Thread Rating:
  • 1 Vote(s) - 1 Average
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
Climategate: the final nail in the coffin of 'Anthropogenic
[/url][Image: safe_image.php?d=AQDsu-xy4zofoVLN&w=476&...1WRdC-Wh_Z]
[url=https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/22/business/davos-snow.html?smid=fb-share]

At Davos, 6 Feet of Snow Brings Limousines to a Crawl
A weekend blizzard was still filling the mountain valley with more snow on Monday night as heads of state and C.E.O.s tried to gather for the World Economic Forum.
nytimes.com



http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/n...-1.4497416
A U.S. Navy ship is trapped in Montreal until spring due to icy waters
A Navy spokeswoman says the USS Little Rock was commissioned in Buffalo on Dec. 16 and was expected to make its way to its home port in Mayport, Fla., but it's been moored in Montreal since Christmas Eve.
The 118-metre vessel has been moored in the Old Port area since Christmas Eve

https://www.scientificamerican.com/artic...l-warming/

Cleaning Up Air Pollution May Strengthen Global Warming
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
Reply
...
wooks link
[/url]
Quote:[url=https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/cleaning-up-air-pollution-may-strengthen-global-warming/]https://www.scientificamerican.com/artic...l-warming/

Cleaning Up Air Pollution May Strengthen Global Warming


better look at this paragraph in the link text


Quote:In his own Twitter comment, 
researcher Glen Peters (also of CICERO, 
although he is not an author on the new study) 
suggested that meeting the 1.5-degree target is only possible with the help of geoengineering Whip
— using technology
to bring global temperature back down below a certain threshold.

In fact, one major proposed form of geoengineering involves using aerosols to cool the climate Scream

— although ideally   Doh  a form that's not hazardous to human health. Rofl

Other ideas include drawing carbon dioxide back out of the atmosphere. 



they are talking chemtrails technologies
aluminum oxides
barium oxides
sulphates
etc etc 

psycho-fucko's
...
Reply
EA Wrote:
NASA: Volcanic Activity  Arrow Heating Up Antarctica From Below polar regions
[Image: GetFile.aspx?guid=734a7d74-0a43-4692-9ed...desize=600]
(Mario Tama/Getty Images)
By Solange Reyner    |   Tuesday, 07 Nov 2017 05:42 PM

[b]NASA[/b] says a mantle plume below West Antarctica's Marie Byrd Land is the cause for some of the glacial melting beneath the ice sheet.


Heat loss form Earth’s interior  Arrow responsible for sliding ice sheets polar regions


by UPI22 Jan 2018 http://www.breitbart.com/news/heat-loss-...ce-sheets/

Jan. 22 (UPI) — New research suggests the dissipation of heat from Earth’s interior is responsible for the acceleration of the seaward slide of Greenland’s ice sheets.

Quote:Importantly, when modern climate models - the same as those used in the United Nations' recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports - were run under Eocene conditions, many could not replicate these findings. Instead, the models consistently underestimated polar ocean warming in the Eocene.
This discrepancy may result from a gap in our understanding of the climate system or from what we know about the Eocene, said David Evans, the study's lead author and Leverhulme Research Fellow at the University of St Andrews' School of Earth and Environmental Sciences. If it does indeed relate to the climate system, it raises the possibility that predictions of future polar warming are also too low.
"Yes, the tropics are warming but nowhere near to the same degree as the polar regions," Evans said. "That's something we really need to be able to understand and replicate in climate models. The fact that many models are unable to do that at the moment is worrying."


New Eocene fossil data suggest climate models may underestimate future polar warming
January 23, 2018, Florida Museum of Natural History


[Image: neweocenefos.jpg]
Foraminifera, small single-celled marine organisms, form their shells in concert with the ocean's temperature and chemistry. Like tiny time capsules, they can reveal the climate conditions of millions of years ago. Credit: Laura Cotton
A new international analysis of marine fossils shows that warming of the polar oceans during the Eocene, a greenhouse period that provides a glimpse of Earth's potential future climate, was greater than previously thought.



By studying the chemical composition of fossilized foraminifera, tiny single-celled animals that lived in shallow tropical waters, a team of researchers generated precise estimates of tropical sea surface temperatures and seawater chemistry during the Eocene Epoch, 56-34 million years ago. Using these data, researchers fine-tuned estimates from previous foram studies that captured polar conditions to show tropical oceans warmed substantially in the Eocene, but not as much as polar oceans.

Importantly, when modern climate models - the same as those used in the United Nations' recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports - were run under Eocene conditions, many could not replicate these findings. Instead, the models consistently underestimated polar ocean warming in the Eocene.

This discrepancy may result from a gap in our understanding of the climate system or from what we know about the Eocene, said David Evans, the study's lead author and Leverhulme Research Fellow at the University of St Andrews' School of Earth and Environmental Sciences. If it does indeed relate to the climate system, it raises the possibility that predictions of future polar warming are also too low.

"Yes, the tropics are warming but nowhere near to the same degree as the polar regions," Evans said. "That's something we really need to be able to understand and replicate in climate models. The fact that many models are unable to do that at the moment is worrying."

The researchers published their findings this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Scientists frequently look to the Eocene to understand how the Earth responds to higher levels of carbon dioxide. During the Eocene, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere was more than 560 parts per million, at least twice preindustrial levels, and the epoch kicked off with a global average temperature more than 8 degrees Celsius - about 14 degrees Fahrenheit - warmer than today, gradually cooling over the next 22 million years. These characteristics make the Eocene a good period on which to test our understanding of the climate system, said Laura Cotton, study co-author and curator of micropaleontology at the Florida Museum of Natural History.

 

One of the challenges has been accurately determining the difference between sea surface temperatures at the poles and the equator during the Eocene, with models predicting greater differences than data suggested.

The research team used large bottom-dwelling forams as "paleothermometers" to gain a more precise temperature reading. Forams have an exceptionally long fossil record, spanning more than 540 million years, and they are often well-preserved in ocean sediments. Most are small enough to fit into the eye of a needle - Cotton describes them as "an amoeba with a shell" - but they were so abundant during the Eocene that there are entire rocks composed of them.

[Image: 1-neweocenefos.jpg]
Fossilized foraminifera, such as these embedded in Tanzanian limestone, reveal that polar warming during the Eocene, a greenhouse period that offers a glimpse of our potential future climate, was greater than previously thought. Credit: Laura Cotton
"If you look at the pyramids, they're full of these tiny little lentil-like things - those are forams," Cotton said. "The ancient Greeks thought the pyramids were made from the fossilized lentils of slaves, but it's just the limestone from one of these deposits that is absolutely filled with them."

Forams form their shells in concert with ocean temperatures and chemistry, acting as miniscule time capsules, each containing a precise record of the temperature and ocean chemistry during its lifetime. Their shells are primarily made of calcium, carbon and oxygen. Heavy isotopes of carbon and oxygen bond together as a foram makes its shell - the cooler the temperature, the more they bond to each other.

By analyzing these clumped isotopes from fossil specimens found in India, Indonesia and Tanzania, the researchers could get an accurate reading of sea surface temperature across the tropics in the Eocene. They also lasered a small hole in each specimen to measure the amount of magnesium and calcium that vaporized, revealing the seawater chemistry.

They found that tropical sea surface temperature in the Eocene was about 6 degrees Celsius - about 10 degrees Fahrenheit - warmer than today.

"This was the first time we had samples that were good enough and this method was well-known enough that it could all come together," Cotton said.

The team then used their dataset from the tropics to back-calculate the temperature and chemistry of polar oceans, relying on previous studies of forams that captured the conditions of those regions.

With this correction factor in place, they investigated the degree to which polar oceans warmed more than the tropics, a feature of the climate system known as polar amplification. Their data showed that the difference between polar and equatorial sea surface temperatures in the Eocene was an estimated 20 degrees Celsius, about 36 degrees Fahrenheit. Today the difference is 28 degrees Celsius, indicating that polar regions are more sensitive to increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide than the tropics.

Troublingly, said Evans, when the team compared their data with various modern climate models under Eocene conditions, most models underestimated polar amplification by about 50 percent.

The two models that came closest to reproducing the team's data had one key aspect in common - they modified the way they accounted for cloud formation and the longevity of clouds in the atmosphere, particularly in the polar regions.

"To us, that looks like a promising research direction," he said. "If - and it's a big if - that turns out to be the right avenue to go down, that could play into the models we use for our future climate predictions."

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Ancient marine sediments provide clues to future climate change

More information: David Evans et al, Eocene greenhouse climate revealed by coupled clumped isotope-Mg/Ca thermometry, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2018). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714744115


Journal reference: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: Florida Museum of Natural History


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-01-eocene-fos...e.html#jCp

[url=https://phys.org/news/2018-01-eocene-fossil-climate-underestimate-future.html#jCp][/url]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
uh-oh
Reply
Tractor beam breakthrough could one day levitate humans - study

Published time: 23 Jan, 2018 12:24


[Image: 5a672782fc7e93fd168b456a.jpg]
© Angga Sidjabat / EyeEm / Getty Images 

Levitating humans could be in our future, thanks to a scientific breakthrough in acoustic tractor beam technology, which can now lift larger objects than ever before.

Engineers from the University of Bristol have demonstrated that it’s possible to stably levitate objects using the world’s most powerful acoustic tractor beams. Their findings were published in the Physical Review Letters on Monday.

 Acoustic tractor beams use soundwaves to hold particles in the air. It was previously believed they could only be used to levitate very small objects which were about the same size as a wavelength of sound, but the research demonstrates the potential for far larger objects to be levitated.

“Acoustic researchers had been frustrated by the size limit for years, so its satisfying to find a way to overcome it,”said the study’s lead author, Dr Asier Marzo of Bristol’s Department of Mechanical Engineering. “I think it opens the door to many new applications.”

 The technique creates a tornado-like effect with acoustic vortices, which researchers said are like, "tornadoes of sound, made of a twister-like structure with loud sound surrounding a silent core."



When researchers changed the direction of the acoustic vortices, they were able to stabilize the tractor beam and its rate of rotation. They were then able to increase the size of the core at the center of the sound tornado, allowing it to carry bigger objects.


 The team was then able to make a two-centimeter (.7-inch) polystyrene sphere hover within the tractor beam, using ultrasonic waves that humans can’t hear. This is bigger than anything that’s ever been levitated by acoustic beams before, and more than twice as big as the acoustic wavelengths carrying it. 

Although the ability to levitate a human is a little way off yet, researchers say all that’s needed is more acoustic power.
“In the future, with more acoustic power, it will be possible to hold even larger objects,” Dr Mihai Caleap, a Senior Research Associate who developed the simulations said. “This was only thought to be possible using lower pitches making the experiment audible and dangerous for humans.”

It’s not just good news for those of us who dream of floating in the air, the discovery has potential in the fields of science, medical surgery and factory production lines.

Source: https://www.rt.com/news/416740-levitatin...ctor-beam/
 

Well Well Well Split_spawn 

It seems the "Secret" of Pyramid and ETI building MASSIVE stone monuments WITHOUT human labor and the Coral Castle in Florida is simply HIGH ENERGY sound and the mental/technological control of it.

Holycowsmile 


Bob... Ninja Alien2
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
Reply
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vWC8kx_fGlk

Published on Jan 22, 2018
There is now a concerted effort to switch the narrative of global warming to global cooling in the main stream media. Along with that a shift from oceans were rising to now they are not rising, warming will stop because the mini ice age is coming, orbits of our planet are moving, Antarctic ice is not growing and a massive effort to make you believe because of a tiny amount of Arctic sea ice loss its now creating record cold across parts of the Northern Hemisphere. This is what scientist know is coming but are afraid to say, as it has drastic effects for our society moving forward.

With talk of ‘mini ice age,’ global warming debate may again be about to changehttps://www.theblaze.com/news/2018/01...
We’re Due For Another Ice Age But Climate Change May Push It Back Another 100,000 Years, Researchers Say https://weather.com/news/climate/news...
What if the earth is actually cooling? https://globalnews.ca/news/3955038/da...
Huge snowfall increases over Antarctica could counter sea level rise, scientists say https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/e...
Sea Ice Comparison Tool http://nsidc.org/arcticseaicenews/sea...
Arctic Sea Ice http://nsidc.org/arcticseaicenews/
http://nsidc.org/arcticseaicenews/sea...
The 'imminent mini ice age' myth is back, and it's still wrong https://www.theguardian.com/environme...
Satellite Temperature Measurements http://www.drroyspencer.com/
http://www.drroyspencer.com/wp-conten...
The Bottom of the Ocean Is Sinking https://www.livescience.com/61328-oce...
Melting glaciers aren’t just causing sea levels to rise – they’re causing the ocean floor to sink http://bgr.com/2018/01/08/ocean-floor...
Ocean Bottom Deformation Due To Present-Day Mass Redistribution and Its Impact on Sea Level Observations http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10...
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10...
Galactic Cross http://sacredgeometryinternational.co...
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1a6Qg...

Support ADAPT 2030 on PATREON http://www.patreon.com/adapt2030

ADAPT 2030 on PayPal paypal.me/adapt2030

ADAPT 2030 Mini Ice Age FB Page https://www.facebook.com/Miniiceage
Content Provided by David DuByne http://www.oilseedcrops.org
You can also find this Mini Ice Age Conversations podcast on iTunes / Stitcher Radio / Soundcloud
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
Reply
Good Posts as always along with Israeli USA attacks on America it's now the 51st State that would be recognized than the "new California" that's on the 2018 ballot (or attempting)

Crazy times

Ninja Alien2
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
Reply
Climate Scientists Target Sandwiches In Battle Against Global Warming Sandwiches carry with them the same carbon emission output as a car driven 12 miles, according to a study from the University of Manchester.
Researchers followed the whole life cycle of a sandwich, including the production of ingredients, and their packaging, as well as food waste. Bacon, ham, and sausages contribute the most to a sandwich’s carbon footprint.
“We need to change the labeling of food to increase the use-by date as these are usually quite conservative,” Professor Adisa Azapagic, who heads up the Sustainable Industrial Systems research group at the university, said in a Jan. 18 press statement.
“Given that sandwiches are a staple of the British diet as well as their significant market share in the food sector, it is important to understand the contribution from this sector to the emissions of greenhouse gases,” Azapagic said.

They estimate that breakfast sandwich generates 1441 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq.), which is equivalent to driving a car to the grocery store and back. Consuming 11.5 billion sandwiches annually in the UK generates roughly 9.5 million tons of CO2e, which is equivalent to the annual use of 8.6 million cars.’
Researchers also recommend drastically reducing certain ingredients that have a higher carbon footprint, like lettuce, tomato, cheese and meat. Slashing cheese and meat from sandwiches toppings would also reduce the number of calories and make people healthier.
The study also suggested emissions could be cut by 50 percent if changes were made to the recipes, packaging and waste disposal.




URL to article: http://dailycaller.com/2018/01/25/climate-scientists-target-sandwic...
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
Reply
...

Quote:Consuming 11.5 billion sandwiches Drool annually in the UK 
generates roughly 9.5 million tons of CO2, 
which is equivalent to the annual use of 8.6 million cars.

Rofl


That is funnier than shitless in shinola.
I wonder what the carbon footprint of my can of beer here is.
My carbon footprint  Kickbut
of all the beer I drink in a year.
Then they can tax that,
or penalize it or whatever the fuck all anyhey anywho anyhow. 

holy smokums

...
Reply
Energy
[Image: RTS13DF9-e1510932853179.jpg]   
Princeton Physicist Points Out The Obvious: Doh
Climate Models ‘Don’t Work’

[Image: b586829fc1ba5bdd70696834e9388332_400x4002.jpeg] [/url]
Michael Bastasch
[url=http://dailycaller.com/author/michaelb/]

4:08 PM 02/05/2018

Princeton University physicist William Happer is not a fan of models used to predict future manmade global warming, and stars in a new educational video laying out the reasons he believes climate models are faulty.
“And I know they don’t work. They haven’t worked in the past. They don’t work now. And it’s hard to imagine when, if ever, they’ll work in the foreseeable future,” Happer said in a video produced by PragerU.
In the video, Happer argues that even supercomputers used to predict the weather and forecast future global warming aren’t strong enough to capture the complexity of Earth’s atmosphere, including cloud cover and natural ocean cycles.
“That’s why, over the last 30 years, one climate prediction after another — based on computer models — has been wrong,” Happer said in the video. “They’re wrong because even the most powerful computers can’t solve all the equations needed to accurately describe climate.”
WATCH:

Scientists have increasingly been grappling with reconciling the difference between global climate model projections and real-world temperatures. Scientists skeptical of catastrophic manmade warming often point out that models overestimate warming from greenhouse gases.
Cato Institute climate scientists Patrick Michaels and Chip Knappenberger found that real-world warming has been on the low end of model predictions for the last six decades, and a more recent study published in the journal Nature Geoscience found a similar trend.
“We haven’t seen that rapid acceleration in warming after 2000 that we see in the models. We haven’t seen that in the observations,” Myles Allen, a geosystem scientist at the University of Oxford, told The Times in 2017.
But other scientists have been critical of claims that models overestimate warming. University of California, Berkeley climate scientist Zeke Hausfather said models only predict about 8 percent more warming than what’s actually happened.
NOW WATCH: Video #2
 http://dailycaller.com/2018/02/05/prince...dont-work/


But then again, the strong El Nino warming event that peaked in 2016 did much to bring global average surface temperature “back in line” with climate model predictions.
Satellite temperature readings of the bulk atmosphere also show a mismatch between model predictions and observations. Climate scientist John Christy’s research has shown that models show 2.5 times more warming than has been observed.
“Instead of admitting this, some climate scientists replace the highly complex equations that describe the real-world climate with highly simplified ones—their computer models,” Happer said.
“Discarding the unmanageable details, modelers ‘tune’ their simplified equations with lots of adjustable inputs—numbers that can be changed to produce whatever result the modelers want,” Happer said. “So, if they want to show that the earth’s temperature at the end of the century will be two degrees centigrade higher than it is now, they put in the numbers that produce that result … That’s not science. That’s science fiction.”

http://dailycaller.com/2018/02/05/prince...dont-work/
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
...
That last article with the Princeton physicist is kind of a home run.
He not only says that the global weather computer models are usless,
but that the scientists that manipulate them to suit their results,
are complicit in scientific fraud,

though he politely called it ... "science fiction".

This is the same problem at NASA.
The scientists used bullshit computer models that told them to Fly  Hi Bye Pluto,
because the Decadal Survey computer models forecast that Pluto,
was a ... nothing to see there -- planet Hmm2

Those same scientists then commandeered the funding to their pet project MU69.
NASA Swamp Rats.
Global Warming Swamp Rats.

The problem with computer modeling is this:
{looking at the physicist statements},
you can essenetially start flipping coins and get as much predictive accuracy,
to possible global warming or global cooling events or futures.

Computer models Whip
that generate data for global warming,
are no better than
computer models Whip
that generate data for global cooling.

Nonono

...
Reply
Eye concur with your opinion Vianova.

Their Mars Models Failed.

Doh

‘Sinking’ Pacific Island Touted as Prime Climate Change Victim is Actually Rising Out of the Sea: Study


[Image: Tuvalu-640x480.png]Flickr.com/mrlins

by Breitbart London9 Feb 2018161
AFP — The Pacific nation of Tuvalu — long seen as a prime candidate to disappear as climate change forces up sea levels — is actually growing in size, new research shows.
A University of Auckland study examined changes in the geography of Tuvalu’s nine atolls and 101 reef islands between 1971 and 2014, using aerial photographs and satellite imagery.
It found eight of the atolls and almost three-quarters of the islands grew during the study period, lifting Tuvalu’s total land area by 2.9 percent, even though sea levels in the country rose at twice the global average.
Co-author Paul Kench said the research, published Friday in the journal Nature Communications, challenged the assumption that low-lying island nations would be swamped as the sea rose.
advertisement
“We tend to think of Pacific atolls as static landforms that will simply be inundated as sea levels rise, but there is growing evidence these islands are geologically dynamic and are constantly changing,” he said.
“The study findings may seem counter-intuitive, given that (the) sea level has been rising in the region over the past half century, but the dominant mode of change over that time on Tuvalu has been expansion, not erosion.”
It found factors such as wave patterns and sediment dumped by storms could offset the erosion caused by rising water levels.
The Auckland team says climate change remains one of the major threats to low-lying island nations.
But it argues the study should prompt a rethink on how such countries respond to the problem.
Rather than accepting their homes are doomed and looking to migrate to countries such as Australia and New Zealand, the researchers say they should start planning for a long-term future.
“On the basis of this research we project a markedly different trajectory for Tuvalu’s islands over the next century than is commonly envisaged,” Kench said.
“While we recognise that habitability rests on a number of factors, loss of land is unlikely to be a factor in forcing depopulation of Tuvalu.”
The study’s authors said island nations needed to find creative solutions to adapt to climate change that take into account their homeland’s evolving geography.
Suggestions included moving populations onto larger islands and atolls, which have proved the most stable and likely to grow as seas rise.
“Embracing such new adaptation pathways will present considerable national scale challenges to planning, development goals and land tenure systems,” they said.
“However, as the data on island change shows there is time (decades) to confront these challenges.”
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
https://watchers.news/2018/02/09/souther...ow-sahara/


Moroccan authorities announced February 6 they've temporarily closed nearly 900 schools due to cold wave and severe weather conditions expected to continue affecting the country. At the same time, southern Morocco experienced its second snow of this season and the second in 50 years. The current situation comes just 15 days after exceptional snowfall caused unprecedented road conditions across the country, shutting down 5 000 km (3 100 miles) of roads.

This week's closure of schools is mainly affecting rural areas, Morocco's Ministry of Education, Training and Scientific Research said. The decision aims to protect students and teachers from all weather-related hazards, the ministry said, adding that the institutions concerned are the regional academies of Daraa Tafilalet, Marrakech-Safi, Beni Mellal-Khenifra, Fez-Meknes and Tangier-Tetouan-Al Hoceima.

On February 5 and 6, regions in southern Morocco experienced their second snow within a week, in many locations it was the first time they saw snow for at least 50 years. Some southern regions described the conditions as those experienced during blizzards! 

The snow came to the south after several decades of extremely dry weather and affected regions such as Ouarzazate (gateway to the Sahara Desert), Taroudant and even Zagora, which hasn't experienced snowfall since 1968.
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
Reply
https://www.infowars.com/chilling-play-t...rical-run/

Chilling: Play Titled ‘Kill Climate Deniers’ Launches Theatrical Run
First staging was shut down following backlash
The Washington Times - March 4, 2018
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
Reply
Shows Over for the warming scare.

Delingpole: Penguin ‘Supercolony’ Discovered in Antarctica; Another Global Warming Scare Story Bites the Dust



[Image: penguin-colony-640x480.png]AP/Maxi Jonas

by James Delingpole4 Mar 201852
Researchers in Antarctica have discovered a supercolony of 1.5 million Adélie penguins whose existence was previously unknown to biologists.
According to Science News:
Quote:On an expedition to an icy island chain off the Antarctic Peninsula’s northern tip, researchers discovered a massive supercolony of more than 1.5 million Adélie penguins, according to a study published March 2 in Scientific Reports.
Scientists had known of an Adélie penguin colony (Pygoscelis adeliae) in these Danger Islands, but satellite images revealed more guano on the rocky islands than could be explained by the colony’s expected numbers.
Even though the tiny island chain is only about 10 kilometers across, researchers hadn’t realized the extent of the penguin population, says study coauthor Heather Lynch, an ecologist at Stony Brook University in New York. “In the Antarctic, distances are so vast, something major could be just around the corner and you wouldn’t know.”
Obviously this is great news for Adélie penguin fans. But terrible news for environmentalists. The penguin is what you might call their ‘polar bear of the south’ – that is, the cute, lovable, telegenic species most frequently cited in their propaganda stories about polar critters threatened by “climate change.”
Here are a few examples.
advertisement
From the WWF website:
Quote:Adélie penguins are increasing in Antarctica. However, in areas where climate change is established, Adélie populations have fallen by more than 65% in the past 25 years. The biggest threat to them right now is climate change (other penguins, like gentoos, are better adapted to warmer climates).
From a NASA-funded study:
Quote:In a paper published June 29 in the journal Scientific Reports, the researchers project that approximately 30 percent of current Adélie colonies may be in decline by 2060, and approximately 60 percent of the present population might be dwindling by 2099. They also found the penguins at more southerly sites in Antarctica may be less affected by climate change.
From a CBS News story, headlined ’11 Species Threatened by Climate Change’
Quote:As global warming reshapes the Antarctic coast, the Adélie penguin could be one of the many species that suffers. The loss of sea ice coverage is expected to negatively impact its annual migration and winter survival while projected heavier snowfall could reduce the suitability of nest sites.
From a Guardian yarn headlined ‘Penguin disaster as only two chicks survive from colony of 40,000’
Quote:Elsewhere, human pressures including climate change have already been having a severe impact on the numbers of Adélie penguins. On the Antarctic Peninsula, which has been badly affected by climate change, populations have been decreasing, and some researchers suggest they may become extinct there.
And – my favorite – check out this hysterical quote offered to the Independent by the WWF ‘s Head of Polar Programs, talking about the Adélie penguin breeding problem:
Quote:“This devastating event contrasts with the Disney image that many people might have of penguins. It’s more like ‘Tarantino does Happy Feet’, with dead penguin chicks strewn across a beach in Adélie Land.
[I would so pay to see that movie.]
Anyway, you get the idea. Even before this discovery, the Adélie penguin was in no more in danger of extinction than the polar bear – and for much the same reasons: because there are lots and lots and lots of them; because there is no evidence that they are in any way troubled by “climate change.”
Now, 1.5 million more of the pesky critters have been discovered out of the blue. And for all we know – the experts clearly don’t – this could be the first of many supercolonies which have hitherto evaded the attentions of Antarctic research teams.
Oh – one more thing (H/T Dave Burton in the comments at Paul Homewood’s): this new colony has been discovered at the very tip of the Antarctic peninsula. That is, at the warmest part of the Antarctic. In other words, we have a supercolony thriving under exactly the conditions that alarmist ecologists are telling us will prove disastrous for the penguins because climate change.
Climate alarmism: it really is now way, way beyond the realms of satire, is it not?
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
Doh

[Image: glaciersinmo.jpg]
Glaciers in Mongolia's Gobi Desert actually shrank during the last ice age
The simple story says that during the last ice age, temperatures were colder and ice sheets expanded around the planet. That may hold true for most of Europe and North America, but new research from the University of Washington ...
[Image: 1x1.gif]9 hours ago in Earth Sciences
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
go figure
lol
Doh
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
Reply
by Thomas D. Williams, Ph.D.7 Apr 201853

In a bizarre irony, the German daily newspaper [i]Die Welt[/i] has proclaimed U.S. President Donald Trump “the most successful climate protector in the world” after a new global climate report revealed that U.S. carbon dioxide emissions dropped dramatically during Trump’s first year in office.
The International Energy Agency (IEA) released its “Global Energy and CO2 Status Report, 2017” on March 22, which contained the bombshell news that the “biggest drop in emissions came from the United States,” which made folks at [i]Die Welt[/i] sit up and take notice.


Global energy-related carbon dioxide emissions increased overall by 1.4 percent in 2017, the report revealed, and in most major economies, carbon dioxide emissions increased as well.
The United States led the small pack of countries that managed to lower greenhouse gas emissions, accompanied by UK, Japan, and Mexico. According to IEA figures, the United States managed to reduce CO2 emissions in 2017 by 0.5 percent, or 25 million tons, to 4810 million tons.
President Trump has been in the climate-change doghouse ever since he announced the withdrawal of the United States from the Paris Climate Accord, something Minority Leader Rep. Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) defined as a “dishonor” to God.
As Breitbart News reported at the time, because of his decision, the president was accused of waging a “war on the environment” tantamount to genocide. Several journals and news outlets even went so far as to suggest that Mr. Trump was guilty of “environmental racism” by pulling the United States out of the climate agreement.

advertisement
[size=undefined]
[i]Essence[/i] magazine said Trump had continued “his war on people of color in America” while Blavity, a website that caters to people of color, said that Trump’s decision “will worsen environmental racism,” insisting that climate change is “inherently a black issue and not just a ‘human issue.’”
The [i]Atlantic[/i] suggested that environmental racism is “the new Jim Crow,” referring to laws that segregated blacks and whites in their use of public schools, public places, transportation, restrooms, and restaurants.
Enter Daniel Wetzel, energy journalist for [i]Die Welt[/i], a self-described “liberal cosmopolitan” German newspaper.
Mr. Wetzel doffed his hat to President Trump, saying that despite being stigmatized as an enemy of the environment, he has shown himself to be quite the contrary. Wetzel contrasted the positive U.S. results with those of China, which signed on to the Paris Climate Accord. While U.S. emissions dropped, China’s grew by nearly a full percentage point in 2017.
Curiously, some of the countries that chastised the United States for dropping out of the Paris Accord performed far worse than the U.S. during 2017, with the European Union (EU) emissions rising by a stunning 46 million tons. Germany itself has not reduced its emissions for nine years in a row.
[/size]

advertisement
[size=undefined]
The decline in U.S. carbon emissions was due to a number of factors, the study found, including growth in the use of renewables, the liberalization of fracking with the consequent increase in clean-burning natural gas, and America’s continued high use of clean nuclear energy, which supplies about 20 percent of U.S. energy needs.
As Breitbart News reported last summer, air pollution in the U.S. is among the lowest on the planet, according to studies by the World Health Organization (WHO),
In WHO’s 2017 report on air pollution, the United States was listed as one of the countries with the cleanest air in the world, significantly cleaner than the air in Germany, Italy, Switzerland, the UK, Japan, Austria, and France.
[i]Follow Thomas D. Williams on Twitter[/i] [/size]
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
Reply
Quote:“Right now, it is very low indeed,” says Mlynczak. “SABER is currently measuring 33 billion Watts of infrared power from NO. That’s 10 times smaller than we see during more active phases of the solar cycle.”
[/url]NASA Scientists: Lack Of Sunspots To Bring Record Cold


https://www.technocracy.news › Climate Change



[size=undefined]
NASA Scientists: Lack Of Sunspots To Bring Record Cold. Written By: Dr. Tony Phillips November13, 2018. Global warmists will eat crow for awhile while the ...[/size]




Lack of sunspots could bring a 'Space Age record' for cold temperatures above Earth in a matter of months, NASA scientist warns
  • Sunspots have been absent for most of this year, Nasa scientists say
  • This is now the Earth's upper atmosphere - the thermosphere - responding
  • Data comes from satellite which measures changes in the Earth's atmosphere
  • It found the uppermost later of air around the planet is cooling and shrinking
  • Changes high above Earth are unlikely to impact temperatures on our planet
By PHOEBE WESTON FOR MAILONLINE 
PUBLISHED: 09:39 EST, 13 November 2018 UPDATED: 11:49 EST, 13 November 2018

A lack of sunspots could herald in a 'Space Age record' for cold temperatures in the the Earth's upper atmosphere, a scientist has warned.
The mercury could plummet in the thermosphere - a layer of gases around 60 to 180 miles (100 to 300km) above the planet's surface - as a result of the sun's inactivity. 
Sunspots are not fully understood but they occur over regions of intense magnetic activity as part of the 11 year solar cycle.
Ultra-violet radiation sent out across the cosmos from these sunspots agitates particles in the Earth's atmosphere, causing them to heat up.
Sunspots have been absent from the surface of the sun for most of this year, causing the Earth's upper atmosphere to lose heat energy as a result of the lack of agitation.
However, research has shown these changes high above Earth are unlikely to have much of an impact on weather at the planet's surface - including climate change.
Scroll down for video
[Image: 6129300-6384457-The_data_comes_from_Nasa...946240.jpg]
+4



A lack of sunspots could herald in a 'Space Age record' for cold temperatures in the thermosphere, a scientist has warned. Researchers worked this out using Nasa's TIMED satellite (pictured) which measures changes in the Earth's atmosphere (artist's impression)
'High above Earth's surface, near the edge of space, our atmosphere is losing heat energy', Dr Mlynczak told Dr Tony Phillips as part of an in-depth feature in [url=https://spaceweatherarchive.com/2018/09/27/the-chill-of-solar-minimum/]Space Weather.
'If current trends continue, it could soon set a Space Age record for cold', he added.
The data comes from Nasa's TIMED satellite, which measures changes in the Earth's atmosphere.
It found the thermosphere is currently cooling and shrinking.
They found this out by using the SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite, which monitors infrared emissions from carbon dioxide and nitric oxide.

[size=undefined]These two substances play an important role in the overall balance of energy.     
To keep track of its movements, researchers led by Dr Mlynczav created the 'Thermosphere Climate Index' (TCI).
This number - which is expressed in Watts - shows how many heat trapping molecules like carbon dioxide and nitric oxide are released into space.
'SABER is currently measuring 33 billion Watts of infrared power from NO [nitric oxide]', Dr Mlynczak said.
'That's 10 times smaller than we see during more active phases of the solar cycle.'
It could set a record in a 'matter of months' Dr Mlynczak said.
[Image: 6129304-6384457-image-a-11_1542118093782.jpg]
+4



The thermosphere always cools off during Solar Minimum as the sun's ultraviolet output (pictured) drops sharply. Sunspots have been absent for most of this year and this is the Earth's upper atmosphere responding, Martin Mlynczak says
Solar activity tends to come and go in cycles lasting around 11 years and the star is currently experiencing a continuing period of inactivity - as shown by a lack of sun spots.
The current Solar Minimum is causing dramatic changes in the thermosphere.
The thermosphere always cools off during Solar Minimum as the sun's ultraviolet output drops sharply. 
The effects of solar minimum include Earth’s upper atmosphere cooling and shrinking slightly. This can allow space junk to accumulate in low Earth orbit.
An increase in solar winds can also alter the chemistry of Earth’s upper atmosphere, which may trigger more lightning and aid in cloud formation.
This can also affect air travel, as an uptick means more radiation is able to penetrate planes.
This means passengers on long-haul flights may receive doses of radiation similar to dental X-rays during a single trip, and this puts flight crews in additional danger.
[Image: 6129302-6384457-image-a-12_1542118103241.jpg]
+4



Solar activity tends to come and go in cycles lasting around 11 years and the star is currently experiencing a continuing period of inactivity - as shown by a lack of sun spots. Earlier this year, an eerily still surface of the sun was captured by cameras aboard Nasa's SDO satellite
Earlier this year, an eerily still surface of the sun was captured by cameras aboard Nasa 's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite.
Showing a barren orange globe, the remarkable image it produced is the result of a lack of sunspot activity in the star's magnetic field. 
The sun was predicted to reach its 'solar minimum' low point in 2019 or 2020, according to Nasa's calculations.
Now, researchers say sunspots are vanishing faster than expected and the current solar cycle may come to an end sooner than previously thought.
Solar minimum may enhance the effects of space weather, disrupt communications and navigation, and even cause space junk to 'hang around', Nasa says.
WHY DO FEWER SUNSPOTS CAUSE MORE PROBLEMS ON EARTH?
Lack of sunspot activity in the sun is due to a continuing period of inactivity in the star's magnetic field. 
As the sun moves through its 11-year cycle, it experiences active and quiet periods known as the solar maximum and solar minimum. 
As solar minimum approaches, certain types of activity - such as sunspots and solar flares - will drop, but it’s also expected to increase long-lived phenomena.
This includes coronal holes, where fast moving solar winds are created when the star’s magnetic field opens up into space. This happens more regularly as the sun's magnetic field becomes less active. 
Strong solar winds emanating from three massive 'holes' on the surface of the sun have begun to bombard Earth, scientists say. Fast moving solar winds are created where the star’s magnetic field opens up into space, pictured here as vast black regions

Charged particles make their way out into the solar system through these gaps and hit the atmosphere of our planet.
This can lead to a number of complications, including magnetic storms which can result in power grid fluctuations, impact on satellite operations and can affect migratory animals.
An increase in solar winds can also alter the chemistry of Earth’s upper atmosphere, which may trigger more lightning and aid in cloud formation.
It can also affect air travel, as more radiation is able to penetrate planes. This means passengers on long-haul flights may receive doses of radiation similar to dental X-rays during a single trip, and puts flight crews in additional danger.
The effects of solar minimum may also include Earth’s upper atmosphere cooling and shrinking slightly, thanks to less heat reaching the planet. This can allow space junk to accumulate in low Earth orbit.

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/...warns.html[/size]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
[Image: earthmaybe14.jpg]
Earth may be 140 years away from reaching carbon levels not seen in 56 million years
Total human carbon dioxide emissions could match those of Earth's last major greenhouse warming event in fewer than five generations, new research finds.
[Image: 1x1.gif]5 hours ago in Earth Sciences



Oh No!!!  
5 Generations
What do we do???
[Image: forest.jpg]
World's biggest terrestrial carbon sinks are found in young forests
More than half of the carbon sink in the world's forests is in areas where the trees are relatively young—under 140 years old—rather than in tropical rainforests, research at the University of Birmingham shows.
[Image: 1x1.gif]Feb 18, 2019 in Environment




 

So what? both articles share 140 years as a carbon sink. big deal!



[Image: 4-climatechange.jpg]
Land use delays could hamper climate efforts
Global climate change targets are unlikely to be met because of delays in changes to land use, Edinburgh researchers say.
[Image: 1x1.gif]Feb 19, 2019 in Environment



This re-thinks me-thinx the carbon sinks... 5 generations and 50 times over-sized.


 

[Image: earthsatmosp.jpg]

Earth's atmosphere stretches out to the moon – and beyond
[Image: source.gif]
The gaseous layer that wraps around Earth reaches up to 630,000 kilometers away, or 50 times the diameter of our planet, according to a new study based on observations by the ESA/NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, SOHO, ...
[Image: 1x1.gif]6 hours ago in Space Exploration



Read all 4 articles above in sequence and you will see there is no cause for the alarmists.

Solution:

Just buy a li'l $eedling, go for a walk, find a clearing and just plant a tree.

Do that 5 times and if your descendants do that too then you are a good person   
creating multiple 0-140 year old/per generation carbon sinks that make oxygen for us.

Grow pot too...faster results heh!
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
OP-ED
 Share Tweet[email=?subject=Media%20Hysteria%3A%20Climate%20Change%20%27Heat%20Records%27%20Are%20a%20Huge%20Data%20Manipulation&body=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.westernjournal.com%2Fmedia-hysteria-climate-change-heat-records-huge-data-manipulation%2F] Email[/email] Print
Media Hysteria: Climate Change ‘Heat Records’ Are a Huge Data Manipulation
[img=788x0]https://www.westernjournal.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/hot-city-913x479.jpg[/img]Tom Wang / ShutterstockCity on a hot day. (Tom Wang / Shutterstock)
By Jay Lehr & Tom Harris 
Published February 20, 2019 at 1:26pm 
Modified February 21, 2019 at 8:26am

 Share on Facebook Tweet[email=?subject=Media%20Hysteria%3A%20Climate%20Change%20%27Heat%20Records%27%20Are%20a%20Huge%20Data%20Manipulation&body=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.westernjournal.com%2Fmedia-hysteria-climate-change-heat-records-huge-data-manipulation%2F] Email[/email] Print
The idea that climate change is producing heat records across the Earth is among the most egregious manipulations of data in the absurd global warming debate.
Americans receive a daily barrage from the fake news media and climate “experts” reporting that each and every day, week, month or year is the hottest on record due to global warming. On Feb. 7, several major newspapers carried stories of the declaration by NASA and NOAA that the past five years have been the warmest on record.
Sadly, these supposed experts use mathematical equations that do not jibe with reality over the past 140 years.
The same climate experts warn that record heat is just the tip of the iceberg. We are constantly told that global warming is the root cause behind any and all weather events that are extreme, destructive, unusual or uncomfortable.
Many of these fear mongers also say we should stop burning fossil fuels that are causing this mayhem.
TRENDING: Trump Responds to Emergency Declaration Lawsuit by Mocking California
Is the Earth truly experiencing the hottest weather on record?
Absolutely not.
Actual weather records over the past 100 years show no correlation between rising carbon dioxide levels and local temperatures.
However, climate change alarmists always find somewhere on Earth where temperatures are higher than ever. The focus is always on isolated temperatures that have reached all-time highs while the same reports ignore all-time record lows. These zealots would like you to believe that due to fossil fuel emissions, summers are now longer and hotter while winters are shorter and milder.
Yet, the actual temperature records tell a very different story. Did the Earth experience its highest temperature ever this year? The answer is no.
The highest temperature ever reported was 136 degrees Fahrenheit in Libya in 1922. The record high temperature for the United States was 134 degrees Fahrenheit in Death Valley, California, in 1913. Fossil fuel emissions in 1913 and 1922 were negligible compared to today.
The coldest temperature ever reported was 129 degrees below zero Fahrenheit in Vostok, Antarctica, in 1983, when Carbon dioxide emissions were five times higher than in 1913. The coldest temperature in the lower 48 states of minus 64 degrees Fahrenheit was recorded in 1996 in Embarass, Minnesota. Did the media and climate scientists warn that this low temperature indicated that we are headed for another Ice Age?
Advertisement - story continues below

The maximum reported difference between high and low temperatures at a single location is 188 degrees Fahrenheit (from minus 90F to plus 98F) in Verhoyansk, Siberia. In fact, record changes of highs and lows have occurred in 22 U.S. cities on a single day. For example, in 1989 the temperature in Alamosa, Colorado, varied between a low of 35F and a high of 91F for a temperature swing of 56 degrees F.
We hope these examples, right out of the weather record books, compiled by C.C. Burt in his book “Extreme Weather Changes,” will help you to understand the scams alarmists are trying to pull. These examples all illustrate that cherry picking record high temperatures in isolated locations tells absolutely nothing about the Earth’s climate.
RELATED: Germany Echoes Ocasio-Cortez in Killing the Coal Industry
The strongest heat wave ever recorded occurred in July 1936, generating high temperatures in half of America’s 50 states. In 1935, fossil fuel emissions were 96 percent lower than today. America’s coldest year occurred in 1899, when temperatures dropped below 0 F in all 50 states.
[img=443x0]https://static.westernjournal.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/image001.jpg[/img]
Interesting that the figure above shows the most severe historic cold wave during the past century took place in 1936, which was the same year when the strongest heat wave took place. In terms of general behavior, the global warming alarmist prediction is that as time progresses and fossil fuel emissions increase, the number of record highs should increase and record lows should decrease. However, these trends do not exist and the data dispels, rather than supports, the global warming hypothesis.
Concurrently a compilation of all days since 1915 when temperatures exceeded 90F shows them decreasing with time rather than increasing in Figure 2.
[img=494x0]https://static.westernjournal.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/image002.jpg[/img]
The heat wave experienced in the 1930s and 1950s are clearly evident here. Once again, the data does not support the claim that the United States is hotter than ever as a result of rising Carbon dioxide levels.
From 1970 until 1998 there was a warming period that raised temperatures by about 0.7 F that helped spawn the global warming alarmist movement. However, since 1998, little warming has occurred while carbon dioxide emissions continue to increase. This is totally consistent with variations in the amount of heat the Earth receives from the Sun.
These facts are completely supported by 4,000 ocean floats which measure ocean temperatures at a variety of depths. This data at argo.ucsd.edu measures the oceans where climate-induced temperatures occur.
Isn’t it time to start ignoring the calamitous annual claims that this is the hottest year on record? It just ain’t so.
Jay Lehr (jlehr@heartland.org) is director of science at The Heartland Institute. Tom Harris (tom.harris@climatescienceinternational.net) is executive director of the International Climate Science Coalition.


https://www.westernjournal.com/media-hys...ipulation/
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
Video 
Quote:Forty years ago, biochemist John Ellis declared that rubisco was Earth's most abundant protein. But it turns out that his back-of-the-envelope calculations were off by an order of magnitude.

[Image: DapperFoolishChuckwalla-size_restricted.gif]

Instead of just 0.04 billion tonnes, plants and 
marine organisms actually contain 0.7 billion tonnes of rubisco.

Doh

Carbon-fixing enzyme 10 times more abundant than previously thought
February 26, 2019 by Katrina Krämer, Weizmann Institute of Science

[Image: carbonfixing.jpg]
Credit: Shutterstock
This is how Manajit Hayer-Hartl from the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Germany, sums up her thoughts on a new analysis that the global abundance of plants' carbon dioxide converting enzyme is an order of magnitude higher than thought: "Since I work on rubisco I'm always giving talks saying that it is the most abundant protein on Earth. Sometimes my audience will ask 'Are you really sure?' I can now say 'Yes I am.'"


[Image: ho2OpzH.gif]

Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is a carbon-fixing enzyme found in all photosynthetic organisms. "More than 90 percent of the organic carbon on the planet in form of biomass is the product of the action of rubisco," says Yinon Bar-on from the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel, who carried out the analysis along with Ron Milo.

Forty years ago, biochemist John Ellis declared that rubisco was Earth's most abundant protein. But it turns out that his back-of-the-envelope calculations were off by an order of magnitude. Instead of just 0.04 billion tonnes, plants and marine organisms actually contain 0.7 billion tonnes of rubisco.

To estimate terrestrial rubisco, which accounts for 90 percent of the total, Bar-on and Milo calculated global leaf mass. Leaves are the only rubisco-containing plant parts. By combining data from field studies and remote sensing, the team also accounted for different plant species containing different quantities of rubisco. Rubisco calculations for the world's oceans came from biomass estimates for marine autotrophs, such as algae and cyanobacteria.

The massive difference between Ellis' and the Weizmann team's estimate stems from a misconception about rubisco's efficiency, says Bar-on. "Ellis divided [the annual global carbon fixation rate] by the maximum rate at which rubisco is working in the lab – from that you can get an estimate for how much rubisco there is. The main reason that his number was much lower than ours is that he used a much higher rate for rubisco."

In the wild, it turns out, rubisco is not working at its maximum catalytic rate. Marine rubisco works at 15 percent of its maximum, while rubisco in terrestrial plant functions at only 1 percent of its maximum, turning over three carbon dioxide molecules per second.

"Any rubisco can be as efficient in nature as it is in vitro," says Hayer-Hartl. But lab studies have recorded rubisco's efficiency at 25°C in full light and high carbon dioxide levels. However, conditions in nature vary as, for instance, not every leaf receives full sunlight all of the time.

Understanding what causes the discrepancy between rubisco's maximum and measured efficiency, explains Bar-on, will help scientists account for factors that can influence global carbon fixation. Researchers are also working on improved rubisco enzymes to create higher-yielding crops.

Since rubisco's previous estimate was so far off the mark, Bar-on wonders if there might be another even more abundant protein. "Because most of the biomass on the planet is plants, a main candidate for the most abundant protein would be something that's abundant in all plant tissues, not just in leaves like rubisco."

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: A boost for photosynthesis

More information: Yinon M. Bar-On et al. The global mass and average rate of rubisco, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2019). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1816654116 

Journal reference: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: Weizmann Institute of Science



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2019-02-carbon-fixing-enzyme-abundant-previously-thought.html#jCp

Arrow


Climate rewind: Scientists turn carbon dioxide back into coal
February 26, 2019, RMIT University

[Image: climaterewin.jpg]
A schematic illustration showing how liquid metal is used as a catalyst for converting carbon dioxide into solid coal. Credit: RMIT University
Researchers have used liquid metals to turn carbon dioxide back into solid coal, in a world-first breakthrough that could transform our approach to carbon capture and storage.




The research team led by RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia, have developed a new technique that can efficiently convert CO2 from a gas into solid particles of carbon.

Published in the journal Nature Communications, the research offers an alternative pathway for safely and permanently removing the greenhouse gas from our atmosphere.

Current technologies for carbon capture and storage focus on compressing CO2 into a liquid form, transporting it to a suitable site and injecting it underground.

But implementation has been hampered by engineering challenges, issues around economic viability and environmental concerns about possible leaks from the storage sites.

RMIT researcher Dr. Torben Daeneke said converting CO2 into a solid could be a more sustainable approach.

"While we can't literally turn back time, turning carbon dioxide back into coal and burying it back in the ground is a bit like rewinding the emissions clock," Daeneke, an Australian Research Council DECRA Fellow, said.

"To date, CO2 has only been converted into a solid at extremely high temperatures, making it industrially unviable.

"By using liquid metals as a catalyst, we've shown it's possible to turn the gas back into carbon at room temperature, in a process that's efficient and scalable.

"While more research needs to be done, it's a crucial first step to delivering solid storage of carbon."




Play
PlaySeek00:00Current time01:23Toggle MuteVolumeToggle Fullscreen

Scientists have used liquid metals to turn carbon dioxide back into solid coal, a breakthrough that could transform our approach to carbon capture and storage. Credit: RMIT UniversityHow the carbon conversion works


Lead author, Dr. Dorna Esrafilzadeh, a Vice-Chancellor's Research Fellow in RMIT's School of Engineering, developed the electrochemical technique to capture and convert atmospheric CO2 to storable solid carbon.



To convert CO2, the researchers designed a liquid metal catalyst with specific surface properties that made it extremely efficient at conducting electricity while chemically activating the surface.

The carbon dioxide is dissolved in a beaker filled with an electrolyte liquid and a small amount of the liquid metal, which is then charged with an electrical current.

The CO2 slowly converts into solid flakes of carbon, which are naturally detached from the liquid metal surface, allowing the continuous production of carbonaceous solid.

Esrafilzadeh said the carbon produced could also be used as an electrode.

"A side benefit of the process is that the carbon can hold electrical charge, becoming a supercapacitor, so it could potentially be used as a component in future vehicles."

"The process also produces synthetic fuel as a by-product, which could also have industrial applications."

The research was conducted at RMIT's MicroNano Research Facility and the RMIT Microscopy and Microanalysis Facility, with lead investigator, Honorary RMIT and ARC Laureate Fellow, Professor Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh (now UNSW).

The research is supported by the Australian Research Council Centre for Future Low-Energy Electronics Technologies (FLEET) and the ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science (ACES).

The collaboration involved researchers from Germany (University of Munster), China (Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics), the US (North Carolina State University) and Australia (UNSW, University of Wollongong, Monash University, QUT).

The paper is published in Nature Communications ("Room temperature CO2 reduction to solid carbonspecies on liquid metals featuring atomically thin ceria interfaces", DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-08824-8).

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Improved understanding of groundbreaking liquid-metal 2-D technique

More information: Room temperature CO2 reduction to solid carbonspecies on liquid metals featuring atomically thin ceria interfaces, Nature Communications (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-08824-8 , https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-08824-8 

Journal reference: Nature Communications [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: RMIT University 
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
Good Find EA Worship


Thanx for finding and posting it.

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
Reply
New key players in the methane cycle
March 4, 2019, Max Planck Society

[Image: newkeyplayer.jpg]
Hot springs such as the Tengchong Yunnan hot spring in China are a preferred habitat of the investigated microorganisms. Credit: Prof. Wenjun Li


Methane is not only a powerful greenhouse gas, but also a source of energy. Microorganisms therefore use it for their metabolism. They do so much more frequently and in more ways than was previously assumed, as revealed by a study now published in Nature Microbiology by researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology and Jiao Tong University in Shanghai.




Methane is a very special molecule. It is the main component of natural gas and we heat our apartments with it, but when reaching the atmosphere it is a potent greenhouse gas. It is also central in microbiology: In the absence of oxygen, a special group of microorganisms, the so-called methanogenic archaea, can produce methane. Other microorganisms—archaea living in symbiosis with bacteria—can use methane as a food source.

Regardless of whether methane is produced or consumed, the same enzyme is the key: methyl coenzyme M-reductase (MCR). This enzyme produces methane, but it can also be used to break up this gas. This enzyme produces methane and can break this gas up again. For a long time, scientists believed that only a few species of microbes could convert methane in one way or another. Recently, however, increasing evidence has sprung up that important key players in the methane cycle have been overlooked.

Searching for the genome needle in a sequence haystack

Scientists from Jiao Tong University in Shanghai, China, and the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen have now taken a closer look at this. They scoured global genome databases for information on genes of new methane organisms found in the environment. Their trick: They did not look for specific organisms, but for the key enzyme.

In his search for gene sequences similar to the known MCR genes, first author Yinzhao Wang from Jiao Tong University soon found what he was looking for. He discovered a number of previously unknown genes that carry the necessary information for the production of MCR. "These MCRs can be roughly divided into three groups," says Yinzhao Wang.

"One group comprises the known gene sequences. The other two groups are completely new."
[Image: NervousHappygoluckyIndianhare-size_restricted.gif]
The researchers used these new sequences as the first piece of the puzzle to find complete genomes from the vast amount of data available. The results were stunning: The assembled genomes were completely different from those of known methane microbes. "For example, we found MCR in Archaeoglobi and in archaea from the TACK superphylum. Such metabolic pathways have not previously been suspected in these organisms," says Fengping Wang from Jiao Tong University, the initiator of the study.

The results now published show that different variants of the methane metabolism are widespread in archaea. This suggests a greater importance of these microorganisms in global carbon balancing than previously assumed.

New species and metabolic pathways

What the microbes do with these metabolic pathways in detail has not yet been clarified. Some organisms seem to produce methane. Others, on the other hand, seem to oxidize it.

"Our results are very exciting. We presumably discovered the first archaea that can breathe methane with sulfate without partner bacteria," says Gunter Wegener from the Max Planck Institute in Bremen. "Others obviously don't feed on methane, but on higher hydrocarbons." The genomes alone only provide clues to the way of life of these archaea. "We often do not know in which direction the organisms use the apparently very flexible metabolic pathway of methane production," Wegener says.

From the database to the lab

In order to understand exactly what the discovered organisms are doing and to test the genome-based hypotheses, the researchers from Bremen and Shanghai will now jointly try to cultivate these organisms. It's not easy, however—they seem to prefer life in hot springs and in deep subsurface habitats. With material from these places, the scientists will begin their cultivation experiments.

Explore further: Observing the development of a deep-sea greenhouse gas filter

More information: Expanding anaerobic alkane metabolism in the domain of Archaea, Nature Microbiology(2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41564-019-0364-2 , https://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-019-0364-2 

Journal reference: Nature Microbiology
Provided by: Max Planck Society



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2019-03-key-player...e.html#jCp




Scientists track deep history of planets' motions, and effects on Earth's climate
March 4, 2019, Columbia University

[Image: scientiststr.jpg]
Geologist Paul Olsen at Arizona's Petrified Forest National Park, where 200 million-year-old rocks are helping reveal the long-ago motions of other planets. Credit: Kevin Krajick/Earth Institute, Columbia University


Scientists have long posited that periodic swings in Earth's climate are driven by cyclic changes in the distribution of sunlight reaching our surface. This is due to cyclic changes in how our planet spins on its axis, the ellipticity of its orbit, and its orientation toward the sun—overlapping cycles caused by subtle gravitational interplays with other planets, as the bodies whirl around the sun and by each other like gyrating hula-hoops.




But planetary paths change over time, and that can change the cycles' lengths. This has made it challenging for scientists to untangle what drove many ancient climate shifts. And the problem gets ever more difficult the further back in time you go; tiny changes in one planet's motion may knock others' askew—at first slightly, but as eons pass, these changes resonate against each other, and the system morphs in ways impossible to predict using even the most advanced math. In other words, it's chaos out there. Up to now, researchers are able to calculate the relative motions of the planets and their possible effects on our climate with reasonable reliability back only about 60 million years—a relative eyeblink in the 4.5 billion-plus life of Earth.

This week, in a new paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a team of researchers has pushed the record way back, identifying key aspects of the planets' motions from a period around 200 million years ago. The team is led by geologist and paleontologist Paul Olsen of Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. Last year, by comparing periodic changes in ancient sediments drilled from Arizona and New Jersey, Olsen and colleagues identified a 405,000-year cycle in Earth's orbit that apparently has not changed at all over at least the last 200 million years—a kind of metronome against which all other cycles can be measured. Using those same sediments in the new paper, they now have identified a cycle that started out lasting 1.75 million years, but is now operating every 2.4 million years. This, they say, allows them to extrapolate long-term changes in the paths of Jupiter and the inner planets (Mercury, Venus and Mars), the bodies most likely to affect our own orbit.

Olsen's ultimate aim: to use Earth's rocks to create what he calls a "Geological Orrery"—a record of climatic changes on Earth that can be extrapolated back into a larger map of solar system motions over hundreds of millions of years. He says it would open a window not just onto our own climate, but the evolution of the solar system itself, including the possible existence of past planets, and its possible interactions with invisible dark matter.

[Image: 1-scientiststr.jpg]
View looking east toward the US East Coast, Oct. 7, 2015, when the three planets most influential to Earth's orbit lined up with the Moon. Lower left near Earth's horizon, Jupiter (greenish); slightly higher, Mars (reddish); slightly higher …more
We spoke with Olsen about the Geological Orrery, his work, and the new paper.



Most people have probably never even heard the word "orrery." What is it, and how does it fit with our evolving understanding of celestial mechanics?

In the early 1800s, mathematician Pierre-Simon de Laplace took Newton's laws of gravitation and planetary motion and published his idea that it should be possible to develop a single great equation that would allow all the universe to be modeled. With only knowledge of the present, all the past and future could be known. This idea is embodied in the orrery, a mechanical model of the solar system. Clockwork mechanisms like this for predicting eclipses and the like go back to the ancient Greeks, but it's now clear the problem is far more complicated, and interesting. We've since discovered that the solar system not a clockwork. It is in fact chaotic over long time scales, so Laplace's grand equation was a mirage. This means you cannot unpack its history from calculations or models, no matter how precise, because the motions of the real solar system are incredibly sensitive. Varying any factor even a tiniest bit results in a different outcome after millions of years—even what the major asteroids, or minor planets, such as Ceres and Vesta, are doing. One of my coauthors, Jacques Laskar, has shown that computations can project forward or backward only 60 million years. After that, the predictions become utterly unreliable. Since Earth is about 4.6 billion years old, this means that only about 1.6 percent of its past or future orbit can be predicted. Over billions of years, the best calculations reveal many possible terrific events, such as one of the inner planets falling into the sun or being ejected from the solar system. Maybe even that Earth and Venus could collide one day. We can't tell if any of these actually happened, or might happen in the future. So we need some other method to limit the possibilities.

So, what is the "Geological Orrery?" Are you trying again to boil everything down to one equation, or is this something different?

The Geological Orrery is the opposite of an equation or model. It's designed to provide a precise and accurate history of the solar system. We get that history right here on Earth, from the history of our climates, which is recorded in the geological record, especially in large, long-lived lakes. Earth's orbit and axis orientation are constantly changing because they are being deformed by the gravitational attractions of other bodies. These changes affect the distribution of sunlight hitting our surface, which in turn affects climate, and the kinds of sediments that are deposited. That gives us the geological record of solar system behavior. Many scientists have used sediments to determine the effects of orbital deformations. That's how we know that the ice ages of the last few million years were paced by them. Some researchers have tried to go back much further in time. What is new here is the systematic approach of taking rock cores spanning tens of millions of years, looking at the cyclical sedimentary record of climate and accurately dating those changes over multiple sites. That allows us to capture the full range of solar system-driven deformations of our orbit and axis over long time periods.

What are the rocks telling you about how such cyclic changes affect our climate?

With two major coring experiments to date, we've we learned that changes in tropical climates from wet to dry during the time of early dinosaurs, from about 252 to 199 million years ago, were paced by orbital cycles lasting about 20,000, 100,000 and 400,000 years. On top of that is a much longer cycle of about 1.75 million years. The shorter cycles are about the same today, but the 1.75 million year cycle is way off —it's 2.4 million years today. We think the difference is caused by a gravitational dance between Earth and Mars. This difference is the fingerprint of solar system chaos. No existing set of models or calculations precisely duplicates these data.

How far do you think we're going to get with this problem during your lifetime?

[Image: 2-scientiststr.jpg]
Digital elevation map of sediment strata formed on a lake bottom some 220 million years ago, near present day Flemington, N.J. The lakebed was later tilted so that its cross section now faces the sky. Purple sections are ridges -- remains …more
Next step is to combine our two finished coring experiments with cores taken at high latitudes. While our core data do a really good job of mapping some aspects of planetary orbits, they tell us nothing about others. For those, we need a core from an ancient lake above the paleo-Arctic or Antarctic circles. Such deposits exist in what are now China and Australia. We also would like to include deposits that extend the record up 20 million years or so towards the present, and another low-latitude core that we can precisely date. With those, we would be able to determine what if any changes have taken place in that Mars-Earth gravitational dance. That would be a full proof of concept of the Geological Orrery. I plan to certainly be around for that.

Your paper mentions that this work might offer insights into the evolution of the solar system—maybe the even wider universe.

If all this works out, we could plan the grand mission to use the Geological Orrery for at least the rest of the time between 60 and 190 million years age. This mission would be expensive by geology standards, because rock coring is expensive. But the results would have far-reaching implications. For sure we would have data to produce high-quality climate models for Earth. And there is no doubt we would have the parameters for past climates on Mars or other rocky planets. But more excitingly and more speculative is the possibility of exploring how we might need to tweak gravity theory, or test some controversial theories, such as the possible existence of a plane of dark matter in our galaxy that our solar system passes through periodically.

We're talking deep time here. Does this have any application to questions about modern-day climate change?

It does have relevance to the present. in addition to the way climate is tuned to our orbit, it's also affected by the amount of carbon dioxide in the air. Now we're heading into a time when CO2 levels may be as high as they were 200 million years ago, early dinosaur times. This gives us a potential way to see how all the factors interact. It also has resonance with our search for life on Mars, or for habitable exoplanets.

Explore further: Thank the moon for Earth's lengthening day

More information: Paul E. Olsen el al., "Mapping solar system chaos with the Geological Orrery," PNAS (2019). www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1813901116 

Journal reference: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Provided by: Columbia University



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2019-03-scientists-track-deep-history-planets.html#jCp

Due to humans, extinction risk for 1,700 animal species to increase by 2070
March 4, 2019, Yale University

[Image: 5-biodiversity.jpg]

As humans continue to expand our use of land across the planet, we leave other species little ground to stand on. By 2070, increased human land-use is expected to put 1,700 species of amphibians, birds, and mammals at greater extinction risk by shrinking their natural habitats, according to a study by Yale ecologists published in Nature Climate Change.




To make this prediction, the ecologists combined information on the current geographic distributions of about 19,400 species worldwide with changes to the land cover projected under four different trajectories for the world scientists have agreed on as likely. These potential paths represent reasonable expectations about future developments in global society, demographics, and economics.

"Our findings link these plausible futures with their implications for biodiversity," said Walter Jetz, co-author and professor of ecology and evolutionary biology and of forestry and environmental studies at Yale. "Our analyses allow us to track how political and economic decisions—through their associated changes to the global land cover—are expected to cause habitat range declines in species worldwide."

The study shows that under a middle-of-the-road scenario of moderate changes in human land-use about 1,700 species will likely experience marked increases in their extinction risk over the next 50 years: They will lose roughly 30-50% of their present habitat ranges by 2070. These species of concern include 886 species of amphibians, 436 species of birds, and 376 species of mammals—all of which are predicted to have a high increase in their risk of extinction.

Among them are species whose fates will be particularly dire, such as the Lombok cross frog (Indonesia), the Nile lechwe (South Sudan), the pale-browed treehunter (Brazil) and the curve-billed reedhaunter (Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay) which are all predicted to lose around half of their present day geographic range in the next five decades. These projections and all other analyzed species can be examined at the Map of Life website.

"The integration of our analyses with the Map of Life can support anyone keen to assess how species may suffer under specific future land-use scenarios and help prevent or mitigate these effects," said Ryan P. Powers, co-author and former postdoctoral fellow in the Jetz Lab at Yale.

Species living in Central and East Africa, Mesoamerica, South America, and Southeast Asia will suffer the greatest habitat loss and increased extinction risk. But Jetz cautioned the global public against assuming that the losses are only the problem of the countries within whose borders they occur.

"Losses in species populations can irreversibly hamper the functioning of ecosystems and human quality of life," said Jetz. "While biodiversity erosion in far-away parts of the planet may not seem to affect us directly, its consequences for human livelihood can reverberate globally. It is also often the far-away demand that drives these losses—think tropical hardwoods, palm oil, or soybeans—thus making us all co-responsible."

Explore further: Extinction threat due to habitat loss may be greater than believed

More information: Global habitat loss and extinction risk of terrestrial vertebrates under land-use-change scenarios, Nature Climate Change (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41558-019-0406-z , https://www.nature.com/articles/s41558-019-0406-z 

Journal reference: Nature Climate Change
Provided by: Yale University


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2019-03-due-humans...s.html#jCp


Arrow



Alien species are primary cause of recent global extinctions: study

March 4, 2019, University College London

[Image: alienspecies.jpg]
Alien species are the main driver of recent extinctions in both animals and plants, according to a new study by UCL researchers. They found that since 1500, alien species have been solely responsible for 126 extinctions, 13 percent of the total number studied. Credit: P Krillow
Alien species are the main driver of recent extinctions in both animals and plants, according to a new study by UCL researchers.




They found that since 1500, alien species have been solely responsible for 126 extinctions, 13% of the total number studied.

Of 953 global extinctions, 300 happened in some part because of alien species, and of those 300, 42% had alien species alone listed as the cause of their demise.

The study, published today in Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, used data from the 2017 IUCN Red List on the total numbers of species that are considered to have gone extinct globally since 1500.

In total, 261 out of 782 animal species (33.4%) and 39 out of 153 plant species (25.5%) listed aliens as one of their extinction drivers. In contrast, native species impacts were associated with only 2.7% of animal extinctions and 4.6% of plant extinctions.


"Some people have suggested that aliens are no more likely than native species to cause species to disappear in the current global extinction crisis, but our analysis shows that aliens are much more of a problem in this regard," Alien2 said lead researcher Professor Tim Blackburn (UCL Biosciences).


"Our study provides a new line of evidence showing that the biogeographical origin of a species matters for its impacts. The invasion of an alien species is often enough to cause native species to go extinct, whereas we found no evidence for native species being the sole driver of extinction of other natives in any case."

The IUCN Red List identifies 12 broad categories of extinction drivers, including alien species, native species, biological resource use (hunting and harvesting) and agriculture. Alien species ranked first as a driver of animal extinctions, well ahead of the second place driver, biological resource use, which affected 18.8% of those lost.

Overall, the number of animal extinctions caused in some part by alien species is more than 12 times greater than those caused in part by native species.

Some of the worst offenders are mammalian predators, such as black, brown and Pacific rats and feral cats, with island habitats hit the hardest. Some of these animals first invaded by stowing away on boats, though some, like cats and foxes, have been introduced deliberately.

Many plants were also intentionally introduced, such as plantation tree species or ornamental plants for gardens. Once in place, they start to spread and threaten the native flora and fauna around them; alien plants are several times more likely than natives to achieve a maximum cover of at least 80%.

The origin of some species is unknown, so Professor Blackburn and his team assumed these were native for the study. "However," he said, "it is more likely that they are alien. Our results are therefore conservative in terms of the extent to which we implicate alien species in extinction. Also, many regions of the world have not been well studied, and there are likely to be further extinctions that haven't been captured in these data."

The research team believes better biosecurity is needed to prevent future invasions, and in many cases measures to control or even eradicate alien species must be considered.

Explore further: Alien plants and animals drive native species to extinction

More information: Tim M Blackburn, Céline Bellard and Anthony Ricciardi, 'Alien versus native species as drivers of recent extinctions' Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, Monday 4 March 2019, DOI: 10.1002/fee.2020 

Journal reference: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment
Provided by: University College London


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2019-03-alien-species-primary-global-extinctions.html#jCp

NASA Says Earth Is Greener Today Than 20 Years Ago Thanks To China, India

[img=64x0]https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/92ad409bfd00f0d31ad2c902d95a6188?s=400&d=mm&r=g[/img]
Trevor Nace
Contributor

Science







[img=618x0]https://thumbor.forbes.com/thumbor/960x0/https%3A%2F%2Fblogs-images.forbes.com%2Ftrevornace%2Ffiles%2F2019%2F02%2Fasia_tamo_2017_full.jpg[/img]
Greening of China and IndiaNASA
NASA has some good news, the world is a greener place today than it was 20 years ago. What prompted the change? Well, it appears China and India can take the majority of the credit.
In contrast to the perception of China and India's willingness to overexploit land, water and resources for economic gain, the countries are responsible for the largest greening of the planet in the past two decades. The two most populous countries have implemented ambitious tree planting programs and scaled up their implementation and technology around agriculture.
India continues to break world records in tree planting, with 800,000 Indians planting 50 million trees in just 24 hours.




The recent finding by NASA and published in the journal Nature Sustainability, compared satellite data from the mid-1990s to today using high-resolution imagery. Initially, the researchers were unsure what caused the significant uptick in greening around the planet. It was unclear whether a warming planet, increased carbon dioxide (CO2) or a wetter climate could have caused more plants to grow.
After further investigation of the satellite imagery, the researchers found that greening was disproportionately located in China and India. If the greening was primarily a response from climate change and a warming planet, the increased vegetation shouldn't be limited to country borders. In addition, higher latitude regions should become greener faster than lower latitudes as permafrost melts and areas like northern Russia become more habitable.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
...


Quote:India continues to break world records in tree planting, 
with 800,000 Indians planting 50 million trees in just 24 hours.


How about that.
I am impressed.
Everywhere they replant lots of trees on the planet, entire land based ecosystems recover.
Encouraging news.
...
Reply
Arrow


The secret behind maximum plant height—water
March 6, 2019, Chinese Academy of Sciences

[Image: 3-thesecretbeh.jpg]
Trees grow in Dinghushan National Nature Reserve (SCBG), Guangdong, China Credit: YE Qing


Physiological coordination between plant height and xylem hydraulic traits is aligned with habitat water availability across Earth's terrestrial biomes, according to a new study. Ecologists from the South China Botanical Garden (SCBG), Chinese Academy of Sciences, conclude that such coordination plays an important role in determining global sorting of plant species, and can be useful in predicting future species distribution under climate change scenarios.




Plants grow taller in wetter places, but what factors set their maximum height? Through previous experiments on tall trees, scientists have revealed that increasing hydraulic resistance associated with increasing plant height limits the distance water can be transported through xylem to the top leaves. This hydraulic resistance thus sets the maximum height of a species in a given habitat.

However, scientists didn't understand how this physiological coordination varied across a broad range of species and environments. Based on a huge dataset of 1,281 species from 369 sites worldwide, the researchers built multiple models linking height, hydraulic traits and water to find general rules. They found that taller species from wet habitats exhibited greater xylem efficiency and lower hydraulic safety, wider conduits, lower conduit density, and lower sapwood density, all of which were associated with habitat water availability.

"People used to think that taller plants might transport water less efficiently because of the longer distances," said Dr. Liu Hui, the first author of this study. "Instead, we found that taller plants had higher hydraulic conductivity across species, which was a main strategy they employ to compensate for the high evaporative demand by leaves and the increased height. It is called Darcy's Law."

Until now, most of the hydraulic theories such as Darcy's Law were based on data within species, Dr. Liu said. In contrast, this study distinguished and explained different hydraulic patterns between within and across species.

"Simply put, patterns found within species are based on short-term adaptive responses and are largely shaped by physiological trade-offs or constraints, while patterns across species reflect intrinsic evolutionary differences, which may be formed over millions of years, and are mainly constrained by their environmental niches," Dr. Liu said.

"Our findings greatly extend human knowledge about the relationship between xylem hydraulic traits and plant height from local studies to biomes across the globe," said the corresponding author Prof. Ye Qing, director of the Ecology and Environmental Sciences Center of SCBG. "We highlighted that hydraulic traits can serve as important predictors of global maximum plant height and species distribution patterns."

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Root water transport measured with hydraulic conductance flow meter

More information: Hui Liu et al, Hydraulic traits are coordinated with maximum plant height at the global scale, Science Advances (2019). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aav1332 

Journal reference: Science Advances [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: Chinese Academy of Sciences



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2019-03-secret-maximum-heightwater.html#jCp
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
Tectonics in the tropics trigger Earth's ice ages, study finds
March 14, 2019, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

[Image: earth.jpg]
Credit: CC0 Public Domain
Over the last 540 million years, the Earth has weathered three major ice ages—periods during which global temperatures plummeted, producing extensive ice sheets and glaciers that have stretched beyond the polar caps.




Now scientists at MIT, the University of California at Santa Barbara, and the University of California at Berkeley have identified the likely trigger for these ice ages.

In a study published in Science, the team reports that each of the last three major ice ages were preceded by tropical "arc-continent collisions"—tectonic pileups that occurred near the Earth's equator, in which oceanic plates rode up over continental plates, exposing tens of thousands of kilometers of oceanic rock to a tropical environment.

The scientists say that the heat and humidity of the tropics likely triggered a chemical reaction between the rocks and the atmosphere. Specifically, the rocks' calcium and magnesium reacted with atmospheric carbon dioxide, pulling the gas out of the atmosphere and permanently sequestering it in the form of carbonates such as limestone.

Over time, the researchers say, this weathering process, occurring over millions of square kilometers, could pull enough carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere to cool temperatures globally and ultimately set off an ice age.

"We think that arc-continent collisions at low latitudes are the trigger for global cooling," says Oliver Jagoutz, an associate professor in MIT's Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences. "This could occur over 1-5 million square kilometers, which sounds like a lot. But in reality, it's a very thin strip of Earth, sitting in the right location, that can change the global climate."

Jagoutz' co-authors are Francis Macdonald and Lorraine Lisiecki of UC Santa Barbara, and Nicholas Swanson-Hysell and Yuem Park of UC Berkeley.

A tropical trigger

When an oceanic plate pushes up against a continental plate, the collision typically creates a mountain range of newly exposed rock. The fault zone along which the oceanic and continental plates collide is called a "suture." Today, certain mountain ranges such as the Himalayas contain sutures that have migrated from their original collision points, as continents have shifted over millenia.



In 2016, Jagoutz and his colleagues retraced the movements of two sutures that today make up the Himalayas. They found that both sutures stemmed from the same tectonic migration. Eighty million years ago, as the supercontinent known as Gondwana moved north, part of the landmass was crushed against Eurasia, exposing a long line of oceanic rock and creating the first suture; 50 million years ago, another collision between the supercontinents created a second suture.

The team found that both collisions occurred in tropical zones near the equator, and both preceded global atmospheric cooling events by several million years—which is nearly instantaneous on a geologic timescale. After looking into the rates at which exposed oceanic rock, also known as ophiolites, could react with carbon dioxide in the tropics, the researchers concluded that, given their location and magnitude, both sutures could have indeed sequestered enough carbon dioxide to cool the atmosphere and trigger both ice ages.

Interestingly, they found that this process was likely responsible for ending both ice ages as well. Over millions of years, the oceanic rock that was available to react with the atmosphere eventually eroded away, replaced with new rock that took up far less carbon dioxide.

"We showed that this process can start and end glaciation," Jagoutz says. "Then we wondered, how often does that work? If our hypothesis is correct, we should find that for every time there's a cooling event, there are a lot of sutures in the tropics."

Exposing Earth's sutures

The researchers looked to see whether ice ages even further back in Earth's history were associated with similar arc-continent collisions in the tropics. They performed an extensive literature search to compile the locations of all the major suture zones on Earth today, and then used a computer simulation of plate tectonics to reconstruct the movement of these suture zones, and the Earth's continental and oceanic plates, back through time. In this way, they were able to pinpoint approximately where and when each suture originally formed, and how long each suture stretched.

They identified three periods over the last 540 million years in which major sutures, of about 10,000 kilometers in length, were formed in the tropics. Each of these periods coincided with each of three major, well-known ice ages, in the Late Ordovician (455 to 440 million years ago), the Permo-Carboniferous (335 to 280 million years ago), and the Cenozoic (35 million years ago to present day). Importantly, they found there were no ice ages or glaciation events during periods when major suture zones formed outside of the tropics.

"We found that every time there was a peak in the suture zone in the tropics, there was a glaciation event," Jagoutz says. "So every time you get, say, 10,000 kilometers of sutures in the tropics, you get an ice age."

He notes that a major suture zone, spanning about 10,000 kilometers, is still active today in Indonesia, and is possibly responsible for the Earth's current glacial period and the appearance of extensive ice sheets at the poles.

This tropical zone includes some of the largest ophiolite bodies in the world and is currently one of the most efficient regions on Earth for absorbing and sequestering carbon dioxide. As global temperatures are climbing as a result of human-derived carbon dioxide, some scientists have proposed grinding up vast quantities of ophiolites and spreading the minerals throughout the equatorial belt, in an effort to speed up this natural cooling process.

But Jagoutz says the act of grinding up and transporting these materials could produce additional, unintended carbon emissions. And it's unclear whether such measures could make any significant impact within our lifetimes.

"It's a challenge to make this process work on human timescales," Jagoutz says. "The Earth does this in a slow, geological process that has nothing to do with what we do to the Earth today. And it will neither harm us, nor save us."

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Ancient tectonic activity was trigger for ice ages, study says

More information: "Arc-continent collisions in the tropics set Earth's climate state" Science (2019). science.sciencemag.org/lookup/ … 1126/science.aav5300 

Journal reference: Science [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: Massachusetts Institute of Technology



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2019-03-tectonics-tropics-trigger-earth-ice.html#jCp
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
Experts reveal that clouds have moderated warming triggered by climate change
March 25, 2019, Swansea University

[Image: 1-expertsrevea.jpg]
Trees are removed from cold lake beds in Scandinavia. Credit: Professor Mary Gagen, Swansea University
A new study has revealed how clouds are modifying the warming created by human-caused climate change Weather in some parts of the world.




Led by Swansea University's Tree Ring Research Group, researchers from Sweden, Finland and Norway analysed information contained in the rings of ancient pine trees from northern Scandinavia to reveal how clouds have reduced the impact of natural phases of warmth in the past and are doing so again now to moderate the warming caused by anthropogenic climate change.

Even though northern Scandinavia should be strongly affected by global warming, the area has experienced little summer warming over recent decades—in stark contrast to the hemispheric trend of warming temperatures, which is strongly linked to rising greenhouse gas emissions. According to the study, temperature changes have been accompanied by an increase in cloudiness over northern Scandinavia, which in turn has reduced the impact of warming.

Mary Gagen, Professor of Geography at Swansea University, said: "The surface warming caused by rising greenhouse gases is modified by many complicated feedbacks—one thing changing in response to another—meaning that there are large geographical variations in the temperature of a particular place at a particular time, as the global average temperature rises. One of the most important, and most poorly understood, climatefeedbacks is the relationship between temperature and clouds. We might think that, simply, when it is cool it is cloudy, and when it is warm it is sunny, but that is not always the case."

[Image: expertsrevea.jpg]
Professor Mary Gagen core sampling a tree. Credit: Professor Mary Gagen, Swansea University
The research team analysed tree ring records to find out what summer temperatures were like in the past, and how cloudy it was. Using their collected data, the team produced a new reconstruction of summer cloud cover for northern Scandinavia and compared it to existing temperature reconstructions to establish the relationship between temperature and cloud cover.



Professor Mary Gagen said: "Most people know that the width of a tree ring can tell us what the temperature was like in the summer that ring grew, but we can also measure other things in tree rings such as the isotopes of carbon and water that the wood is made from. Isotopes are just different types of an element, the amount of the different isotopes of carbon in the wood tells us how cloudy it was in the summer the tree ring grew. By combining the tree ring width and tree ring carbon measurements we built a record of both past summer temperatures and past summer cloud cover. Summer temperatures in Scandinavia have increased by less than the global average in recent decades because it also got cloudier at the same time, and that modified and reduced the warming. That turns out to also be the case back through time."

Author Professor Danny McCarroll explained: "We found that over short timescales, increased cloud cover lead to cooler temperatures and vice versa in the past. However, over longer timescales -decades to centuries-we found that in warmer times, such as the medieval, there was increased cloud cover in this part of the world, which reduced local temperatures. The opposite being true in cool periods, such as the Little Ice Age.



[Image: 2-expertsrevea.jpg]
The preserved rings of a pine tree, that started growing in 1369 and fell into a cold lake in 1716, allow scientists to measure what the temperature was like in the summers of each year's growth and how sunny it was. Credit: Risto Jalkanen"These finding are important as they help to explain the feedback relationship between cloud cover and temperature, which is one of the major uncertainties in modelling future climate. Understanding the past relationship between temperature and cloud cover in this part of the world means we can now predict that, as the global temperature continues to rise, that warming will be moderated in northern Scandinavia by increasing cloud cover. The next step is to find out whether the same is true for other parts of the world."


Professor Mary Gagen added: "One of the main sources of uncertainty about future climate change is the way that clouds are going to respond to warming, cloud cover has a really big influence on temperature at the surface of the Earth.

"Clouds are going to be critical in modify warming of the climate. In some places, like Scandinavia, it turns out that the summer climate gets cloudier as the planet warms, in other places though it is likely that warming will be enhanced by a reduction in cloudiness which will make the surface of the Earth even warmer. What is really worrying is that climate models have shown that, if greenhouse gas emissions are allowed to continue until there is double or even triple the pre industrial amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, then some of the most important clouds for cooling our planet, the big banks of oceanic clouds that reflect a lot of sunlight back to space, could stop forming altogether and this would really accelerate warming."

The study, Cloud Cover Feedback Moderates Fennoscandian Summer Temperature Changes Over the Past 1,000 Years, is published in Geophysical Research Letters.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Declining sea ice to lead to cloudier Arctic: study

More information: Giles H. F. Young et al, Cloud cover feedback moderates Fennoscandian summer temperature changes over the past 1000 years, Geophysical Research Letters (2019). DOI: 10.1029/2018GL081046 

Journal reference: Geophysical Research Letters 
Provided by: Swansea University



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2019-03-experts-re...d.html#jCp




Antarctic snowfall dominated by a few extreme snowstormsWeather

March 25, 2019, British Antarctic Survey

[Image: antarcticsno.jpg]
Credit: British Antarctic Survey
A new study reveals the importance of a small number of intense storms around Antarctica in controlling the amount of snow falling across the continent.




Published this month in the journal Geophysical Research Letters, the study analysed daily Antarctic snowfall data starting in the 1970s. It reveals how the most extreme 10 percent of snowfall events account for up to 60 percent of annual snowfall in some places, and are the result of a few large storms that develop over the Southern Ocean.

In one particular case, 44 percent of annual snowfall occurred in a single day. Understanding the significance of these events is critical for scientists interpreting Antarctica's past, as well as predicting how our climate may behave in future.

The Antarctic ice sheet is extremely important because of its potential contribution to global sea level rise. The mass of the ice sheet is constantly changing because of the ice gained by snowfall compared with the loss of ice at the margins via iceberg calving and melting.

Lead author, Prof. John Turner, from the British Antarctic Survey, said:

"Antarctica is already the most extreme continent on earth – the windiest, the coldest, the driest. But even by Antarctic standards, we were surprised to see the extent to which a small number of extreme snowfall events are responsible for the marked differences in snowfall from year to year.



[Image: 1-antarcticsno.jpg]
This circular map show the importance of extreme snowfall events. The contours and colours show the percentage of the annual snowfall that comes from the extremes, here taken as the top 10 percent of daily snowfall amounts. Credit: British Antarctic Survey"They are often short-lived events, which arrive suddenly and deposit a large fraction of the year's snowfall. If you are an ice core scientist trying to decipher messages from our past climate, and predict the future, knowing about these extreme weather events can be the missing part of the jigsaw."


The international team, comprising scientists from India, France, China, Netherlands and the UK, were able to investigate snowfall across the Antarctic from 1979 to 2016 using the output of an atmospheric model called RACMO2. This was developed by Dutch researchers, and revealed the impact of the most extreme snow storms.

BAS Ice Core scientist, and co-author on the paper, Dr. Liz Thomas said:



[Image: 2-antarcticsno.jpg]
Returning to Halley Research Station during a storm. Credit: British Antarctic Survey"Ice cores are invaluable in reconstructing past climate. However, an ice core site that is dominated by snowfallfrom occasional extreme storms might not be representative of climate conditions through the year.


"This new study will help ensure that future ice cores are not drilled in regions dominated by precipitation extremes."

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Snow over Antarctica buffered sea level rise during last century

More information: John Turner et al. The Dominant Role of Extreme Precipitation Events in Antarctic Snowfall Variability, Geophysical Research Letters (2019). DOI: 10.1029/2018GL081517 

Journal reference: Geophysical Research Letters [Image: img-dot.gif][Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: British Antarctic Survey



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2019-03-antarctic-snowfall-dominated-extreme-snowstorms.html#jCp

Big U-turn: Key melting Greenland glacier is growing again
March 25, 2019 by Seth Borenstein

[Image: biguturnkeym.jpg]
This 2016 photo provided by NASA shows patches of bare land at the Jakobshavn glacier in Greenland. The major Greenland glacier that was one of the fastest shrinking ice and snow masses on Earth is growing again, a new NASA study finds. The Jakobshavn glacier around 2012 was retreating about 1.8 miles (3 kilometers) and thinning nearly 130 feet (almost 40 meters) annually. But the last two years it started growing again at about the same rate, according to a study released on Monday, March 25, 2019, in Nature Geoscience. Study authors and outside scientists think this is temporary. (NASA via AP) 


A major Greenland glacier that was one of the fastest shrinking ice and snow masses on Earth is growing again, a new NASA study finds.




The Jakobshavn (YA-cob-shawv-en) glacier around 2012 was retreating about 1.8 miles (3 kilometers) and thinning nearly 130 feet (almost 40 meters) annually. But it started growing again at about the same rate in the past two years, according to a study in Monday's Nature Geoscience . Study authors and outside scientists think this is temporary.

"That was kind of a surprise. We kind of got used to a runaway system," said Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland ice and climate scientist Jason Box. "The good news is that it's a reminder that it's not necessarily going that fast. But it is going."

Box, who wasn't part of the study, said Jakobshavn is "arguably the most important Greenland glacier because it discharges the most ice in the northern hemisphere. For all of Greenland, it is king."

A natural cyclical cooling of North Atlantic waters likely caused the glacier to reverse course, said study lead author Ala Khazendar, a NASA glaciologist on the Oceans Melting Greenland (OMG) project. Khazendar and colleagues say this coincides with a flip of the North Atlantic Oscillation—a natural and temporary cooling and warming of parts of the ocean that is like a distant cousin to El Nino in the Pacific.

The water in Disko Bay, where Jakobshavn hits the ocean, is about 3.6 degrees cooler (2 degrees Celsius) than a few years ago, study authors said.

While this is "good news" on a temporary basis, this is bad news on the long term because it tells scientists that ocean temperature is a bigger player in glacier retreats and advances than previously thought, said NASA climate scientist Josh Willis, a study co-author. Over the decades the water has been and will be warming from man-made climate change, he said, noting that about 90 percent of the heat trapped by greenhouse gases goes into the oceans.

"In the long run we'll probably have to raise our predictions of sea level rise again," Willis said.

Think of the ocean temperatures near Greenland like an escalator that's rising slowly from global warming, Khazendar said. But the natural North Atlantic Oscillation sometimes is like jumping down a few steps or jumping up a few steps. The water can get cooler and have effects, but in the long run it is getting warmer and the melting will be worse, he said.

Four outside scientists said the study and results make sense.

University of Washington ice scientist Ian Joughin, who wasn't part of the study and predicted such a change seven years ago, said it would be a "grave mistake" to interpret the latest data as contradicting climate change science.

What's happening, Joughin said, is "to a large extent, a temporary blip. Downturns do occur in the stock market, but overall the long term trajectory is up. This is really the same thing."

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: NASA's Greenland mission still surprises in year four

More information: Interruption of two decades of Jakobshavn Isbrae acceleration and thinning as regional ocean cools, Nature Geoscience (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41561-019-0329-3 , https://www.nature.com/articles/s41561-019-0329-3 

Journal reference: Nature Geoscience
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
Quote:[Image: 95253510-de3b-11e9-94c8-f27aa1da2f45_ima...1569648557] Retraction Note: Quantification of ocean heat uptake from changes in atmospheric O2 and CO2 composition Retraction Note: Quantification of ocean heat uptake from changes in atmospheric O2 and CO2 composition
[Image: source.gif]
Nature[b]volume 573[/b], page614 (2019) Download Citation [*]Retraction to: Nature https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0651-8, published online 31 October 2018.
Shortly after publication, arising from comments from Nicholas Lewis, we realized that our reported uncertainties were underestimated owing to our treatment of certain systematic errors as random errors. In addition, we became aware of several smaller issues in our analysis of uncertainty. Although correcting these issues did not substantially change the central estimate of ocean warming, it led to a roughly fourfold increase in uncertainties, significantly weakening implications for an upward revision of ocean warming and climate sensitivity. Because of these weaker implications, the Nature editors asked for a Retraction, which we accept. Despite the revised uncertainties, our method remains valid and provides an estimate of ocean warming that is independent of the ocean data underpinning other approaches. The revised paper, with corrected uncertainties, will be submitted to another journal. The Retraction will contain a link to the new publication, if and when it is published.
Author information
Affiliations


  1. Department of Geosciences and Princeton Environmental Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA
    • L. Resplandy
  2. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
    • R. F. Keeling
    • , Y. Eddebbar
    •  & M. K. Brooks
  3. Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
    • R. Wang
  4. LMD/IPSL, ENS, PSL Research University, École Polytechnique, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Paris, France
    • L. Bopp
  5. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, USA
    • M. C. Long
  6. NOAA, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ, USA
    • J. P. Dunne
  7. GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel, Germany
    • W. Koeve
    •  & A. Oschlies






[*]Corresponding author
Correspondence to L. Resplandy.

[*]


SEPTEMBER 30, 2019

[*]
[*]Journal 'Nature' retracts ocean-warming study
[*][*]

[*]by Joshua Emerson Smith
[*][*]

[*][Image: 3-ocean.jpg]Credit: CC0 Public Domain
The journal Nature retracted a study published last year that found oceans were warming at an alarming rate due to climate change.

The prestigious scientific journal issued the formal notice this week for the paper published Oct. 31, 2018, by researchers at the University of California, San Diego's Scripps Institution of Oceanography.
They released a statement published on the journal's website that read in part:
"Shortly after publication, arising from comments from Nicholas Lewis, we realized that our reported uncertainties were underestimated owing to our treatment of certain systematic errors as random errors.
"Despite the revised uncertainties, our method remains valid and provides an estimate of ocean warming that is independent of the ocean data underpinning other approaches."
Lewis, a mathematician and critic of the scientific consensus supporting the climate crisis, posted a critique of the paper shortly after its publication.
Co-author and climate scientist Ralph Keeling at Scripps has taken the blame for the mistake.
The report used a new approach to measure the ocean's temperature based on measuring the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide rising off the plant's oceans. Much of the data on ocean temperatures currently relies on the Argo array, robotic devices that float at different depths.
The retraction of the article came on the same day that the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released its latest report on the impacts warming on oceans and ice-covered regions.
The findings were some of the most dire to date, warning that if emissions continue, sea level rise could reach 3 feet by the end of the century, a more than 10% increase from 2013 predictions. At the same time, the report found that in some cities and islands hundred-year floods will become yearly events.



[*][*]

[*]

Explore further
Climate contrarian uncovers scientific error, upends major ocean warming study



[*][*]

[*]
[b]More information:[/b] L. Resplandy et al. Retraction Note: Quantification of ocean heat uptake from changes in atmospheric O2 and CO2 composition, Nature (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1585-5

L. Resplandy et al. Quantification of ocean heat uptake from changes in atmospheric O2 and CO2 composition, Nature (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-018-0651-8
[b]Journal information:[/b] Nature 




[Image: logo9.gif]
Record snow, cold, slams northern Rockies with winter-like weather...

40 Inches in Montana: It's a February Storm in September!
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply


Forum Jump:


Users browsing this thread: 1 Guest(s)