN TOXIC AS POLARIZATION INTENSIFIES...


[/b]
DEMS SPEED UP IMPEACHMENT
SENATORS FRET TRUMP TRIAL
COMPLAINT ALLEGES COVER-UP


[Image: logo9.gif]


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Quantum observers may be entitled to their own facts

[Image: quantumobser.jpg]
https://phys.org/news/2019-09-quantum-en...facts.html[Image: D21cPw1UkAAJY3_?format=jpg&name=small]

‘Disgrace’: GOP Rips Adam Schiff for Making Up Trump Quote, Then Claiming ‘Parody’
https://www.breitbart.com/politics/2019/...ed-parody/

Quote:But scientists at Heriot-Watt University's Mostly Quantum Lab have now shown that, in the quantum world, facts may depend on who observes them.

Imagine tossing a coin. A quantum coin can exist in a superposition of both 'heads' and 'tails', until a definite outcome 'heads' or 'tails' is observed, which is considered a fact.
In the 1960s, the renowned scientist, Eugene Wigner, proposed an intriguing thought experiment. An observer, Wigner's friend, tosses a quantum coin inside a closed laboratory, observing as a fact one of the two outcomes. From the outside, we cannot tell what happened, and the rules of quantum mechanics allow us to describe both friend and coin as one single system. 
Massimiliano Proietti, lead author of the study and PhD student at Heriot-Watt, said, "From outside the laboratory, Wigner's friend and the coin become "entangled", which means they are in a superposition where both outcomes, 'heads' and 'tails' are still present — a fact that can be established by the outside observer. This brings about a paradoxical situation where the fact established inside the laboratory seemingly contradicts the fact observed on the outside."

Quantum observers may be entitled to their own facts
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Don't Gamble With Improv.
https://phys.org/news/2019-09-quantum-en...facts.html
[Image: D21cPw1UkAAJY3_?format=jpg&name=small][Image: D21cPw1UkAAJY3_?format=jpg&name=small]
Reply
...

Adam Schiff is the foremost sicko-psycho-socio-patho-fuck  in the Dementocratic party.
A Triumverate of Ghouls
Schiff
Nadler
Blumethal

Schiff is like a Zombie Voodude on bathtub meth and pharmaceutical thorazine at the same time.
He never eats, sleeps or shits.
He just perpetually rots flesh.
Somebody please,
just walk up to him,
and puke in his face. 

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This is one sick mother fucker.

...
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Rofl He's trying to Center his Sinister Left Eye @ Phi
[Image: 48712349478_203ccfb3cf_o.jpg]Do we tend to centre our Instagram selfies on our left eye?
by City University London
https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-09-t...-left.html
Shiff-ty and Lefty... two stu-pidz
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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Recall:

Quote:Quantum observers may be entitled to their own facts

[Image: quantumobser.jpg]
https://phys.org/news/2019-09-quantum-en...facts.html[Image: D21cPw1UkAAJY3_?format=jpg&name=small]


OCTOBER 2, 2019
Can we peek at Schrodinger's cat without disturbing it?
[Image: canwepeekats.jpg]Since the cat in the box (top left) is in a superposition that means it can be in numerous different states (e.g. dead and/or alive) and is marked with a quantum tag. The photo taken of the cat is entangled with the situation inside of the box. We can decide the fate of the cat by processing the photo in a certain way (bottom left), or we can keep it in superposition by restoring the quantum tag using a different process (bottom right). Credit: Associate Professor Holger F. Hofmann and Emma Buchet/Hiroshima University
Quantum physics is difficult and explaining it even more so. Associate Professor Holger F. Hofmann from Hiroshima University and Kartik Patekar from the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay have tried to solve one of the biggest puzzles in quantum physics: how to measure the quantum system without changing it?

Their new paper published this month has found that by reading the information observed from a quantum system away from the system itself researchers can determine its state, depending on the method of analysis. Although the analysis is completely removed from the quantum system, it is possible to restore the initial superposition of possible outcomes by a careful reading of the quantum data.
"Normally we would search for something by looking. But in this case looking changes the object, this is the problem with quantum mechanics. We can use complicated maths to describe it, but how can we be sure that the mathematics describes what is really there? When we measure something there is a trade-off and the other possibilities of what it could be are lost. You cannot find out about anything without an interaction, you pay a price in advance." explains Hofmann.
During Patekar's month-long stay at Hiroshima University when he was an undergraduate student, the two physicists tried to imagine ways of measuring the system without "paying the price" i.e. keeping the system's superposition or meaning that the system can exist in all states. In order to understand their results Hofmann describes their findings using the well-known physics story of Schrödinger's cat:
Schrödinger's cat is in a box and the scientists don't know whether it is dead or alive. A camera is set up looking into the box that takes a photo from a position outside of the box. The photo taken of the cat comes out blurry; we can see there is a cat but not whether it is dead or alive. The flash from the camera has also removed a "quantum tag" marking the superposition of the cat. This photo is now entangled with the fate of the cat—i.e. we can decide what happened to the cat by processing this photo in a certain way.
The photo could then be taken away from the box and processed on a computer or in a darkroom. Depending on what method is used to process the photo, we can find out either if the cat is alive or dead, or what the flash did to the cat, restoring the quantum tag. The choice of the reader determines what we know about the cat. We can find out if it's dead/alive or restore the quantum tag that was removed when the picture was taken, but not both.
This is only a step forward in our understanding of quantum mechanics. Today its full application remains confined to expert-level systems like quantum computers, although some of its aspects can also be used in precise measurements, and for secure communication using quantum cryptography.
"This is a key part of my research. I really wanted to understand why this quantum weirdness is there. I focused on measurements because that's where the weirdness comes from!" says Hofmann.




Explore further
Generation of light in a photon-number quantum superposition



[b]More information:[/b] Kartik Patekar et al, The role of system–meter entanglement in controlling the resolution and decoherence of quantum measurements, New Journal of Physics (2019). DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/ab4451
[b]Journal information:[/b] New Journal of Physics [/url]

Provided by [url=https://phys.org/partners/hiroshima-university/]Hiroshima University



https://phys.org/news/2019-10-peek-schro...rbing.html


(09-29-2019, 11:50 PM)EA Wrote: Rofl He's trying to Center his Sinister Left Eye @ Phi
[Image: 48712349478_203ccfb3cf_o.jpg]Do we tend to centre our Instagram selfies on our left eye?
by City University London
https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-09-t...-left.html
OCTOBER 3, 2019
Golden Ratio observed in human skulls
[Image: goldenratioo.jpg]Leonardo’s Vitruvian Man with Golden ratios highlighted. Credit: Modified by Rafael Tamargo
The Golden Ratio, described by Leonardo da Vinci and Luca Pacioli as the "Divine Proportion," is an infinite number often found in nature, art and mathematics. It's a pattern in pinecones, seashells, galaxies and hurricanes.
In a new study investigating whether skull shape follows the Golden Ratio (1.618 … ), Johns Hopkins researchers compared 100 human skulls to 70 skulls from six other animals, and found that the human skull dimensions followed the Golden Ratio. The skulls of less related species such as dogs, two kinds of monkeys, rabbits, lions and tigers, however, diverged from this ratio.
"The other mammals we surveyed actually have unique ratios that approach the Golden Ratio with increased species sophistication," says Rafael Tamargo, M.D., professor of neurosurgery at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. "We believe that this finding may have important anthropological and evolutionary implications."
The researchers published their findings in the September issue of the Journal of Craniofacial Surgery.
The Golden Ratio can be calculated by taking a line and dividing it into two unequal parts, with the length of the longer part divided by the shorter length being equal to the entire length divided by the longer part. Tamargo's interest in history and anatomy led him in 2010 to publish on finding a human brain and spinal cord in the depiction of God in Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel painting.




Explore further
Michelangelo likely used mathematics when painting the creation of Adam



[b]More information:[/b] Rafael J. Tamargo et al. Mammalian Skull Dimensions and the Golden Ratio (Φ), Journal of Craniofacial Surgery (2019). DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000005610
Provided by Johns Hopkins University
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With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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Brick 
See?
Quote:The findings illuminate how signals from photons (particles of light) get amplified in the eye.
[Image: 3_550x550_Front_Color-NA.jpg?Size=NA&Att...ms%22:%7B%7D%7D%7D]
More importantly, the study provides insights into how the largest family of cell membrane proteins -- G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) -- work in humans.

Eye told you Sew.
Needless to say.
Needle in utmost intricacy guides the thread through this quantum flagship improvisation.
Lefty,
Recall your instruction through the Presiding Present President Precedent as we approach a Triumphant 20/20 vision.
[Image: trump-flag.png]Eye Ain't no Betsy Ross-DJT
My Ire is Your Iris was.

Present

You saw yourself to the door. and were expelled.

lucky you can still take this course lurkin' online. Hi

Watch again as the Quantum ImproviVerse Re-manifests.


To be sure,you will need third eye optics for top-hat topics.


In your beginning Linke you needed to visualize this concept: THM members can instruct.
In your view we were not apparent.

The improviVerse @ a glance. 


Molecular basis of vision revealed
Date:
September 30, 2019
Source:
Cornell University
Summary:
Researchers have solved the three-dimensional structure of a protein complex involved in vertebrate vision at atomic resolution, a finding that has broad implications for our understanding of biological signaling processes and the design of over a third of the drugs on the market today.
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FULL STORY

[Image: 190930114730_1_540x360.jpg]
Closeup of eye (stock image).
[i]Credit: © BillionPhotos.com / Adobe Stock[/i]


Researchers have solved the three-dimensional structure of a protein complex involved in vertebrate vision at atomic resolution, a finding that has broad implications for our understanding of biological signaling processes and the design of over a third of the drugs on the market today.
The findings illuminate how signals from photons (particles of light) get amplified in the eye.


More importantly, the study provides insights into how the largest family of cell membrane proteins -- G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) -- work in humans.

"They're involved in almost all the biological processes in a human body -- how we perceive light, taste, smell, or how the heart rate is regulated or muscles contract -- and they are targets for over 30% of the drugs that are used today," said Yang Gao, co-first author of the paper and a postdoctoral researcher in the lab of Richard Cerione, the Goldwin Smith Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Biology and co-senior author.
There are over 800 GPCRs in humans that signal through about 20 different G proteins. GPCRs are responsible for sensing a wide range of outside signals -- such as hormones, light, and sense of smell and taste -- and inducing corresponding responses inside the cell. In vertebrate vision, the GPCR rhodopsin is capable of detecting the signal from just one photon and through the activation of the G protein transducin and downstream effectors, amplify it 100,000 times.
The researchers used cryo-electron microscopy to obtain atomic-resolution structures of the rhodopsin-transducin complex. The structures not only provide the molecular basis of vertebrate vision, but also reveal a previously unknown mechanism of how GPCRs in general activate G proteins.
"What we've learnt from these structures at an atomic level may be broadly applicable to other GPCR signaling systems," said co-first author Sekar Ramachandran, a senior research associate in Cerione's lab.
By learning more about how different receptors specifically couple with different G proteins, the researchers hope to gain insights into designing drugs that specifically regulate GPCR signaling. A lot of drug side effects occur when therapies are not specific enough and target both harmful and beneficial pathways, Yang said.
Hongli Hu, a postdoctoral researcher in Stanford's Department of Structural Biology, is a co-first author; Georgios Skiniotis, professor of molecular and cellular physiology and of structural biology at Stanford, is a co-senior author.

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[b]Story Source:[/b]
Materials provided by [b]Cornell University[/b]. Original written by Krishna Ramanujan. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


[b]Journal Reference[/b]:
  1. Yang Gao, Hongli Hu, Sekar Ramachandran, Jon W. Erickson, Richard A. Cerione, Georgios Skiniotis. [b]Structures of the Rhodopsin-Transducin Complex: Insights into G-Protein Activation[/b]. Molecular Cell, 2019; 75 (4): 781 DOI: 10.1016/j.molcel.2019.06.007



Cornell University. "Molecular basis of vision revealed." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 30 September 2019. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190930114730.htm>.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/20...114730.htm


And in order to understand disordered hyper-uniformity linke you gotta shrink to the nano-scales all Ma'at @ that.
collapse the Wave <<< >>>   Clap the Hi


Quote:Highlights

  • Structures of a Rho-G T complex ± nanobody at 3.3 and 3.9 Å resolution, respectively


  • Extensive Rho-G T contacts enable striking signal-to-noise ratio in phototransduction


  • Rho-G T ± nanobody structures illustrate perturbations resulting from nanobody binding


  • The Gβγ-GαHD “latching switch” is essential for fast GPCR-catalyzed GDP-GTP exchange
Summary
Rhodopsin (Rho), a prototypical G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) in vertebrate vision, activates the G-protein transducin (G T) by catalyzing GDP-GTP exchange on its α subunit (Gα T). To elucidate the determinants of G T coupling and activation, we obtained cryo-EM structures of a fully functional, light-activated Rho-G T complex in the presence and absence of a G-protein-stabilizing nanobody. The structures illustrate how G T overcomes its low basal activity by engaging activated Rho in a conformation distinct from other GPCR-G-protein complexes. Moreover, the nanobody-free structures reveal native conformations of G-protein components and capture three distinct conformers showing the Gα T helical domain (αHD) contacting the Gβγ subunits. These findings uncover the molecular underpinnings of G-protein activation by visual rhodopsin and shed new light on the role played by Gβγ during receptor-catalyzed nucleotide exchange.
Graphical Abstract(Tracing Board)
[Image: fx1.jpg]DOI:[color=rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.6)]https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2019.06.007[/color]


You never stood a chance when you gambled here.

Nanoscopic myopic axis access Arrow
In the Article below are the underpinning Factors of WHY You're your Eye and I Am not.
As you peruse the research and combine the results your education was free in tuition,,,Gratis.

Your only debt to pay is free intuition.

Quote:Particles that are mere nanometers in size are at the forefront of scientific research today. They come in many different shapes: rods, spheres, cubes, vesicles, S-shaped worms and even donut-like rings. What makes them worthy of scientific study is that, being so tiny, they exhibit quantum mechanical properties not possible with larger objects.



Our Iris is a ring and our receptors are rods and cones,
Read the article below with Quantum Aspects and learn your acuity as an interactive observer-effect/affect
Rings look like Irises Pupils are subject to fovial frequent see frequency. Arrow


OCTOBER 11, 2019
Shaping nanoparticles for improved quantum information technology

by Joseph E. Harmon, Argonne National Laboratory
[Image: shapingnanop.jpg]Artistic rendering of semiconductor quantum rings being illuminated by a laser and emitting single photons. Credit: Argonne National Laboratory
Particles that are mere nanometers in size are at the forefront of scientific research today. They come in many different shapes: rods, spheres, cubes, vesicles, S-shaped worms and even donut-like rings. What makes them worthy of scientific study is that, being so tiny, they exhibit quantum mechanical properties not possible with larger objects.

Researchers at the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility located at DOE's Argonne National Laboratory, have contributed to a recently published Nature Communications paper that reports the cause behind a key quantum property of donut-like nanoparticles called "semiconductor quantum rings." This property may find application in quantum information storage, communication, and computing in future technologies.
In this project, the CNM researchers collaborated with colleagues from the University of Chicago, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, University of Ottawa and National Research Council in Canada.
The team assembled circular rings made out of cadmium selenide, a semiconductor that lends itself to growing donut-shaped nanoparticles. These quantum rings are two-dimensional structures—crystalline materials composed of a few layers of atoms. The advantage of semiconductors is that when researchers excite them with a laser, they emit photons.
"If you illuminate a two-dimensional photon emitter with a laser, you expect them to emit light along two axes," said Xuedan Ma, assistant scientist at CNM. "But what you expect is not necessarily what you get. To our surprise, these two-dimensional rings can emit light along one axis."
The team observed this effect when breaking the perfect rotational symmetry of the donut shape, causing them to be slightly elongated. "By this symmetry breaking," says Ma, "we can change the direction of light emission. We can thus control how photons come out of the donut and achieve coherent directional control."
Because the photons in the light emits from these rings along a single direction, rather than spreading out in all directions, researchers can tune this emission to effectively collect single photons. With this control, researchers can integrate topology information into the photons, which can then be used as messengers for carrying quantum information. It may even be possible to exploit these encoded photons for quantum networking and computation.
"If we can gain even greater control over the fabrication process, we could make nanoparticles with different shapes such as a clover with multiple holes or a rectangle with a hole in the center," noted Matthew Otten, a Maria Goeppert Mayer Fellow at Argonne's CNM. "Then, we might be able to encode more types of quantum information or more information into the nanoparticles."
"I should add that geometry is not the only factor in causing this quantum effect. The atomistic structure of the material also counts, as is often the case in nanoscale materials," said Ma.
A paper based on the study, "Uniaxial transition dipole moments in semiconductor quantum rings caused by broken rotational symmetry," appeared recently in Nature Communications. In addition to Ma and Otten, authors include Nicolai F. Hartmann, Igor Fedin, Dmitri Talapin, Moritz Cygorek, Pawel Hawrylak, Marek Korkusinski, Stephen Gray and Achim Hartschuh.




Explore further
Scientists move quantum optic networks a step closer to reality



[b]More information:[/b] Nicolai F. Hartmann et al, Uniaxial transition dipole moments in semiconductor quantum rings caused by broken rotational symmetry, Nature Communications (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-11225-6
[b]Journal information:[/b] Nature Communications [/url]

Provided by [url=https://phys.org/partners/argonne-national-laboratory/]Argonne National Laboratory
 
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
In-Verse Squared.

counter-intuitive to your first wish to see.
#970
interactions more is less.

improv isn't as script was.

Your education is no light matter Lefty.
Quote:G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) -- work in humans.

Nanoscale manipulation of light leads to exciting new advancement

Researchers find decreasing the density of nanoparticles in ordered arrays produces exceptional field enhancements

Date:
October 11, 2019

Source:
University of New Mexico

Summary:
Controlling the interactions between light and matter has been a long-standing ambition for scientists seeking to develop and advance numerous technologies that are fundamental to society. With the boom of nanotechnology in recent years, the nanoscale manipulation of light has become both, a promising pathway to continue this advancement, as well as a unique challenge due to new behaviors that appear when the dimensions of structures become comparable to the wavelength of light.

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FULL STORY



Controlling the interactions between light and matter has been a long-standing ambition for scientists seeking to develop and advance numerous technologies that are fundamental to society. With the boom of nanotechnology in recent years, the nanoscale manipulation of light has become both, a promising pathway to continue this advancement, as well as a unique challenge due to new behaviors that appear when the dimensions of structures become comparable to the wavelength of light.
Scientists in the Theoretical Nanophotonics Group at The University of New Mexico's Department of Physics and Astronomy have made an exciting new advancement to this end, in a pioneering research effort titled "Analysis of the Limits of the Near-Field Produced by Nanoparticle Arrays," published recently in the journal, ACS Nano, a top journal in the field of nanotechnology.
The group, led by Assistant Professor Alejandro Manjavacas, studied how the optical response of periodic arrays of metallic nanostructures can be manipulated to produce strong electric fields in their vicinity.
The arrays they studied are composed of silver nanoparticles, tiny spheres of silver that are hundreds of times smaller than the thickness of a human hair, placed in a repeating pattern, though their results apply to nanostructures made of other materials as well. Because of the strong interactions between each of the nanospheres, these systems can be used for different applications, ranging from vivid, high-resolution color printing to biosensing that could revolutionize healthcare.
"This new work will help to advance the many applications of nanostructure arrays by providing fundamental insights into their behavior," says Manjavacas. "The near-field enhancements we predict could be a game changer for technologies like ultrasensitive biosensing."
Manjavacas and his team, composed of Lauren Zundel and Stephen Sanders, both graduate students in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, modeled the optical response of these arrays, finding exciting new results. When periodic arrays of nanostructures are illuminated with light, each of the particles produces a strong response, which, in turn, results in enormous collective behaviors if all of the particles can interact with one another. This happens at certain wavelengths of incident light, which are determined by the interparticle spacing of the array, and can result in electric fields that are thousands, or even tens of thousands, of times that of the light shined on the array.
The strength of this field enhancement depends on the geometrical properties of the array, such as the spacing between the nanospheres, as well as the size of the spheres themselves. Completely counterintuitively, Manjavacas and his group found that decreasing the density of nanoparticles in the array, either by increasing the spacing between each of them, or by decreasing their size, produces field enhancements that are not only larger, but extend farther away from the array.
"It was really exciting to find out that the key to these huge field enhancements actually lies in making the particles smaller and farther apart," says Zundel of the discovery.
"The reason for this is that the interactions between the nanoparticles, and thus the collective response, is strengthened," according to Sanders.
The research was sponsored in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and made use of the high-performance computational resources made available by the UNM Center for Advanced Research Computing.


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[b]Story Source:[/b]
Materials provided by [b]University of New Mexico[/b]Note: Content may be edited for style and length.



[b]Journal Reference[/b]:

  1. Alejandro Manjavacas, Lauren Zundel, Stephen Sanders. [b]Analysis of the Limits of the Near-Field Produced by Nanoparticle Arrays[/b]. ACS Nano, 2019; 13 (9): 10682 DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.9b05031









[*]University of New Mexico. "Nanoscale manipulation of light leads to exciting new advancement: Researchers find decreasing the density of nanoparticles in ordered arrays produces exceptional field enhancements." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 11 October 2019. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/10/191011155310.htm>.


#970
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
(10-12-2019, 01:29 AM)EA on the Improvisphere as an Universal Optic Topic Wrote: See?
Quote:The findings illuminate how signals from photons (particles of light) get amplified in the eye.
[Image: 3_550x550_Front_Color-NA.jpg?Size=NA&Att...ms%22:%7B%7D%7D%7D]
More importantly, the study provides insights into how the largest family of cell membrane proteins -- G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) -- work in humans.

Eye told you Sew.
Needless to say.
Needle in utmost intricacy guides the thread through this quantum flagship improvisation.
Lefty,
Recall your instruction through the Presiding Present President Precedent as we approach a Triumphant 20/20 vision.
[Image: trump-flag.png]Eye Ain't no Betsy Ross-DJT
My Ire is Your Iris was.

Present

You saw yourself to the door. and were expelled.

lucky you can still take this course lurkin' online. Hi

Watch again as the Quantum ImproviVerse Re-manifests.


To be sure,you will need third eye optics for top-hat topics.


In your beginning Linke you needed to visualize this concept: THM members can instruct.
In your view we were not apparent.

The improviVerse @ a glance. 
NOVEMBER 5, 2019 REPORT
Researchers claim data from Planck space observatory suggests universe is a sphere
by Bob Yirka , Phys.org
[Image: 73-researchersc.jpg]Preference for a closed Universe, ΩK < 0, from Planck. Posterior (P) distributions normalized at the maximum value (Pmax) for ΩK from PL18 temperature and polarization-simulated angular power spectra (assuming a fiducial flat ΛCDM model) and PL18 real data, adopting the baseline ‘Plik’ Planck likelihood and the alternative ‘CamSpec’ likelihood, respectively. For comparison, the posterior from the previous PL15 data release is also shown. Credit: Nature Astronomy (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41550-019-0906-9
A trio of researchers with the University of Manchester, Università di Roma 'La Sapienza' and Sorbonne Universities has sparked a major debate among cosmologists by claiming that data from the Planck space observatory suggests the universe is a sphere—not flat, as current conventional theory suggests. In their paper published in the journal Nature Astronomy, Eleonora Di Valentino, Alessandro Melchiorri and Joseph Silk outline their arguments and suggest their findings indicate that there exists a cosmological crisis that must be addressed.

Conventional theory, which backs inflation theory, suggests that after the Big Bang, the universe expanded in a way that was flat—two lights shone in parallel would travel forever in parallel. But now, after studying data sent back to Earth from the Planck space observatory (which mapped cosmic microwave background radiation over the years 2009 to 2013) Di Valentino, Melchiorri and Silk have come to disagree with conventional thinking. They claim that there is evidence that the universe is closed—that it is shaped like a sphere. If you shine two lights into the dark of space, they suggest, at some point, the light would come back around to you from behind.
The researchers came to this conclusion after looking at data from the Planck space observatory that showed a discrepancy between the concentration of dark matter and dark energy and outward expansion; there was more gravitational lensing than theory has predicted. Such an imbalance, they claim, would have the universe collapsing in on itself, resulting in a sphere shape. Others who have looked at the same data prior to this new effort have called the data from the observatory a statistical fluke. The research trio note that there are other problems with the flat theory as well, such as scientists' inability to accurately measure the Hubble constant; each team that tries finds a different answer. There have also been problems with reconciling surveys of dark energy with a flat model. They conclude by acknowledging that with current technology there is no way to settle the debate—new devices will need to be invented that will be able to measure microwave background radiation in ways not subject to debate.




Explore further
A crisis in cosmology: New data suggests the universe expanding more rapidly than believed



[b]More information:[/b] Eleonora Di Valentino et al. Planck evidence for a closed Universe and a possible crisis for cosmology, Nature Astronomy (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41550-019-0906-9
[b]Journal information:[/b] Nature Astronomy



https://phys.org/news/2019-11-planck-spa...phere.html
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With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
Tobias Owen Stu  Sheep Stu To Bias Own
Quote:two different observers are entitled to their own facts.


NOVEMBER 14, 2019
Quantum physics: Our study suggests objective reality doesn't exist
by Alessandro Fedrizzi and Massimiliano Proietti, The Conversation
[Image: 64b9aba03ada874017b7101b10a85fc0.jpg]
Alternative facts are spreading like a virus across society. Now it seems they have even infected science—at least the quantum realm. This may seem counter intuitive. The scientific method is after all founded on the reliable notions of observation, measurement and repeatability. A fact, as established by a measurement, should be objective, such that all observers can agree with it.
[Image: il_570xN.783872649_kryx.jpg]
But in a paper recently published in Science Advances, we show that in the micro-world of atoms and particles that is governed by the strange rules of quantum mechanics, two different observers are entitled to their own facts. In other words, according to our best theory of the building blocks of nature itself, facts can actually be subjective.

[Image: flat,1000x1000,075,f.u2.jpg]
Observers are powerful players in the quantum world. According to the theory, particles can be in several places or states at once—this is called a superposition. But oddly, this is only the case when they aren't observed. The second you observe a quantum system, it picks a specific location or state—breaking the superposition. The fact that nature behaves this way has been proven multiple times in the lab—for example, in the famous double slit experiment (see video).
In 1961, physicist Eugene Wigner proposed a provocative thought experiment. He questioned what would happen when applying quantum mechanics to an observer that is themselves being observed. Imagine that a friend of Wigner tosses a quantum coin—which is in a superposition of both heads and tails—inside a closed laboratory. Every time the friend tosses the coin, they observe a definite outcome. We can say that Wigner's friend establishes a fact: the result of the coin toss is definitely head or tail.
Wigner doesn't have access to this fact from the outside, and according to quantum mechanics, must describe the friend and the coin to be in a superposition of all possible outcomes of the experiment. That's because they are "entangled"—spookily connected so that if you manipulate one you also manipulate the other. Wigner can now in principle verify this superposition using a so-called "interference experiment"—a type of quantum measurement that allows you to unravel the superposition of an entire system, confirming that two objects are entangled.

When Wigner and the friend compare notes later on, the friend will insist they saw definite outcomes for each coin toss. Wigner, however, will disagree whenever he observed friend and coin in a superposition.
This presents a conundrum. The reality perceived by the friend cannot be reconciled with the reality on the outside. Wigner originally didn't consider this much of a paradox, he argued it would be absurd to describe a conscious observer as a quantum object. However, he later departed from this view, and according to formal textbooks on quantum mechanics, the description is perfectly valid.

[b]The experiment[/b]
The scenario has long remained an interesting thought experiment. But does it reflect reality? Scientifically, there has been little progress on this until very recently, when Časlav Brukner at the University of Vienna showed that, under certain assumptions, Wigner's idea can be used to formally prove that measurements in quantum mechanics are subjective to observers.
Brukner proposed a way of testing this notion by translating the Wigner's friend scenario into a framework first established by the physicist John Bell in 1964. Brukner considered two pairs of Wigners and friends, in two separate boxes, conducting measurements on a shared state—inside and outside their respective box. The results can be summed up to ultimately be used to evaluate a so called "Bell inequality". If this inequality is violated, observers could have alternative facts.
We have now for the first time performed this test experimentally at Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh on a small-scale quantum computer made up of three pairs of entangled photons. The first photon pair represents the coins, and the other two are used to perform the coin toss—measuring the polarization of the photons—inside their respective box. Outside the two boxes, two photons remain on each side that can also be measured.
Despite using state-of-the-art quantum technology, it took weeks to collect sufficient data from just six photons to generate enough statistics. But eventually, we succeeded in showing that quantum mechanics might indeed be incompatible with the assumption of objective facts—we violated the inequality!
The theory, however, is based on a few assumptions. These include that the measurement outcomes are not influenced by signals travelling above light speed and that observers are free to choose what measurements to make. That may or may not be the case.

[Image: 7-quantumphysi.jpg]
Researchers with experiment. Author provided
Another important question is whether single photons can be considered to be observers. In Brukner's theory proposal, observers do not need to be conscious, they must merely be able to establish facts in the form of a measurement outcome. An inanimate detector would therefore be a valid observer. And textbook quantum mechanics gives us no reason to believe that a detector, which can be made as small as a few atoms, should not be described as a quantum object just like a photon. It may also be possible that standard quantum mechanics does not apply at large length scales, but testing that is a separate problem.
This experiment therefore shows that, at least for local models of quantum mechanics, we need to rethink our notion of objectivity. The facts we experience in our macroscopic world appear to remain safe, but a major question arises over how existing interpretations of quantum mechanics can accommodate subjective facts.
Some physicists see these new developments as bolstering interpretations that allow more than one outcome to occur for an observation, for example the existence of parallel universes in which each outcome happens. Others see it as compelling evidence for intrinsically observer-dependent theories such as Quantum Bayesianism, in which an agent's actions and experiences are central concerns of the theory. But yet others take this as a strong pointer that perhaps quantum mechanics will break down above certain complexity scales.
Clearly these are all deeply philosophical questions about the fundamental nature of reality. Whatever the answer, an interesting future awaits.




Explore further
Quantum observers may be entitled to their own facts



[b]Journal information:[/b] Science Advances [/url]

Provided by [url=https://phys.org/partners/the-conversation/]The Conversation
 




[Image: precision-needle-thread.jpg]eye sewed it all up.
https://phys.org/news/2019-11-quantum-ph...oesnt.html
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
Quote:#4

Sunday, October 19th, 2008, 04:18 am
I ain't no Betsy Ross,but This is a THREAD and I sure do know it needs a needle to Sew it all up in Lincoln's mind.




two different observers are entitled to their own facts.

Quote:[Image: precision-needle-thread.jpg]eye sewed it all up.

https://phys.org/news/2019-11-quantum-ph...oesnt.html



"It won't be easy, but in this way we could thread the cosmic needle without breaking what works well in the model."

NOVEMBER 18, 2019
The measurements of the expansion of the universe don't add up
[Image: themeasureme.jpg]Solving the discordant data on the expansion rate of the universe is like trying to thread a ´cosmic needle´ where its hole is the H0 value measured today and the thread is brought by the model from the furthest Universe we can observe: the cosmic microwave background. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltetch/ESA and the Planck Collaboration/SINC


Physicists use two types of measurements to calculate the expansion rate of the universe, but their results do not coincide, which may make it necessary to update the cosmological model. "It's like trying to thread a cosmic needle," explains researcher Licia Verde of the University of Barcelona, co-author of an article on the implications of this problem.

More than a hundred scientists met this summer at the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics at the University of California (U.S.) to try to clarify what is happening with the discordant data on the expansion rate of the universe, an issue that affects the very origin, evolution and fate of our cosmos. Their conclusions have been published in Nature Astronomy journal.
"The problem lies in the Hubble constant (H0), a parameter which value—it is actually not a constant because it changes with time—indicates how fast the Universe is currently expanding," points out cosmologist Licia Verde, an ICREA researcher at the Institute of Cosmos Sciences of the University of Barcelona (ICC-UB) and the main author of the article.
"There are different ways of measuring this quantity," she explains, "but they can be divided into two major classes: those relying on the late Universe (the closest to us in space and time) and those based on the early Universe, and they do not give exactly the same result."
A classic example of measurements in the late Universe are those provided by the regular pulsations of cepheid stars, which the astronomer Henrietta Swan Leavitt observed a century ago and which helped Edwin Hubble calculate distances between galaxies and prove in 1929 that the Universe is expanding.
The current analysis of the variable brightness of cepheids with space telescopes such as the Hubble, along with other direct observations of objects in our cosmic environment and more distant supernovae, indicate that the H0 value is approximately 73.9 kilometres per second per megaparsec (an astronomical unit equivalent to about 3.26 million light years).
However, measurements based on the early Universe provide an average H0 value of 67.4 km/s/Mpc. These other records, obtained with data from the European Space Agency's Planck Satellite and other instruments, are obtained indirectly on the basis of the success of the standard cosmological model (Lambda-CDM model), which proposes a Universe made up of 5 % atoms or ordinary matter, 27 % dark matter (made up of particles, as yet detected, that provide additional gravitational attraction so that galaxies can form and clusters of galaxies are held together) and 68 % dark energy, which is responsible for accelerating the expansion of the Universe.

"In particular, these measurements of the primordial Universe focus on the farthest light that can be observed: the cosmic microwave background, produced when the Universe was only 380,000 years old, in the so-called recombination era (where protons recombined with electrons to form atoms)," says Licia Verde.

[Image: 1-themeasureme.jpg]
Time Line of the Universe. Credit: NASA/WMAP Science Team
The researcher highlights a relevant fact: "There are very different and independent ways (with totally different instruments and scientific tools) to measure the H0 on the basis of the early Universe, and the same goes for the late Universe. What is interesting is that all the measurements of one type are in mutual agreement with one another, at an exquisite precision of 1 or 2 %, as are those of the other type, with the same great precision; but when we compare the measurements of one class with those of the other, the discrepancy arises."
"It looks like a small difference, only 7%, but it is significant considering that we are talking about precisions of 1 or 2% in the value of the Hubble constant," as emphasised by Licia Verde, who jokes: 

[Image: 16071174053_28296c0153_o.jpg]
"It is like trying to thread a 'cosmic needle' where its hole is the H0 value measured today and the thread is brought by the model from the furthest Universe we can observe: the cosmic microwave background."


In addition, she points out some of the consequences of the discrepancy: "The lower the H0 is, the older the Universe is. Its current age is calculated at about 13.8 billion years considering that the Hubble constant is 67 or 68 km/s/Mpc; but if its value were 74 km/s/Mpc, our universe would be younger: it would be approximately 12.8 billion years old."
[b]Modifying the model in the early Universe[/b]
The authors point out in their study that this anomaly does not seem to depend on the instrument or method used for measuring, or on human equipment or sources. "If there are no errors in the data or measurements, could it be a problem with the model?" the researcher asks.
"After all, the H0 values of the primordial Universe class are based on the standard cosmological model, which is very well established, very successful, but which we can try to change a little to solve the discrepancy," says the expert. "However, we cannot tamper with the characteristics of the model that work very well".
If the data continue to confirm the problem, theoretical physicists seem to agree that the most promising route for solving it is to modify the model just before the light observed of the cosmic microwave background was formed, i.e. just before recombination (in which there was already 63 % dark matter, 15 % photons, 10 % neutrinos and 12 % atoms). One of the ideas proposed is that, shortly after the Big Bang, an intense episode of dark energy could have occurred that expanded the Universe faster than previously calculated.
"Although it is still highly speculative, with this fine-tuned model, the H0 value obtained with measurements based on the primordial Universe could coincide with local measurements," notes Licia Verde, who concludes: "It won't be easy, but in this way we could thread the cosmic needle without breaking what works well in the model."




Explore further
Scientists debate the seriousness of problems with the value of the Hubble Constant



[b]More information:[/b] Licia Verde et al. Tensions between the early and late Universe, Nature Astronomy (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41550-019-0902-0
[b]Journal information:[/b] Nature Astronomy [/url]

Provided by [url=https://phys.org/partners/spanish-foundation-for-science-and-technology--fecyt-/]Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology (FECYT)




Improv Sheep Manifest.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
STU obverse  Sheep observe STU


November 29 is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar.
In The NOW. on the 29th  Arrow  itself...(Today)EYE COUNT 33 DAYS 32  Naughty days remain until the end of the year.

ANU world order out of the disordered hyperuniformity of improv.

Improv in the now >>>
NOVEMBER 29,(Day 333) 2019(33 days Arrow 20/20)

Study shows there's nothing wacky about conspiracy theorists
NOVEMBER 29, 2019
[Image: 9-studyshowsth.jpg]Credit: Pixabay
Researchers at The Australian National University (ANU) have delved into the world of online conspiracy theories, showing most of the people behind them are actually pretty ordinary.

The study looked at eight years of content, sifting through more than two billion comments posted on Reddit, including everything posted to the subreddit r/conspiracy.
R/conspiracy covers everything from UFOs and 9/11, to political conspiracy theories like 'pizzagate', which took off during the 2016 US election campaign.
But despite the subject matter, lead author of the study Dr. Colin Klein says conspiracy theorists aren't always a bunch of "crackpots wearing tinfoil hats".
"In the past before the rise of online forums like Reddit, we tended to only hear about the most extreme views, and those people tended to naturally be wary about talking to someone else about their beliefs," Dr. Klein said.
"These massive online forums paint a very different picture.
"The enormous set of comments we examined show many r/conspiracy users actually have more 'sensible' interests.
"For example conspiracy theories about police abuse of power are common. That's not so crazy.
"These people might believe false things, but with good reason—because similar things have happened in the past."
Professor Klein and his team also found that while there are subtle differences in the language used by those who end up posting on r/conspiracy, it's not necessarily enough to set them apart from other Reddit users.
"You might find they talk more about power or power structures, but their language is not that different from what ordinarily goes on in a forum like r/politics. You can't distinguish them that way.
"It's very easy to look at conspiracy theories and think they're super wacky, and the people who believe in them are crazy, but it's actually much more continuous with a lot of things we do every day.
"Low level theorising goes on a lot in everyday life, I'm inclined to think the stuff you see online is just a strong outgrowth of that."
According to Dr. Klein, forums like r/conspiracy can also be driven by current events.
"For example, Reddit attracted a whole new set of users following the election of US President Donald Trump.
"He also generates quite a lot of in-fighting amongst users. This is what makes it such great way to study social dynamics."
The data also reveals how people come to start posting on the r/conspiracy forum. The rise of Internet echo chambers is a factor—but there's much more at play.
"We followed people who started using Reddit and posted for about six months before they ended up on r/conspiracy," Dr. Klein said.
"You find two people who, for example, both started on the popular 'ask me anything' Reddit, and one ends up talking about conspiracies and one doesn't.
"People who go on to post on r/conspiracy also tend to be over-represented in the political forums, but it's not like they're hyper-focused.
"This suggests a more active process where people are seeking out sympathetic communities. This process of finding like-minded people is something we see a lot of on the Internet."
The research has been published in the journal PLOS ONE.




Explore further
Conspiracy theorists actively seek out their online communities



[b]Journal information:[/b] PLoS ONE 


[/url]Provided by [url=https://phys.org/partners/australian-national-university/]Australian National University

https://phys.org/news/2019-11-wacky-conspiracy-theorists.html



November 29 is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 32 days remain until the end of the year.

itself can attest to itz own manifest
write,right,rite.
2Stu's con-fused. Assimilated 

Recall: Day 333 2019 still 33 days 'til new year(seeing 20/20)of lefty's education.

Itza concept counter-intuitive not a crater-counter interperative.

eye abuse ya2@2Stu https://phys.org/news/2019-11-impact-cra...eroid.html  hayabusa too@ryugu
Impact crater data analysis of Ryugu asteroid illuminates complicated geological history

[Image: impactcrater.jpg]Size and location of craters on Ryugu (Figure from the Journal paper): The craters are numbered in order of size. 
https://phys.org/news/2019-11-impact-cra...eroid.html


Tommorrow not now will be 32 synods.
EA Calendar. My
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
Fix this in your EA neuron Linke:

...Right whence  Sheep  where Eye Left off...

[i]finite information quantities[/i] (FIQs)

 Arrow


Quote:Imagine now to play a variant of the Bagatelle or pin-board game (as in figure(as in go figure lefty)), where a board is symmetrically filled with pins. When a little ball rolls down the board, it will hit the pins and move either to the right or to the left of each of them. In a deterministic world, the perfect knowledge of the initial conditions under which the ball enters the board (its velocity and position) determines unambiguously the path that the ball will follow between the pins. Classical physics assumes that if we cannot obtain the same path in different runs, it is only because in practice we were not able to set precisely the same initial conditions. For instance, because we do not have an infinitely precise measurement instrument to set the initial position of the ball when entering the board.

The authors of this new study propose an alternative view: 

LilD
It Writes itself 
It Rights itself
Itza Rite itself
[Image: 24579283142_06cbbf1451_b.jpg]
new improv is (With a forked path the Stu goes2) fine wine was 
after a certain number of pins, the future of the ball is genuinely random, even in principle, and not due to the limitations of our measurement instruments. At each hit, the ball has a certain propensity or tendency to bounce on the right or on the left, and this choice is not determined a priori. 

For the first few hits, the path can be determined with certainty, that is the propensity is 100% for the one side and 0% for the other. After a certain number of pins, however, the choice is not pre-determined and the propensity gradually reaches 50% for the right and 50% for the left for the distant pins. 

In this way, one can think of each digit of the length of our table as becoming determined by a process similar to the choice of going left or right at each hit of the little ball. Therefore, after a certain number of digits, the length is not determined anymore.


Why Hamnet is not...
Top-Hats and Dunce Caps...Honestly, Of Whom am I Thinkin' ?

A decadal survey of an curricukum 


DECEMBER 6, 2019
Has physics ever been deterministic?
[Image: hasphysicsev.jpg]Credit: Lorenzo Nocchi
Researchers from the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the University of Vienna and the University of Geneva, have proposed a new interpretation of classical physics without real numbers. This new study challenges the traditional view of classical physics as deterministic.

In classical physics it is usually assumed that if we know where an object is and its velocity, we can exactly predict where it will go. An alleged superior intelligence having the knowledge of all existing objects at present, would be able to know with certainty the future as well as the past of the universe with infinite precision. Pierre-Simon Laplace illustrated this argument, later called Laplace's demon, in the early 1800s to illustrate the concept of determinism in classical physics. It is generally believed that it was only with the advent of quantum physics that determinism was challenged. Scientists found out that not everything can be said with certainty and we can only calculate the probability that something could behave in a certain way.
But is really classical physics completely deterministic? Flavio Del Santo, researcher at Vienna Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the University of Vienna, and Nicolas Gisin from the University of Geneva, address this question in their new article "Physics without Determinism: Alternative Interpretations of Classical Physics", published in the journal Physical Review A. Building on previous works of the latter author, they show that the usual interpretation of classical physics is based on tacit additional assumptions. When we measure something, say the length of a table with a ruler, we find a value with a finite precision, meaning with a finite number of digits. Even if we use a more accurate measurement instrument, we will just find more digits, but still a finite number of them. However, classical physics assumes that even if we may not be able to measure them, there exist an infinite number of predetermined digits. This means that the length of the table is always perfectly determined.
Imagine now to play a variant of the Bagatelle or pin-board game (as in figure), where a board is symmetrically filled with pins. When a little ball rolls down the board, it will hit the pins and move either to the right or to the left of each of them. In a deterministic world, the perfect knowledge of the initial conditions under which the ball enters the board (its velocity and position) determines unambiguously the path that the ball will follow between the pins. Classical physics assumes that if we cannot obtain the same path in different runs, it is only because in practice we were not able to set precisely the same initial conditions. For instance, because we do not have an infinitely precise measurement instrument to set the initial position of the ball when entering the board.

The authors of this new study propose an alternative view: after a certain number of pins, the future of the ball is genuinely random, even in principle, and not due to the limitations of our measurement instruments. At each hit, the ball has a certain propensity or tendency to bounce on the right or on the left, and this choice is not determined a priori. For the first few hits, the path can be determined with certainty, that is the propensity is 100% for the one side and 0% for the other. After a certain number of pins, however, the choice is not pre-determined and the propensity gradually reaches 50% for the right and 50% for the left for the distant pins. In this way, one can think of each digit of the length of our table as becoming determined by a process similar to the choice of going left or right at each hit of the little ball. Therefore, after a certain number of digits, the length is not determined anymore.
The new model introduced by the researchers hence refuses the usual attribution of a physical meaning to mathematical real numbers (numbers with infinite predetermined digits). It states instead that after a certain number of digits their values become truly random, and only the propensity of taking a specific value is well defined. This leads to new insights on the relationship between classical and quantum physics. In fact, when, how and under what circumstances an indeterminate quantity takes a definite value is a notorious question in the foundations of quantum physics, known as the quantum measurement problem. This is related to the fact that in the quantum world it is impossible to observe reality without changing it. In fact, the value of a measurement on a quantum object is not yet established until an observer actually measures it. This new study, on the other hand, points out that the same issue could have always been hidden also behind the reassuring rules of classical physics.




Explore further
How does a quantum particle see the world?



[b]More information:[/b] Flavio Del Santo et al. Physics without determinism: Alternative interpretations of classical physics, Physical Review A (2019). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.100.062107
[b]Journal information:[/b] Physical Review A [/url]

Provided by [url=https://phys.org/partners/university-of-vienna/]University of Vienna
 



https://phys.org/news/2019-12-physics-de...istic.html




New2



Physics without determinism: Alternative interpretations of classical physics
Flavio Del Santo and Nicolas Gisin
Phys. Rev. A [b]100[/b], 062107 – Published 5 December 2019

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ABSTRACT
Classical physics is generally regarded as deterministic, as opposed to quantum mechanics that is considered the first theory to have introduced genuine indeterminism into physics. We challenge this view by arguing that the alleged determinism of classical physics relies on the tacit, metaphysical assumption that there exists an actual value of every physical quantity, with its infinite predetermined digits (which we name [i]principle of infinite precision[/i]). Building on recent information-theoretic arguments showing that the principle of infinite precision (which translates into the attribution of a physical meaning to mathematical real numbers) leads to unphysical consequences, we consider possible alternative indeterministic interpretations of classical physics. We also link those to well-known interpretations of quantum mechanics. In particular, we propose a model of classical indeterminism based on [i]finite information quantities[/i] (FIQs). Moreover, we discuss the perspectives that an indeterministic physics could open (such as strong emergence), as well as some potential problematic issues. Finally, we make evident that any indeterministic interpretation of physics would have to deal with the problem of explaining how the indeterminate values become determinate, a problem known in the context of quantum mechanics as (part of) the “quantum measurement problem.” We discuss some similarities between the classical and the quantum measurement problems, and propose ideas for possible solutions (e.g., “collapse models” and “top-down causation”).
  • Received 9 September 2019
DOI:https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.100.062107




Quote:This is particularly the case in situations where circumstances have changed and previous plans are no longer fully viable. A paradigmatic example of successful improvisation is the Apollo 13 lunar mission, in which, faced with failure of the life support system, the astronauts improvised an immediate repair of the system using materials found on the spacecraft
[Image: gw350-macgyver.jpg]
https://dorkmission.blogspot.com/2019/
DECEMBER 3, 2019
Arrow  If our plan fails, can we improvise? https://dorkmission.blogspot.com/2019/
by António Abrantes, The Conversation
[Image: ifourplanfai.jpg]The Apollo 13 lunar mission, an example of successful improvisation. Credit: NASA
There is an old Yiddish proverb that says "Man plans and God laughs". Most—if not all—of us have experienced the truth of this proverb, and faced the failure of our plans. No matter how good you are planning, fluid, changing and unpredictable business environments will prevent your plans being fully implemented. So the question is whether we should continue planning, knowing that circumstances will render our plans unviable. Shouldn't we just "go with the flow" and improvise our way into the future?

Maybe it isn't a question of either/or, but rather a question of both/and. In this article we will look at how organizations can plan for the unforeseen, and reconcile thorough planning with improvised adaptation. We propose that modern organizations must be able to combine these two paradoxical elements, if they are to prevail in a business environment characterized by rapid and constant change.
[b]Searching for creative solutions[/b]
Teams being the pillar organizational elements, it is through teams that organizations create the conditions for an adequate response to changing and unpredictable market dynamics. And they do so using an adaptation process that comprises adjusting relevant team processes as a reaction to the disruptions that require such adaptation. However, change is often so rapid, and the responses required so urgent, that teams have no time to plan before acting and are forced to plan and act simultaneously, i.e. improvise.
When confronted with a disruption that jeopardizes the initial plan, and time is scarce, teams may pursue several options: they may insist on sticking to the same plan, even knowing that the base assumptions have changed; they may try to develop a new plan before implementing it, wasting precious time in its elaboration; they may even freeze in the face of the collapse of organizational order; however, they can also improvise by using the tools available to develop a creative solution.
Improvisation can however have negative consequences if the agents of improvisation are inadequately prepared to handle such extreme scenarios. An extreme example of bad improvisation is the disastrous case of the fatal sinking of the Costa Concordia ship on the shores of Isola del Giglio, an island off the west coast of Italy. The captain ordered a "salute" to the island, which requires sailing near the coast. The maneuver resulted in the ship hitting a rock close to the island. The events that unfolded resulted in dramatic consequences. The case revealed that when team members are poorly equipped to improvise, they can move away from organizational values, or prioritize the satisfaction of personal needs over group goals.

The good news is that improvisation can be trained and teams can be prepared to improvise, increasing the likelihood of positive outcomes. Three elements can increase the quality of team improvised adaptation: an experimental culture, minimal structures, and transactive memory systems.
[b]An experimental culture[/b]
An experimental culture is one that promotes action, in which exploration and creativity are rewarded and mistakes are tolerated. For teams to improvise effectively, different skills and knowledge are required, which calls for each team member to contribute. As a consequence team members must feel that any potential errors will be regarded as sources of learning, and that their ideas will be supported and encouraged.
organizations with closed, rigid, and non-experimental cultures will prevent team members from tackling disruptions by adapting team routines to the new situation. By contrast an experimental culture will provide the capabilities that allow team members to change priorities and plans in order to improvise solutions best suited to unexpected events. This requires organizations to embrace the "aesthetic of imperfection" by treating errors as opportunities, and not regarding imperfection as synonymous with failure. This is particularly the case in situations where circumstances have changed and previous plans are no longer fully viable. A paradigmatic example of successful improvisation is the Apollo 13 lunar mission, in which, faced with failure of the life support system, the astronauts improvised an immediate repair of the system using materials found on the spacecraft. Another example is the successful development of an online messaging system by Tencent, a Chinese multinational specialized in various Internet-related services and products. Improvisational methods were prominent and effective in development of the system. The product was known for its rapid adjustment to changing user demands, technologies and competitor activity, and this was recognized as a major success factor.

[Image: 1-ifourplanfai.jpg]
During an emergency response, it is essential to know everyone’s expertise in order to deal with uncertainty as effectively as possible. Credit: M.G. White/Shutterstock
[b]Minimal structures[/b]
Minimal structures comprise four key elements: invisible control mechanisms, clearly defined objectives, short-term milestones, and activity critical elements. Invisible control mechanisms ensure that creativity is not limited. For example, establishing a well-defined set of simple rules allows for more creativity, as all team members have a common precisely-understood basis for developing their performance. Clearly defined objectives ensure that while teams are in the midst of disruptive events they remain focused on organizational goals. By themselves these objectives do not define action, so leaving room for improvisation; however, they are strongly normative in relation to the outcomes of such action. Short-term milestones foster a sense of urgency and permit the control of actions taken as the situation unfolds. This will allow the detection of deviations from organizational objectives, allowing for timely correction of the course of action.
Also, the fact that these milestones can be planned in advance gives the team some sense of structure and stability within the rather chaotic development of the disruptive situation. Finally, activity-critical elements comprise those elements that are fundamental to the activity, without which the task cannot be performed. For improvisation to be effective, it is important that the number of critical elements is small so that the team can ensure that they are fully executed in a limited time. All members of the team must know what they are so they can rapidly coordinate the elements' implementation while improvising a new solution.
For example, it has been observed that successful new product development teams often resort to improvisation. In order to be effective they are very autonomous and intensively interactive (invisible control mechanisms), have specific development goals and priorities (clear objectives), progressively develop several prototypes (short-term milestones), and identify critical quality criteria and performance standards (critical elements).
[b]Transactive memory systems[/b]
Transactive memory systems refer to the knowledge about who knows what on a team. When teams are improvising, access to its members' knowledge will leverage the team's ability to recombine their previous experiences and develop new and effective responses. In addition, through having this knowledge, teams can increase their implicit coordination which means their members can anticipate each other's actions and dynamically adjust their behavior without expressly communicating with each other.
When teams experience stressful situations, their members may experience high cognitive load. This means that they may find it difficult to process all the information available, preventing them from adequately reacting to the disruptions. By having a clear understanding of who knows what within the team, they are able to more effectively process new information as it arises and thus increase the likelihood of success in performing improvisation actions. For example, emergency response teams such as firefighters cannot exactly predict what expertise will be need in a particular situation. Therefore, the knowledge of all team members regarding the specific skills of all other members becomes critical to a positive outcome.
When time is abundant and uncertainty is low, planning meets the needs of the organization almost perfectly. However, as Prussian military leader Helmuth Graf von Moltke so eloquently stated in the late 1800s, "No plan survives contact with the enemy". When time is scarce and uncertainty is high, good planning is not enough. Instead, "improvisation becomes an alternative or complementary orientation".
However, for improvisation to work some conditions must be met: organizations must create an experimental culture in which errors are accepted as part of a learning process; teams must develop minimal structures based on invisible control mechanisms, clear objectives, short-term milestones, and a small number of activity-critical elements; and finally, team members must have a clear knowledge of who knows what within the team, so they can increase implicit coordination. Even if all these conditions are met, positive outcomes are not guaranteed when teams improvise. However, given the uncertainty of unanticipated disruptions and extreme time constraints, the chances of success dramatically increase.




Explore further
Can improvisation bring audiences back to classical music?



Provided by The Conversation 






And oh yeah Lincoln recall:

Don't gamble with improv.



Made Manifest.
Needle-less to say...
Now.
Reply
This is the education of Lincoln.

Student made joke about Trump in improv sketch. Now Surry Sheriff's Department is investigating

The Surry County Sheriff’s Office is investigating a comment made by a North Surry High School student about President Donald Trump during an improv performance.
The comment was made on Wednesday morning during a sketch about jobs in the White House in front of about 45 students in the school’s media center, according to a statement from Surry County Schools.
“Regrettably, the performance included an inappropriate joke about the President,” the statement said. The joke was not rehearsed, as is the nature of improv.

The school system did not reveal what the student said, but described it as in “poor taste.”
Shortly after the comment was made, the sheriff’s office received several complaints, including one from a concerned parent, said Capt. Scott Hudson of the sheriff’s office.
That complaint started the investigation, which is being conducted by school resource officers, Hudson said.
“We’re still doing interviews, speaking with students, learning what was said and the context of the comment,” Hudson said.
No faculty members appear to have been involved in the comment, contrary to several postings on social media, Hudson said.

He declined to release any more information.
The statement from the school system said that one of the Improv Club’s sponsors, James Moore, yelled “freeze” after the comment was made, a cue to stop the improv.
“As a school counselor and sponsor of the club, it is important to me that we use this performance as a teachable moment for all,” Moore said in the statement.
Trump won 74 percent of the vote in Surry County in 2016 and remains popular among residents.
Hudson said the school system is conducting its own investigation into the incident.



https://www.journalnow.com/news/local/student-made-joke-about-trump-in-improv-sketch-now-surry/article_56213ec7-804d-5510-a3e0-93ee704dd926.html


Trump tried to improv on SNL: former cast member | TheHill
[Image: thehill.com.ico]https://thehill.com/blogs/in-the-know/351097-trump-tried-to-improv-on-snl
President Trump tried to improvise during his 2015 guest host appearance on NBC's "Saturday Night Live," according to one of the show's former featured players. Trump tried to improv on ...   
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply

Next President of the United Fates of America
 (Pages: 1 2 3 4 ... 75 )
Vianova


Quote:#2,449
Monday, December 16th, 2019, 05:09 am


...

State of the Union -- The Demento-crat Insanity




Arrow #2,449
[Image: 49244953593_f801556c3b_b.jpg]


USMCA PASSES HOUSE

JOSHUA CAPLAN

https://www.breitbart.com/politics/2019/...agreement/
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
...

Miss Emily is back in the prime Smoke time.

Posing nude Whip
on
the
Mars 2020 Rover Jawdrop

MP3 at the link for 45 minute presentation

https://www.planetary.org/multimedia/pla...-room.html
In the Clean Room With the Mars 2020 Rover

Put on your bunny suit! 
You’re invited to join Mat Kaplan Stars
and Emily Lakdawalla Wub
in 
the 
Jet Propulsion Lab Clean Room   Naughty    Tp    Naughty
with 
the 
Mars 2020 rover   Marsrover  Whip

--

Planetary Society solar system specialist and NASA pin up model Emily Lakdawalla,
in her clean room bunny suit,
preparing to view the Mars 2020 rover
on 27 December 2019 during a media event held at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.

[Image: 20200108_mat-and-emily-in-jpl-clean-room...s_f840.jpg]



I just want to get inside that clean room bunny suit with her.
And everybody else in the clean room too.
Every male NASA astronaut and clean room scientist,
quietly imagines himself slowly unzipping that bunny suit  Drool 


The Clean Room
[Image: 20200108_mars-2020-seen-from-gallery_f840.jpg]



All those guys in the Clean Room  are NOT  in Bunny Suits.
They are in Bonehead suits Rofl
pretending to play Planetary Protection Guidelines Games  Hi


Only Miss Emily is in a Bunny Suit !
Sex in the Clean  Banana_hump  Room ?
Don't leave any cooties on the Rover please.

It might travel to Mars,
and then
what ?


Dunno


Yep.

That is how you handle a NASA mission Clean Room.
infiltrate with a NASA pin up girl in a bunny suit,
bring: 
picnic basket
bottle of wine
seductive poetry
pack of rubbers
rover towel
and
rock and roll baby Guitar


...
Reply
Stu "pseudo-neglect."  Stu


counter-intuitive is  Sheep as counter-crater was


Quote:Human behaviour is influenced by many things, most of which remain unconscious to us. One of these is a phenomenon known among perception psychologists as "pseudo-neglect." This refers to the observation that healthy people prefer their left visual field to their right, and therefore divide a line regularly left of centre.


...up Right where Eye Left off...

Eh Lefty

further instructing the pupill Arrow
[/url]
Quote:#1



JANUARY 10, 2020
Always counterclockwise: Puzzle of early Neolithic house orientations finally solved
[Image: alwayscounte.jpg]Aerial photo of the excavation area of an Early Neolithic settlement near Vráble in Slovakia. Credit: © Nils Müller-Scheeßel
Human behaviour is influenced by many things, most of which remain unconscious to us. One of these is a phenomenon known among perception psychologists as "pseudo-neglect." This refers to the observation that healthy people prefer their left visual field to their right, and therefore divide a line regularly left of centre.

A study published on Friday, January 10 in PLOS ONE now shows for the first time what effect this inconspicuous deviation had in the prehistoric past. A Slovak-German research team has investigated the alignment of early Neolithic houses in Central and Eastern Europe. Scientists from Kiel University (CAU) and the Slovakian Academy of Sciences were able to prove that the orientation of newly built houses deviated by a small amount from that of existing buildings, and that this deviation was regularly counterclockwise.
Archaeologist Dr. Nils Müller-Scheeßel, who coordinated the study, says, "Researchers have long assumed that early Neolithic houses stood for about a generation, i.e., 30 to 40 years, and that new houses had to be built next to existing ones at regular intervals. By means of age determination using the radiocarbon method, we can now show that the new construction was associated with a barely perceptible rotation of the house axis counterclockwise. We see pseudoneglect as the most likely cause of this."

[Image: 1-alwayscounte.jpg]
Magnetic plan of an early Neolithic settlement. Each two of the dark lines with a length of 20 to 30 meters represent the part of a house. Credit: © Nils Müller-Scheeßel
This insight was made possible by the interpretation of one of the fastest-growing archaeological data sets at present, namely the results of geophysical magnetic measurements. Differences in the Earth's magnetic field are used to visualise archaeological features lying underground. Early Neolithic house ground plans belong to the best identifiable types of features.
"In recent years, we have discovered hundreds of Early Neolithic houses in our field of work in southwestern Slovakia using geophysical prospection methods. Excavating all these houses is neither possible nor desirable for reasons of monument conservation. The possibility of using pseudoneglect to bring the houses into a relative sequence without excavation and thus to break down the settlement activity of an entire small region raises our research to a completely new level," says Müller-Scheeßel. "Absolute dating using scientific methods must, of course, confirm the basic trend in every case."

[Image: 2-alwayscounte.jpg]
Preparation for the geophysical survey of an area near Vráble. The measuring device, which is pulled over the ground, records magnetic anomalies below the surface. This makes archaeological features such as house floor plans visible. Credit: © Martin Furholt
The study also refers to comparable archaeological observations at other places and times, which show that similar changes in orientation also seem to apply to more recent prehistoric periods. The significance of pseudoneglect thus extends far beyond the dating of early Neolithic houses.




Explore further
Archaeologists discover almost 40 new monuments close to Newgrange



[b]More information:[/b] Müller-Scheeßel N, Müller J, Cheben I, Mainusch W, Rassmann K, Rabbel W, et al. (2020) A new approach to the temporal significance of house orientations in European Early Neolithic settlements. PLoS ONE 15(1): e0226082. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0226082
[b]Journal information:[/b] PLoS ONE 

Provided by [url=https://phys.org/partners/kiel-university/]Kiel University
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
[Image: polarimery.png]

Chiral Eye Role

Observe   Sheep  Obverse
JANUARY 10, 2020
Unexpected twist in a quantum system
by Oliver Morsch, ETH Zurich
[Image: unexpectedtw.jpg]Dissipation in a quantum system causes cold atoms to arrange themselves alternately in two different checkerboard patterns: either there are atoms only on the white squares (front) or the squares are occupied by atoms with opposing spin directions. Credit: ETH Zurich
Physicists at ETH Zurich have observed a surprising twist in a quantum system caused by the interplay between energy dissipation and coherent quantum dynamics. To explain it, they found a concrete analogy to mechanics.

"No scientist thinks in formulae," Albert Einstein allegedly once told his colleague Leopold Infeld. In fact, especially for physicists, who deal with such abstract things as quantum physics, it is often immensely useful to work with concrete images rather than mathematical symbols. A team of researchers led by Tilman Esslinger, professor at the Institute for Quantum Electronics at ETH Zurich, experienced this when they recently discovered a new effect in their quantum mechanical system. Although they were studying tiny atoms and light particles in their experiment, they were able to understand their observations better through a catchy image: a shaft turning inside a bearing. Their results have recently been published in the journal Science.
[b]A complex quantum system[/b]
"We hadn't really been looking for that effect at all," says Esslinger. "Only with hindsight did we understand what our data mean." He and his co-workers had tackled a very complex topic: a quantum system in which the individual particles interact strongly with one another and that is simultaneously driven from the outside and also dissipative. "Dissipative" means that the quantum states of the particles do not just evolve coherently in time—that is, such that their superposition states remain intact. Rather, a controlled connection to the outside world causes the superposition states to disappear little by little. If the dissipation is very strong, they disappear very fast, and as a result the particles then behave almost like in classical physics, which we know from everyday experience. Without any dissipation, on the other hand, the way the particle system evolves in time is dictated purely by quantum mechanics—an ideal case that is used by physicists to build quantum computers, for instance.
[b]Atomic patterns[/b]
"Those two extremes can be calculated and understood quite well," explains Tobias Donner, who works as Senior Scientist in Esslinger's lab. "By contrast, it's much more difficult to deal with systems in the middle, where coherent evolution and dissipation are equally important." To build such a quantum system in the laboratory, the physicists cooled atoms down to temperatures close to the absolute zero of around -273 degrees Celsius and exposed them to a focused laser beam that traps and drives the atoms inside a kind of lattice made of light. Each atom also has a "spin" that can point up or down (much like a compass needle that points to the North or South). On top of that, the cold atoms are surrounded inside a cavity by two mirrors that reflect the light scattered by the atoms back and forth.

The interplay between the atoms, the laser beam and the light in the cavity now causes the atoms to arrange themselves spontaneously in a checkerboard pattern. This can happen in two different ways. In one of them, there are atoms only on the "white" squares, as it were, whereas the black squares remain empty (see figure). In the other case there are also two types of squares, red and green, but now the red squares are only occupied by atoms whose spins point up, whereas on the green squares there are only atoms whose spins point down.
[b]Surprising twist[/b]
Which of the two alternatives the atoms prefer depends on the direction of oscillation of the laser beam that irradiates them, strictly according to the rules of quantum mechanics—at least, that is, if the atoms are not exposed to any dissipation. When the physicists carried out the experiment in a regime where the influence of dissipation (caused by a loss of photons from the cavity) was large enough, something unusual happened. "Our data no longer showed us one of the two patterns, but rather it seemed as though the atoms were turning through the patterns over and over, with a particular sense of rotation," Esslinger describes the unexpected results. "That was an exciting discovery—but we had absolutely no idea why it was happening."
[b]An unusual force[/b]
By simplifying the quantum mechanical equations describing their experiment, the physicists were eventually able to discover an analogy to a mechanical system. In fact, the formulae bore a striking resemblance to those describing a shaft turning inside a bearing. Between the shaft and the bearing, there is a viscous lubricant that is supposed to ensure a uniform rotation. However, if the shaft moves away slightly from the center of the bearing, a rather unusual kind of friction force arises that depends on the position of the shaft. The force comes about because in one direction the distance between the rotating shaft and the stationary bearing is reduced, and hence different friction forces act on the shaft and the bearing. The resulting position-dependent force is perpendicular to the direction in which the shaft has moved. As a consequence, the center of the shaft starts spiraling around the center of the bearing.
Now that the physicists are able to describe the unexpected quantum effect with a concrete image, they are already thinking about the next step: to exploit it in order to deliberately steer and control quantum systems. "Normally, dissipation alters or weakens existing quantum effects—but here we have an effect that actually owes its existence to dissipation," says Esslinger. Whether similar effects could possibly be more widespread in quantum systems, and how they might be used in the quantum technologies that are currently being developed, are therefore questions that are now on the researchers' minds.




Explore further
A distinct spin on atomic transport



[b]More information:[/b] Dissipation-induced structural instability and chiral dynamics in a quantum gas. Science, Vol. 366, Issue 6472, pp. 1496-1499 (2019) DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw4465
[b]Journal information:[/b] Science [/url]

Provided by [url=https://phys.org/partners/eth-zurich/]ETH Zurich



https://phys.org/news/2020-01-unexpected-quantum.html
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
(10-12-2019, 01:29 AM)EA Wrote: See? [b]#5[/b] knock!
Quote:The findings illuminate how signals from photons phonons (particles of light sound) get amplified in the eye ear? [b]#5[/b]
[Image: 3_550x550_Front_Color-NA.jpg?Size=NA&Att...ms%22:%7B%7D%7D%7D]
More importantly, the study provides insights into how the largest family of cell membrane proteins -- G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) -- work in humans.


The improviVerse @ a glance. tone?


Molecular basis of vision revealed
Date:
September 30, 2019
Cornell University
Researchers have solved the three-dimensional structure of a protein complex involved in vertebrate vision at atomic resolution, a finding that has broad implications for our understanding of biological signaling processes and the design of over a third of the drugs on the market today.


Researchers have solved the three-dimensional structure of a protein complex involved in vertebrate vision at atomic resolution, a finding that has broad implications for our understanding of biological signaling processes and the design of over a third of the drugs on the market today.
The findings illuminate how signals from photons (particles of light) get amplified in the eye.


More importantly, the study provides insights into how the largest family of cell membrane proteins -- G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) -- work in humans.

"They're involved in almost all the biological processes in a human body -- how we perceive light, taste, smell, or how the heart rate is regulated or muscles contract -- and they are targets for over 30% of the drugs that are used today," said Yang Gao, co-first author of the paper and a postdoctoral researcher in the lab of Richard Cerione, the Goldwin Smith Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Biology and co-senior author.
There are over 800 GPCRs in humans that signal through about 20 different G proteins. GPCRs are responsible for sensing a wide range of outside signals -- such as hormones, light, and sense of smell and taste -- and inducing corresponding responses inside the cell. In vertebrate vision, the GPCR rhodopsin is capable of detecting the signal from just one photon and through the activation of the G protein transducin and downstream effectors, amplify it 100,000 times.
The researchers used cryo-electron microscopy to obtain atomic-resolution structures of the rhodopsin-transducin complex. The structures not only provide the molecular basis of vertebrate vision, but also reveal a previously unknown mechanism of how GPCRs in general activate G proteins.
"What we've learnt from these structures at an atomic level may be broadly applicable to other GPCR signaling systems," said co-first author Sekar Ramachandran, a senior research associate in Cerione's lab.
By learning more about how different receptors specifically couple with different G proteins, the researchers hope to gain insights into designing drugs that specifically regulate GPCR signaling. A lot of drug side effects occur when therapies are not specific enough and target both harmful and beneficial pathways, Yang said.
Hongli Hu, a postdoctoral researcher in Stanford's Department of Structural Biology, is a co-first author; Georgios Skiniotis, professor of molecular and cellular physiology and of structural biology at Stanford, is a co-senior author.

make a difference: sponsored opportunity



[b]Story Source:[/b]
Materials provided by [b]Cornell University[/b]. Original written by Krishna Ramanujan. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


[b]Journal Reference[/b]:
  1. Yang Gao, Hongli Hu, Sekar Ramachandran, Jon W. Erickson, Richard A. Cerione, Georgios Skiniotis. [b]Structures of the Rhodopsin-Transducin Complex: Insights into G-Protein Activation[/b]. Molecular Cell, 2019; 75 (4): 781 DOI: 10.1016/j.molcel.2019.06.007



Cornell University. "Molecular basis of vision revealed." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 30 September 2019. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190930114730.htm>.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/20...114730.htm


And in order to understand disordered hyper-uniformity linke you gotta shrink to the nano-scales all Ma'at @ that.
collapse the Wave <<< >>>   Clap the Hi

Quote:DOI:[color=rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.6)]https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2019.06.007[/color]
[Image: hyperuniform.jpg]
>>>       https://phys.org/news/2020-01-hyperunifo...rared.html

sonic [Image: 49380191102_874583b408_m.jpg] photonic
Damn!...
That Betsy Ross part was a zinger!

Ouch!
[b]#5[/b]
Sunday, October 19th, 2008, 04:55 am
The Volume of Your top Hat.
The Value you'll never top that.
This VOLUME!!! you can't hear
Never whispered in your ear.
[b]#5[/b]

JANUARY 9, 2020
Scientists show that the eyes can measure hearing
by Jim Barlow, University of Oregon
[Image: 7-eye.jpg]Credit: CC0 Public Domain
In 1998, University of Oregon researcher Avinash Singh Bala was working with barn owls in an Institute of Neuroscience lab when the birds' eyes caught his attention.

The usual research done in the lab, led by Terry Takahashi, explores, at a fundamental level, how barn owls process sounds, with the idea that such knowledge could lead to improved hearing devices for people.
But those eyes. Every time the owls heard an unexpected sound, their eyes dilated.
"So, we asked, might this work in humans?" Bala said. "We thought, if so, it would be a great way to assess hearing in people who cannot respond by pushing a button, raising a hand or talking, such as babies, older children with developmental deficits and adults who are suffering from a debilitating disorder or are too sick to respond."
Over the next decade, Bala and Takahashi, as free time outside their primary research allowed, pursued ideas on how to use the eyes as a window to hearing. They experimented, finding similar involuntary dilation in humans. They tweaked a possible approach, aiming for sensitivity that might equal that achieved with traditional tone-and-response testing.
"We presented early data analyses at conferences, and there was a lot of resistance to the idea that by looking at an involuntary response we could get results as good as button-press data."
Last month, the two UO neuroscientists published a freely accessible paper in the Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology that solidifies their case. They used eye-tracking technology simultaneously as they conducted traditional hearing exams with 31 adults in a quiet room.
Dilation was monitored for about three seconds as participants stared at a dot on a monitor while a tone was played. To avoid being fooled by pupil reactions generated by pushing a response button, subjects' responses were delayed until the dot was replaced by a question mark, when eye-tracking stopped.
Levels of dilation seen throughout the testing directly reflected the participants' subsequent push-button responses on whether or not a tone was heard. That, Bala said, allowed his team, which also included former doctoral student and co-author Elizabeth Whitchurch, "to see and establish causality."
"This study is a proof of concept that this is possible," Bala said. "The first time we tested a human subject's pupil response was in 1999. We knew it could work, but we had to optimize the approach for capturing the detection of the quietest sounds."
Takahashi said the initial discovery was completely accidental.
"If we hadn't been working with owls, we wouldn't have known about this possible human diagnostic technique," he said. "This is a really good example of how animal-based research can benefit advances in human diagnostics."
The testing in the newly published research, funded initially by internal grants, was done using conventional, commercially available hearing and eye-tracking technologies.
Bala and Takahashi are now collaborating with Dare Baldwin, a professor of psychology, on developing their own technology for testing with babies. The effort is being supported by a 2015 Incubating Interdisciplinary Initiatives award from the Office of the Vice President for Research and Innovation and a recent grant from the University Venture Development Fund.
Bala and Takahashi also have launched a UO spinout, Perceptivo LLC, to pursue development of an infant-hearing assessment.





Explore further
Barn owls found to suffer no hearing loss as they age




[b]More information:[/b] Avinash D. S. Bala et al. Human Auditory Detection and Discrimination Measured with the Pupil Dilation Response, Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology (2019). DOI: 10.1007/s10162-019-00739-x
[b]Journal information:[/b] Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology [/url]

Provided by 
University of Oregon 



chiral 
  [Image: 23-236870_human-ears-clipart-human-ears-png.png]  
eye role
[b]#5[/b]
Hyperuniform disordered waveguides
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
(12-07-2008, 01:41 PM)EA Wrote:  I need to improve the improv.
[Image: 2350487524_71fe860d8e.jpg?v=0]

Quote:"More research on mammals is needed to understand the complex relationship between laterality and cognitive performance," Dr. Leaver said.

The paper, published in the journal Learning and Behaviour, is entitled: "Learning is negatively associated with strength of left/right paw preference in wild grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis)."
This is the Education of Lincoln.
Courtesy of the Hidden Mission Members. [Image: bump.gif]
JANUARY 20, 2020
Strongly 'handed' squirrels less good at learning
[Image: greysquirrel.jpg]Credit: CC0 Public Domain
Squirrels that strongly favour their left or right side are less good at learning, new research suggests.



Just as humans are usually left- or right-handed, many animals favour one side of their body for certain tasks.
The strength of this preference varies, with some individuals happy to use either side, while others strongly favour one side (known as being strongly "lateralised").

[b]More information:[/b] "Learning is negatively associated with strength of left/right paw preference in wild grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis)." Learning and BehaviourDOI: 10.3758/s13420-019-00408-2
Provided by University of Exeter 




Quote:It Has a Current Precedant That will show the Former President...

Arrow Chiral High-Roll
snake-eyes!!!
Don't gamble with a casino proprietor. Naughty
[img=728x0]https://cdn.substack.com/image/fetch/w_1456,c_limit,f_auto,q_auto:good/https%3A%2F%2Fbucketeer-e05bbc84-baa3-437e-9518-adb32be77984.s3.amazonaws.com%2Fpublic%2Fimages%2F1e724bc5-5dc1-46c1-9cf9-22ca93073e69_2262x1535.jpeg[/img]
[Image: https%3A%2F%2Fbucketeer-e05bbc84-baa3-43...x1535.jpeg]
Credit: AP Photo/Elise Amendola
JANUARY 21, 2020
Study uses physics to explain democratic elections
[Image: studyusesphy.jpg]A physics-based analysis of U.S. elections finds that the electorate has become more polarized over time, leading to an unstable situation in which very small chages in opinion can lead to wide swings in electoral outcomes. Credit: Christine Daniloff, MIT
It may seem surprising, but theories and formulas derived from physics turn out to be useful tools for understanding the ways democratic elections work, including how these systems break down and how they could be improved.

A new physics-based study finds that in the U.S., elections went through a transition in 1970, from a condition in which election results captured reasonably well the greater electorate's political preferences, to a period of increasing instability, in which very small changes in voter preferences led to significant swings toward more extreme political outcomes in both directions.
The analysis also shows this instability can be associated with an unexpected situation in which outcomes swing in the opposite direction of how people's true preferences are shifting. That is, a small move in prevailing opinions toward the left can result in a more right-wing outcome, and vice versa—a situation the researchers refer to as "negative representation."
The findings appear in the journal Nature Physics, in a paper by Alexander Siegenfeld, a doctoral student in physics at MIT, and Yaneer Bar-Yam, the president of the New England Complex Systems Institute.
"Our country seems more divided than ever, with election outcomes resembling a pendulum swinging with ever increasing force," Siegenfeld says. In this regime of "unstable" elections, he says, "a small change in electorate opinion can dramatically swing the election outcome, just as the direction of a small push to a boulder perched on top of a hill can dramatically change its final location."
That's partly a result of an increasingly polarized electorate, he explains. The researchers drew from a previous analysis that went through the Republican and Democratic party platforms in every presidential election year since 1944 and counted the number of polarizing words using a combination of machine learning and human analysis. The numbers show a relatively stable situation before 1970 but a dramatic increase in polarization since then.
The team then found that the Ising model, which was developed to explain the behavior of ferromagnets and other physical systems, is mathematically equivalent to certain models of elections and accurately describes the onset of instability in electoral systems.

"What happened in 1970 is a phase transition like the boiling of water. Elections went from stable to unstable," explained Bar-Yam.
The increasing instability also results in part from the structure of party primary systems, which have greatly increased their role in candidate selection since the '70s. Because the voters in primaries tend to have more extreme partisan views than those of the general electorate, politicians are more inclined to take positions to appeal to those voters—positions that may be more extreme than those favored by more mainstream voters, and thus less likely to win in the general election.
This long-term shift from a stable to unstable electoral situation closely resembles what happens to a ferromagnetic metal exposed to a magnetic field, Siegenfeld says, and can be described by the same mathematical formulas. But why should formulas derived for such unrelated subject matter be relevant to this field?

[Image: 1-studyusesphy.jpg]
Analyzing Republican and Democratic party platforms since 1944, the researchers found a dramatic increase in polarizing, divisive words used in those platforms, starting in 1970 and increasing since then, as shown in this graph. This has led to greater instability in election outcomes. Credit: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Siegenfeld says that's because in physics, it's not always necessary to know the details of the underlying objects or mechanisms to be able to produce useful and meaningful results. He compares that to the way physicists were able to describe the behavior of sound waves—which are essentially the aggregate motions of atoms—with great precision, long before they knew about the existence of atoms.
"When we apply physics to understanding the fundamental particles of our universe, we don't actually know the underlying details of the theories," he says. "Yet we can still make incredibly accurate predictions."
Similarly, he says, researchers don't need to understand the motives and opinions of individual voters to be able to carry out a meaningful analysis of their collective behavior. As the paper states, "understanding the collective behavior of social systems can benefit from methods and concepts from physics, not because humans are similar to electrons, but because certain large-scale behaviors can be understood without an understanding of the small-scale details."
Another important finding from the study is the phenomenon of "negative representation." This is when an overall shift to the left in voter opinions results in a rightward shift in the election outcome, or vice versa.



verse a vice.

Quote:It Has a Current Precedant That will show the Former President...

Left Write Off where itza began.
[Image: 49425443622_7d13804cb0_z.jpg]left an empty glass
This can happen, for example, if voters are faced with a choice between a center-left candidate and a far-right candidate. If the overall sentiments of the electorate move further to the left, that may result in more far-left voters deciding to stay home on election day because the centrist candidate's views are too far removed from their own. As a result, the far-right candidate ends up winning. Or, if a rightward swing in the electorate leads to the nomination of an extreme far-right candidate, that may increase the odds of a more liberal candidate winning the general election. "This negative representation undermines the entire purpose of democratic elections," Siegenfeld says.
The study finds that in unstable electoral systems, there is always negative representation. But a number of measures that could help to counter the trend toward instability and thus also reduce the incidence of negative representation, the authors say.
One such solution to reducing election instability would be a shift toward ranked-voting systems, such as those used in Australia, Maine, and the cities of San Francisco and Cambridge, Massachusetts. Such systems reduce the need to select "lesser of two evils" candidates, and allow people to vote for their real preference without the disruptions caused by third-party candidates, they say.
Another approach would be to increase voter turnout, either through incentives, publicity, or legislation (such as Australia's required voting). The lower the percentage of voter turnout, the greater the potential for instability, the researchers found.
"Most people say 'go vote' so your voice is heard," Siegenfeld says. "What is less appreciated is that when candidates can count on people voting, it is more likely that future elections will become more stable. Our research scientifically demonstrates that high voter turnout helps democracy, since low voter turnout destabilizes elections and results in negative representation."
"I love this research," says Soren Jordan, an assistant professor of political science at Auburn University in Alabama, who was not involved in this work and wrote a commentary piece in Nature about it. "The cross-over is exciting, and seeing physicists do mathematical heavy lifting that's really outside of the traditional scope and training of political science really enhances both disciplines."
He adds, "This model is an excellent heuristic for understanding some critical phenomena, like how slow-moving concepts like partisanship can still yield large-scale effects in aggregate outcomes."




Explore further
British electorate 'most volatile in modern times,' new study finds



[b]More information:[/b] Alexander F. Siegenfeld et al. Negative representation and instability in democratic elections, Nature Physics (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41567-019-0739-6
[b]Journal information:[/b] Nature Physics [/url]

Provided by [url=https://phys.org/partners/massachusetts-institute-of-technology/]Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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Rite where we left off. Arrow  Eh Lefty?  

[Image: ancientfishf.jpg]

EvolutionMAR 18, 2020
Ancient fish fossil reveals evolutionary origin of the human hand
An ancient Elpistostege fish fossil found in Miguasha, Canada has revealed new insights into how the human hand evolved from fish fins.

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APRIL 3, 2020
World's biggest study of left-handedness
[Image: lefthanded.jpg]Credit: CC0 Public Domain
From Leonardo da Vinci to Oprah Winfrey, and from Napoleon Bonaparte to Jimi Hendrix the talents of left-handers have been celebrated across the generations.

However, the prevalence of people who favor their left hand over their right has always been a rough estimate—until now.
In the biggest ever global study of handedness researchers from across Europe, led by the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens and in the UK by the University of St Andrews, have concluded that 10.6% of the world's population are left handed.
Details of the study of more than two million people by researchers at the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, University of Oxford, University of Bristol, Ruhr University Bochum and St Andrews are published in Psychological Bulletin today.
Frequency of left-handedness has shaped and underpinned different fields of research, from cognitive neuroscience to human evolution. While hundreds of empirical studies have assessed handedness, there has never been a large-scale, comprehensive review of the prevalence of handedness and the factors which moderate it.
For the study researchers examined five meta-analyses involving 2,396,170 individuals on hand preference for different manual tasks. They showed that left-handedness prevalence lies between 9.34% using the most stringent criterion of left-handedness, to 18.1% using the most lenient criterion of non-right-handedness, with the best overall estimate being 10.6%.
Typically handedness is measured by which hand is used to write with. However, for this study researchers allowed for the fact that about 9% of people use different hands for different tasks which further improved the accuracy for their findings.
Understanding handedness contributes to our understanding of human evolution. For example, it has been claimed that right-handedness, along with the capacity to make and use tools, to use language, and to show functional and anatomical cerebral specialization, are characteristics specific to humans, and that they are intimately tied together in the divergent evolution of man from apes.
The lead UK author of the study, Dr. Silvia Paracchini, of the School of Medicine at St Andrews, said: "This study will provide a useful reference for different areas of handedness research. In addition to providing reliable figures, the study highlights variability across studies depending on the different criteria used to measure handedness. While we intuitively classify handedness as a left/right category, these data show that the proportion of people using different hands for different tasks is almost as big as the proportion of the left-handers."
"Human handedness: A meta-analysis" is published in Psychological Bulletin.




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Long-term breastfeeding sheds light on whether an infant becomes right- or left-handed: study



[b]More information:[/b] Marietta Papadatou-Pastou et al. Human handedness: A meta-analysis., Psychological Bulletin (2020). DOI: 10.1037/bul0000229
[b]Journal information:[/b] Psychological Bulletin 



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APRIL 14, 2020
Being right-brained or left-brained comes down to molecular switches
[Image: beingrightbr.jpg]Dr. Viviane Labrie. Credit: Van Andel Institute
Scientists may have solved one of the most puzzling and persistent mysteries in neuroscience: why some people are "right-brained" while others are "left-brained."

The answer lies in how certain genes on each side of the brain are switched "on" and "off" through a process called epigenetic regulation. The findings may explain why Parkinson's disease and other neurological disorders frequently affect one side of the body first, a revelation that has far-reaching implications for development of potential future treatments.
The study was led by Van Andel Institute's Viviane Labrie, Ph.D., and published in the journal Genome Biology.
"The mechanisms underlying brain asymmetry have been an elephant in the room for decades," Labrie said. "It's thrilling to finally uncover its cause, particularly given its potential for helping us better understand and, hopefully one day, better treat diseases like Parkinson's."
Each cell in the brain has the same genes but it is epigenetics that dictate whether those genes are switched "on" or "off." Labrie and her collaborators found numerous epigenetic differences between the hemispheres of healthy brains that are linked to variations in gene activity. Notably, these differences, or asymmetry, could make one side of the brain more vulnerable to neurological diseases.
For example, epigenetic abnormalities on one side of the brain could make that hemisphere more susceptible to the processes that cause the death of brain cells in Parkinson's. The differences in cell death across hemispheres leads to the appearance of the disease's hallmark symptoms, such as tremor, on one side of the body before the other. As the disease progresses, symptoms on the side first affected often are more severe than symptoms on the other side of the body.
The findings also give scientists a vital window into the various biological pathways that contribute to symptom asymmetry in Parkinson's, including brain cell development, immune function and cellular communication.
"We all start out with prominent differences between the left and right sides of our brains. As we age, however, our hemispheres become more epigenetically similar. For Parkinson's, this is significant: people whose hemispheres are more alike early in life experienced faster disease progression, while people whose hemispheres were more asymmetric had slower disease progression," Labrie said. "Many of these changes are clustered around genes known to impact Parkinson's risk. There is huge potential to translate these findings into new therapeutic strategies."
Labrie is already starting to look at this phenomenon in other neurological diseases like Alzheimer's.
The study is one of the first to parse the molecular causes of brain asymmetry. Early research on the left versus right brain was conducted in the mid-20th century by Roger Sperry, whose groundbreaking work with split-brain patients earned him a Nobel Prize.




Explore further
Hotspot in the genome may drive psychosis in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder



[b]More information:[/b] Peipei Li et al, Hemispheric asymmetry in the human brain and in Parkinson's disease is linked to divergent epigenetic patterns in neurons, Genome Biology (2020). DOI: 10.1186/s13059-020-01960-1
[b]Journal information:[/b] Genome Biology [/url]

Provided by [url=https://medicalxpress.com/partners/van-andel-research-institute/]Van Andel Research Institute

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-04-r...cular.html
...
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(07-24-2014, 03:19 AM)EA Wrote:
Quote: it's just the retina seems even more brain-like than the brain itself.


[Image: disordered-hyperuniformity.jpg?1393269653]

To two eyes I've shown you  to bias owns you.

Fiber optic light pipes in the retina do much more than simple image transfer

Jul 21, 2014 by John Hewitt


[Image: fiberopticli.jpg]
Muller Cells appear to act as living optical fibers. Credit: vision-research.eu


Quote: (Phys.org) —Having the photoreceptors at the back of the retina is not a design constraint, it is a design feature. The idea that the vertebrate eye, like a traditional front-illuminated camera, might have been improved somehow if it had only been able to orient its wiring behind the photoreceptor layer, like a cephalopod, is folly. Indeed in simply engineered systems, like CMOS or CCD image sensors, a back-illuminated design manufactured by flipping the silicon wafer and thinning it so that light hits the photocathode without having to navigate the wiring layer can improve photon capture across a wide wavelength band. But real eyes are much more crafty than that.

A case in point are the Müller glia cells that span the thickness of the retina. These high refractive index cells spread an absorptive canopy across the retinal surface and then shepherd photons through a low-scattering cytoplasm to separate receivers, much like coins through a change sorting machine. A new paper in Nature Communications describes how these wavelength-dependent wave-guides can shuttle green-red light to cones while passing the blue-purples to adjacent rods. The idea that these Müller cells act as living fiber optic cables has been floated previously. It has even been convincingly demonstrated using a dual beam laser trap. In THIS case (THIS, like in Java programming meaning the paper just brought up) the authors couched this feat as mere image transfer, with the goal just being to bring light in with minimal distortion.

Fireflies, in trying to get light through their cuticle, face a similar but opposite challenge —namely, getting light out. Their fascinating solutions to transparency and index matching are an illuminating read. In the retina, and indeed the larger light organ that is the eye, there is much more going on than just photons striking rhodopsin photopigments. As far as absorbers, there are all kinds of things going on in there—various carontenoids, lipofuscins and lipochromes, even cytochrome oxidases in mitochondria that get involved at the longer wavelegnths. Speaking of the mitochondria, one of their most incredible adaptions in the eye came to my attention recently courtesy of O.R. Pagan, author of a cool book about planarians. His blog mentions how these creatures have convinced the endosymbiont microbes in their eyes to accumulate refractive proteins and tightly pack together. After swelling to several times normal size like a liver about to become foie gras, these mitochondria are transformed into a lens about to focus light onto sensitive cells.

In considering not just the classical photoreceptors but the entire retina itself as a light-harvesting engine, it seems prudent to also regard its entire synaptic endowment as a molecular-scale computing volume. In other words, when you have many cells that have no axons or spikes to speak of, that can completely refigure their fine structure within a few minutes to handle changing light levels, every synapse appears as an essential machine that percolates information as if at the Brownian scale, it's just the retina seems even more brain-like than the brain itself. even below.

By contrast the brain itself, while containing much the same, appears not quite so tightly strung. That's not to say that wiping out swaths of cherished synaptic meat memory in the brain would be on par with taking down a few tubules of kidney, lobules of liver, or osteons of bone, it's just the retina seems even more brain-like than the brain itself. The retinas of different animals clearly employ different tricks. Some reflect incoming light back out through the retina for a second look. Others can detect things like polarization or even angle of incidence.

Most incredibly, like the wings of a swallow, the retina more-or-less works right out of the box, even if it has not seen any exercise. In seeking to understand how it then further refines its delicate structure we should perhaps not overlook the pervasive organizing influence of the incoming photons themselves. Now that it is becoming abundantly clear that the whole works can "feel" them, the next question to answer is how..



Lefty...tell your Rite eye how right I Am.

The whole works  because I work for you.

While the photons do a reverse double-slit experiment as they  recombined in your mind's eye.

This is the mechanism of how improv affects real  physical change in your grey matter.

Call it micro-neuronal synaptic evolution of an incomming duck.


Itz how  I get in the retina....  Devil
Itz how  I get in the retina....  Devil ~666 nanometers of deep red light.
[Image: palantir.jpg][/url]

2020 vision:

JUNE 29, 2020
Declining eyesight improved by looking at deep red light
[Image: decliningeye.jpg]Example of hand held LED torch used in study. Credit: UCL

Staring at a deep red light for three minutes a day can significantly improve declining eyesight, finds a new UCL-led study, the first of its kind in humans.

Scientists believe the discovery, published in the Journals of Gerontology, could signal the dawn of new affordable home-based eye therapies, helping the millions of people globally with naturally declining vision.
In the UK there are currently around 12 million people aged over 65: in 50 years this will increase to around 20 million and all will have some degree of visual decline because of retinal aging.
Lead author, Professor Glen Jeffery (UCL Institute of Ophthalmology) said: "As you age your visual system declines significantly, particularly once over 40.
"Your retinal sensitivity and your color vision are both gradually undermined, and with an aging population, this is an increasingly important issue.
"To try to stem or reverse this decline, we sought to reboot the retina's aging cells with short bursts of longwave light."
In humans around 40 years-old, cells in the eye's retina begin to age, and the pace of this aging is caused, in part, when the cell's mitochondria, whose role is to produce energy (known as ATP) and boost cell function, also start to decline.
Mitochondrial density is greatest in the retina's photoreceptor cells, which have high energy demands. As a result, the retina ages faster than other organs, with a 70% ATP reduction over life, causing a significant decline in photoreceptor function as they lack the energy to perform their normal role.
Researchers built on their previous findings in mice, bumblebees and fruit flies, which all found significant improvements in the function of the retina's photoreceptors when their eyes were exposed to 670 nanometre (long wavelength) deep red light.
"Mitochondria have specific light absorbance characteristics influencing their performance: longer wavelengths spanning 650 to 1000nm are absorbed and improve mitochondrial performance to increase energy production," said Professor Jeffery.
The retina's photoreceptor population is formed of cones, which mediate color vision and rods, which provide peripheral vision and adapt vision in low/dim light.
For the study, 24 people (12 male, 12 female), aged between 28 and 72, who had no ocular disease, were recruited. All participants' eyes were tested for the sensitivity of their rods and cones at the start of the study. Rod sensitivity was measured in dark adapted eyes (with pupils dilated) by asking participants to detect dim light signals in the dark, and cone function was tested by subjects identifying colored letters that had very low contrast and appeared increasingly blurred, a process called color contrast.
All participants were then given a small LED torch to take home and were asked to look into* its deep red 670nm light beam for three minutes a day for two weeks. They were then re-tested for their rod and cone sensitivity
[b]Results[/b]
Researchers found the 670nm light had no impact in younger individuals, but in those around 40 years and over, significant improvements were obtained.
Cone color contrast sensitivity (the ability to detect colors) improved by up to 20% in some people aged around 40 and over. Improvements were more significant in the blue part of the color spectrum that is more vulnerable in aging.
Rod sensitivity (the ability to see in low light) also improved significantly in those aged around 40 and over, though less than color contrast.
Professor Jeffery said: "Our study shows that it is possible to significantly improve vision that has declined in aged individuals using simple brief exposures to light wavelengths that recharge the energy system that has declined in the retina cells, rather like re-charging a battery.
"The technology is simple and very safe, using a deep red light of a specific wavelength, that is absorbed by mitochondria in the retina that supply energy for cellular function.
"Our devices cost about £12 to make, so the technology is highly accessible to members of the public."




Explore further
Newly discovered retinal structure may enhance vision for some birds



[b]More information:[/b] Harpreet Shinhmar et al, Optically improved mitochondrial function redeems aged human visual decline, The Journals of Gerontology: Series A (2020). DOI: 10.1093/gerona/glaa155
[b]Journal information:[/b] Journals of Gerontology 

Provided by [url=https://medicalxpress.com/partners/university-college-london/]University College London


"Mitochondria have specific light absorbance characteristics influencing their performance: longer wavelengths spanning 650 to 1000nm are absorbed and improve mitochondrial performance to increase energy production," said Professor Jeffery.

Deep Red @ ~666 nanometers.  LilD Sew you can say you see.

No more dollar $tore reading glasses?!!! Holycowsmile

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