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Life Adapts.
#34
I think I understand the point you're trying to make, but what you need is an example NOT found on earth, under any circumstances at all. To say something found on earth (varnish), tho not common, must be alien because it is not common, seems at least, to be a weak argument.
If you are to prove conclusively that you have an alien lifeform, it's presence on earth will remain "the fly in the buttermilk" so to speak.
I guess I'm still missing something here, that others seem to ready accept.
So, the words Autumn and Fall are not to be capitalized?
They are in my world!

What has been is what will be, and what has been done is what will be done; and there is nothing new under the sun.
Is there a thing of which it is said, "See, this is new?"It has been already, in the ages before us. Ecc 1: 9-10
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#35
Rock varnish is common on Earth. The point is that it produces reversed amino acids, something that is not done by terrestrial organisms. Astrobiologists state that reversed amino acids are a sign of alien life, therefore if we find an organism that makes and uses reversed amino acids, it must not be of terrestrial origin.
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#36
Quote:KR,
There is also the question about the Solar winds verses the gravitational pull of the sun.
Does one trump the other......always?
I'm not sure I would write off natural transportation of material from the earth to Mars. I would not write off unintentional seeding of Mars from earth via our landers and probes over the last few decades either, although how fast any such hitchikers could colonize the planet to produce methane plumes is in doubt. Possibly.
I am among those who believe deliberate seeding took place long ago, and from here to there. And in very much larger lifeforms than we have yet seen evidence of.
Of course I don't base this on what we have discovered on Mars, but on what we have discovered right here on earth.
We once had the technology to do it. IMHO.

Sooo...after ages of Life on Earth, eventually...what?...spores, bacteria adhering to fine super-volcano erupted dust/asteroid/comet collision debris are ejected far enough outside the atmosphere to get carried away by the solar wind (3 million kph) to Mars?
Whistle ...something they call "the smell of space" is carried through the airlock...adhering to the spacesuit. They say it has a burnt...almost gunpowder smell.

Now...what could cause that? Is it just the result of degrading junk in orbit...or is it high speed particles pushed by the solar wind???
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#37
I would think
one must add the variation of DNA we will find
on Most Planets and Comets we will study in the Solar System and Beyond
Cheers
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
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#38
search/the smell of space
http://archives.cnn.com/2002/TECH/space ... index.html
http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/station/cre ... cles4.html
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#39
Consider one thing
on Mars you may also be looking co exsiting systems with beginings on different planets
Cheers
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
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#40
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanobacteria

[Image: Anabaena_sperica.jpg]

Quote:Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, blue-green bacteria or Cyanophyta, is a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis. The name "cyanobacteria" comes from the color of the bacteria (Greek: ?????? (kyanós) = blue). They are a significant component of the marine nitrogen cycle and an important primary producer in many areas of the ocean, but are also found in habitats other than the marine environment; in particular cyanobacteria are known to occur in both freshwater[2] and hypersaline inland lakes.[3]

Stromatolites of fossilized oxygen-producing cyanobacteria have been found from 2.8 billion years ago.[4] The ability of cyanobacteria to perform oxygenic photosynthesis is thought to have converted the early reducing atmosphere into an oxidizing one, which dramatically changed the composition of life forms on Earth by provoking an explosion of biodiversity and leading to the near-extinction of oxygen-intolerant organisms. Chloroplasts in plants and eukaryotic algae may have evolved from cyanobacteria via endosymbiosis.
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
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#41
Of course rock varnish is common on earth, but BEYOND the varnish, reverse amino acids are not, as you say. (I apologise for the poor misleading words in above post)
But if the astrobiologists say rock varnish definitively of a biologic source must also be of an alien origin, and general science says at present "no off world life", they would seem to be in conflict.
Don't pretend to understand why a substance so common across the globe should be declared "alien" with any confidence, based (intirely?) on reverse amino acids.
I am not against a life filled universe. On the contrary, I don't believe the God I believe in, created so large an area to leave empty. But with a source of such varied life so close to hand in our own system, I feel the odds are greatest that anything found in this system should most likely be seeded from that source. Not to exclude all else, but it seems the dominate factor, and safest bet, by both chance and design.
So, the words Autumn and Fall are not to be capitalized?
They are in my world!

What has been is what will be, and what has been done is what will be done; and there is nothing new under the sun.
Is there a thing of which it is said, "See, this is new?"It has been already, in the ages before us. Ecc 1: 9-10
Reply
#42
Quote:Of course rock varnish is common on earth, but BEYOND the varnish, reverse amino acids are not, as you say. (I apologise for the poor misleading words in above post)
But if the astrobiologists say rock varnish definitively of a biologic source must also be of an alien origin, and general science says at present "no off world life", they would seem to be in conflict.
Don't pretend to understand why a substance so common across the globe should be declared "alien" with any confidence, based (intirely?) on reverse amino acids.
I am not against a life filled universe. On the contrary, I don't believe the God I believe in, created so large an area to leave empty. But with a source of such varied life so close to hand in our own system, I feel the odds are greatest that anything found in this system should most likely be seeded from that source. Not to exclude all else, but it seems the dominate factor, and safest bet, by both chance and design.

You are quite right, the reversed amino acids itself is not a sole indicator, but does make it a very good chance, if indeed they are from our planet, then you would think that if they evolved here that we would see some offshoots into various other organisms, not just the varnish. The species on our planet all came about with the one type, unless the oddballs here were somehow at a disadvantage then there should be more of them, unless of course they only came about recently somehow.
Quote:No mountain is too tall if your first step is belief. -Anonymous
...Because even if there were no artifacts anywhere, not studying things of interest is an extreme disservice to science. -Tarius
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#43
http://www.columbiaspectator.com/2009/0 ... s-research


Scientist Revives Research
By Danny Ash
Published January 23, 2009
Twelve years ago, Irving Weissman discovered a treatment that might have saved the lives of thousands of women with advanced breast cancer, but pharmaceutical companies weren’t interested in developing the therapy. Though that interest is finally being reignited, Weissman doesn’t pull any punches. “I hate to say I told you so,” he said.

Weissman, a professor of pathology and developmental biology at Stanford University, spoke Wednesday and Thursday as part of the Columbia University Department of Religion’s Bampton Lecture series. The lecture series is modeled after a centuries-old Oxford series of the same name, and invites famous authorities in their respective fields to give talks on various issues of interest to the religious community.

In Wednesday’s lecture, Weissman laid out the conceptual foundation of his work—that stem cells are rare, self-renewing, and can regenerate body tissues. Weissman repeatedly expressed frustration that while many of his discoveries seemed to hold remarkable potential for life-saving treatments, commercial or regulatory hurdles have prevented his scientific research from benefiting human beings.

One example is Weissman’s mid-’90s research on type I diabetes, in which he demonstrated the ability to fully cure type I diabetes in mice using stem cells. But even though the experiments avoided political controversy by using so-called adult stem cells, which do not come from embryos, Weissman ran into a road block when pharmaceutical companies refused to sponsor clinical trials. The therapy went nowhere. Weissman implied that the pharmaceutical companies had put profit over principle, preferring to keep diabetes sufferers dependent on costly insulin than to cure them once and for all.

“He [Weissman] has a long history of being at the forefront of his field,” Arthur Palmer, professor of structural biology at Columbia said, remarking that Weissman has never been afraid to challenge scientific orthodoxy.

One example of this iconoclastic streak is Weissman’s outspoken disagreement with recent reports that adult stem cells can be “reprogrammed,” obliviating the need for the more powerful embryonic stem cells.

Weissman geared his presentation to a lay audience, only occasionally drifting into jargon. Jaffer Kolb, who was visiting his sister at Columbia, enjoyed Weissman’s talk. “I have no science background,” he said, “so I was afraid I would have a hard time. But it was really easy to follow.”

The presentation left some audience members with questions. Susan Doubileg, a Columbia alumna, wondered if Weissman’s results were as conclusive as presented. “If they were so useful, why weren’t they picked up in other countries?” she asked, referring to Europe’s less restrictive stem cell regulations. Nonetheless, Palmer cautioned against dismissing Weissman’s research. “He’s been right a lot in the past,” he said.

Weissman’s final two lectures are scheduled for Jan. 27 and Jan. 29, from 5 p.m.-7 p.m. in IAB 1501.
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
Reply
#44
Quote:http://www.columbiaspectator.com/2009/01...s-research


Scientist Revives Research
By Danny Ash
Published January 23, 2009
Twelve years ago, Irving Weissman discovered a treatment that might have saved the lives of thousands of women with advanced breast cancer, but pharmaceutical companies weren’t interested in developing the therapy. Though that interest is finally being reignited, Weissman doesn’t pull any punches. “I hate to say I told you so,” he said.

Weissman, a professor of pathology and developmental biology at Stanford University, spoke Wednesday and Thursday as part of the Columbia University Department of Religion’s Bampton Lecture series. The lecture series is modeled after a centuries-old Oxford series of the same name, and invites famous authorities in their respective fields to give talks on various issues of interest to the religious community.

In Wednesday’s lecture, Weissman laid out the conceptual foundation of his work—that stem cells are rare, self-renewing, and can regenerate body tissues. Weissman repeatedly expressed frustration that while many of his discoveries seemed to hold remarkable potential for life-saving treatments, commercial or regulatory hurdles have prevented his scientific research from benefiting human beings.

One example is Weissman’s mid-’90s research on type I diabetes, in which he demonstrated the ability to fully cure type I diabetes in mice using stem cells. But even though the experiments avoided political controversy by using so-called adult stem cells, which do not come from embryos, Weissman ran into a road block when pharmaceutical companies refused to sponsor clinical trials. The therapy went nowhere. Weissman implied that the pharmaceutical companies had put profit over principle, preferring to keep diabetes sufferers dependent on costly insulin than to cure them once and for all.

“He [Weissman] has a long history of being at the forefront of his field,” Arthur Palmer, professor of structural biology at Columbia said, remarking that Weissman has never been afraid to challenge scientific orthodoxy.

One example of this iconoclastic streak is Weissman’s outspoken disagreement with recent reports that adult stem cells can be “reprogrammed,” obliviating the need for the more powerful embryonic stem cells.

Weissman geared his presentation to a lay audience, only occasionally drifting into jargon. Jaffer Kolb, who was visiting his sister at Columbia, enjoyed Weissman’s talk. “I have no science background,” he said, “so I was afraid I would have a hard time. But it was really easy to follow.”

The presentation left some audience members with questions. Susan Doubileg, a Columbia alumna, wondered if Weissman’s results were as conclusive as presented. “If they were so useful, why weren’t they picked up in other countries?” she asked, referring to Europe’s less restrictive stem cell regulations. Nonetheless, Palmer cautioned against dismissing Weissman’s research. “He’s been right a lot in the past,” he said.

Weissman’s final two lectures are scheduled for Jan. 27 and Jan. 29, from 5 p.m.-7 p.m. in IAB 1501.

Lets see here, I now know one way to cure Type 1 Diabetes, 2 ways to cure Aids(vitamin d binding protein, hemp oil), and no less then possibly 4 ways to cure cancer(the actual way or the closest way the Rife machine worked was published just last summer if its not the way it did we are getting very close, vitamin d binding protein, hemp oil, a protein I beleive it was called IKK also shows potential but I dont know the details) <img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/rofl.gif" alt="Rofl" title="rofl" />
Quote:No mountain is too tall if your first step is belief. -Anonymous
...Because even if there were no artifacts anywhere, not studying things of interest is an extreme disservice to science. -Tarius
Reply
#45
Now I have researched the acai berry, and tho there are detractors out there, the stuff really has worked for me. Feel better after two months on the stuff than I have felt in the last two years.
Maybe it's a sugar pill effect, but whatever it is, there is a noticeable difference in the way I feel.
Monavie claims it will kill lukemia cells. Don't know about that.
It is expensive, but the cost is nothing to feeling this much better.
Newsweek claims it's a hoax. I don't.
Something to look into for one's self.
So, the words Autumn and Fall are not to be capitalized?
They are in my world!

What has been is what will be, and what has been done is what will be done; and there is nothing new under the sun.
Is there a thing of which it is said, "See, this is new?"It has been already, in the ages before us. Ecc 1: 9-10
Reply
#46
Quote:Now I have researched the acai berry, and tho there are detractors out there, the stuff really has worked for me. Feel better after two months on the stuff than I have felt in the last two years.
Maybe it's a sugar pill effect, but whatever it is, there is a noticeable difference in the way I feel.


it is not a sugar pill effect
it works.

you can also get a high antioxidant and ORAC count food source with acai and blueberry
in Xocai Chocolates
which are cold processed
and very good,
I eat the power squares,
but they have a product with flax as well.



Quote:Newsweek claims it is a hoax


Newsweek is a festering cesspool of propaganda whorehouse disinformation.
eat or drink your acai,
and be happy

grape seed extract is cheap insurance as well,
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#47
V,

<img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/cheers.gif" alt="Cheers" title="cheers" />
So, the words Autumn and Fall are not to be capitalized?
They are in my world!

What has been is what will be, and what has been done is what will be done; and there is nothing new under the sun.
Is there a thing of which it is said, "See, this is new?"It has been already, in the ages before us. Ecc 1: 9-10
Reply
#48
Japanese Researchers Discover Method to Stop Cattle from Emitting Methane


A research team led by Professor Junichi Takahashi at Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine has discovered that cattle developing nitrite poisoning do not release methane by belching. They also found that feed containing nitrate and cysteine is effective in both reducing methane production in cattle and preventing them from developing nitrite poisoning. Cysteine is an amino-acid found in hair and is used as a food additive and in cosmetics to lighten skin.

When nitrate is converted into nitrite by microorganisms in the rumen -- part of a cow's digestive system -- a large amount of hydrogen is consumed, and thus there is little hydrogen left to convert carbon dioxide into methane. Meanwhile, cysteine inhibits the production of nitrite to the extent that all the nitrite produced is converted into ammonia, and thus nitrite toxicity in cattle is prevented.

This study, which was started in 1993, has revealed a mechanism to inhibit methane production using many laboratory ruminants such as cattle and sheep. In addition to this feed method, other safe and effective methods to inhibit methane production have also been developed.

Methane contributes to about five percent of the world's greenhouse gases, and its reduction is expected to be effective in countering global warming. But such a feed is not likely to sell in Japan right now, because there is no carbon tax system there that can inhibit global warming, nor any subsidy system that can promote efforts against global warming. Thus, animal feed companies are hesitating to develop and market this kind of feed, although Professor Takahashi says that the feed developed by his research group can be used overseas through the international emissions trading system.

http://www.obihiro.ac.jp/~ggaa/presymposium.html

http://www.japanfs.org/en/pages/027062.html
FlutterBy
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#49
http://www.physorg.com/news9792.html
Quote:Until now, it has been assumed that biogenic methane is formed anaerobically, that is, via micro-organisms and in the absence of oxygen. In this way, acetate or hydrogen and carbon dioxide are transformed into methane; they themselves are created in the anaerobic decomposition of organic materials. The largest anoxic sources of methane are wetlands and rice fields, as well as the digestion of ruminants and termites, waste disposal sites, and the gas produced by sewage treatment plants. According to previous estimates, these sources make up two-thirds of the 600 million tonnes worldwide annual methane production.

Cows are a red herring issue.
<img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/cheers.gif" alt="Cheers" title="cheers" />
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
Reply
#50
http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/s ... r_msngc_93
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
Reply
#51
[Image: 1.jpg]
The bean-sized swimming snail Limacina helicina occurs in both Arctic and Antarctic waters. It spins a mucus-net off its paddle-like foot-wings to trap prey.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7888558.stm
Ice oceans 'are not poles apart'
By Mark Kinver
Science and environment reporter, BBC News

At least 235 marine species are living in both polar regions, despite being 12,000km apart, a census has found.

Scientists were surprised to find the same species of "swimming snails" at both poles, raising questions about how they evolved and became so dispersed.

The census, involving 500 researchers from more than 25 nations, was carried out during International Polar Year.

The findings form part of the global Census of Marine Life (CoML) report, which will be published in 2010.

"Some of the more obvious species like birds and whales migrate between the poles on an annual basis," explained Ron O'Dor, CoML's co-senior scientist.

But he added the presence of smaller creatures, such as worms living in mud, sea cucumbers and "swimming snails", at both locations had particularly interested researchers on the project.

'Conveyor belt'

One of the swimming snails, or sea butterflies, found in the icy waters of both the Arctic and Antarctic was Cliona limacina .

The creature feeds on Limacina helicina , which is another swimming snail found in the waters of both poles.

Dr O'Dor said that although there was 12,000km separating the two habitats, it did not create a huge barrier for marine wildlife, as a mountain range does for terrestrial species.

"The oceans are a mixing ground," he told BBC News. "There are all kinds of currents that allow things to move around."

He also added that the temperature differences in the oceans did not vary enough to act as a thermal barrier.

"The deep ocean at the poles falls as low as -1C (30F), but the deep ocean at the equator might not get above 4C (39F).

"There is continuity in the ocean as a result of the major current systems, which we call the 'conveyor belt'; a lot of these animals have egg and larvae stages that can get transferred in this water."

'Barcode of life'

Dr O'Dor said that part of the CoML's work included examining organisms' genetic information, which would help the scientists to identify any differences between the seemingly identical species.

"The traditional approach was to describe an organism's physical features, so if these organisms lived in very similar habitats, did very similar jobs and ate similar food, then they often looked very alike even if they came from different origins.

"So we are also working very closely with the Barcode of Life team at the University of Guelph (Canada), and we hope that by 2010 that we will have about 90% of marine species barcoded."

The project aims to develop DNA barcoding as a global standard for identifying species using key genetic markers - much like a shop barcode uniquely identifies a retail product.

"It's a new way to mark or classify things," Dr O'Dor observed.

"Even though organisms look exactly the same and have been identified as being the same type by traditional methods, genetic information can reveal them to be a sub-species or different populations."

COML, which began back in 2000, carried out 17 regional censuses involving more than 2,000 scientists from 82 nations.

Currently, the census teams are collating and examining the data collected by the various surveys, ahead of the publication in October 2010 of the first global Census of Marine Life.



Story from BBC NEWS:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/s ... 888558.stm

Published: 2009/02/15 20:29:20 GMT

© BBC MMIX

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Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
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#52
Here's a good one. By now we all know about tardigrades, bacteria surviving in lunar module insulation, extremophiles of all sorts, bacteria being revived from salt crystals many millions of years old ... well, here's an ... *ahem*... "higher" form of life enduring the vacuum of space for a year and a half.

Now, this impresses me, and really makes me wonder just what might be able to live upon, or within, Mars, how evolved it might be, and for how long it might sleep before waking again.

Mars is presently warming, as we also know.
*********

http://www.sott.net/articles/show/17692 ... uter-Space

Mosquito Survives 18 months in Outer Space

Alexander Peslyak
India eNews

Sun, 22 Feb 2009 13:00 UTC

A Russian scientist has said that a mosquito had managed to survive in the outer space for 18 months.

Anatoly Grigoryev, vice president of the Russian Academy of Sciences, said: 'We brought him (mosquito) back to Earth. He is alive, and his feet are moving.'

The mosquito did not get any food and was subjected to extreme temperatures ranging from minus 150 degrees Celsius in the shade to plus 60 degrees in the sunlight.

Grigoryev said the insect had been taken outside the International Space Station (ISS) on orders from the Institute's scientists working on the Biorisk experiment. 'First, they studied bacteria and fungi till a Japanese scientist suggested studying mosquitoes,' Grigoryev said.

Scientists from the Russian Academy of Sciences' Institute of Medical and Biological Problems are assessing the impact of cosmic radiation on living organisms, one of which even managed to survive in outer space.

Since 2005, the Institute has been cooperating with two Japanese institutes under a grant and has been studying biological objects with preset properties, including barley and peas with high genetic resistance.

'Professor Takashi Okuda from the National Institute of Agro-Biological Science drew our attention to the unique, although short-lived, African mosquito (bloodworm), whose larvae develop only in a humid environment,' Grigoryev said.

Rains are rare in Africa, where puddles dry up before one's eyes. However, this mosquito is well adapted to adverse local conditions, existing in a state of suspended animation when vital bodily functions stop almost completely.

When suspended animation sets in, water molecules are replaced by tricallosa sugar, which leads to natural crystallisation. The larvae were then sprayed with acetone, boiled and cooled down to minus 210 degrees Celsius, the temperature of liquid nitrogen. Amazingly, they survived all these hardships.

The Japanese also studied bloodworm DNA and found that it could be switched on and deactivated in 30 to 40 minutes. 'This is facilitated by the crystallisation of biological matter,' Biologist Vladimir Sychev from the Institute of Medical and Biological Problems told RIA Novosti.

Sychev said scientists were interested in this mechanism, which makes it possible to assess the potential of living organisms subjected to multiple loads in outer space.

He said plant studies had made headway, but that living organisms were affected by gravitation, radiation and temperature fluctuations.

In the summer of 2007, Russian cosmonauts Fyodor Yurchikhin and Oleg Kotov placed a gray cylinder with 24 cups containing barley seeds, bacteria, crustaceans (Dafnia Magna), bloodworm larvae and other biological objects, on the outer ISS surface.

More than a year later, cosmonauts Sergei Volkov and Oleg Kononenko removed the cylinder and returned it to Earth.

The unique Biorisk experiment made it possible to study the impact of vacuum, subzero and hot temperatures and radiation on biological objects. But it is impossible to simulate these processes, Sychev stressed.

He said scientists were planning to send a number of microorganisms to Phobos, one of the Mars' moons, under the Phobos-Grunt programme, and to return them to Earth. This will make it possible to assess their survival and reversible suspended-animation mechanisms.

Sychev also discussed various findings of the Biorisk project. First, it appears that panspermia, the hypothesis that 'seeds' of life already exist all over the Universe, that life on Earth may have originated through these 'seeds', and that they may deliver or have delivered life to other habitable bodies, is quite plausible.

Second, it is becoming possible to choose various methods and options for placing biological objects in a state of suspended animation and transporting them on long-duration space missions.

An interplanetary Noah's Ark would probably contain crystallised animals and other living organisms, thereby reducing feeding costs.

Although this is still in the realm of science fiction, researchers are currently preparing to sum up Russian and Japanese findings.

Source: RIA Novosti
I am what I am and that's all what I am - Popeye the Sailor Man<br />From simplicity make not complexity without necessity - John of Ockham<br />The realities of water and life on Mars are SERIOUS BUSINESS
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#53
[Image: blank.gif]
http://news.aol.com/article/see-through-fish/355501
Strange Fish Has See-Through Head
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
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#54
[Image: _45517434_-1.jpg]


Psychedelic fish 'is new species'
By Lucy Williamson
BBC News, Jakarta

A brightly-coloured fish which bounces along the seabed has been hailed as a new species by scientists - who have dubbed it "psychedelica".

Research published in the US scientific journal Copeia says the fish was spotted by scuba divers off the island of Ambon in eastern Indonesia.

It belongs to the frogfish family, but its looks are unique even among its peers, the journal reported.

The question with this new discovery is how it went unnoticed for so long.

The new psychedelica frogfish is completely covered in swirling concentric stripes - white and blue on a peach background - radiating out from its aqua-coloured eyes.

It has a broad flat face, thick fleshy cheeks and chin, and eyes that look forward like a human's.

The fish was spotted by divers off the coast of Ambon island last year.

The divers described it moving away from them in a series of short hops, its pelvic fins pushing it off the sea bed with each bounce.

"The overall impression" says the Copeia research paper, was of "an inflated rubber ball bouncing along the bottom".

The species was first discovered almost 20 years ago, but sat on a shelf - wrongly labelled and gathering dust - until this most recent find.

It came to light when the divers were unable to identify the fish from photographs circulated among their colleagues, and sent pictures to a frogfish expert at the University of Washington.

Story from BBC NEWS:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/a ... 914121.stm

Published: 2009/02/27 07:28:55 GMT

© BBC MMIX

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Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
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#55
[Image: 1.jpg]
Researchers have found that two species of deep-sea coral may be much older than previously thought, the journal PNAS reports. Using radiocarbon measurements, the organisms collected off the coast of Hawaii are believed to have lifespans in excess of 4,000 years.
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
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#56
Hopefully this life form won't "adapt" and find warm waters in Hawaii or
the US west coast, but I bet it finds SE Asia and the rest of Indonesia.
The Irukandji jellyfish is so tiny as to be barely visible,
and it is highly elusive and extremely deadly.
two Aussie scientists trying to track it got stung and the lady scientist
was in deathly pain in the hospital for 2 weeks.
They have long nasty stinging thin tentacles that if you even barely brush them,
it's over.
You couldn't pay me to swim in Australian waters where these things are.
The most deadly Irukandji must kill a lot of sealife as well by just sheer accidental contact?

[Image: Irukandji_bg_image.gif]
Reply
#57
Quote:Hopefully this life form won't "adapt" and find warm waters in Hawaii or
the US west coast, but I bet it finds SE Asia and the rest of Indonesia.
The Irukandji jellyfish is so tiny as to be barely visible,
and it is highly elusive and extremely deadly.
two Aussie scientists trying to track it got stung and the lady scientist
was in deathly pain in the hospital for 2 weeks.
They have long nasty stinging thin tentacles that if you even barely brush them,
it's over.
You couldn't pay me to swim in Australian waters where these things are.
The most deadly Irukandji must kill a lot of sealife as well by just sheer accidental contact?

[Image: Irukandji_bg_image.gif]

I remembe watching a show on this. Australia is where they are and actually end up killing some people I beleive. They were filming and got stung and documented the entire ordeal.
Quote:No mountain is too tall if your first step is belief. -Anonymous
...Because even if there were no artifacts anywhere, not studying things of interest is an extreme disservice to science. -Tarius
Reply
#58
Saw the same show.
Both scientists went back to complete their research after the ordeal. And ordeal it really was.
Sorry, I couldn't have gone back myself.
I'd have been straining the bathtub water for six months after that one.
So, the words Autumn and Fall are not to be capitalized?
They are in my world!

What has been is what will be, and what has been done is what will be done; and there is nothing new under the sun.
Is there a thing of which it is said, "See, this is new?"It has been already, in the ages before us. Ecc 1: 9-10
Reply
#59
quote="Gerald"]http://www.keithlaney.net/phpBB/viewtopic.php?p=13411#13411

http://www.elasmo-research.org/educatio ... stones.htm

Quote:Living Lodestones

Lemon Shark (Negaprion brevirostris)

Magnets are familiar strangers. Most of us have at least one around the house - in our telephone receivers, stereo and TV speakers, or used to turn our refrigerators into bulletin boards and art galleries. The earliest magnets (circa 500 BC) were naturally-occurring lumps of an iron oxide mineral known as 'magnetite' (Fe3O4) and were imputed with all manner of mystical properties. Today, magnets come in all shapes and sizes: from simple bars and 'classic' horseshoes to various business logos and cartoon characters to food, fishes, cows, and even baby-blue pigs with 'Think Thin' written across their bellies - thereby holding up both our best intentions and our kids' baseball schedules. Magnets are everywhere. But few of us understand how they work.

Magnetism and electricity are fundamentally interconnected. Danish scientist Hans Christian Oersted showed in 1820 that an electric current flowing in a wire deflects a compass nearby. Whenever an electric current flows - whether from cloud to ground in the form of lightning or through a contracting muscle in the body - a magnetic field is created. The unification of electric and magnetic principles under a comprehensive mathematical theory was first achieved by Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell in 1864. It is now known that magnetism is a property of the atom itself. Ultimately, the magnetic properties of matter are determined by the collective behavior of the negatively charged electrons that orbit the nuclei of atoms. The magnetic dipole moment (or magnetic field) of an individual electron has two components, one resulting from the spin of the electron about its own axis, the other from its orbital motion about the nucleus. Both kinds of motion may be considered as tiny circular currents (moving charges), thus linking electricity and magnetism at an atomic level.

In most atoms and molecules, these electronic magnets are oriented in random directions and the sum total magnetic moment of all the orbital electrons is zero. However, in some highly ordered crystalline materials - such as iron, nickel, and cobalt - the spins of some orbital electrons in adjacent atoms become coupled (I will spare you the quantum physics), creating local magnetic 'domains' in which magnetization is unidirectional. Adjacent domains are magnetized in different directions, so that there is no bulk magnetization. When an external magnetic field is applied, those domains aligned with the field grow at the expense of others, resulting in a very strong type of permanent magnetization known as 'ferromagnetism'. So from where does this 'external field' come? For the answer, we must look to the Earth's core.

The Earth's liquid outer core is 2,200 km thick and flows between the mantle and the solid inner core. It is a circulating mass of nickel-iron alloy, but is not intrinsically magnetic because no material could retain parallel magnetic domains at the temperature of the Earth's core (about 4,000 °C). Instead, the Earth's magnetic field is generated by the circulation of electric charges in the molten mass. The magma moves due to convection currents that are driven by differences in heat between the inner and outer core (about 2,500 °C ). The coriolis forces that arise from the Earth's rotation twist these currents into 'rollers' of fluid. The rollers - no one is sure how many are aligned along the Earth's axis of rotation at any given time - act like the coil of wire in a dynamo to generate a dipole magnetic field. The Earth itself behaves like a gigantic magnet.

This was first proposed by William Gilbert, personal physician to Queen Elizabeth I, in his epic work Epistola de Magnete (1600). After years of experiments, Gilbert concluded that magnetic materials oriented themselves north-south and dipped downward because the Earth acts as a bar magnet whose attractive poles correspond closely to the geographical ones. The Chinese were probably the first to realize the directional properties of magnetic materials, which they used as an aid to fortune-telling. The application of a magnetized needle to navigation also originated in China, about 1000 AD. By 1200, simple compasses - consisting of a magnetized needle afloat on a piece of cork or straw - were used by European explorers. The magnetic compass suddenly enabled sailors to find an absolute direction anywhere on the globe without the complicated astronomical calculations required for celestial navigation. Using his magnetic compass, Columbus could take his bearings direct for Cipangu (Japan) and stay on the same latitude ... until he bumped into the New World. Needles whose direction-finding qualities had grown weak could be remagnetized by a precious piece of magnetite guarded by the captain. No wonder magnetite was better known as lodestone - 'the stone which leads'.

Just as the mechanical clock freed mankind from the daily need to measure time by the sun and the stars, the magnetic compass oriented mankind anew in space. This technology extended the times and seasons of seafaring, opening the globe to human exploration. But it is generally true that whenever a principle of physics exists that is applicable within the constraints of organic life, at least one species or taxon has developed a way to utilize that law of nature to survive. Since Gilbert's classical work there have been numerous reports of organisms responding or orienting to Earth's magnetic field. Until recently, however, some ambiguity has surrounded many of these studies and no mechanism of interaction between organism and field had been established. Just when it seems we have mastered almost everything there is to know about bacteria, some new and totally unexpected phenomenon comes along to renew our respect for the subtlety of living processes - even at the level of these tiny prokaryotes.

Studies of bacteria have provided definite evidence of the interaction of organism and magnetic field. In 1975, Richard Blakemore discovered marine bacteria which preferentially swim north along the lines of Earth's magnetic field. The swimming motion of these 'magnetotactic bacteria' is linear compared with that of most microorganisms, which periodically tumble and change direction. Each magnetic bacterium is propelled by flagella. With respect to orientation, these cells act as single magnetic dipoles - that is, their behavior is the same as compass needles or bar magnets. If an external magnetic field is applied, the long axis of the cell parallels the lines of force. If the field is rotated, the axis follows. When examined by electron microscopy, magnetic bacteria show one or two rows of small (0.1 micron), dense granules of magnetite running along the cell axis. Mössbaur spectroscopy, a technique especially sensitive to the chemical state of certain metallic crystals, showed that each of these granules are single-domain magnetic crystals.

The first magnetic bacteria to be studied came from the Northern Hemisphere and uniformly swam toward the north magnetic pole. Southern Hemisphere magnetic bacteria swim toward the south magnetic pole. This symmetry provides a clue to the biological raison d'être of magnetotaxis. In the Northern Hemisphere, the geomagnetic field is directed downward so that a north-swimming bacterium has a component of motion directed down into the sediment. If such a bacterium were taken to the Southern Hemisphere, it would swim upward - away from its food and anaerobic habitat. In the Southern Hemisphere the polarity is reversed, and indigenous south-seeking bacteria are also directed to their optimal habitat. Therefore, the major biological role of magnetotaxis appears to be keeping these bacteria in or near the bottom sediment. Bacteria clearly discovered the principle of the compass eons before their distant human relatives managed to accomplish that feat.

Geomagnetic phenomena are varied and widespread, so it is hardly surprising that many types of creature are known to use - or suspected of using - magnetic orientation. These include a great many migratory marine animals, including: the aforementioned bacteria, nudibranchs, lampreys, sharks, skates, rays, salmon, tunas, eels, sea turtles, seabirds, dolphins and other toothed whales. Complex electroreceptors have been found in some of these creatures (notably the elasmobranchs) and particles of magnetite have been found in most of the others. However, the evidence for actual geomagnetic orientation is inconclusive or contradictory.

The best documented case for a magnetic compass involving a known sense organ is in elasmobranchs. Adrianus Kalmijn of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute is the pre-eminent researcher of electric and magnetic reception in these fishes. In 1982, to test whether the Round Stingray (Urolophus halleri ) can orient to magnetic fields, Kalmijn set up weak magnetic fields in an aquarium to simulate the Earth's field in the fish's natural habitat. The rays were trained to feed in the Earth's magnetic and geographic east. When the simulated field was rotated through various degrees, the rays sought food in the 'east' defined by that imposed shift. In field experiments conducted during 1987, Kalmijn set up a ring of electromagnets in shallow waters off Bimini, Bahama Islands, along the known daily route of a Lemon Shark (Negaprion brevirostris). In a series of 'control' trials, Kalmijn observed the shark's path while the electromagnets were off. On the next day, Kalmijn switched on the pair of electromagnets which aligned with Earth's magnetic field at that location; when the shark swam by it maintained its course as though nothing had changed. Next day, as the shark swam through the ring of electromagnets, Kalmijn switched the pair of electromagnets which rotated the artificial field 90° to the weaker natural field. The shark altered its course by 90°C in the same direction as the field shift. Here, at last, is a clear demonstration of magnetic orientation by a marine creature in the wild.

The Long-Finned Pilot Whale (Globicephala melaena ) - also known as the Melonhead Whale or Blackfish - is a species of toothed whale which frequently mass strands. Dozens or even hundreds of apparently healthy Pilot Whales simultaneously beach themselves and die. Certain beaches around the world are repeatedly witness to these mysterious events. All kinds of theories - ranging from disease to suicide - have been advanced to 'explain' mass strandings. Recent evidence suggests that toothed whales have a built-in compass sense. Could whale mass strandings be a result of errors in reading this 'compass'?



So how do migrating creatures detect geomagnetism? Earth's magnetic field causes an electric current to flow through anything moving across it which can conduct electricity. This effect is used in the construction of dynamos. In a simple dynamo, an electric current is produced in a coil of wire by rotating the coil between opposite magnetic poles. A living organism may be thought of as a bag of water throughout which various ions are distributed. When an organism moves across the Earth's magnetic field, these ions move and tiny electric currents flow in its body. However, when an organism moves along the magnetic field, no current flows. The ocean is a visually concealing medium, making line-of-sight piloting and celestial navigation of little use to marine creatures. If a marine creature is able to detect the tiny currents induced in its body by geomagnetism, they would provide magnetic landmarks to help it navigate through the local environment.

Earth's magnetic field may provide several types of cues for navigation. Because the magnetic poles are displaced from the geographic rotational poles, there is usually a difference between the true north-south meridian and magnetic north. This 'magnetic variation', which may be large in some places and times, changes slowly over a period of years as the magnetic poles drift. In addition to these horizontal and vertical directional components, the geomagnetic field also has a third dimension, intensity. Geomagnetic field strength increases with latitude, from 30,000 nanoTeslas (a Tesla is the magnetic induction equal to 1 volt-second per square metre) at the equator to less than 70,000 nanoTeslas at the poles. The field intensity also decreases, as might be expected, with distance from the Earth's surface. In addition to these global features, there are low-amplitude, localized magnetic irregularities in both space and time called 'geomagnetic anomalies'. Theoretically, all these features could provide magnetotaxic creatures with a richly textured magnetic 'map'.

But even the most detailed map is subject to the navigator's skill in reading it. Large groups of toothed whales occasionally swim ashore and lie stranded on the beach, unable to move their huge bulks back into the sea. Such 'mass strandings' tend to recur at certain sites, notably New England, northwest Britain, Tasmania, and parts of South and Western Australia. Accounts of mass standings date back centuries, yet until recently there was no explanation for this bizarre behavior. In 1988, Margaret Klinowska of Cambridge University plotted records of mass strandings in Britain and the United States against geomagnetic maps. These maps plot variations in intensity of the magnetic field at the Earth's surface caused by differences in the underlying rocks. The variations are represented as contour lines so that areas of high magnetism appear as 'hills' and low magnetism show up as 'valleys'. Klinowska's analysis revealed that most mass strandings and virtually all repeated strandings occurred where the magnetic 'valleys' were oriented perpendicular to the shore.

This sensational finding suggests that at least some whales navigate by following a magnetic map of the ocean floor. On land, magnetic variations are very irregular and there are many visual cues to guide navigation. There are no such landmarks in the vast, dark ocean. But there are regular magnetic variations. Magnetic hills and valleys stretch for huge distances across the ocean floor, and toothed whales seem to use the magnetic contour lines as invisible 'roads'. These magnetic freeways often follow continental margins, but not always. Klinowska theorises that whales may strand when they follow these magnetic roads onto shore. Klinowska has also suggested that the daily pattern of variation in the total geomagnetic field may function as a biological 'travel clock' for whales; solar activity can affect this pattern, possibly causing irregular fluctuations which disturb the clock. Therefore, whale mass strandings may be the magnetic equivalent of traffic accidents.

How do these whales sense Earth's magnetic field? Evidence is accumulating from Germany suggesting that cetacean retinas, which contain magnetite, are sensitive to magnetic fields of an intensity consistent with geomagnetism. Whether toothed whales actually navigate by geomagnetic cues is not yet clear. Mass strandings usually involve toothed whales which migrate over long distances. The more sedentary dolphins and porpoises seldom run into these difficulties. They presumably become familiar with all the small local anomalies and so build up a much more detailed magnetic map of the area in which they live. How toothed whales detect and respond to such minute local variations in geomagnetism remains a mystery, but Klinowska's magnetic highway theory is the best model we have to explain why these whales mass strand. Who knew magnetism could be so dangerous?

.... I don't know about you, but I'm getting rid of those silly plastic fruits on my refrigerator door!

Originally published in Diver Magazine September 1994


[/quote]
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
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#60
Virus battery could 'power cars'
Viruses have been used to help build batteries that may one day power cars and all types of electronic devices.

The speed and relatively cheap cost of manufacturing virus batteries could prove attractive to industry.

Professor Angela Belcher, who led the research team, said: "Our material is powerful enough to be able to be used in a car battery."

The team from MIT in the US is now working on higher power batteries.

Scientists at MIT used the viruses to build both the positively and negatively charged ends of a battery, the cathode and anode, the journal Science reports.

A battery typically has four key components - the anode and cathode, an electrolyte that flows between them, and a separator to keep the anode and cathode apart.

Essentially, a battery turns chemical energy into electrochemical energy when an electron flow passes from the negative end to the positive end through a conductive chemical, the electrolyte.

Researchers constructed a lithium-ion battery, similar to those used in millions of devices, but one which uses genetically engineered viruses to create the negatively charged anode and positively charged cathode.

The virus is a so-called common bacteriophage which infects bacteria and is harmless to humans.

Three years ago the MIT scientists manipulated genes inside a virus that coaxed the particles to grow and self-assemble to form a nanowire anode one-tenth the width of a human hair.

The microbes are encouraged to collect exotic materials - cobalt oxide and gold - and because the particles are negatively charged, they can be formed into a dense, virus-loaded film which acts as an anode and "grows" on a polymer separator.

Researchers, including MIT Professor Gerbrand Ceder and Associate Professor Michael Strano, have now developed a highly powerful cathode.

The work was more difficult because the material had to be highly conductive in order to be effective and most candidate materials for cathodes are highly insulating.

The virus was coaxed into binding with iron phosphate and then carbon nanotubes to create a highly conductive material.

The batteries have the same energy capacity and power performance as rechargeable batteries used to power plug-in hybrid cars.

The prototype battery is currently the size of a coin but the scientists believe it can be scaled and be used to create flexible batteries that can take the shape of their container, which is perfect for mobile or small devices.

The scientists have also been able to create micro-batteries which could be used to power a future generation of tiny devices.

"The advantage of using genetics is that things can be made better and better," explained Professor Belcher.

"You are not stuck with a particular material; you have selection and evolution on your side because it can be genetically engineered."

The researchers are now looking for better materials to work with the viruses to create a next-generation battery, which is even higher powered.

"Scale is the issue," admitted Professor Belcher. "But we are not going to scale until we have the right material. We believe this is possible and has commercial implications otherwise we would not be researching in this area."

Currently, the virus battery can only be charged and discharged at least 100 times before it begins to lose its capacity to store a charge, but Professor Belcher said "we expect them to be able to go much longer".

The process to build the batteries uses no harmful or toxic materials and so is attractive from an environmental point of view.

Professor Belcher said: "To us, the environmental aspects are very important.

"Put simply, we cant do anything that kills our organisms."


Story from BBC NEWS:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/t ... 977585.stm

Published: 2009/04/02 19:20:21 GMT

© BBC MMIX

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Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
Reply
#61
Quote:Virus battery could 'power cars'
Viruses have been used to help build batteries that may one day power cars and all types of electronic devices.

The speed and relatively cheap cost of manufacturing virus batteries could prove attractive to industry.

Professor Angela Belcher, who led the research team, said: "Our material is powerful enough to be able to be used in a car battery."

The team from MIT in the US is now working on higher power batteries.

Scientists at MIT used the viruses to build both the positively and negatively charged ends of a battery, the cathode and anode, the journal Science reports.

A battery typically has four key components - the anode and cathode, an electrolyte that flows between them, and a separator to keep the anode and cathode apart.

Essentially, a battery turns chemical energy into electrochemical energy when an electron flow passes from the negative end to the positive end through a conductive chemical, the electrolyte.

Researchers constructed a lithium-ion battery, similar to those used in millions of devices, but one which uses genetically engineered viruses to create the negatively charged anode and positively charged cathode.

The virus is a so-called common bacteriophage which infects bacteria and is harmless to humans.

Three years ago the MIT scientists manipulated genes inside a virus that coaxed the particles to grow and self-assemble to form a nanowire anode one-tenth the width of a human hair.

The microbes are encouraged to collect exotic materials - cobalt oxide and gold - and because the particles are negatively charged, they can be formed into a dense, virus-loaded film which acts as an anode and "grows" on a polymer separator.

Researchers, including MIT Professor Gerbrand Ceder and Associate Professor Michael Strano, have now developed a highly powerful cathode.

The work was more difficult because the material had to be highly conductive in order to be effective and most candidate materials for cathodes are highly insulating.

The virus was coaxed into binding with iron phosphate and then carbon nanotubes to create a highly conductive material.

The batteries have the same energy capacity and power performance as rechargeable batteries used to power plug-in hybrid cars.

The prototype battery is currently the size of a coin but the scientists believe it can be scaled and be used to create flexible batteries that can take the shape of their container, which is perfect for mobile or small devices.

The scientists have also been able to create micro-batteries which could be used to power a future generation of tiny devices.

"The advantage of using genetics is that things can be made better and better," explained Professor Belcher.

"You are not stuck with a particular material; you have selection and evolution on your side because it can be genetically engineered."

The researchers are now looking for better materials to work with the viruses to create a next-generation battery, which is even higher powered.

"Scale is the issue," admitted Professor Belcher. "But we are not going to scale until we have the right material. We believe this is possible and has commercial implications otherwise we would not be researching in this area."

Currently, the virus battery can only be charged and discharged at least 100 times before it begins to lose its capacity to store a charge, but Professor Belcher said "we expect them to be able to go much longer".

The process to build the batteries uses no harmful or toxic materials and so is attractive from an environmental point of view.

Professor Belcher said: "To us, the environmental aspects are very important.

"Put simply, we cant do anything that kills our organisms."


Story from BBC NEWS:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/t ... 977585.stm

Published: 2009/04/02 19:20:21 GMT

© BBC MMIX

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Is this how they created modern Morgellon's disease?!? <img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/uhoh.gif" alt="Uhoh" title="uhoh" />
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#62
Quote:Is this how they created modern Morgellon's disease?!?

Maybe
a lot of Doctors seem to be in Denial about Morgellons
but a lot Doctors deny Lymes disease
<img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/dunno.gif" alt="Dunno" title="dunno" />
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#63
Longest insect migration revealed
Matt Walker
Editor, Earth News
Every year, millions of dragonflies fly thousands of kilometres across the sea from southern India to Africa.

So says a biologist in the Maldives, who claims to have discovered the longest migration of any insect.

If confirmed, the mass exodus would be the first known insect migration across open ocean water.

It would also dwarf the famous trip taken each year by Monarch butterflies, which fly just half the distance across the Americas.

Biologist Charles Anderson has published details of the mass migration in the Journal of Tropical Ecology.

Each year, millions of dragonflies arrive on the Maldive Islands, an event which is well known to people living there.

"But no-one I have spoken to knew where they came from," says Anderson, an independent biologist who usually works with organisations such as the Maldivian Marine Research Centre to survey marine life around the islands.


This just illustrates how little we still know about the natural world
Biologist Charles Anderson
Their appearance is especially peculiar because the 1200 islands that make up the Maldives lie 500 to 1000km from the mainland of southern India, and all are coral cays with almost no surface freshwater, which dragonflies need to complete their lifecycle.

Anderson noticed the dragonflies after he first arrived in the Maldives in 1983. He started keeping detailed records each year from 1996 and now collates data collected by local observers at other localities in the Maldives, in India and on vessels at sea.

When Anderson compared these observations with those made of dragonflies appearing in southern India, he found a clear progression of arrival dates from north to south, with dragonflies arriving first in southern India, then in the Republic of Maldives' capital Male, and then on more southern atolls.

Each year, dragonflies first appear in Male between 4 and 23 October, with a mean arrival date of 21 October. Dragonfly numbers peak in November and December, before the insects then disappear once more. The insects arrive in waves, with each staying for no more than a few days.

Over 98% of the dragonflies recorded on the islands are Globe skimmers ( Pantala flavescens ), but Pale-spotted emperors ( Anax guttatus ), Vagrant emperors ( A. ephippiger ), Twisters ( Tholymis tillarga ) and Blue perchers ( Diplacodes trivialis ) also appear in some numbers.

The dragonflies then reappear between April and June.

Longest journey

The dragonflies are clearly migrating from India across the open sea to the Maldives, says Anderson.

"That by itself is fairly amazing, as it involves a journey of 600 to 800km across the ocean," he says.

Quite how they do it was a bit of a mystery, as in October at least they appear to be flying against the prevailing winds.

However, in October, and continuing into November and December, a weather system called the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone moves southwards over the Maldives.

Ahead of the ITCZ the wind blows towards India, but above and behind it the winds blow from India. So it seems that the dragonflies are able to reach Maldives by flying on these winds at altitude above 1000m.


HARDCORE FLYING

•Globe skimmers are renowned for their ability to fly long-distances
•They can fly up to 6300m high, the highest of any dragonfly species
•With a tailwind of 10m per second, a dragonfly could cross from India to Male in 24 hours
•Maldivians consider the dragonflies' arrival to be a harbinger of the north-east monsoon
But that is not the end of the animals' epic adventure.

"As there is no freshwater in Maldives for dragonflies, what are they doing here?" asks Anderson.

"I have also deduced that they are flying all the way across the western Indian Ocean to East Africa."

Anderson has gathered a wealth of circumstantial evidence to back his claim.

Large numbers of dragonflies also start appearing in the northern Seychelles, some 2700km from India, in November, and then in Aldabra in the Seychelles, 3800km from India, in December.

That matches the slow southerly movement of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone weather system, behind which winds blow steadily from India to East Africa.

It is also known that Globe skimmers appear in large numbers through eastern and southern Africa.

In Uganda, they appear twice each year in March or April and again in September, while further south in Tanzania and Mozambique they appear in December and January.

Record breakers

That strongly suggest that the dragonflies take advantage of the moving weather systems and monsoon rains to complete an epic migration from southern India to east and southern Africa, and then likely back again, a round trip of 14,000 to 18,000km.

"The species involved breeds in temporary rainwater pools. So it is following the rains, taking sequential advantage of the monsoon rains of India, the short rains of East Africa, the summer rains of southern Africa, the long rains of East Africa, and then back to India for the next monsoon," says Anderson.

"It may seem remarkable that such a massive migration has gone unnoticed until now. But this just illustrates how little we still know about the natural world."

The monarch butterfly is often cited as having the longest migration of any insect, covering around 7000km in an annual round trip from Mexico to southern Canada.

On average, it takes four generations of butterflies to complete the journey.

Anderson believes that the dragonflies survive the ocean flights by gliding on the winds, feeding on other small insects.

They too, take four generations to make the full round trip each year.

He says the migratory paths of a number of insect-eating bird species, including cuckoos, nightjars, falcons and bee-eaters, follow that of the dragonfly migration, from southern India to their wintering grounds in Africa. That suggests the birds feed on the dragonflies as they travel.

"They [fly] at the same time and altitudes as the dragonflies. And what has not been realised before is that all are medium-sized birds that eat insects, insects the size of dragonflies," he says.

Extraordinary ability

"There are earlier records of swarms of Globe skimmers flying out to sea, and at sea," Anderson continues.

"But it was always assumed that those dragonflies were doomed. Which says rather more about our earth-bound lack of imagination than it does about the globe skimmers' extraordinary flying abilities."

Story from BBC NEWS:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/earth/ ... 149714.stm

Published: 2009/07/14 12:59:22 GMT

© BBC MMIX
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#64
Quote:[quote]Is this how they created modern Morgellon's disease?!?

Maybe
a lot of Doctors seem to be in Denial about Morgellons
but a lot Doctors deny Lymes disease
Brucelee Brucelee
Reply
#65
Quote:Huge blob of Arctic goo floats past Slope communities
IT'S NOT OIL: No one in the area can recall seeing anything like it before.



Published: July 14th, 2009 10:48 PM
Last Modified: July 15th, 2009 02:02 PM

Something big and strange is floating through the Chukchi Sea between Wainwright and Barrow.


Hunters from Wainwright first started noticing the stuff sometime probably early last week. It's thick and dark and "gooey" and is drifting for miles in the cold Arctic waters, according to Gordon Brower with the North Slope Borough's Planning and Community Services Department.

Brower and other borough officials, joined by the U.S. Coast Guard, flew out to Wainwright to investigate. The agencies found "globs" of the stuff floating miles offshore Friday and collected samples for testing.

Later, Brower said, the North Slope team in a borough helicopter spotted a long strand of the stuff and followed it for about 15 miles, shooting video from the air.

The next day the floating substance arrived offshore from Barrow, about 90 miles east of Wainwright, and borough officials went out in boats, collected more samples and sent them off for testing too.


Nobody knows for sure what the gunk is, but Petty Officer 1st Class Terry Hasenauer says the Coast Guard is sure what it is not.

"It's certainly biological," Hasenauer said. "It's definitely not an oil product of any kind. It has no characteristics of an oil, or a hazardous substance, for that matter.

"It's definitely, by the smell and the makeup of it, it's some sort of naturally occurring organic or otherwise marine organism."

Something else: No one in Barrow or Wainwright can remember seeing anything like this before, Brower said.

"That's one of the reasons we went out, because in recent history I don't think we've seen anything like this," he said. "Maybe inside lakes or in stagnant water or something, but not (in the ocean) that we could recall ...

"If it was something we'd seen before, we'd be able to say something about it. But we haven't ...which prompted concerns from the local hunters and whaling captains."

The stuff is "gooey" and looks dark against the bright white ice floating in the Arctic Ocean, Brower said.

"It's pitch black when it hits ice and it kind of discolors the ice and hangs off of it," Brower said. He saw some jellyfish tangled up in the stuff, and someone turned in what was left of a dead goose -- just bones and feathers -- to the borough's wildlife department.

"It kind of has an odor; I can't describe it," he said.

Hasenauer said he hasn't heard any reports of waterfowl or marine animals turning up.

Brower said it wouldn't necessarily surprise him if the substance turns out to be some sort of naturally occurring phenomenon, but the borough is waiting until it gets the analysis back from the samples before officials say anything more than they're not sure what it is.

"From the air it looks brownish with some sheen, but when you get close and put it up on the ice and in the bucket, it's kind of blackish stuff ... (and) has hairy strands on it."

Hasenauer said the Coast Guard's samples are being analyzed in Anchorage. Results may be back sometime next week, he said.

The two Coast Guard experts sent up to overfly the area with the borough said they saw nothing that resembled an oil slick, Hasenauer said.

"We brought back one sample of what they believe to be an algae," he said, and a big algae bloom is one possibility.

"It's textbook for us to consider algae because of all the false reports of oil spills we've had in the past. It's one of the things that typically comes up" when a report turns out not to be an oil spill after all.

But, he said, "there's all types of natural phenomena that it could be."

Meanwhile, the brownish-blackish gunk is drifting along the coast to the northeast, Brower said.

"This stuff is moving with the current," he said. "It's now on beyond Barrow and probably going north at this point. And people are still encountering it out here off Barrow."

For the most part, the mystery substance seems to have stayed away from shore.

"We did get some residents saying it was being pushed against the shoreline by ice in some areas," Brower said, "but then we get another east wind and it gets pushed back out there."

Sarah Pailin quote:
Quote:Alaska needs a wake up call


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#66
Palin quote was not in article
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