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Walking on Water: Man on Cydonia
That CO2 nonsense is more Nicky Hoffman type No Adult Supervision Available @ Just Plain Liars "theme" that they keep doing these things:

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(10-31-2017, 01:06 PM)3 hours ago Wrote: That CO2 nonsense is more Nicky Hoffman type No Adult Supervision Available @ Just Plain Liars "theme" that they keep doing these things:

     


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EAWinters on Mars are shaping the Red Planet's landscape 

October 27, 2017

[Image: wintersonmar.jpg]
Dendritic furrows on Martian dunes (white arrows). Yellow arrows point to boulders, red arrows denote dark fans. Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona
Researchers based millions of kilometres from Mars have unveiled new evidence for how contemporary features are formed on the Red Planet. Their innovative lab-based experiments on carbon dioxide (CO2) sublimation - the process by which a substance changes from a solid to a gas without an intermediate liquid phase - suggest the same process is responsible for altering the appearance of sand dunes on Mars.



The research was led by a Trinity College Dublin team comprising PhD candidate in the School of Natural Sciences, Lauren Mc Keown, and Dr Mary Bourke, along with Professor Jim McElwaine of Durham University. Their work, which describes phenomena unlike anything seen on Earth, has just been published in the Scientific Reports.
Lauren Mc Keown said: "We've all heard the exciting news snippets about the evidence for water on Mars. However, the current Martian climate does not frequently support water in its liquid state—so it is important that we understand the role of other volatiles that are likely modifying Mars today."
"Mars' atmosphere is composed of over 95% CO2, yet we know little about how it interacts with the surface of the planet. Mars has seasons, just like Earth, which means that in winter, a lot of the CO2 in the atmosphere changes state from a gas to a solid and is deposited onto the surface in that form. The process is then reversed in the spring, as the ice sublimates, and this seasonal interplay may be a really important geomorphic process."
Dr Bourke added: "Several years ago I discovered unique markings on the surface of Martian sand dunes. I called them Sand Furrows as they were elongated shallow, networked features that formed and disappeared seasonally on Martian dunes. What was unusual about them was that they appeared to trend both up and down the dune slopes, which ruled out liquid water as the cause."
[Image: 1-wintersonmar.jpg]
Linear gullies on a dune in Matara Crater, Mars, Red and white arrows point to pits. Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona
"At that time I proposed that they had been formed by cryo-venting—a process whereby pressurised CO2 gas beneath the seasonal ice deposit erodes complex patterns on the dune surface when the ice fractures and releases the gas in towering dust and gas geysers. I was delighted when Lauren joined the Earth and Planetary Surface Process Group in the Department of Geography to work on this phenomenon with Jim and myself. What was required was a demonstration of how sand would respond to sublimation of CO2 ice, and this published work is an important step in providing that required proof."
The researchers designed and built a low humidity chamber and placed CO2 blocks on the granular surface. The experiments revealed that sublimating CO2 can form a range of furrow morphologies that are similar to those observed on Mars.


Linear gullies are another example of active Martian features not found on Earth. They are long, sometimes sinuous, narrow carvings thought to form by CO2 ice blocks which fall from dune brinks and 'glide' downslope.
Lauren Mc Keown said: "The difference in temperature between the sandy surface and the CO2 block will generate a vapor layer beneath the block, allowing it to levitate and maneuver downslope, in a similar manner to how pucks glide on an ice-hockey table, carving a channel in its wake. At the terminus, the block will sublimate and erode a pit. It will then disappear without a trace other than the roughly circular depression beneath it."
"While gullies on Earth are commonly formed by liquid water, they almost always terminate in debris aprons and not pits. The presence of pits therefore provides more support for a hypothesis whereby CO2 blocks are responsible for linear gullies."
[Image: 2-wintersonmar.jpg]
Dendritic furrows formed by basal sublimation of a CO2 ice block in contact with a granular surface. Credit: Lauren Mc Keown and Dr Mary Bourke, Trinity College Dublin
By sliding dry ice blocks onto the sand bed in the low humidity chamber, the group showed that stationary blocks could erode negative topography in the form of pits and deposit lateral levees. In some cases, blocks sublimated so rapidly that they burrowed beneath the subsurface and were swallowed up by the sand in under 60 seconds.
Professor McElwaine said: "This process is really unlike anything seen to occur naturally on Earth - the bed appears fluidised and sand is kicked up in every direction. When we first observed this particular effect, it was a really exciting moment."
By generating 3-D models of the modified bed in each case, pit dimensions could be used to predict the range of block sizes that would erode the pits seen on Mars, which vary in diameter from 1 m to up to 19 m. A pit on Russell Crater megadune on Mars was observed to grow within one Mars Year to an extent predicted by these calculations, following the observation of a block within it the previous year.
The next phase of work, supported by Europlanet Horizon 2020 funding, will see the team head to the Open University Mars Chamber to assess the influence of Martian atmospheric conditions on these new geomorphic processes and test a numerical model developed by Professor McElwaine.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Where does the sand on Mars come from?
More information: L. E. Mc Keown et al, Experiments On Sublimating Carbon Dioxide Ice And Implications For Contemporary Surface Processes On Mars, Scientific Reports (2017). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-14132-2 
Journal reference: Scientific Reports [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: Trinity College Dublin



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-10-winters-mars-red-planet-landscape.html#jCp[/url]




Scientists answer to long-debated mystery of what formed Martian landscapes   
October 30, 2017

[Image: mars.png]
Credit: NASA
Scientists from The Open University (OU) have discovered a process that could explain the long-debated mystery of how land features on Mars are formed in the absence of significant amounts of water.



Experiments carried out in the OU Mars Simulation Chamber – specialised equipment, which is able to simulate the atmospheric conditions on Mars – reveal that Mars' thin atmosphere (about 7 mbar – compared to 1,000 mbar on Earth) combined with periods of relatively warm surface temperatures causes water flowing on the surface to violently boil. This process can then move large amounts of sand and other sediment, which effectively 'levitates' on the boiling water.
This means that, in comparison to Planet Earth, relatively small amounts of liquid water moving across Mars' surface could form the large dune flows, gullies and other features, which characterise the Red Planet.
Dr Jan Raack, Marie Skłodowska-Curie Research Fellow at The Open University, is lead author of the research; he said:
"Whilst planetary scientists already know that the surface of Mars has 'mass-wasting' features – such as dune flows, gullies, and recurring slope lineae – which occur as a result of sediment transportation down a slope, the debate about what is forming them continues.
"Our research has discovered that this levitation effect caused by boiling water under low pressure enables the rapid transport of sand and sediment across the surface. This is a new geological phenomenon, which doesn't happen on Earth, and could be vital to understanding similar processes on other planetary surfaces."
Dr Raack conducted these experiments in the Hypervelocity Impact (HVI) Laboratory based at the OU. He added:
"The sources of this liquid water will require more observational studies; however, the research shows that the effects of relatively small amounts of water on Mars in forming features on the surface may have been widely underestimated.
"We need to carry out more research into how water levitates on Mars, and missions such as the ESA ExoMars 2020 Rover will provide vital insight to help us better understand our closest neighbour."
The research has been published in the academic journal Nature Communications.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Winters on Mars are shaping the Red Planet's landscape
More information: Jan Raack et al. Water induced sediment levitation enhances downslope transport on Mars, Nature Communications (2017). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-017-01213-z 
Journal reference: Nature Communications [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: Open University



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-10-scientists-long-debated-mystery-martian-landscapes.html#jCp[url=https://phys.org/news/2017-10-scientists-long-debated-mystery-martian-landscapes.html#jCp]
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Yes I understand your saying the SECOND article says its H20  Drool   while the first one lined out is the CO2 silliness Shemp



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Salt pond in Antarctica, among the saltiest waters on Earth, is fed from beneath
November 15, 2017 by Hannah Hickey

[Image: saltpondinan.jpg]
The liquid in Don Juan Pond is almost 45 percent salts by weight. It is in Wright Valley, one of the Antarctic valleys where the air is very cold and dry. Credit: Pierre Roudier/Flickr
At the base of the Transantarctic Mountains lies a geological oddity. Don Juan Pond is one of the saltiest bodies of water on the planet, filled with a dense, syrupy brine rich in calcium chloride that can remain liquid to minus 50 degrees Celsius, far below the freezing point of water. But the source of water and salt to this unusual pond remains a mystery—even as hints emerge that water in a similar form could exist on Mars.


A new University of Washington study uses the pond's bizarre chemistry to pinpoint the water's source. The recent paper, published Sept. 15 in Earth and Planetary Science Letters, reports that it is fed by a regional deep groundwater system and not, as previously suggested, from moisture seeping down from local valley slopes.
"Don Juan Pond is probably one of the most interesting ponds on Earth," said lead author Jonathan Toner, a UW research assistant professor in Earth and space sciences. "After 60 years of extensive study, we still don't really know exactly where it's coming from, what drives the fact that it's visible on the surface, and how it's changing."
The perennial pond measures about 100 by 300 meters, the size of a few football fields, and is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) deep on average. It was first visited in 1961 and named after the expedition's helicopter pilots, Donald Roe and John Hickey, earning it the name Don Juan Pond. The unique salts in the pond lower the freezing point, which is why this saline pond can exist in a place where the temperature ranges from minus 50 to plus 10 degrees Celsius (-58 to +50 °F).
[Image: 1-saltpondinan.jpg]
A satellite picture shows Don Juan Pond and surrounding slopes. Understanding the hydrology of this cold, dry environment could help explain conditions on Mars. Credit: NASA
The pond was long believed to be fed by deep groundwater. But then a high-profile 2013 paper suggested that near-surface moisture seeps, similar to recurring slope lineae features recently observed on Mars, were transporting salts downhill to create the salt pond.
Toner is a geochemist specializing in the formation and properties of water in extreme environments on Earth, Mars and beyond. For the new study, Toner created a model to compute how salty water changes during evaporation, freezing, and with different water and salt inputs and outputs. In Antarctica's appropriately named McMurdo Dry Valleys, water evaporation concentrates salts in the pond, which forces some salts to crystallize. These processes, along with inputs and outputs, cause the pond's water to change over time.



Toner ran his model for two situations: one where the water was gurgling up from beneath, and another where it was trickling down from near-surface seeps. Results show that the observed chemical makeup could only be produced from underneath.
"You couldn't get Don Juan Pond from these shallow groundwaters," Toner said. "It's definitely coming from the deep groundwater." His calculations also show that upwelling groundwater cycles through the pond every six months, meaning the water must exit the pond via some unseen underground outflow.
[Image: 2-saltpondinan.jpg]
Jonathan Toner in Antarctica doing field work toward his UW doctorate. Credit: Ronald Sletten/University of Washington
The pond's hydrology is important to geologists because nowhere on Earth is more similar to Mars. The Red Planet is extremely cold and dry, and the McMurdo Dry Valleys are one of the coldest and driest locations on Earth.
"If there is water on Mars, it's probably going to look a lot like this pond," Toner said. "Understanding how it formed has large implications for where would you expect to find similar environments on Mars."
Recent studies hint that liquid water might exist on the surface of Mars, potentially harboring life or even eventually supporting long-term human settlements. The darker lines on steep slopes, which look like moisture streaks observed above Don Juan Pond, could be caused by a similar groundwater system.
Toner will be part of a team exploring Don Juan Pond and surrounding areas this December, sponsored by NASA and the National Science Foundation. Researchers will spend six weeks camping near the pond and taking repeated chemical measurements of its liquid. They will also explore the nearby slopes to measure the chemistry of the moisture seeps, and try to find further evidence for the source of salts to Don Juan Pond.
"If we accept that the deep groundwater theory is true, then what we're seeing could be part of a bigger process that involves quite an extensive aquifer," Toner said. "When thinking about the implications for a similar environment on Mars, that's much more exciting than just a localized surface phenomenon."
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Team finds how the world's saltiest pond gets its salt
More information: J.D. Toner et al, The geochemistry of Don Juan Pond: Evidence for a deep groundwater flow system in Wright Valley, Antarctica, Earth and Planetary Science Letters (2017). DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2017.06.039 
Journal reference: Earth and Planetary Science Letters [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: University of Washington



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-11-salt-pond-antarctica-saltiest-earth.html#jCp
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Scientists Levitate Water Droplets, Figure Out What Drives 'Magical' Behavior

By Rafi Letzter, Staff Writer | November 16, 2017 11:34am ET

[Image: aHR0cDovL3d3dy5saXZlc2NpZW5jZS5jb20vaW1h...ExXzAuanBn]

A camera captures a drop of oil levitating during an experiment at MIT.
Credit: MIT 

Even as physicists use big, expensive experiments to uncover huge gravitational waves and tiny hadrons, they can still answer questions about the thoroughly mundane. For example — Why do droplets of cold milk bounce on the surface of hot coffee before sinking? Why do teensy spheres of water skitter across the surface of a pool in the rain?

A team of researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has for the first time observed and described the forces that cause drops of liquid to levitate above the surface of larger reservoirs. [Liquid Sculptures: Dazzling Photographs of Falling Water]

Here's how it works.

When a raindrop crashes into the surface of a puddle, the researchers found, twin engines kick in. The collision causes tiny currents to spin around inside the droplet as well as below the surface of the puddle. If you could peer into the droplet, you'd see water rushing downward along the edges inside the drop and then climbing back up toward the center, the new research found.

That spinning motion inside the droplet, invisible under most circumstances, creates enough force to tug on the air surrounding the droplet. The air forms into a thin, fast stream of wind that flows under the drop, holding it a hair's width above the surface, according to the new findings.

[Image: MTUxMDg1MTE4Ng==]

A figure from the paper shows how water turns in circles in the droplet and under the pool's surface, pulling in a cushion of air.
Credit: Journal of Fluid Mechanics 

The researchers found, however, that those engines — inside the droplet and below the surface of the liquid — don't spin on their own. Heat differences between a drop and the liquid it impacts drive the rotation and the levitation. Once the raindrop warms or cools to the temperature of the puddle  — a process sped up by those spinning engines that can take anywhere from milliseconds to seconds — it will crash through its magic rug of air and disappear into the puddle, the study showed.
The MIT researchers figured out how to calculate the minimum difference in heat for levitation to occur in any given liquid. If the difference is greater than that minimum, they found, the droplet levitates longer. Any shorter, and the drop won't levitate at all.
Through some clever experimental setups and the aid of high-speed cameras, the researchers were able to make some beautiful videos of the levitation engines in action. The scientists mixed some shiny flakes of titanium dioxide into oil, then pinned a drop of that oil against the surface of a larger pool with a syringe. They backlit the drop with a bright LED, and the titanium dioxide lit up as it swirled in the churning currents, following the path of the engines.





The authors published a paper describing the discovery on Nov. 8 in the Journal of Fluid Mechanics.

Originally published on https://www.livescience.com/60956-water-...itate.html

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Great info Bob,
 the video link does not work <---

maybe this one will





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I got that same error and RE_DID the insert making sure I made it a YouTube on drop down box.

Thanx for posting the video in separate post.

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Ice skating on water, even when it is really cold
November 27, 2017

[Image: iceskatingon.jpg]
By combining two laser beams (illustrated as red and green) on the surface, a new light beam (blue) is produced that contains detailed information about the arrangement of water molecules on the surface of ice. Using this technique, the researchers discovered that the surface of ice behaves in exactly the same way as liquid water, even at a temperature of –30°C. Credit: AMOLF
The outermost layer of ice behaves like liquid water, even at a temperature of –30°C. Physicists at AMOLF have irrefutably demonstrated this using a modern surface-sensitive measuring technique. At lower temperatures, however, the layer of water becomes increasingly thin. The researchers report their findings in the journal Angewandte Chemie.




One of the reasons ice is so slippery is that the outermost layer is more similar to a liquid than a solid. Researchers from Amsterdam have now experimentally demonstrated that the surface of ice has the same characteristics as liquid water, even at –30°C. This thin layer of water also explains why two ice cubes can freeze together when they come into contact, which does not happen with other materials.

AMOLF researchers Wilbert Smit and Huib Bakker studied the strength of the bonds between water molecules in the top layer of ice. As the surface is very thin, they used a sensitive technique that can visualize the behavior of only the outermost molecules of the surface. In previous efforts, the measuring equipment could not distinguish between the top layer and the rest of the ice.

The two researchers found that the liquid outermost layer became increasingly thin as the temperature dropped, from four molecular layers at –3°C to two molecular layers at –30°C. As the ice is cooled further, even the outermost layer eventually becomes frozen. That is one of the reasons that ice becomes less slippery at temperatures below –30°C. In those circumstances, ice skating becomes increasingly more difficult.

The researchers used an advanced technique called sum-frequency generation spectroscopy. This technique makes it possible to register the behavior of the surface very specifically, without passing on any information about the area underneath. If the surface is illuminated with two intense light beams of very rapid (femtosecond) lasers, then, under the right conditions, the two light beams only interact with the molecules on the surface. This produces a light beam of a different color. The color and intensity of this beam contain detailed information about the molecular structure of the surface.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Researchers explore implications of excess hydrogen bonding at the ice-vapor interface

More information: Wilbert J. Smit en Huib J. Bakker, The Surface of Ice is Like Supercooled Liquid Water, Angewandte Chemie, 27.11.17, DOI: 10.1002/anie.201707530 

Journal reference: Angewandte Chemie [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: AMOLF



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-11-ice-skating-cold.html#jCp


[Image: excesshydrog.jpg]

Researchers explore implications of excess hydrogen bonding at the ice-vapor interface

 [Image: 1x1.gif] October 3, 2017

It is at a temperature of −70 °C that water molecules at the surface of ice make the most bonds with each other. AMOLF researchers, together with an international team of colleagues, describe this in an article in Physical ...

[Image: 3-howdoeswater.jpg]

Scientists characterize the phase transitions of melting ice layers

 [Image: 1x1.gif] December 13, 2016

150 years ago, physicist Michael Faraday discovered that at the surface of frozen ice, well below 0°C, a thin film of liquid-like water is present. This thin film makes ice slippery and is crucial for the motion of glaciers.




Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-11-ice-skating-cold.html#jCp
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"Take me home" system automatically brings back astray astronauts

David Szondy     21 hours ago

[Image: take-home-1.jpg?auto=format%2Ccompress&c...baa50f5de6]
NASA astronauts would be able to find their way back to the spacecraft more easily with the help of a self-return system designed by Draper(Credit: NASA)

It's a nightmare scenario. An unconscious astronaut on a spacewalk gone wrong floats off into deep space with no way to get back and no way for anyone to reach them. To prevent this from happening, engineering firm Charles Draper Laboratory has patented a "take me home" automatic rescue system that allows a disabled or disoriented astronaut to return to safety at the push of a button.

Watch enough science fiction and you're bound to see it – a scene where an astronaut on a spacewalk, due to accident or carelessness, floats off into the infiniteness of space. In real life, nothing like that has happened and NASA has spent over half a century making sure it doesn't by developing various thruster systems to help astronauts save themselves in the event of an emergency.

The standard system is the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER) unit. This is a simple U-shaped module that bolts on to the astronaut's life support pack. The large box on the bottom contains a bottle of pressurized nitrogen and the arms hold tiny thrusters. In the event of losing a handhold on during a spacewalk while untethered, a control unit on the chest allows the astronaut to jet back to safety.

[Image: take-home-2.jpg?auto=format%2Ccompress&c...a21e0fa7eb]

The problem with this set up is that it isn't of any use if the astronaut is unconscious, confused, ill, or blinded. To overcome this, Draper has developed a system that acts like the automatic return on some upmarket drones, where the press of a button or a low battery charge causes the drone to stop whatever it's doing and return to base.
Funded by NASA, the "take me home" system is similar, but since there's no GPS in space it can be configured to work in a few different ways. Its sensors can detect movement, acceleration or a change in position relative to a fixed location, such as a spacecraft, and once activated – either by the astronaut or remotely by another crewmember or mission control – the navigation module can use dead reckoning, beacons, vision-aided navigation or a star-tracker system to calculate how to get the crewmember home, depending on the final system design. The system also takes into account time, oxygen consumption, and safety and clearance requirements to calculate a trajectory that will return the person to safety using the SAFER unit.

According to the patent, the system could carry out the rescue by itself by taking control of the thrusters, or it may provide the astronaut with visual, auditory, and sensory cues using sensors and a helmet display. It can also be programmed to handle a number of anticipated scenarios and act accordingly.

Draper says that the "take me home" technology could also find applications on Earth, aiding first responders, fire fighters, skydivers, and scuba divers in disorienting situations.

Source:
Draper

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