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Walking on Water: Man on Cydonia
Rivers raged on Mars late into its history
March 27, 2019, University of Chicago

[Image: riversragedo.jpg]
A photo of a preserved river channel on Mars, taken by an orbiting satellite, with color overlaid to show different elevations (blue is low, yellow is high). Credit: NASA/JPL/Univ. Arizona/UChicago 


Long ago on Mars, water carved deep riverbeds into the planet's surface—but we still don't know what kind of weather fed them. Scientists aren't sure, because their understanding of the Martian climate billions of years ago remains incomplete.




A new study by University of Chicago scientists catalogued these rivers to conclude that significant river runoff persisted on Mars later into its history than previously thought. According to the study, published March 27 in Science Advances, the runoff was intense—rivers on Mars were wider than those on Earth today—and occurred at hundreds of locations on the red planet.

This complicates the picture for scientists trying to model the ancient Martian climate, said lead study author Edwin Kite, assistant professor of geophysical sciences and an expert in both the history of Mars and climates of other worlds. "It's already hard to explain rivers or lakes based on the information we have," he said. "This makes a difficult problem even more difficult."

But, he said, the constraints could be useful in winnowing the many theories researchers have proposed to explain the climate.

Mars is crisscrossed with the distinctive tracks of long-dead rivers. NASA's spacecraft have taken photos of hundreds of these rivers from orbit, and when the Mars rover Curiosity landed in 2012, it sent back images of pebbles that were rounded—tumbled for a long time in the bottom of a river.

It's a puzzle why ancient Mars had liquid water. Mars has an extremely thin atmosphere today, and early in the planet's history, it was also only receiving a third of the sunlight of present-day Earth, which shouldn't be enough heat to maintain liquid water "Indeed, even on ancient Mars, when it was wet enough for rivers some of the time, the rest of the data looks like Mars was extremely cold and dry most of the time," Kite said.

[Image: 5c9b61e86e58e.jpg]
Marked photo of a preserved river channel on Mars, taken by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, with color overlaid to indicate elevation (blue is low, yellow is high.) The range of elevation in the scene is approximately 35 meters. Credit: NASA/JPL/Univ. Arizona/UChicago
Seeking a better understanding of Martian precipitation, Kite and his colleagues analyzed photographs and elevation models for more than 200 ancient Martian riverbeds spanning over a billion years. These riverbeds are a rich source of clues about the water running through them and the climate that produced it. For example, the width and steepness of the riverbeds and the size of the gravel tell scientists about the force of the water flow, and the quantity of the gravel constrains the volume of water coming through.



Their analysis shows clear evidence for persistent, strong runoff that occurred well into the last stage of the wet climate, Kite said.

The results provide guidance for those trying to reconstruct the Martian climate, Kite said. For example, the size of the rivers implies the water was flowing continuously, not just at high noon, so climate modelers need to account for a strong greenhouse effect to keep the planet warm enough for average daytime temperatures above the freezing point of water.

The rivers also show strong flow up to the last geological minute before the wet climate dries up. "You would expect them to wane gradually over time, but that's not what we see," Kite said. The rivers get shorter—hundreds of kilometers rather than thousands—but discharge is still strong. "The wettest day of the year is still very wet."

It's possible the climate had a sort of "on/off" switch, Kite speculated, which tipped back and forth between dry and wet cycles.

"Our work answers some existing questions but raises a new one. 
[Image: source.gif]
Which is wrong: the climate models, the atmosphere evolution models, or our basic understanding of inner solar system chronology?" he said.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Explosive bursts of methane helped ancient Mars keep liquid water flowing, study finds

More information: E.S. Kite el al., "Persistence of intense, climate-driven runoff late in Mars history," Science Advances (2019). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aav7710 , http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/5/3/eaav7710 

Journal reference: Science Advances [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: University of Chicago



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2019-03-rivers-rag...y.html#jCp

All three are wrong Gangup you crater counting geniuses
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
...


Quote:It's possible Mars climate had a sort of --  on Slap2 off" -- switch,
Kite speculated, 

which tipped back and forth between dry and wet cycles.



from the last post
a quote
from just below the last image:


Quote:Which is wrong: 

the climate models Whip 

the atmosphere evolution models  Tp


or our basic  Gangup understanding Nonono  of inner solar system chronology? 


We all know the answer to that question.

All three of the above.
...
Reply
And they are NOT going to find this out landing ANYWHERE except Cydonia.

#2020CydoniaRover


S   P   R   E   A    D            I    T           E      V     E     R     Y     W     H     E     R     E  


I wrote ESA and asked THEM to land in Cydonia with their EXOMARS lander.  I mentioned that as fellow HiWish member Elon Musk is going to land at Cydonia Latitude just a few degrees West in longitude.


Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Reply
or our basic understanding of inner solar system chronology?

Thats the one, I think that whatever cosmic event took place here on Earth 12000 years ago, also took place on Mars, and possibly Venus. Something very big went through our Solar System, and I think that whatever hit Earth was only part of it.
Reply
(03-27-2019, 10:57 PM)EA Wrote: Rivers raged on Mars late into its history
March 27, 2019, University of Chicago


"Our work answers some existing questions but raises a new one. 
[Image: source.gif]
Which is wrong: the climate models, the atmosphere evolution models, or our basic understanding of inner solar system chronology?" he said.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Explosive bursts of methane helped ancient Mars keep liquid water flowing, study finds

More information: E.S. Kite el al., "Persistence of intense, climate-driven runoff late in Mars history," Science Advances (2019). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aav7710 , http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/5/3/eaav7710 

Journal reference: Science Advances [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: University of Chicago



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2019-03-rivers-rag...y.html#jCp

All three are wrong Gangup you crater counting geniuses

Sum bill nye's and those scienty type guys count craters and some researchers study them.

New evidence of deep groundwater on Mars
March 28, 2019, University of Southern California

[Image: newevidenceo.jpg]
Recurrent Slope Linae on the Palikir Crater walls on Mars. Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona
In mid-2018, researchers supported by the Italian Space Agency detected the presence of a deep-water lake on Mars under its south polar ice caps. Now, researchers at the USC Arid Climate and Water Research Center (AWARE) have published a study that suggests deep groundwater could still be active on Mars and could originate surface streams in some near-equatorial areas on Mars.




The researchers at USC have determined that groundwater likely exists in a broader geographical area than just the poles of Mars and that there is an active system, as deep as 750 meters, from which groundwater comes to the surface through cracks in the specific craters they analyzed.

Heggy, who is a member of the Mars Express Sounding radar experiment MARSIS probing Mars subsurface, and co-author Abotalib Z. Abotalib, a postdoctoral research associate at USC, studied the characteristics of Mars Recurrent Slope Linea, which are akin to dried, short streams of water that appear on some crater walls on Mars.

Scientists previously thought these features were affiliated with surface water flow or close subsurface water flow, says Heggy.

"We suggest that this may not be true. We propose an alternative hypothesis that they originate from a deep pressurized groundwater source which comes to the surface moving upward along ground cracks," Heggy says.

"The experience we gained from our research in desert hydrology was the cornerstone in reaching this conclusion. We have seen the same mechanisms in the North African Sahara and in the Arabian Peninsula, and it helped us explore the same mechanism on Mars," said Abotalib Z. Abotalib, the paper's first author.

The two scientists concluded that fractures within some of Mars' craters, enabled water springs to rise up to the surface as a result of pressure deep below. These springs leaked onto the surface, generating the sharp and distinct linear features found on the walls of these craters. The scientists also provide an explanation on how these water features fluctuate with seasonality on Mars.

The study, to be published on March 28, 2019, in Nature Geoscience, suggests that groundwater might be deeper than previously thought in areas where such streams are observed on Mars. The findings suggest that the exposed part of these ground fractures associated with these springs as the primary location candidates to explore Mars' habitability. Their work suggests that new probing methods should be developed to study these fractures.



Method:

Previous research to explore groundwater on Mars relied on interpreting the returned electromagnetic echoes sent from the radar-probing experiments from orbit onboard Mars Express and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. These experiments measured the reflection of the waves from both the surface and the subsurface whenever penetration was possible. However, this earlier method did not yet provide evidence of groundwater occurrence beyond the 2018 South Pole detection.

The authors of this current Nature Geoscience study used hi-resolution optical images and modeling to study the walls of large impact craters on Mars. The goal was to correlate the presence of fractures with the sources of streams that generate short water flows.

Heggy and Abotalib, who have long studied subsurface aquifers and groundwater flow movement on Earth and in desert environments, found similarities between the groundwater moving mechanisms in the Sahara and on Mars.

"Groundwater is strong evidence for the past similarity between Mars and Earth—it suggest they have a similar evolution, to some extent," says Heggy.

He says this deep source of groundwater is the most convincing evidence of similarities between the two planets—it suggest both may have had wet periods long enough to create such an active groundwater system.

For Heggy, an advocate for water science and water science education in arid areas, this particular study is not about colonization. But he says these rare and puzzling water flows on Mars are of big interest to the science community.

"Understanding how groundwater has formed on Mars, where it is today and how it is moving helps us constrain ambiguities on the evolution of climatic conditions on Mars for the last three billion years and how these conditions formed this groundwater system. It helps us to understand the similarities to our own planet and if we are going through the same climate evolution and the same path that Mars is going. Understanding Mars' evolution is crucial for understanding our own Earth's long-term evolution and groundwater is a key element in this process. "

The new study suggests that the groundwater that is the source of these water flows could be at depths starting at 750 meters deep. "Such depth requires us to consider more deep-probing techniques to look for the source of this groundwater versus looking for shallow sources of water, " says Heggy.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: First evidence of planet-wide groundwater system on Mars

More information: A deep groundwater origin for recurring slope linea on Mars, Nature Geoscience (2019). doi.org/10.1038/s41561-019-0327-5 , www.nature.com/articles/s41561-019-0327-5 

Journal reference: Nature Geoscience [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: University of Southern California



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2019-03-evidence-deep-groundwater-mars.html#jCp
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
I don't think the ground water is 750 feet deep.   Nonono

They are still NOT "thinking" Naughty  and putting out even more Horsepoop 


When Pence was asked how they were going to GET to the Moon he said he didn't know. Doh  


That means putting a man and/or woman on the Moon while Trump is still in office.


Pence said he will "buy" what is needed and restructure NASA if they cannot get it done by 2024.


https://www.foxnews.com/science/pence-ca...cle_inline


He better keep Elon Musk running things "out there":


Never Admit Something Aborts/ Just Puffin Lie   -rhw007


Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Reply
Quote:So while there is water everywhere in the solar system, the fact that it is hidden away inside minerals means that there is not always a drop to drink.
A surprising new study, published in Science Advances, suggests that a type of asteroid we didn't think contained very much water could be responsible – simultaneously demonstrating that the solar system is probably a lot wetter than had previously been thought.

MAY 2, 2019
How did the Earth get its water? Asteroid sample gives a surprising answer
by Monica Grady, The Conversation
[Image: howdidtheear.jpg]Asteroids known as ‘S-type’ contain a lot more water than we thought. Credit: Oliver Denker/Shuttestock
Water is essential for life on Earth and is one of our most precious natural resources. But considering how our planet formed, it is quite surprising how much water we still have. The Earth aggregated from a cloud of gas and dust – a protoplanetary disk – and was incandescently hot for the first few million years. Its surface was kept molten by impacts from comets and asteroids. Earth's interior was also (and still is) kept liquid by a combination of gravitational heating and the decay of radioactive isotopes.

That means that if there were any initial water (and organic compounds) on the Earth, it should have boiled off quickly. So how come there's plenty of water on our planet today – where did it actually come from? A surprising new study, published in Science Advances, suggests that a type of asteroid we didn't think contained very much water could be responsible – simultaneously demonstrating that the solar system is probably a lot wetter than had previously been thought.
Scientists have long debated exactly where the Earth's water comes from. One theory suggests that it might have been captured from the asteroids and comets that collided with it. Another argues that water was always present in the rocks of the Earth's mantle and was gradually released to the surface through volcanoes.
Thanks to the Japanese Hayabusa mission we now have fresh evidence. The spacecraft brought back a precious cargo of grains retrieved from the surface of asteroid 25143 Itokawain 2010. The researchers behind the new study were able to analyse the water content of two grains. They used a sophisticated piece of kit called an ion microprobe, which bombards a sample with a beam of ions (charged atoms) in order to probe the composition of its surface.
The experiment was not easy – the grains are tiny, less than 40 microns (one millionth of a metre) across, and each grain was made up of several different minerals. The ion microprobe had to be focused on one specific mineral within each grain so that the authors could gather the required data. The species of mineral that they analysed was an iron and magnesium-bearing silicate known as a pyroxene, which is almost entirely free of calcium.
[Image: 1-howdidtheear.jpg]

itokawa. Credit: NASA/JPL
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This type of substance is not usually associated with water – indeed, it is regarded as a Nominally Anhydrous Mineral (NAM). The lattice of a pyroxene crystal does not contain vacant sites for water molecules in the same way that, for example, a clay mineral does – so its structure is not necessarily conducive to taking up water. However, the sensitivity of the technique that the authors used was such that they could detect and measure tiny quantities of water.

The results were surprising: the grains contained up to 1,000 parts per million of water. Knowing the composition of Itokawa, the researchers could then estimate the water content of the entire asteroid, which translated to between 160 and 510 parts per million of water. This is more than had been anticipated – remote measurements of two similar bodies (also S-typeasteroids) found that one contained 30 and the other 300 parts per million water.
Unlikely source
Water is made from hydrogen and oxygen. But those elements occur as different isotopes – meaning they can have a different number of neutrons in their atomic nucleus (neutrons are particles that make up the nucleus together with protons). The researchers looked at the hydrogen isotopic composition of the water and discovered it was very close to that of Earth, suggesting the water on Earth has the same source as that of the Hayabusa grains.
The results raise several interesting questions, the first of which is how so much water came to be in nominally anhydrous minerals? The authors suggest that, during their formation, the grains absorbed hydrogen from the protoplanetary disk, which, at the high temperatures and pressures of the solar nebula, combined with oxygen in the minerals to produce water.
[Image: 2-howdidtheear.jpg][/size]

Original morphology of the two studied Itokawa particles. Credit: Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), edited by Z. Jin

So far, so reasonable. But how is it possible that the water has remained in the minerals? They after all came from an S-type asteroid – one that forms in the inner and hotter part of the solar system. Itokawa has had a complex history of thermal metamorphism and collision, reaching temperatures at least as high as 900°C. But the researchers used computer models to predict how much water would be lost in these processes – and it turned out to be less than 10% of the total.
Earth's water
But how does all this relate to Earth's water? The researchers speculate that following the grains' uptake of water from the protoplanetary disk, the minerals aggregated and stuck together to form pebbles and eventually larger bodies such as asteroids.
If this mechanism worked for asteroids, it could also hold true for the Earth – maybe its original water came from these minerals coming together to help form the Earth. While water was then lost during the Earth's early history, it was added again during collisions by the numerous S-type asteroids – as implied by the similarity in hydrogen isotopic composition between Earth and Itokawa.
This fresh look at an old problem – the origin of Earth's water – has produced a surprising conclusion, one that suggests a large population of inner solar system asteroids might contain a lot more water than had been realised.
So while there is water everywhere in the solar system, the fact that it is hidden away inside minerals means that there is not always a drop to drink.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
...

I wonder why they don't specify which pyroxene they think they have.


Quote:The species of mineral that they analysed was an iron and magnesium-bearing silicate known as a pyroxene, --- > which is almost entirely free of calcium.


"free of calcium" sets limits on the rock composition and definition.
I wonder if it is simply olivine or forsterite with low calcium pyroxene.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar...3704007793

...
Reply
MAY 10, 2019
New water cycle on Mars discovered
by Max Planck Society
[Image: newwatercycl.jpg]Billions of years ago, Mars could have looked like this with an ocean covering part of its surface. Credit: NASA/GSFC
Approximately every two Earth years, when it is summer on the southern hemisphere of Mars, a window opens: Only in this season can water vapor efficiently rise from the lower into the upper Martian atmosphere. There, winds carry the rare gas to the north pole. While part of the water vapor decays and escapes into space, the rest sinks back down near the poles. Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (MPS) in Germany describe this unusual Martian water cycle in a current issue of the Geophysical Research Letters. Their computer simulations show how water vapor overcomes the barrier of cold air in the middle atmosphere of Mars and reaches higher atmospheric layers. This could explain why Mars, unlike Earth, has lost most of its water.

Billions of years ago, Mars was a planet rich in water with rivers, and even an ocean. Since then, our neighboring planet has changed dramatically. Today, only small amounts of frozen water exist in the ground; in the atmosphere, water vapor occurs only in traces. All in all, the planet may have lost at least 80 percent of its original water. In the upper atmosphere of Mars, ultraviolet radiation from the sun split water molecules into hydrogen (H) and hydroxyl radicals (OH). The hydrogen escaped from there irretrievably into space. Measurements by space probes and space telescopes show that even today, water is still lost in this way. But how is this possible? The middle atmosphere layer of Mars, like Earth's tropopause, should actually stop the rising gas. After all, this region is usually so cold that water vapor would turn to ice. How does the Martian water vapor reach the upper air layers?
In their current simulations, the Russian and German researchers find a previously unknown mechanism reminiscent of a kind of pump. Their model comprehensively describes the flows in the entire gas envelope surrounding Mars from the surface to an altitude of 160 kilometers. The calculations show that the normally ice-cold middle atmosphere becomes permeable to water vapor twice a day—but only at a certain location, and at a certain time of year.
[Image: 1-newwatercycl.jpg]

Vertical distribution of water vapor on Mars during the course of a Mars year, here shown at 3 am local time. Only when it is summer on the southern hemisphere can water vapor reach higher atmospheric layers. Credit: GPL, Shaposhnikov et al.: Seasonal „Water“ Pump in the Atmosphere of Mars: Vertical Transport to the Thermosphere
[size=undefined]
The orbit of Mars plays a decisive role in this. Its path around the sun, which lasts about two Earth years, is much more elliptical than that of our planet. At the point closest to the sun (which roughly coincides with the summer of the southern hemisphere), Mars is approximately 42 million kilometers closer to the sun than at its furthest point. Summer in the southern hemisphere is therefore noticeably warmer than summer in the northern hemisphere.
"When it is summer in the southern hemisphere, at certain times of day, water vapor can rise locally with warmer air masses and reach the upper atmosphere," says Paul Hartogh from MPS, summarizing the results of the new study. In the upper atmospheric layers, air flows carry the gas along the longitudes to the north pole, where it cools and sinks down again. However, part of the water vapor escapes this cycle: under the influence of solar radiation, the water molecules disintegrate and hydrogen escapes into space.

Another Martian peculiarity can fortify this unusual hydrological cycle: huge dust storms that span the entire planet and repeatedly afflict Mars at intervals of several years. The last such storms occurred in 2018 and 2007 and were comprehensively documented by space probesorbiting Mars. "The amounts of dust swirling through the atmosphere during such a storm facilitate the transport of water vapor into high air layers," says Alexander Medvedev from MPS.
[Image: newwatercycl.gif][/size]

Time and again, Martian dust stroms span the entire planet, as here in June 2018. The image was taken from the NASA's rover Curiosity. Storms of this kind can facilitate the transport of water into the upper atmosphere of Mars. Credit: NASA
[size=undefined]
The researchers calculated that during the dust storm of 2007, twice as much water vapor reached the upper atmosphere as during a stormless summer in the southern hemisphere. Since the dust particles absorb sunlight and thus heat up, the temperatures in the entire atmosphere rise by up to 30 degrees. "Our model shows with unprecedented accuracy how dust in the atmosphere affects the microphysical processes involved in the transformation of ice into water vapor," explains Dmitry Shaposhnikov of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, first author of the new study.
"Apparently, the Martian atmosphere is more permeable to water vapor than that of the Earth," Hartogh concludes. "The new seasonal water cycle that has been found contributes massively to Mars' continuing loss of water."[/size]


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Explore further
Dust storms linked to gas escape from Martian atmosphere[/size]


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More information: Dmitry S. Shaposhnikov et al. Seasonal Water "Pump" in the Atmosphere of Mars: Vertical Transport to the Thermosphere, Geophysical Research Letters (2019). DOI: 10.1029/2019GL082839
Journal information: Geophysical Research Letters [/url]

Provided by [url=https://phys.org/partners/max-planck-society/]Max Planck Society
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[size=undefined]https://phys.org/news/2019-05-mars.html[/size]
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