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Life Adapts.
(01-29-2013, 10:06 PM)slidika link Wrote:It's certainly looks better than what they're rolling, so maybe that's how their sky watching got started . . .  Smoke
I actually thought of how that is. Insects respond to light in many cases. Considering the lights in the sky are usually ever constant, it makes sense they would adept to respond to them.
Quote:No mountain is too tall if your first step is belief. -Anonymous
...Because even if there were no artifacts anywhere, not studying things of interest is an extreme disservice to science. -Tarius
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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dpvB5qouS...r_embedded
Whale Shark Seeks Help
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That's quite something, a first maybe?
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http://enenews.com/mystery-bacteria-at-u...ce-unknown
Quote:Mystery bacteria ‘cobwebs’ found in [Savannah River Site (South Carolina)] cooling tank [...]

Sometime in Fiscal Year 2011, “cobwebs” of bacteria were first discovered [...]

[Maxcine Maxted with Department of Energy] said that the bacteria would be killed before being studied. [...]

Not knowing the “food” source for these bacteria adds to the mystery. [...]

“The cobweb material density has not noticeably increased since the original mapping in December 2011,” [Amy Caver of DOE Public Affairs] said. “In the locations where the cobweb material was removed during sampling in January 2012, there has been little to no cobweb material reformation. [...]
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http://phys.org/news/2013-06-fractal-pat...erial.html
Quote:Fractal Patterns Spontaneously Emerge During Bacterial Cell Growth
Scientists have discovered highly asymmetric and branched patterns are the result of physical forces and local instabilities. The research has important
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http://sorendreier.com/dolphins-get-high...ffer-fish/
Dolphins Get High by Sucking on Puffer Fish
Posted on December 31, 2013  by  Soren Dreier
Author: Christie Wilcox - Video
Quote:The BBC will be airing a cool new underwater documentary on Thursday called Dolphins: Spy in the Pod, where carefully disguised cameras were used to film the daily lives of everyone’s favorite marine mammals. But the most interesting detail seems to have been leaked on Sunday: during the documentary, some of the dolphins reportedly used a pufferfish to get stoned.

“Even the brightest humans have succumbed to the lure of drugs and, it seems, dolphins are no different,” said The Sunday Times. The article goes on to describe how the team got footage of dolphins gently harassing a pufferfish, which led to the dolphins entering “a trance-like state after apparently getting “high” on the toxin.”

“After chewing the puffer and gently passing it round, they began acting most peculiarly, hanging around with their noses at the surface as if fascinated by their own reflection,” said Rob Pilley, zoologist and one of the producers of the documentary. “This was a case of young dolphins purposefully experimenting with something we know to be intoxicating.” And so it would seem that we can add drug use to the long list of dolphin bad behaviors, (a list which includes bullying, rape and murder, for the record; illicit drug use seems a minor offense in comparison).

It sounds too awesome to be true—which means it probably is.

I’m not convinced. Dolphins are curious and intelligent, so I have no doubt that they would investigate a strange animal like a puffer. They might see what happens, explore the texture, taste, or smell of this novel creature in their midst, as they do in this video:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D41NdVwvfVQ


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are not these the same guys who came up with the fake mermaid story?
Seek and ye shall find. JESUS
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I am a recovering vegetarian   Hi
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no.
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http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/201...113339.htm
Quote:How Electricity Helps Spider Webs Snatch Prey and Pollutants


Jan. 14, 2014 — Spider webs actively spring towards prey thanks to electrically-conductive glue spread across their surface, Oxford University scientists have discovered.

The researchers found that the electrostatic properties of the glue that coats spider webs causes them to reach out to grab all charged particles, from pollen and pollutants to flying insects. They also showed that the glue spirals can distort Earth's electric field within a few millimetres of the web, which may enable insects to spot the webs with their antennae 'e-sensors'.

The study, published in Naturwissenschaften, shows how a quirk of physics causes webs to move towards all airborne objects, regardless of whether they are positively or negatively charged. This explains how webs are able to collect small airborne particles so efficiently and why they spring towards insects.

According to the researchers, common garden spider webs around the world could be used for environmental monitoring as they actively filter airborne pollutants with an efficiency comparable to expensive industrial sensors.

'The elegant physics of these webs make them perfect active filters of airborne pollutants including aerosols and pesticides,' said Professor Fritz Vollrath of Oxford University's Department of Zoology, who led the study. 'Electrical attraction drags these particles to the webs, so you could harvest and test webs to monitor pollution levels -- for example, to check for pesticides that might be harming bee populations.

'Even more fascinating, you would be able to detect some airborne chemicals just by looking at the shape of the webs! Many spiders recycle their webs by eating them, and would include any particles and chemicals that are electrically drawn to the web. We already know that spiders spin different webs when on different drugs, for example creating beautiful webs on LSD and terrible webs on caffeine. As a result, the web shapes alone can tell us if any airborne chemicals affect the animal's behaviour.'

Working with Dr Donald Edmonds from Oxford University's Department of Physics, Professor Vollrath showed that webs like that of the garden cross spider also cause local distortions in Earth's electric field since they behave like conducting discs. Many insects are able to detect small electrical disturbances, including bees that can sense the electric fields of different flowers and other bees.

'Pretty much all flying insects should be capable of sensing electrical disturbances,' said Professor Vollrath. 'Their antennae act as 'e-sensors' when the tips are connected to the body by insulating materials, meaning the charge at the tip will be different from the rest of the insect. As insects approach charged objects, the tips of their antennae will move by a small amount, which they may be able to feel. Bees already use e-sensors to sense flowers and other bees, so it now remains to be seen whether they might also use them to avoid webs and thus becoming dinner.'

Electrical disturbances caused by spider webs are extremely short-ranged, so it is not yet clear whether insects would be able to sense them before the web snaps out to grab them. Either way, it is clear that electrostatic charges play an important role in the insect world.

'People often underestimate the static electricity that builds up in airborne objects, but it is important at all scales,' said Professor Vollrath. 'The Hindenburg disaster might have been caused by a discharge of static electricity, and helicopters have been known to explode if they discharge suddenly when landing. Everything that moves through the air develops static charge, so it's fascinating to see how spider webs make use of this to actively catch prey. It's a great bonus for us that this also causes them to attract pollutants, making them a cheap and natural way of tracking pesticides and air quality around the world.'

Video of spider webs moving towards positive and negative electrodes, by Fritz Vollrath: http://d3qk4vw19t7z2n.cloudfront.net/Ele...ive_HD.mp4
Smoke
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Dinosaurs were the food of the Giants mention in the Bible.
Seek and ye shall find. JESUS
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I am a recovering vegetarian   Hi
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Nothing like a good old fashioned toothy confrontation to build an appetite
So, the words Autumn and Fall are not to be capitalized?
They are in my world!

What has been is what will be, and what has been done is what will be done; and there is nothing new under the sun.
Is there a thing of which it is said, "See, this is new?"It has been already, in the ages before us. Ecc 1: 9-10
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http://www.wimp.com/ravenhelp/
Raven comes to humans for help.
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http://www.theprovince.com/technology/Vi...story.html
Video: Smart swallows trigger automatic doors of UVic bike locker to get to their nest
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http://newswatch.nationalgeographic.com/...idal-girl/
Quote:The dolphins were still feeding in circle near shore, when suddenly, one individual changed direction heading out toward deeper water. A minute later, the rest of the school turned to follow. We were so accustomed to tracking these coastal metropolitan dolphins back and forth within a few hundred meters of the beach, that seeing them abruptly leave a foraging ground and change direction came as a surprise to the research team. I decided to follow them.

The dolphins increased their speed, still heading offshore as I pushed the throttle ahead to keep pace while one of my researchers recorded this hasty change in behavior on the sighting form. Somewhere near three miles offshore the dolphin group stopped, forming a sort of ring around a dark object in the water.

“Someone’s in the water!” yelled my assistant, standing up and pointing at the seemingly lifeless body of a girl. For a moment, we were silent. Then, slowly, I maneuvered the boat closer. The girl was pallid and blonde and appeared to be fully clothed. As the boat neared, she feebly turned her head toward us, half-raising her hand as a weak sign for help.
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Wook, that is a wonderful story. (I read the rest of it at the site.) Thanks.

I suspect we could learn a few things from this 'incident'. The dolphins were at the shoreline feeding, and the girl was three miles out when the dolphins 'took off' for her. That is a long distance for a sonar 'ping' from the dolphins, especially since the girl was also motionless and not verbal when the rescue boat arrived a few minutes later. And if it was 'ping' tracking, why didn't they take off earlier?

This leaves open possible 'non-ordinary states' as the mechanism. This could range from simple telepathy (but why not earlier, as above) to an 'in-between' entity actively contacting the dolphins. Fascinating, but we'll probably never know.

In addition, the fact that the dolphins went to all this 'trouble' speaks volumes as to their 'character', whatever that turns out to be. It would be wonderful to truly speak dolphanese. (Or be able to do a mind-meld with them...  Whistle )
Hunter S. Thompson: "When the going gets weird, the weird turn pro."
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http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/a...laims.html
Do dogs talk to each other with their EYES? Canines have a secret language based on their gaze, study claims
Eye shape, colour and facial markings are key in canine communication
Scientists compared features of the face and eyes among 25 canids
Species with the most striking eyes tended to live and hunt in groups
This could be because eye-based conversations are crucial to catch prey
Those with camouflaged eyes were more likely to live alone or in pairs
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Quote:Unbeknownst to most, a Copernican revolution has already taken place in cancer theory. Today, the weight of evidence indicates that plants and not chemicals are the solution for reversing the global cancer epidemic.

Our understanding of what causes cancer has undergone something akin to a Copernican revolution in the past decade. Biological fatalism has been the predominant force in medicine over the past half century, where most conditions including cancer were believed predestined ‘in the genes,’ and therefore impossible to reverse. Instead of looking for root cause resolution of disease (RCRD), we resigned ourselves to ‘finding it early’ and in the case of cancer, when doing so (even when it was benign), we waged war against it, quite literally using weapons grade materials (mustard gas- and nuclear materials-derived agents). Now, however, in this post-Genomic era, factors above (epi-) the control of the genes – epigenetic factors – are taking center stage; these include environmental exposures, stress, nutritional factors, and various lifestyle-based variables that are within the ambit of our control and volition, and which are often reversible.
http://wakeup-world.com/2015/01/17/resea...chemicals/
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[Image: 12814190_1009702879065810_85449933049477...e=5755E41F]

Sheep
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http://www.seeker.com/heres-how-colonizi...51639.html
Colonizing Mars Will Take People Who Can Improvise

Sheep

http://www.space.com/36066-mars-colony-n...yvers.html
Building a Mars Colony? You'll Need a Team of Astronaut 'MacGyvers'
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(03-18-2017, 05:36 PM)Wook Wrote: http://www.seeker.com/heres-how-colonizi...51639.html
Colonizing Mars Will Take People Who Can Improvise

Life Adapts  SheepAdepts Life


http://www.space.com/36066-mars-colony-n...yvers.html
Building a Mars Colony? You'll Need a Team of Astronaut 'MacGyvers'


Scientists unveil a giant leap for anti-aging
March 23, 2017

[Image: 58d3fdee9b1e1.jpg]
Researchers have discovered a protein complex in humans that helps protect cells from DNA damage. The finding could be helpful for astronauts in space, who are at greater risk of DNA damage from cosmic radiation. Credit: David Sinclair, Harvard Medical School
UNSW researchers have made a discovery that could lead to a revolutionary drug that actually reverses ageing, improves DNA repair and could even help NASA get its astronauts to Mars.



Read more at: https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-03-scientists-unveil-giant-anti-aging.html#jCp
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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...
The anti aging drug is worthwhile looking into


Quote:In 2003, 
Professor Sinclair made a link between the anti-ageing enzyme SIRT1 
and resveratrol, 
a naturally occurring molecule found in tiny quantities in red wine.

"While resveratrol activates SIRT1 alone, 
NAD+ boosters activate all seven sirtuins, SIRT1-7, 
and should have an even greater impact on health and longevity," he says.


they mentioned NAD boosters and something called NMN
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide
Nicotinamide Mononucleotide

http://www.cell.com/cell-metabolism/pdfE...16)30495-8

http://alivebynature.com/nmn-or-nr-whats...d-booster/

...
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Bad News: Artificial Intelligence Is Racist, Too

By Stephanie Pappas, Live Science Contributor | April 13, 2017 02:00pm ET

[Image: aHR0cDovL3d3dy5saXZlc2NpZW5jZS5jb20vaW1h...4uanBlZw==]

When Microsoft released an artificially intelligent chatbot named Tay on Twitter last March, things took a predictably disastrous turn. Within 24 hours, the bot was spewing racist, neo-Nazi rants, much of which it picked up by incorporating the language of Twitter users who interacted with it.  
Unfortunately, new research finds that Twitter trolls aren't the only way that AI devices can learn racist language. In fact, any artificial intelligence that learns from human language is likely to come away biased in the same ways that humans are, according to the scientists.
The researchers experimented with a widely used machine-learning system called the Global Vectors for Word Representation (GloVe) and found that every sort of human bias they tested showed up in the artificial system. [Super-Intelligent Machines: 7 Robotic Futures]
"It was astonishing to see all the results that were embedded in these models," said Aylin Caliskan, a postdoctoral researcher in computer science at Princeton University. Even AI devices that are "trained" on supposedly neutral texts like Wikipedia or news articles came to reflect common human biases, she told Live Science.
Built-in biases
GloVe is a tool used to extract associations from texts — in this case, a standard corpus of language pulled from the World Wide Web.
Psychologists have long known that the human brain makes associations between words based on their underlying meanings. A tool called the Implicit Association Test uses reaction times to demonstrate these associations: People see a word like "daffodil" alongside pleasant or unpleasant concepts like "pain" or "beauty" and have to quickly associate the terms using a key press. Unsurprisingly, flowers are more quickly associated with positive concepts; while weapons, for example, are more quickly associated with negative concepts.
The IAT can be used to reveal unconscious associations people make about social or demographic groups, as well. For example, some IATs that are available on the Project Implicit website find that people are more likely to automatically associate weapons with black Americans and harmless objects with white Americans.  
There are debates about what these results mean, researchers have said. Do people make these associations because they hold personal, deep-seated social biases they aren't aware of, or do they absorb them from language that is statistically more likely to put negative words in close conjunction with ethnic minorities, the elderly and other marginalized groups?
Digital stereotypes
Caliskan and her colleagues developed an IAT for computers, which they dubbed the WEAT, for Word-Embedding Association Test. This test measured the strength of associations between words as represented by GloVe, much as the IAT measures the strength of word associations in the human brain.
For every association and stereotype tested, the WEAT returned the same results as the IAT. The machine-learning tool reproduced human associations between flowers and pleasant words; insects and unpleasant words; musical instruments and pleasant words; and weapons and unpleasant words. In a more troubling finding, it saw European-American names as more pleasant than African-American names. It also associated male names more readily with career words, and female names more readily with family words. Men were more closely associated with math and science, and women with the arts. Names associated with old people were more unpleasant than names associated with young people.
"We were quite surprised that we were able to replicate every single IAT that was performed in the past by millions," Caliskan said.
Using a second method that was similar, the researchers also found that the machine-learning tool was able to accurately represent facts about the world from its semantic associations. Comparing the GloVe word-embedding results with real U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data on the percentage of women in occupations, Caliskan found a 90 percent correlation between professions that the GloVe saw as "female" and the actual percentage of women in those professions.
In other words, programs that learn from human language do get "a very accurate representation of the world and culture," Caliskan said, even if that culture — like stereotypes and prejudice — is problematic. The AI is also bad at understanding context that humans grasp easily. For example, an article about Martin Luther King Jr. being jailed for civil rights protests in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1963 would likely associate a lot of negative words with African-Americans. A human would reasonably interpret the story as one of righteous protest by an American hero; a computer would add another tally to its "black=jail" category.
Retaining accuracy while getting AI tools to understand fairness is a big challenge, Caliskan said. [A Brief History of Artificial Intelligence]
"We don't think that removing bias would necessarily solve these problems, because it's probably going to break the accurate representation of the world," she said.
Unbiasing AI
The new study, published online today (April 12) in the journal Science, is not surprising, said Sorelle Friedler, a computer scientist at Haverford College who was not involved in the research. It is, however, important, she said.
"This is using a standard underlying method that many systems are then built off of," Friedler told Live Science. In other words, biases are likely to infiltrate any AI that uses GloVe, or that learns from human language in general.  
Friedler is involved in an emerging field of research called Fairness, Accountability and Transparency in Machine Learning. There are no easy ways to solve these problems, she said. In some cases, programmers might be able to explicitly tell the system to automatically disregard specific stereotypes, she said. In any case involving nuance, humans may need to be looped in to make sure the machine doesn't run amok. The solutions will likely vary, depending on what the AI is designed to do, Caliskan said — are they for search applications, for decision making or for something else?
In humans, implicit attitudes actually don't correlate very strongly with explicit attitudes about social groups. Psychologists have argued about why this is: Are people just keeping mum about their prejudices to avoid stigma? Does the IAT not actually measure prejudice that well? But, it appears that people at least have the ability to reason about right and wrong, with their biased associations, Caliskan said. She and her colleagues think humans will need to be involved — and programming code will need to be transparent — so that people can make value judgments about the fairness of machines.
"In a biased situation, we know how to make the right decision," Caliskan said, "but unfortunately, machines are not self-aware."
Original article on Live Science.

Bob... Ninja Alien2
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
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Racist Infants. Arrow youareaduck
Quote:In humans, implicit attitudes actually don't correlate very strongly with explicit attitudes about social groups. Psychologists have argued about why this is: Are people just keeping mum about their prejudices to avoid stigma? Does the IAT not actually measure prejudice that well? But, it appears that people at least have the ability to reason about right and wrong, with their biased associations, Caliskan said. She and her colleagues think humans will need to be involved — and programming code will need to be transparent — so that people can make value judgments about the fairness of machines.

"In a biased situation, we know how to make the right decision," Caliskan said, "but unfortunately, machines are not self-aware."

Infants show racial bias toward members of own race and against those of other races
April 11, 2017
[Image: aHR0cDovL3d3dy5saXZlc2NpZW5jZS5jb20vaW1h...4uanBlZw==]
Two studies by researchers at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE) at the University of Toronto and their collaborators from the US, UK, France and China, show that six- to nine-month-old infants demonstrate racial bias in favour of members of their own race and racial bias against those of other races.


In the first study, "Older but not younger infants associate own-race faces with happy music and other-race faces with sad music", published in Developmental Science, results showed that after six months of age, infants begin to associate own-race faces with happy music and other-race faces with sad music.
In the second study, "Infants rely more on gaze cues from own-race than other-race adults for learning under uncertainty", published in Child Development, researchers found that six- to eight-month-old infants were more inclined to learn information from an adult of his or her own race than from an adult of a different race.
(In both studies, infants less than six months of age were not found to show such biases).
Racial bias begins at younger age, without experience with other-race individuals
"The findings of these studies are significant for many reasons," said Dr. Kang Lee, professor at OISE's Jackman Institute of Child Study, a Tier 1 Canada Research Chair and lead author of the studies. "The results show that race-based bias already exists around the second half of a child's first year. This challenges the popular view that race-based bias first emerges only during the preschool years." Hear Dr. Lee discuss the research results.
Researchers say these findings are also important because they offer a new perspective on the cause of race-based bias.
"When we consider why someone has a racial bias, we often think of negative experiences he or she may have had with other-race individuals. But, these findings suggest that a race-based bias emerges without experience with other-race individuals," said Dr. Naiqi (Gabriel) Xiao, first author of the two papers and postdoctoral fellow at Princeton University.
This can be inferred because prior studies from other labs have indicated that many infants typically experience over 90 per cent own-race faces. Following this pattern, the current studies involved babies who had little to no prior experience with other-race individuals.

"These findings thus point to the possibility that aspects of racial bias later in life may arise from our lack of exposure to other-race individuals in infancy," Dr. Lee said.
Study results could be significant in prevention of racial bias
He continued to explain that overall, the results of these studies are critically important given the issues of wide-spread racial bias and racism around the world.
"If we can pinpoint the starting point of racial bias, which we may have done here, we can start to find ways to prevent racial biases from happening," he said.
"An important finding is that infants will learn from people they are most exposed to," added Dr. Xiao, indicating that parents can help prevent racial bias by, for example, introducing their children to people from a variety of races.
As conveyed in the second study's title, the bias was only observed in an uncertain context in which adults provided partially reliable information. As explained by Dr. Paul Quinn, an additional co-author, and Francis Alison Professor at the University of Delaware, "It's as if the infants trust the own-race adult more than the other-race adult when both adults are unreliable."
First study: Face-race and music
In the first study, infants from 3 to 10 months of age watched a sequence of videos depicting female adults with a neutral facial expression. Before viewing each face, infants heard a music clip. Babies participated in one of the four music-face combinations: happy music followed by own-race faces, sad music followed by own-race faces, happy music followed by other-race faces, and sad music followed by other-race faces. The study found that infants at six to nine months of age looked longer at own-race faces when paired with happy music as opposed to with sad music. By contrast, six- to nine-month-olds looked longer at other-race faces when paired with sad music compared to with happy music.
Second study: Face-race and learning
The second study examined whether infants were biased to learn from own-race adults versus other-race adults. Six to eight-month-old infants saw a series of videos. In each video, a female adult looked at any one of the four corners of the screen. Following the look, in some videos, an animal image appeared in the looked-at location (a reliable gaze). In other videos, an animal image appeared at a non-looked-at location (an unreliable gaze). The results showed that six to eight-month-old infants followed the gaze of members of their own race more than they followed the gaze of other-race individuals. This occurred when the faces were slightly unreliable, as they are in the natural environment. This result suggests that, under uncertainty, infants are biased to learn information from own-race adults as opposed to other-race adults.
Racial bias can 'permeate almost all of our social interactions'
Dr. Lee said it's important to be mindful of the impact that racial bias has on our everyday lives, stressing that not only is explicit bias a concern, but so too are implicit forms.
"Implicit racial biases tend to be subconscious, pernicious, and insidious. It permeates almost all of our social interactions, from health care to commerce, employment, politics, and dating. Because of that, it's very important to study where these kinds of biases come from and use that information to try and prevent racial biases from developing," he said.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: New research finds a way to reverse children's racial stereotyping
Journal reference: Child Development [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif] Developmental Science [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: University of Toronto



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-04-infants-racial-bias-members.html#jCp[/url]




Neural networks explained
April 17, 2017 by Larry Hardesty

[Image: 1-neuralnetwor.jpg]
Most applications of deep learning use “convolutional” neural networks, in which the nodes of each layer are clustered, the clusters overlap, and each cluster feeds data to multiple nodes (orange and green) of the next layer. Credit: Jose-Luis Olivares/MIT
In the past 10 years, the best-performing artificial-intelligence systems—such as the speech recognizers on smartphones or Google's latest automatic translator—have resulted from a technique called "deep learning."


Deep learning is in fact a new name for an approach to artificial intelligence called neural networks, which have been going in and out of fashion for more than 70 years. Neural networks were first proposed in 1944 by Warren McCullough and Walter Pitts, two University of Chicago researchers who moved to MIT in 1952 as founding members of what's sometimes called the first cognitive science department.
Neural nets were a major area of research in both neuroscience and computer science until 1969, when, according to computer science lore, they were killed off by the MIT mathematicians Marvin Minsky and Seymour Papert, who a year later would become co-directors of the new MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.
The technique then enjoyed a resurgence in the 1980s, fell into eclipse again in the first decade of the new century, and has returned like gangbusters in the second, fueled largely by the increased processing power of graphics chips.
"There's this idea that ideas in science are a bit like epidemics of viruses," says Tomaso Poggio, the Eugene McDermott Professor of Brain and Cognitive Sciences at MIT, an investigator at MIT's McGovern Institute for Brain Research, and director of MIT's Center for Brains, Minds, and Machines. "There are apparently five or six basic strains of flu viruses, and apparently each one comes back with a period of around 25 years. People get infected, and they develop an immune response, and so they don't get infected for the next 25 years. And then there is a new generation that is ready to be infected by the same strain of virus. In science, people fall in love with an idea, get excited about it, hammer it to death, and then get immunized—they get tired of it. So ideas should have the same kind of periodicity!"
Weighty matters
Neural nets are a means of doing machine learning, in which a computer learns to perform some task by analyzing training examples. Usually, the examples have been hand-labeled in advance. An object recognition system, for instance, might be fed thousands of labeled images of cars, houses, coffee cups, and so on, and it would find visual patterns in the images that consistently correlate with particular labels.


Modeled loosely on the human brain, a neural net consists of thousands or even millions of simple processing nodes that are densely interconnected. Most of today's neural nets are organized into layers of nodes, and they're "feed-forward," meaning that data moves through them in only one direction. An individual node might be connected to several nodes in the layer beneath it, from which it receives data, and several nodes in the layer above it, to which it sends data.
To each of its incoming connections, a node will assign a number known as a "weight." When the network is active, the node receives a different data item—a different number—over each of its connections and multiplies it by the associated weight. It then adds the resulting products together, yielding a single number. If that number is below a threshold value, the node passes no data to the next layer. If the number exceeds the threshold value, the node "fires," which in today's neural nets generally means sending the number—the sum of the weighted inputs—along all its outgoing connections.
When a neural net is being trained, all of its weights and thresholds are initially set to random values. Training data is fed to the bottom layer—the input layer—and it passes through the succeeding layers, getting multiplied and added together in complex ways, until it finally arrives, radically transformed, at the output layer. During training, the weights and thresholds are continually adjusted until training data with the same labels consistently yield similar outputs.
Minds and machines
The neural nets described by McCullough and Pitts in 1944 had thresholds and weights, but they weren't arranged into layers, and the researchers didn't specify any training mechanism. What McCullough and Pitts showed was that a neural net could, in principle, compute any function that a digital computer could. The result was more neuroscience than computer science: The point was to suggest that the human brain could be thought of as a computing device.
Neural nets continue to be a valuable tool for neuroscientific research. For instance, particular network layouts or rules for adjusting weights and thresholds have reproduced observed features of human neuroanatomy and cognition, an indication that they capture something about how the brain processes information.
The first trainable neural network, the Perceptron, was demonstrated by the Cornell University psychologist Frank Rosenblatt in 1957. The Perceptron's design was much like that of the modern neural net, except that it had only one layer with adjustable weights and thresholds, sandwiched between input and output layers.
Perceptrons were an active area of research in both psychology and the fledgling discipline of computer science until 1959, when Minsky and Papert published a book titled "Perceptrons," which demonstrated that executing certain fairly common computations on Perceptrons would be impractically time consuming.
"Of course, all of these limitations kind of disappear if you take machinery that is a little more complicated—like, two layers," Poggio says. But at the time, the book had a chilling effect on neural-net research.
"You have to put these things in historical context," Poggio says. "They were arguing for programming—for languages like Lisp. Not many years before, people were still using analog computers. It was not clear at all at the time that programming was the way to go. I think they went a little bit overboard, but as usual, it's not black and white. If you think of this as this competition between analog computing and digital computing, they fought for what at the time was the right thing."
Periodicity
By the 1980s, however, researchers had developed doink-head for modifying neural nets' weights and thresholds that were efficient enough for networks with more than one layer, removing many of the limitations identified by Minsky and Papert. The field enjoyed a renaissance.
But intellectually, there's something unsatisfying about neural nets. Enough training may revise a network's settings to the point that it can usefully classify data, but what do those settings mean? What image features is an object recognizer looking at, and how does it piece them together into the distinctive visual signatures of cars, houses, and coffee cups? Looking at the weights of individual connections won't answer that question.
In recent years, computer scientists have begun to come up with ingenious methods for deducing the analytic strategies adopted by neural nets. But in the 1980s, the networks' strategies were indecipherable. So around the turn of the century, neural networks were supplanted by support vector machines, an alternative approach to machine learning that's based on some very clean and elegant mathematics.
The recent resurgence in neural networks—the deep-learning revolution—comes courtesy of the computer-game industry. The complex imagery and rapid pace of today's video games require hardware that can keep up, and the result has been the graphics processing unit (GPU), which packs thousands of relatively simple processing cores on a single chip. It didn't take long for researchers to realize that the architecture of a GPU is remarkably like that of a neural net.
Modern GPUs enabled the one-layer networks of the 1960s and the two- to three-layer networks of the 1980s to blossom into the 10-, 15-, even 50-layer networks of today. That's what the "deep" in "deep learning" refers to—the depth of the network's layers. And currently, deep learning is responsible for the best-performing systems in almost every area of artificial-intelligence research.
Under the hood
The networks' opacity is still unsettling to theorists, but there's headway on that front, too. In addition to directing the Center for Brains, Minds, and Machines (CBMM), Poggio leads the center's research program in Theoretical Frameworks for Intelligence. Recently, Poggio and his CBMM colleagues have released a three-part theoretical study of neural networks.
The first part, which was published last month in the International Journal of Automation and Computing, addresses the range of computations that deep-learning networks can execute and when deep networks offer advantages over shallower ones. Parts two and three, which have been released as CBMM technical reports, address the problems of global optimization, or guaranteeing that a network has found the settings that best accord with its training data, and overfitting, or cases in which the network becomes so attuned to the specifics of its training data that it fails to generalize to other instances of the same categories.
There are still plenty of theoretical questions to be answered, but CBMM researchers' work could help ensure that neural networks finally break the generational cycle that has brought them in and out of favor for seven decades.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: How the brain recognizes faces: Machine-learning system spontaneously reproduces aspects of human neurology
More information: Tomaso Poggio et al. Why and when can deep-but not shallow-networks avoid the curse of dimensionality: A review, International Journal of Automation and Computing (2017). DOI: 10.1007/s11633-017-1054-2 
Provided by: Massachusetts Institute of Technology


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-04-neural-networks.html#jCp[url=https://phys.org/news/2017-04-neural-networks.html#jCp]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
"Modern GPUs enabled the one-layer networks of the 1960s and the two- to three-layer networks of the 1980s to blossom into the 10-, 15-, even 50-layer networks of today."

There are fractal programs that use the GPU instead of the CPU.
What formerly might take ~.5hr can take only a few seconds.
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Darwinism in Question with Discovery: Octopuses Edit Their Own Genes
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By Eric Metaxas | May 8, 2017 | 2:15 PM EDT




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Octopus (Wikimedia Commons Photo)
Imagine being able to make yourself more intelligent than your genes allow. If you were a slimy, spineless bottom-dweller, that might be a welcome bonus.

What’s the most intelligent animal on the planet? There are a lot of ways to answer that, and depending on your standard, apes, crows, dolphins, and parrots could all be contenders. But none of these vertebrates (animals with backbones) can lay claim to the incredible feats of one highly-intelligent group of invertebrates. A group that—according to new research—ignores the rules laid down by Darwin and takes evolution into its own tentacles.

I’m talking about cephalopods—the octopi, squid, and cuttlefish, which are widely regarded as scoring at the top of their class. These Mensa-worthy mollusks have been known to open jars, climb in and out of their tanks, communicate via a kind of Morse-code, and can camouflage themselves to match their surroundings with startling accuracy, using colorful skin cells.

And as I told you some time ago on BreakPoint, these eight-armed wonders of the deep defy evolution by exhibiting traits usually found in higher vertebrates like us. It’s a mind-boggling coincidence that Darwinists have long dismissed with euphemisms like, “convergent evolution.”

But octopi, squid, and cuttlefish seem to have altogether missed the memo about Darwinism, because new science is revealing another way in which they defy evolution.

In a paper published in the journal, “Cell,” Tel Aviv University researchers Joshua Rosenthal and Eli Eisenberg report that unlike almost all other animals, cephalopods routinely bypass the instructions in their DNA and edit their own genes.
In biology class, you probably learned that ribonucleic acid, or RNA, transcribes and carries the information coded in deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, to protein-factories in the cells. These proteins, built based on instructions from the DNA, are what make up our bodies. But what if we could edit the messages in our RNA to change the kind of protein produced?


 As it happens, that’s what cephalopods do—on a scale unknown anywhere else in the animal kingdom, and specifically in one area of their bodies: their nervous systems and brains.

The Tel Aviv researchers found “tens of thousands” of such RNA recoding sites in cephalopods, allowing a creature like the octopus to essentially reprogram itself, adding “new riffs to its basic genetic blueprint.” In other words, these invertebrates don’t care that they didn’t inherit the smart genes. They make themselves smart, anyway.

Of course, an animal can’t be the author of its own intelligence, and this is not a process anyone believes cephalopods perform consciously. Rather, it is a marvelous piece of “adaptive programming” built-in to their biology.

Darwinists have tried to spin this feat as “a special kind of evolution.” But the folks at Evolution News cut through this nonsense and identify RNA editing for what it is: “non-evolution.”

“Neo-Darwinism did not make cephalopods what they are,” they write. “These highly intelligent and well-adapted animals edited their own genomes, so what possible need do they have for … blind, random, unguided” evolution?

This is also an emerging field of research, which means it’s possible, in theory, that other organisms make extensive use of RNA editing, and we’re just not aware of it, yet.

If, as one popular science website puts it, other creatures can “defy” the “central dogma” of genetics, the implications for Darwin’s “tree of life,” and his entire theory, are dire.

But if cephalopods and the complex information processing that makes them so unique are in fact the result of a Programmer—of a Designer—the waters of biology become far less inky.

Eric Metaxas is the host of the “Eric Metaxas Show,” a co-host of “BreakPoint” radio and a New York Times #1 best-selling author whose works have been translated into more than twenty languages.

Editor's Note: This piece was originally published by BreakPoint.
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Oldest Evidence of Life on Earth Possibly Found in Australian Rocks

By Tia Ghose, Senior Writer | May 9, 2017 11:00am ET

[Image: aHR0cDovL3d3dy5saXZlc2NpZW5jZS5jb20vaW1h...RlLmpwZw==]

Microscopic images of geyserite taken from the Dresser Formation in Australia provide evidence for microbial life that lived 3.48 billion years ago. The ripply "palisade" texture could have been formed when long filaments of bacteria were entombed by the silica from the mineral-rich water from a hot spring.
Credit: Tara Djokic 

Ancient rocks found in a remote stretch of Western Australia may contain the world's oldest known evidence of life on land, a new study finds.
The 3.48-billion-year-old rocks are part of an area known as the Dresser Formation, located in Pilbara, Australia. During Earth's early years, the region might have been a volcanic caldera (a volcanic crater often resulting from an eruption) on a small island dotted with hot springs and ponds that were teeming with microbial life, said study lead author Tara Djokic, a doctoral candidate in geosciences at the University of New South Wales in Australia.
Djokic and her colleagues found signs of microbial life embedded in rocks that form around hot springs, as well as in deposits in the ancient hot springs themselves.
The findings hint that early life may have gotten its start in hot springs on land, as opposed to deep inside ocean hydrothermal vents, as is commonly believed, Djokic told Live Science. [In Images: The Oldest Fossils on Earth]
Ancient traces
Life emerged on our planet soon after Earth coalesced about 4.5 billion years ago. But exactly how soon after the planet's formation life arose is hotly contested. Ancient rocks in Greenland that date to 3.7 billion years ago contain hints of microbial mats of cyanobacteria known as stromatolites, while another formation in Quebec may date back 4.28 billion years. But a lot has happened in the past 3 billion or 4 billion years, making it hard to pin down whether the chemical or geological traces found in those rocks are truly signatures of life.
In the new study, Djokic and her colleagues looked at an 8.6-mile-long (14 kilometers) stretch of rocks in the Dresser Formation. These reddish, pillowy volcanic rocks were laid down roughly 3.48 billion years ago and, aside from a bit of weathering from age, remain virtually unchanged since then. Since the 1800s, researchers have known that the area contained the fossilized remains of stromatolites. (Stromatolites are mats of cyanobacteria, which often live in shallow tidal pools and build dome-like structures layer by layer as they pull in minerals from the environment and then build colonies atop the dead microbes a layer below.)  
In the current study, Djokic and her colleagues found traces of life in a new environment in the Dresser Formation: geyserite rock, which forms only near hot springs, like those found in Yellowstone National Park and Rotorua, New Zealand. They also found a vertical "palisade" texture on some of the geyserite rocks. This vertical, rippling, palisade texture forms when long filaments from microbial mats that exist at the outflows of hot springs get entombed in silica sediment that is common in the water. The researchers also found signs of stromatolites living near the hot springs.
 

[Image: aHR0cDovL3d3dy5saXZlc2NpZW5jZS5jb20vaW1h...QzNDE1MjU=]
Microscopic bubbles preserved in rock in the Dresser Formation, Australia, could be a sign that a sticky bacterial mucus entrained bubbles billions of years ago, and as such, may be evidence for ancient life.
Credit: Tara Djokic
Finally, the team found traces of ancient bubbles. Although the researchers can't determine whether the bubbles contain oxygen or evidence of life per se, "for the bubbles to be preserved so spherically, it has to be preserved in something sticky," Djokic told Live Science.
Around modern hot springs, the only sticky substance with the right elastic properties to preserve such round bubbles is a microbial, mucus-like substance known as extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), which bacteria use to create biofilms, the researchers reported today (May 9) in the journal Nature Communications.
The new findings push back the fossil evidence of microbial life in hot springs by about 3 billion years, they said.
Oldest evidence
The new study is fascinating and convincing, said Robert Hazen, a mineralogist and astrobiologist at the Carnegie Institution for Science who was not involved in the research.
"Maybe it would be more surprising if there wasn't some ability for life to seize this kind of environment," Hazen told Live Science. "You have chemical energy, which you need; you have mineral surfaces, which can provide a protective environment. It seems like a pretty nice place to make a living if you're a microbe."
The new samples may provide the oldest solid evidence of ancient life, he added.
Though even older rocks in Quebec and others in Greenland may contain traces of potential life, those rocks have been tilted, stretched, baked and changed in many ways since their formation, Hazen said. As a result, it's hard to make conclusions about what really happened so long ago, and determine whether the traces of life are indeed evidence of life and, if so, if they truly come from the primeval period when the rock first formed, Hazen said.
By contrast, the Pilbara region contains pillowy rocks that look essentially the same as they did 3.48 billion years ago, making it much easier to make claims about the ancient environment, Hazen said.
"This is a very detailed paper showing compelling evidence for microbially formed rock structures in some of the oldest hydrothermal precipitate [deposits]," said Dominic Papineau, an Earth scientist at University College London who was not involved in the current study. However, he is not convinced that the bubbles could have formed only by a matrix of EPS, as other possibilities were not seriously considered, he added.
Originally published on Live Science.

Source: http://www.livescience.com/59025-oldest-...ralia.html

Bob... Ninja Alien2

Rare 'Dragon-Skin' Ice Spotted During Antarctic Research Voyage

By Kacey Deamer, Staff Writer | May 10, 2017 11:34am ET

[Image: aHR0cDovL3d3dy5saXZlc2NpZW5jZS5jb20vaW1h...UuanBlZw==]


Dragon skin occurs when strong winds continually lift surface ice, subsequently freezing the water below.
Credit: Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies/University of Tasmania
Ice that looks like a dragon's scales may sound like something from an episode of "Game of Thrones," but researchers recently observed the rare type of sea ice known as "dragon skin" in Antarctica.
Scientists aboard the U.S. icebreaker research vessel Nathaniel B. Palmer recently sailed to an Antarctic polynya — areas of open water that act as ice factories — to study the process of ice formation during the autumn-winter season. The "dragon-skin" sighting was an early highlight of the expedition, because the rare ice formation had not been seen in Antarctica since 2007, the researchers said.
Dragon skin occurs when strong "katabatic" winds — downslope winds that exist only over icy regions — continually lift the polynya's surface ice, subsequently freezing the water below, according to Guy Williams, a polar oceanographer from the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies at the University of Tasmania in Australia. This cycle produces 10 times more than the average amount of sea ice formed in the coastal polynyas, Williams said. [Collapsing Beauty: Image of Antarctica's Larsen Ice Shelf]
"Imagine your standard ice-cube tray, filled once. After a week, you get one tray of ice cubes. But if you empty and refill the tray each night, you get so much more," Williams said in a statement. "That is what the katabatic winds are doing in the polynya, removing the ice, exposing the water and making more ice form."
This constant uplift and formation of ice results in a scale-like appearance, giving the sea ice its dragon nickname. Dragon skin is also evidence of a "darker chaos" in the cryosphere (parts of the planet's surface where water is frozen), according to Williams.
The Nathaniel B. Palmer expedition is currently at "ground zero" of a katabatic wind event, Williams said, with hurricane-strength gusts topping 75 miles per hour (120 km/h). During this brutal interaction between the polar ocean and atmosphere, the seawater freezes as freshwater ice, according to the researchers. When the seawater freezes into ice, its salty brine is rejected and falls into the underlying water, making it very cold and dense.
"We will spend the next two weeks taking advantage of quiet periods when the katabatic winds drop off to observe the increase in salinity of the shelf waters below polynyas as brine rejected during sea-ice formation rains down to depths below 1,000 meters [3,280 feet]," Williams said.
Research aboard the Nathaniel B. Palmer vessel is ongoing as the icebreaker continues to sail across the Ross Sea in West Antarctica.

Sources: www.livescience.com/59044-rare-dragon-skin-ice-spotted-in-antarctica.html

Bob... Ninja Alien2
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
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Darwinism in Question
[Image: picture-1128-1443128035.jpg?itok=h4dPh0P3]


the implications for Darwin’s “tree of life,” and his entire theory, are dire
Quote:"Our study suggests that natural selection against highly damaging genetic mutations is ongoing in humans, and that it is aided by synergistic interactions between different parts of the human genome," said Sunyaev.




A newborn human is estimated to have ~70 new mutations that the parents did not have.

Ongoing natural selection against damaging genetic mutations in humans
May 10, 2017

[Image: 5733573d86890.jpg]
Credit: CC0 Public Domain
The survival of the human species in the face of high rates of genetic mutations has remained an important problem in evolutionary biology. While mutations provide a source of novelty for the species, a large fraction of these genetic changes can also be damaging. A newborn human is estimated to have ~70 new mutations that the parents did not have. In a project conducted by Brigham and Women's Hospital research geneticist Shamil Sunyaev, PhD, and University of Michigan professor Alexey Kondrashov, PhD, scientists studied natural selection in humans.


Their findings are published in a new paper in Science, where they report that, as a species, humans are able to keep the accumulation of damaging mutations in check because each additional mutation that's added to a genome causes larger, and larger consequences, decreasing an individual's ability to pass on genetic material.
A damaging mutation is one that likely interferes with the biological function that a gene has for the organism. The researchers studied population samples from Europe, Asia and Africa and found a significant depletion of individuals carrying a large number of highly damaging mutations overall. They inferred that if a new mutation occurs in a genome that already contains many damaging mutations, it has a stronger effect than if it occurred in a genome with just a few other damaging mutations. Thus, the more damaging mutations a genome carries, the less likely that individual will be able to contribute progeny to the next generation.
"Our study suggests that natural selection against highly damaging genetic mutations is ongoing in humans, and that it is aided by synergistic interactions between different parts of the human genome," said Sunyaev.
This observation is general and is not limited to the human species. The same effect was independently observed in fruit flies.The findings also help explain another long-standing conundrum in evolutionary biology, that of the evolutionary maintenance of sexual reproduction. Because sex shuffles two genomes together, it can generate some genomes with very few mutations, and other genomes with very many mutations every generation. If damaging mutations in a genome behave synergistically, genomes with a high number of damaging mutations are then very unlikely to leave progeny. Evolutionary theory, thus, holds that sexual reproducers may be more successful than asexual reproducers because they are able to purge multiple damaging mutations from the population with single genetic deaths post sex-induced genetic remixing. This is precisely what is observed in this study.
"By showing that sexual reproducers, such as humans and fruit flies, have a much lower rate of individuals with a large number of highly damaging mutations, our study provides support to theories that suggest that sex has an evolutionary advantage in a deterministic sense," said lead author Mashaal Sohail, PhD candidate in systems biology at Harvard University "that is to say, sex had to come about in a species such as our own to allow for more effective natural selection because the mutation rate is too high to sustain otherwise."
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Flycatcher genome sheds light on causes of mutations
More information: Mashaal Sohail et al, Negative selection in humans and fruit flies involves synergistic epistasis, Science (2017). DOI: 10.1126/science.aah5238 
Journal reference: Science [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: Brigham and Women's Hospital



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-05-ongoing-na...s.html#jCp[url=https://phys.org/news/2017-05-ongoing-natural-genetic-mutations-humans.html#jCp][/url]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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Quote:"Our study suggests that natural selection against highly damaging genetic mutations is ongoing in humans, and that it is aided by synergistic interactions between different parts of the human genome," said Sunyaev.

Which is why I think that in the song Millenium of my theme for my site talks about humans having babies in Zero-G WILL survive as a new sub-species to Humans.  We will adapt to Zero-G through generations.

Much of the UFO 'lore' and one video where a Grey informs the interviewer that he is from our FUTURE.  And it likely true, that we would adapt from our FAT bodies to tiny limbs but since we are getting smarter (in general though not everyone as is obvious) our heads would increase as our brains become bigger as we learn how to do more things within our own bodies with our own brain power.

And NASA's plans for 2030 are just plain chicken shit.  Elon Musk MUST be allowed to move forward on his own.

Bob... Ninja Alien2
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CrrSAc-vjG4

What Plants Talk About (Full Documentary)
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
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It Bleeds. It Breathes. It's a Lifelike Artificial Human Corpse!

By Mindy Weisberger, Senior Writer | December 4, 2017

[Image: aHR0cDovL3d3dy5saXZlc2NpZW5jZS5jb20vaW1h...ItMDEuanBn]
SynDaver Labs' artificial cadavers are uncannily close to the real thing.
Credit: Courtesy of SynDaver Labs
Medical schools have historically used human cadavers to train students in anatomy and medical procedures, a tradition that dates back hundreds of years. However, a unique type of medical model provides a remarkably human alternative to working with preserved corpses.
SynDaver synthetic humans are anatomically accurate medical models fabricated by the company SynDaver Labs. All of the body's muscles, organs and systems are meticulously represented, and unlike traditional models made of rubbery silicon or rigid plastic, SynDavers' are moist and pliable, and they closely resemble living tissue.
One type of these human models, built to train surgeons and first responders, even mimics what happens in the body during surgery or trauma, presenting the biological functions in a living person in distress, such as fluctuating respiration, blood pressure and heartbeat, according to the SynDaver website. [In Photos: Explore a Biodigital Human Body]

"The patient simulator that we have actually replicates the condition of a real patient — right down to, basically, bleeding to death," Kevin King, SynDaver's vice president for global marketing, told Live Science.
"It mimics exactly the physiology you and I would have, if we were to sustain the same injury," King said. "The heart rate would speed up, the blood pressure would drop, respiration would speed up. Our model is able to replicate all of those things."
These simulators, which can cost as much as $100,000, not only include organs and tissues that feel real, they also contain dynamic internal systems that interact with software. Using a tablet controller, instructors can program elements in their "patient" such as heart rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure, while a blood-like liquid drawn from refillable reservoirs circulates through the synthetic body and spills from its "wounds," providing a valuable learning environment for surgeons, King said.
"Throughout most of their training, most students would never have the opportunity to hold a human heart in their hand," King told Live Science. "Ours mimics all those properties, and it actually pumps, so they can see what a living heart would do."

[Image: aHR0cDovL3d3dy5saXZlc2NpZW5jZS5jb20vaW1h...MDYzMTg=48]
Skin, muscles and organs in the anatomically accurate synthetic corpses fabricated by SynDaver, have the look and feel of organic tissue.
Credit: Courtesy of SynDaver Labs
 
Other SynDavers that are merely realistic anatomical models without moving parts come with a price starting at $60,000, and they have the same remarkably lifelike feel to their tissues, which are made from materials that mimic the tactile sensation, elasticity and physiological properties of human soft tissue, King said.
In fact, the television show "MythBusters," which recently returned to the Science Channel, used SynDavers as stand-ins to address the damage that could be done to the human body by some of the show's myth-busting scenarios, MythBusters' hosts Jon Lung and Brian Louden recently told Live Science.
"It is probably one of the most interesting tools we have in our arsenal," Lung said.
"You would really have to use a human cadaver to do the tests that we do as accurately as we do them — and you just can't do that," he said.
What makes SynDavers' faux-organic organs, skin and muscles so lifelike? Moisture is a key component of the polymer's secret recipe — "'Water, salt and fibers' is what I'm allowed to tell you," King said. [5 Amazing Technologies That Are Revolutionizing Biotech]
Realistic conditions             
In recent years, SynDaver is just one of many technological advances in medicine that have improved the tools that doctors use for training, diagnosis and surgeries.
Magnetic resonance imaging — MRIs — can visualize structures as delicate as the brain's individual blood vessels, allowing experts to model them in 3D and pinpoint brain regions for repair. Surgeons can use targeted radiation beams to destroy tumors or lesions in the brain and in other parts of the body.
Researchers are also developing stretchy, wearable electronics that could one day serve as ultrathin "smart gloves," helping doctors and nurses to diagnose or treat patients with a single touch.
Sophisticated virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) surgery simulations — sometimes incorporated with 3D-printed organ models — are also proving to be valuable for doctors and medical students, enabling them to learn or practice tricky surgical techniques under realistic conditions that carry no risk to a patient, Live Science previously reported.
However, while being able to virtually "lift" a 3D image of a still-beating heart out of a patient sounds visually impressive, VR and AR are ultimately no match for a hands-on, visceral experience when it comes to treating or studying the human body, King told Live Science.
"I would much rather them put their hands inside the technology, feel the real weight of a heart, feel the beating of a heart as it exists in its native environment, not floating through space," he explained.

Source: https://www.livescience.com/61089-syndav...umans.html

Soon with Synesthetic Cybernetic Biological Implants, humans will become adapted to having to live with robotic systems to function; just as I have had to since end of 2008 after 4th open heart surgery.  Until my December visit with my general doctor did I tell him for 8 months I had been having 20 heart beat/ minute orgasms..EVERYDAY.

Now I am on my 2nd pacemaker, and will likely be required to keep one in me...even if I WISH, no matter what, to return to those astral journey's with only a thin tether of my soul to my body while I stood naked on the edge of the Smoker in Downtown Cydonia...feeling the dust, the sand, wind and a 'spicey smell' in the air.

So too will humans fused sperm n egg in zero-gravity; the child will grow and develop in Zero-G and be birthed in the light of the stars...in the middle of the Universe.

Real question is....we will WE as humans even survive long enough to let Elon Musk get us OFF this FRACKING planet.  Because FRACKING this planet for Natural Gas is creating a Climate disaster we now cannot reverse.

Even so; with Zionists Imperialism willing to go to Nuclear War over "Little Rocket Man"; two nukes in New York City to melt 110 story buildings in 15 seconds EACH; it only took 2 nukes to destroy the Martians atmosphere.

Bob... Ninja Split_spawn
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
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Scientific Study: Complex Life Could Exist on 100 Million Planets Within the Milky Way

Cosmos, News, Recent Articles, Science

6:30 AM

A new study asserts that the Milky Way is home to one hundred million planets that could support alien life. And not just simple microbial life, but complex alien life.

A scientific team comprised of Louis Irwin from the University of Texas at El Paso, Alberto Fairén from Cornell University, Abel Méndez from the Planetary Habitability Laboratory at the University of Puerto Rico at Arecibo, and Dirk Schulze-Makuch from Washington State University evaluated the expanding list of confirmed exoplanets (currently at 1,792), then evaluated the density, temperature, substrate, chemistry, distance from its parent star, and age of each planet.

The team used this information to compute a Biological Complexity Index (BCI), rating these planets on a scale of 0 to 1.0 according to characteristics assumed to be important for supporting multicellular life.

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Image Credit: PHR @ UPR Arecibo, NASA, Richard Wheeler @Zephyris

Professor Schulze-Makuch explained on Air & Space Magazine‘s website:
Quote:"The BCI calculation revealed that 1 to 2 percent of known exoplanets showed a BCI rating higher than Jupiter’s moon Europa, which has a subsurface global ocean that may be hospitable to life. Based on an estimate of 10 billion stars in the Milky Way, and assuming an average of one planet per star, this yields the figure of 100 million. Some scientists believe the number could be 10 times higher."
Schulze-Makuch is also careful to point out that the study does not claim that complex life definitively exists on one hundred million planets. It only points out that the necessary conditions to support that life could exist on that many planets.

[Image: Dirk_Schulze_Makuch.jpg]
Professor Dirk Schulze-Makuch. (Credit: WSU)

The team’s research was published in the journal Challenges in a paper titled “Assessing the Possibility of Biological Complexity on Other Worlds, with an Estimate of the Occurrence of Complex Life in the Milky Way Galaxy.” 

By Jason McClellan, Open Minds;


Source: http://humansarefree.com/2014/06/scienti...could.html


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"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
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