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The Road to Regeneration and Immortality

Quote:see Ea's last post,
bottom last page,

... to genetically modify yourself ... 

sounds almost nightmarish.
I saw this in the article ... fecal transplants Damned

this BBC article on the subject is interesting,
with awesome photos of the bad bacterium --- C. Diff.
the story by the lady whose husband had to administer the .. transplant ... , is compelling.
The brave new world of DIY faecal transplant
Quote:Lots of people die from Clostridium difficile.
In the US, the figure is estimated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
to be 14,000 per year,

In the first randomised trial of the technique 

published in the New England Journal of Medicine last year, 
94% of patients were cured by the treatment, 
whereas a course of antibiotics cured just 27%. 
The disparity was so huge 
that the researchers stopped the trial early, 
on the grounds that it was unethical to deny the better cure to the cohort assigned antibiotics.

C. Diff bacterium colonizing a crypt in a mouse intestine Hmm2
[Image: _75003670_cdifficileinfectedmousecaecum1.jpg]

Brain-Preserving Company

MIT announced today (April 2) that it has severed a subcontract with Nectome, a company that says it will preserve the brains of dying people in order to revive them in the future. The theory behind Nectome's ultimate goal is that a well-preserved connectome, or map of all the links between a brain's nerves, might contain enough information for future scientists to digitize and use to re-create a dead person's consciousness.

A stealthy Harvard startup wants to reverse aging in dogs, and humans could be next

The world’s most influential synthetic biologist is behind a new company that plans to rejuvenate dogs using gene therapy. If it works, he plans to try the same approach in people, and he might be one of the first volunteers.

Biologist George Church says the idea is to live to 130 in the body of a 22-year-old.

Scientists Have Successfully Reversed The Aging Of Human Cells In The Lab

The researchers were able to reverse the aging process of some old human cells by delivering a specific molecule to their mitochondria, the structures within cells where energy is produced. This approach stops the cells from becoming senescent, a point at which they can no longer duplicate. Some researchers believe that the accumulation of these cells in organs is key to the aging process.


Quote:reverse the aging process of some old human cells,
by delivering a ... specific Sheep  molecule

a soon to be ... patented Whip  "specific molecule" ...specifically mixed into their patented concoction,
it is the:
delivery system ...

best to cut to the chase

Quote:delivering hydrogen sulfide Whip
directly to mitochondria can allow old cells to regain the dividing abilities of younger cells. 

Hydrogen sulfide is the compound that makes rotten eggs smell. 

It is dangerous in high doses but has been shown to be beneficial at low levels. 
Delivering it directly where it is needed can reduce potential risks.

The team believes that the presence of the molecule in mitochondria 
can increase the abundance of certain splicing factors, 
proteins that essentially switch genes on and off in response to environmental changes. 

There are about 300 proteins in this group and their numbers tend to decline as we age. 
The hydrogen sulfide boosted the amount of two splicing factors connected to senescence, 
reducing this aging mechanism.

“We are hopeful that in using molecular tools such as this, 

we will be able to eventually remove senescent cells in living people, Hmm2
which may allow us to target multiple age-related diseases at once.

Targeted delivery of an highly toxic substance to specific cells or cell groups. 

I wonder if they will use - m.a.b.'s  -- monoclonal antibodies -- as delivery system,
{used in many cancer drugs}

I would be quite skeptical of this, as nobody knows the chances of bad side effects,
even from "targeted delivery"  to specific cells,
of hydrogen sulfide.
They want ... volunteers ... to challenge the new procedure.

otherwise it can be quite toxic with too much exposure to the gas
what you need to know about hydrogen sulfide gas

Nicotinamide Riboside + Pterostilbene (NAD booster and trans-resveratrol)

I've been taking this combination for some months now, It does seem to work and does so via much the same mechanism- providing the mitochondria with what it needs to work properly. Neither are poisonous- one's a type of B-3 vitamin, the other is an antioxidant

I was feeling pretty old, exhausted, run down and still hurt from my accident last year.. not now
Something has happened in result of taking this. I wake up with the chickens now, ready to go, still go all day
and have healed almost completely from my injuries. My skin and hair look great, and I feel more like me than I have in a long time

Read about the science behind it

Get it here
On a satellite I ride. Nothing down below can hide.
Thanx for that note got two bottles plus one other coming.

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
be advised- it's not like speed or anything similar, not energy-drink-ey, there's no stimulant in it- you won't take it and feel anything
you will notice however- give it a few days.
NR for NAD+ rejuvenation and pterostilbene to activate your sirtuans
fix the power drought, bind the telomere ends and watch your body repair itself properly...
On a satellite I ride. Nothing down below can hide.
Need to try this magic.  Split_spawn
A lot of the ED meds I take don't make me high or even work either; however, with the pacemaker FIGHTS they rising heart rate beats to "NORMAL" 72 hb/min, so their "effectiveness and 60 day return is often not honored, or even worth trying to get $ back.

This might be able to REPAIR my heart so that I may at some point ask to have the fracking thing REMOVED permanently.

I would rather live 10 years at those 8 months I had at 20 hb/min orgasms with me standing on the Smoking Pyramid and feeling the sand between my toes, wind in hair, smelling cinnamon in the dust, and the sights were like GOOD 200-400 micro grams of good LSD.  All with a porn movie and single spurt and relief. 

I have had SEVERAL good LSD experiences in my young years, and I miss the availability of that GOOD and TRUSTED sources way back then.

I may even seek EA's gene therapy with Vermont's Medical School, since by body paperwork is ALREADY on file, and arrangements with local funeral home.  I even signed paperwork to be FDA trials are on FILE over there.

The order will arrive Saturday.

Let you know in a month or so.  Hope it starts making me feel better within a week or so.

Again thanx for the link about it.  It seems to have helped you heal, it is likely to do the same with me especially with all the vitamins I already take.

Current book I am reading is

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
"Something has happened in result of taking this. I wake up with the chickens now, ready to go, still go all day''

That part of your test report suggests the circadian rhythm has been reset.
If true then melatonin might be a good addition.
Have you noticed more dreams?
no, just good sleep quickly and easy wake-up, there are those reported effects of circadian rhythm reset, but I simply noticed not having to hit the snooze in the morning because I'm ready to go.
(I've never got much more than about 6 hrs a night,)

having a good, constant energy level is a welcome effect for sure

I'm no longer about to fall out every day at about 3-4

I'd been following the research on these substances for some years now, and was convinced to go ahead and try them by both the clinical studies as well as the testimony of some friends I trust
I mean... it has been shown to reverse signs of aging in mice (due to the NAD and sirtuan boost) and tests on humans continue to return very surprising and beneficial results...

in other words this ain't snake oil-

VICTOR--- you could really benefit from this. I know you are active and want to remain so but the years keep dog-piling... fix those senescent cells and lets see if we can live forever...
On a satellite I ride. Nothing down below can hide.
There seems to be a wide price range between different brands of pills.
Are there any recommendations?

I assume the effects extend to the whole body...including the nervous system?

I prefer to buy mine from the holder of the patent... Tru Niagen.
On a satellite I ride. Nothing down below can hide.
New pill that will help people reach 150-year-old is ready and will be sold for the price of coffee a day

A new technique in human that will help reduce by 50 years the aging process is ready and will be sold for the price of a daily coffee. Sydney researchers gave the pill to mice and the results were astonishing as the mice lived 10% longer.

New process which reprograms the human cell was developed by Harvard Professor David Sinclair and researchers of the University of New South Wales. As Dr Sinclair said: “the technique could allow people to regenerate organs, and even allow paralysis sufferers to move again, with human trials due within two years”.

Seems Opportunity needs some rejuvenation or face extinction !

NASA gives Opportunity rover a deadline to wake up, or be lost forever
Edited time: 2 Sep, 2018 09:33 

[Image: 5b8a935cfc7e9344308b4601.gif]

A global dust storm on Mars is threatening the planet’s longest-living robot, NASA’s Opportunity rover. The machine has been in hibernation since June to wait out the storm and now NASA have given it a deadline to wake up.

The US space agency has given the rover a 45-day deadline before giving up on the robot, which has been exploring the Red Planet for 14 years. Skies are finally starting to clear over Mars following an epic sandstorm, and mission managers are hopeful that the rover will attempt to make contact soon.

The sun is breaking through the haze over Perseverance Valley, and soon there will be enough sunlight present that Opportunity should be able to recharge its batteries,” said John Callas, Opportunity project manager at JPL, in NASA’s latest update on the rover.

However, if the robot is silent for 45 days after the storm subsides, the team will be “forced to conclude that the sun-blocking dust and the Martian cold have conspired to cause some type of fault from which the rover will more than likely not recover,” said Callas.

Quote:Thanks to a planet-wide dust storm, NASA hasn't heard from its Opportunity rover since June 10—a worryingly long time.
— Marina Koren (@marinakoren) August 24, 2018

At that point our active phase of reaching out to Opportunity will be at an end. However, in the unlikely chance that there is a large amount of dust sitting on the solar arrays that is blocking the sun’s energy, we will continue passive listening efforts for several months.”
If the golf-cart-sized vehicle can’t get enough sunlight, its batteries may brown out or lack the electricity needed to power the heaters to protect the machine’s electronic circuits from Mars’ blistering cold.
The Opportunity rover was only scheduled to last for three months, but has been exploring the Red Planet for over 14 years, clocking up more than a marathon worth of Mars miles. A global dust storm has been raging on the planet for nearly two months. The rover fell asleep on June 10 and has yet to wake up and “phone home.”
Quote:The Opportunity rover was only supposed to work on Mars for 90 days. It's been almost 15 years. Think about that for a second. It survived one dust storm but this last one has been a doozy. We need to wait for the rover to wake up. #WakeUpOppy#SaveOppy
— Shannon Stirone (@shannonmstirone) August 29, 2018
While dust storms aren’t an unusual occurrence on Mars - the planet is shroud in a red haze of dust once every couple of years – but NASA says this is “one of the most intense” storms ever recorded.

This is the worst storm Opportunity has ever seen, and we’re doing what we can, crossing our fingers, and hoping for the best,” said Steve Squyres, a planetary scientist at Cornell University and leader of the rover mission, in a recent Planetary Society blog.

The robot is battling a killer weather combination with the extreme dust storm, which is blocking light to its solar panels and coating it in a fine dust, while also fighting -100 degree Fahrenheit temperatures. Together, they can reduce the rover’s ability to store and use electrical energy, while also shrinking and snapping electronic circuits.

The longer the robot goes without generating the electricity needed to charge its batteries, NASA says the batteries could “brown out” and the rover will join the defunct likes of Spirit, the Opportunity rover’s near-identical sister machine.

Quote:I second @doug_ellison's sentiments. Everyone is bringing their best to this fight. And we'll throw in the towel ONLY when we've exhausted every possible avenue to recover @MarsRovers.
— Michael Staab (@AstroStaab) August 25, 2018

READ MORE: Curiosity rover snaps stunning selfie during dust storm on Mars (PHOTOS)

Spirit stopped communicating with NASA during an extreme Martian winter in March 2010. Engineers attempted to regain contact with it for more than a year afterwards, before they eventually gave up and left it to join the plant’s growing pile of space debris. 

However, “there is reason to be optimistic,says NASA, as the storm appears to be weakening, meaning that sunlight may have time to peak through the dust and give the rover a much-needed boost. But even if Opportunity does wake up, it’s still “not out of the woods” as “there's a real possibility the rover won't be the same.”

The rover’s batteries could have discharged so much power – and stayed inactive so long – that their capacity is reduced. If those batteries can't hold as much charge, it could affect the rover's continued operations.”



Also in We Never Forget about Mars thread.

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Mybe Professor David Sinclair can help Opportunity with his new bill ?
Research shows it's possible to reverse damage caused by aging cells

New research involving University of Minnesota Medical School faculty Paul D. Robbins and Laura J. Niedernhofer, recently published in Nature Medicine, shows there are types of small molecules called senolytics that can reverse the impact of aged, senescent cells.

"We've always thought of aging as a process, not a disease," said Dr. Robbins, Associate Director of the newly founded Institute on the Biology of Aging and Metabolism (iBAM). "But what if we can influence the impacts of aging at a cellular level to promote healthy aging? That's what senolytics seeks to achieve."

From Letosvet last post

Quote:shows there are types of small molecules called senolytics 
that can reverse the impact of aged senescent cells
Senolytics: Dasatinib and Quercetin

Quote:Drugs targeting these pro-survival factors selectively killed senescent cells. 
Two such drugs were Dasatinib and quercetin 
which were both able to remove senescent cells but were better in differing tissue types. 
However it was discovered that a combination of the two drugs Whip
formed a synergy 
that was significantly more effective at removing some senescent cell types

quercetin --in:  apples -- buckwheat tea
Quercetin, Inflammation and Immunity

Quote:3. Dietary Sources of Quercetin
Quercetin-type flavonols 
(primarily as quercetin glycosides), 
the most abundant of the flavonoid molecules, are widely distributed in plants. 
They are found in a variety of foods including apples, berries, Brassica vegetables, capers, grapes, onions, shallots, tea, and tomatoes, as well as many seeds, nuts, flowers, barks, and leaves. Quercetin is also found in medicinal botanicals, including Ginkgo biloba, Hypericum perforatum, and Sambucus canadensis [6,7,8]. 
In red onions, 
higher concentrations of quercetin occur in the outermost rings 
and in the part closest to the root, 
the latter being the part of the plant with the highest concentration [9]. 
One study found that organically grown tomatoes had 79% more quercetin than chemically grown fruit [10]. 
Quercetin is present in various kinds of honey from different plant sources [11]. 
Food-based sources of quercetin include vegetables, fruits, berries, nuts, beverages and other products of plant origin [12]. In the determined food, 
the highest concentration is 234 mg/100 g of edible portion in capers (raw), 
the lowest concentration is 2 mg/100 g of edible portion in black or green tea (Camellia sinensis) [13].

I've been feeling better since the TRU Niagen, Pterostillbene, along with Strawberries dipped in crushed L-Arginine.  Variety is healthy.

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
"I've been feeling better since the TRU Niagen, Pterostillbene, along with Strawberries dipped in crushed L-Arginine."

It makes sense that energizing the endocannabinoid system will synergize with this compound,
and also melatonin is a good addition it seems.
The mushroom dream of a 'long-haired hippie' could help save the world's bees
Evan Bush, The Seattle Times | Saturday, Oct. 6, 2018

[Image: jpeg]

SEATTLE—The epiphany that mushrooms could help save the world’s ailing bee colonies struck Paul Stamets while he was in bed.

“I love waking dreams,” he said. “It’s a time when you’re just coming back into consciousness.”

Years ago, in 1984, Stamets had noticed a “continuous convoy of bees” traveling from a patch of mushrooms he was growing and his beehives. The bees actually moved wood chips to access his mushroom’s mycelium, the branching fibers of fungus that look like cobwebs.

“I could see them sipping on the droplets oozing from the mycelium,” he said. They were after its sugar, he thought.
Decades later, he and a friend began a conversation about bee colony collapse that left Stamets, the owner of a mushroom mercantile, puzzling over a problem. Bees across the world have been disappearing at an alarming rate. Parasites like mites, fast-spreading viruses, agricultural chemicals and lack of forage area have stressed and threatened wild and commercial bees alike.

Waking up one morning, “I connected the dots,” he said. “Mycelium have sugars and antiviral properties,” he said. What if it wasn’t just sugar that was useful to those mushroom-suckling bees so long ago?

In research published Thursday in the journal Scientific Reports, Stamets turned intuition into reality. The paper describes how bees given a small amount of his mushroom mycelia extract exhibited remarkable reductions in the presence of viruses associated with parasitic mites that have been attacking, and infecting, bee colonies for decades.
In the late 1980s, tiny Varroa mites began to spread through bee colonies in the United States. The mites — which are parasites and can infect bees with viruses — proliferate easily and cause colony collapse in just years.

Over time, colonies have become even more susceptible, and viruses became among the chief threats to the important pollinators for crops on which people rely.

“We think that’s because the viruses have evolved and become pathogenic and virulent,” said Dennis vanEngelsdorp, a University of Maryland professor in entomology, who was not involved in the mycelium research. “Varroa viruses kill most of the colonies in the country.”

He likened the mites to dirty hypodermic needles; the mites are able to spread viruses from bee to bee.

The only practical solution to date has been to keep the number of Varroa mites within beehives “at manageable populations.”

Stamet’s idea about bee-helping mycelium could give beekeepers a powerful new weapon.
At first, mushrooms were a hard sell.

When Stamets, whose fascination with fungi began with “magic mushrooms” when he was a “long-haired hippie” undergraduate at The Evergreen State College, began reaching out to scientists, some laughed him off.

“I don’t have time for this. You sound kind of crazy. I’m gonna go,” he recalled a California researcher telling him. “It was never good to start a conversation with scientists you don’t know saying, ‘I had a dream.’”

When Steve Sheppard, a Washington State University entomology professor, received a call in 2014 from Stamets, however, he listened.

Sheppard has heard a lot of wild ideas to save bees over the years, like harnessing static electricity to stick bees with little balls of Styrofoam coated in mite-killing chemicals. Stamets’ pitch was different: He had data to back up his claims about mycelium’s antiviral properties and his company, Fungi Perfecti, could produce it in bulk. “I had a compelling reason to look further,” Sheppard said.

Together with other researchers, the unlikely pair have produced research that opens promising and previously unknown doors in the fight to keep bee colonies from collapsing.

“This is a pretty novel approach,” vanEngelsdorp said. “There’s no scientist who believes there’s a silver bullet for bee health. There’s too many things going on. … This is a great first step.”

To test Stamets’ theory, the researchers conducted two experiments: They separated two groups of mite-exposed bees into cages, feeding one group sugar syrup with a mushroom-based additive and the other, syrup without the additive. They also field-tested the extract in small, working bee colonies near WSU.

For several virus strains, the extract “reduced the virus to almost nothing,” said Brandon Hopkins, a WSU assistant research professor, another author of the paper.

The promising results have opened the door to new inquiries.

Researchers are still trying to figure out how the mushroom extract works. The compound could be boosting bees’ immune systems, making them more resistant to the virus. Or, the compound could be targeting the viruses themselves.

“We don’t know what’s happening to cause the reduction. That’s sort of our next step,” Sheppard said.

Because the extract can be added to syrups commercial beekeepers commonly use, researchers say the extract could be a practical solution that could scale quickly.

For now, they are conducting more research. On Wednesday, Hopkins and Sheppard spent the day setting up experiments at more than 300 commercial colonies in Oregon.

Meanwhile, Stamets has designed a 3D-printable feeder that delivers mycelia extract to wild bees. He plans to launch the product, and an extract-subscription service next year, to the public.

Stamets said he hopes his fungus extract can forestall the crisis of a world without many of its creatures, including bees. He is alarmed at how fast species are going extinct.

“The loss of biodiversity has ramifications that reverberate throughout the food web,” he said, likening each species to parts of an airplane, that hold the Earth together — until they don’t.

“What rivet will we lose that we’ll have catastrophic failure? I think the rivet will be losing the bees,” he said. “More than one-third of our food supply is dependent on bees.”



Maybe we can order the "mycelia extract" and consume it the hassle of growing the Mushroom if they've isolated the "Trip Inducing" agent instead of feeding it to bees , we could take several sips mixed with some other drink if it taste awful, or simple keep sucking the 3D Printed dropper. Mellow

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
I've been told that one grow method
that involves growing the mycelium up to the point
just before the mushroom stage begins.
In the Netherlands it's legal to produce "magic truffles" in this way.
We've so radiated by all the nuclear tests, leaks, new "special nukes", that we better say thank you to Russians AGAIN !

Russian Scientists Discover Bacteria that Neutralizes Nuclear Waste

October 9, 2018 admin

Russia does it again! In another groundbreaking feat, Russian scientists found a way to neutralize nuclear radioactivity through bacterial intervention. This is exactly in line with their previous announcement about an industrial method pertaining to the transmutation of elements via biochemical approach.

The unique bacteria, discovered in a nuclear waste storage site in Siberia, shows promise as a tool for the creation of a natural barrier to the spread of radionuclides.

Researchers from the Moscow-based Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and the Russian Academy of Sciences’ Federal Research Center for Biotechnology have been able to isolate microorganisms which can be used to safeguard the surrounding environment from liquid radioactive waste.

Scientists made the discovery while conducting microbiological studies of the groundwater at the Seversky deep radiation burial site in Seversk, Tomsk region, Siberia, where liquid radioactive waste from the Siberian Chemical Combine, which supplies and reprocesses low enriched uranium for nuclear fuel, is stored.

Their research, recently published in Radioactive Waste, a Russian scientific journal, suggests that the bacteria is capable of converting radionuclide ions, including those found in uranium and plutonium, into sedentary forms, thereby preventing the spread of dangerous radiation into the surrounding environment. Through lab experimentation, the scientists were able to fine tune the conditions necessary for the bacteria to carry out its useful work.

The researchers say their findings are a first step in creation a biogeochemical barrier for radionuclides for use in deep burial sites containing liquid radioactive waste.

Research into microbiological tools to limit the effects of nuclear waste have been conducted since the 1980s, with scientists from around the world saying microbial processes must be taken into account in projects to bury and store nuclear waste which can otherwise decay over a period of millions or even billions of years.

With a method that could generate nuclear power safely, the need for wars to control sources of fossil fuels are effectively curtailed.

All of these announcements about economically disruptive scientific methods are meant to inform the world that the Russians are more than ready to end the scarcity-based economic system of the West. Bear in mind, that the RIC Alliance have now officially moved away from the fiat dollar and are in fact, unloading huge amounts of US treasury bonds in breathtaking pace.

Source from the same one that on Oct 2, 2018 that Dr Ford was CIA's Head of Stanford Psychology Section Dept. and one of her distant family connections was assassinated when Mitch McConnell's wife was about to meet him.


Be good thing to have them around while we go into Space ya think ?

Bob... Ninja Assimilated

(10-08-2018, 07:34 PM)Kalter Rauch Wrote: I've been told that one grow method
that involves growing the mycelium up to the point
just before the mushroom stage begins.
In the Netherlands it's legal to produce "magic truffles" in this way.

I bought this book, along with two others I gave to my friend who I am deeding house to:

[Image: PSILOCYBIN.jpg]

Click the book and it takes you right there.

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Biologists answer fundamental question about cell size
February 7, 2019, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

[Image: cell.jpg]
Credit: CC0 Public Domain
MIT biologists have discovered the answer to a fundamental biological question: Why are cells of a given type all the same size?

In humans, cell size can vary more than 100-fold, ranging from tiny red blood cells to large neurons. However, within each cell type, there is very little deviation from a standard size. In studies of yeast, MIT researchers grew cells to 10 times their normal size and found that their DNA could not keep up with the demands of producing enough protein to maintain normal cell functions.

Furthermore, the researchers found that this protein shortage leads the cells into a nondividing state known as senescence, suggesting a possible explanation for how cells become senescent as they age.

"There are so many hypotheses out there that try to explain why senescence happens, and I think this data provides a beautiful and simple explanation for senescence," says Angelika Amon, the Kathleen and Curtis Marble Professor in Cancer Research in the Department of Biology and a member of the Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research.

Amon is the senior author of the study, which appears in the Feb. 7 online edition of Cell. Gabriel Neurohr, an MIT postdoc, is the lead author of the paper.

Excessive size

To explore why cell size is so tightly controlled, the researchers prevented yeast cells from dividing by modifying a gene critical for cell division, so that it could be turned off at a certain temperature. These cells continued to grow, but they could not divide and they did not replicate their DNA.

The researchers discovered that as the cells expanded, their DNA and their protein-building machinery could not keep pace with the needs of such a large cell. This failure to produce enough protein led to the dilution of the cytoplasm and disruption of cell division. The researchers believe that many other fundamental cell processes that rely on cellular molecules finding and interacting with each other may also be impaired when cells are too big.

"Theoretical models predict that diluting the cytoplasm will decrease reaction rates. Every chemical reaction would occur more slowly, and some threshold concentrations of certain proteins may not be reached, so certain reactions would never happen because the concentrations are lower," Neurohr says.

The researchers showed that yeast cells with two sets of chromosomes were able to grow to twice the size of yeast cells with just one set of chromosomes before becoming senescent, suggesting that the amount of DNA in the cells is the limiting factor in the cells' ability to grow.

Experiments with human cells yielded similar results: In a study of human fibroblast cells, the researchers found that forcing the cells to grow to excessive sizes (eight times their normal size) disrupted many functions, including cell division.

Age-related disease

Amon says excessive growth likely plays a major role in the development of senescence, which occurs in many types of mammalian cells and is thought to contribute to age-related organ dysfunction and chronic age-related diseases.

Senescent cells are often larger than younger cells, and this study, which showed that unchecked cell growth leads to senescence, offers a possible explanation for this observation. Human cells tend to grow slightly larger throughout their lifetimes, because every time a cell divides, it checks for DNA damage, and if any is found, division is halted while repairs are made. During each of these delays, the cell grows slightly larger.

"Over the lifetime of a cell, the more divisions you make, the higher your probability is of having that damage, and over time cells will get larger," Amon says. "Eventually they get so large that they start diluting critical factors that are important for proliferation."

A difficult question that remains unanswered is how different types of cells maintain the appropriate size for their cell type, which the researchers now hope to study further.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: How staying in shape is vital for reproductive success

Journal reference: Cell [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Read more at:

'[Image: ZQtAvY3.jpg?1]

FEBRUARY 7, 2019

Blood cells could hold master clock behind aging
by Case Western Reserve University
[Image: bloodcellsco.jpg]'This study is related to the fountain of youth. We found young blood cells stay young in older people. There was no accelerated aging of young blood cells in an older human body.' ~Shigemi Matsuyama, DVM, PhD Credit: Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine
Blood cells could hold the key to aging, according to new research out of Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. In a study published in Aging Cell, researchers found human blood cells have an intrinsic clock that remains steady even after transplant. The researchers say the clock could control human aging and may underlie blood cancers.

Shigemi Matsuyama, DVM, Ph.D., cell biologist and associate professor of medicine at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, led an international team of researchers in studying the clock. The team measured cellular age in blood cells transplanted from healthy donors to leukemia patients, focusing on donor-recipient pairs of very different ages.
"This study is related to the fountain of youth," Matsuyama said. "We found young blood cells stay young in older people. There was no accelerated aging of young blood cells in an older human body." Matsuyama's team found the other direction was also true—blood cells from adult donors transferred to a child stay older. The cells retained their intrinsic age nearly two decades after transplant.
Their inherent steadiness suggests blood cells could be the master clock of human aging, as they are not easily influenced by their environment, Matsuyama said.
The study showed blood cells retain epigenetic patterns in DNA methylation—chemical groups attached to DNA—that can be used to calculate their age. Despite substantial age differences between donor and recipient (up to 49 years), the DNA methylation age of transplanted blood reflected the age of the donor, even after many years of exposure to the recipient's body, wrote the authors. Said Matsuyama, "DNA functions as a timekeeper of our age."
DNA methylation as a predictor of age was first described in 2013 by Matsuyama's collaborator on the study, biostatistician Steve Horvath, Ph.D., of the University of California, Los Angeles. "He found the formula. The mechanism, and whether cells in the body synchronize DNA methylation age, wasn't clear," Matsuyama explained. "I'm not a mathematician. I'm a cell biologist. So, we collaborated to investigate the mechanism of the epigenetic clock in an experimental system in my lab."
Matsuyama tested blood samples collected regularly as part of transplant monitoring, with help from the Case Comprehensive Cancer Center. He expanded his sample repository via leukemia researchers at the University of Oslo, in Norway, who heard about his work at the 2016 Keystone Symposia on aging held in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Horvath crunched cellular ages using 353 distinct methylation sites found on blood cell DNA.
Together, the researchers provided the first experimental evidence that the aging clock of blood cells is cell-intrinsic, and not set by interactions with other cell types in the body.
They are now working to identify mechanisms that can change the clock. "In cancer cells, the clock is broken," Matsuyama said. DNA methylation patterns are unstable in cancerous blood cells and often show odd aging—200 or 5 years old in a 50 year old patient, for example. "It does not match at all with the actual age." Matsuyama cautions that this is why, although it may sound appealing, he doesn't yet recommend "therapeutic" cell infusions to try to maintain one's youth.
"We don't know if blood cells serve as a master clock that could synchronize other cells. We just don't know yet," he said.
Instead, Matsuyama's team is working to understand why epigenetic age differences exist in cancer cells, and how they could be overcome. "It may be by turning on or off certain genes within the cells, we can reset the clock."
Recent studies show the DNA age of human cells can be used as a biomarker to predict the risk of age-associated diseases, such Alzheimer's diseasecardiovascular disease, and others. Last year, Horvath and Matsuyama helped publish an article reporting that DNA age is significantly accelerated in Progeria patients who suffer from premature aging. Matsuyama and his colleagues now have several studies underway to uncover the mechanism of age-dependent DNA methylation, and to understand how factors such as diet, exercise, and oxygen levels influence epigenetic clocks.


Explore further
Biological age-predicting 'epigenetic clock' for studying how to extend lifespan[/size]


More information: Arne Søraas et al, Epigenetic age is a cell-intrinsic property in transplanted human hematopoietic cells, Aging Cell (2019). DOI: 10.1111/acel.12897[/size]

What can worms tell us about human aging?

February 6, 2019, Babraham Institute

[Image: whatcanworms.jpg]
C. elegans worms labelled with a fluorescent protein and imaged using a confocal microscope. The image shows worms that are genetically identical but that exhibit inter-individual variability in stress response gene expression. Credit: Dr. Laetitia Chauve, Babraham Institute.
What can worms tell us about human ageing? A lot more than you'd think; as research led by the Babraham Institute but involving researchers from multiple disciplines drawn together from across the world has shown. In a cluster of papers, the latest of which is published today in Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences, the researchers describe how a collaborative effort has developed a single agreed model of metabolic flux in a tiny worm called C. elegans, and how Babraham Institute researchers have used this model to understand more about the link between metabolism and ageing.

Metabolism fuels life; converting food to energy for cellular processes and ensuring a supply of building blocks to meet the organism's needs. Importantly, metabolism plays a key role in modulating longevity, as many of the genes that are known to extend lifespan do so by altering the flow of energy and signals in cells and across tissues. There is demonstration of this relationship shown by the influence of diet and severe calorie restriction on lifespan in many organisms, including humans.

C. elegans is one of the best model organisms to investigate the process of ageing because of its short lifespan (2-3 weeks) and readily available genetic tools. It also shares many of its core metabolic pathways with humans and many of the key genetic players in determining the lifespan of worms have been found to do the same in humans.

"One major barrier for fully exploiting the potential of C. elegans as a research tool was the lack of a model uniting everything that was known about C. elegans metabolism," says Janna Hastings, a Ph.D. student in the Casanueva lab at the Babraham Institute. "To overcome this, we initiated a global team effort to reconcile existing and conflicting information on metabolic pathways in C. elegans into a single community-agreed model and launched the resulting WormJam resource in 2017."

The Casanueva lab at the Babraham Institute use C. elegans to understand how metabolism changes during the normal course of ageing and how a variety of interventions that change metabolic fluxes can extend the length and quality of life. Physical changes evident in ageing worms point towards the loss of central metabolic capabilities as the worms age. The developed metabolic model was valuable to their research but had one key limitation; it best reflected what was happening during the growing phase of C.elegans, not the ageing phase.

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Just like us, C. elegans worms slow down and aren't as active in later life. The video shows the movement of young worms (left) compared to older worms (right). Credit: The Babraham Institute"One of the key challenges that we face when studying ageing is that the modelling tools available are optimised for animals or cells that are in the process of growing, which is not happening in aged animals," explains Dr. Olivia Casanueva, group leader in the Epigenetics programme at the Babraham Institute.

Confronted with this challenge, the researchers re-optimised the modelling tool using data from multi-omic sources (both transcriptomics and metabolomics) and were able to adapt the tool to study metabolic fluxes during ageing.

The relevance of the model to understanding the metabolic changes that occur during ageing was validated in the lab by studying ageing worms. The research identified a number of metabolites that significantly change with age and revealed a drop in mitochondrial function with age.

Mitochondria are the powerhouse of energy production in the cell and their declining function in older humans may be central to ageing and many age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's. The researchers asked whether the new optimised tools could predict which metabolites produced by the mitochondria might be most affected by age.

"The model prediction was quite accurate, as it predicted that Oxaloacetate, a key resource for the production of energy, was becoming limiting in aged worms," said Dr. Casanueva. "We know that of all metabolites that can be supplemented to the food source for ageing worms, Oxaloacetate is the one metabolite that produces the most robust effect—extending lifespan by up to 20%."

So, what can worms tell us about human ageing? A lot more now, thanks to the WormJam model and the subsequent development to adapt this for ageing studies.

"This re-optimisation of the model for ageing animals represents a significant technical advance for the field and will allow more accurate predictions of metabolic fluxes during the course of ageing," concludes Dr. Casanueva. "By developing our understanding of the experimental model of ageing, we can gain valuable insight into what's happening in humans—taking a step towards achieving healthier ageing."

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Researchers discover drug cocktail that increases lifespan

More information: Janna Hastings et al, Multi-Omics and Genome-Scale Modeling Reveal a Metabolic Shift During C. elegans Aging, Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences (2019). DOI: 10.3389/fmolb.2019.00002

Related publications:

Michael Witting et al. Modeling Meets Metabolomics—The WormJam Consensus Model as Basis for Metabolic Studies in the Model Organism Caenorhabditis elegans, Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences (2018). DOI: 10.3389/fmolb.2018.00096

Janna Hastings et al. Flow with the flux: Systems biology tools predict metabolic drivers of ageing in C. elegans, Current Opinion in Systems Biology (2018). DOI: 10.1016/j.coisb.2018.11.005 

Provided by: Babraham Institute

Read more at:
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...

The work on aging with the worms ...
They don't let out a lot of clues, and the scientific discussion is somewhat highly technical.

I think that these are the pertinent technical data links to that discussion

Casanueva Babraham Institute, C. elegans, --- Janna Hastings
Multi-Omics and Genome-Scale Modeling Reveal a Metabolic Shift During C. elegans Aging

check out Janna Hastings who did the worm work, and check out the link

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and this

 LIPL-4 lysosomal acid lipase and its lipid chaperone LBP-8
increases mitochondrial ß-oxidation to reduce lipid storage and promote longevity

Lysosomes and mitochondria are both crucial cellular organelles for metabolic homeostasis and organism health. However, mechanisms linking their metabolic activities to promote organism longevity remain poorly understood. We discovered that the induction of specific lysosomal signaling mediated by a LIPL-4 lysosomal acid lipase and its lipid chaperone LBP-8 increases mitochondrial ß-oxidation to reduce lipid storage and promote longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans. We further discovered that increased mitochondrial ß-oxidation reduces mitochondrial electron transport chain complex II activity, contributing to the induction of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria (mtROS) and the longevity effect conferred by LIPL-4–LBP-8 signaling. Moreover, by activating the JUN-1 transcription factor downstream of mtROS, the LIPL-4–LBP-8 signaling pathway induces antioxidant targets and oxidative stress tolerance. Together, these results reveal regulatory mechanisms by which lysosomal signaling triggers adjustments in mitochondrial activity and suggest the significance of these metabolic adjustments for improving metabolic fitness, redox homeostasis, and longevity.

The work on aging with the worms ... Cry

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FEBRUARY 11, 2019
Masterswitch discovered in body's immune system
by University of Manchester
[Image: immunesystem.jpg]Credit: CC0 Public Domain
Scientists have discovered a critical part of the body's immune system with potentially major implications for the treatment of some of the most devastating diseases affecting humans.

Professor Graham Lord, from The University of Manchester, led the study, which could translate into treatments for autoimmune diseasesincluding Cancer, Diabetes, Multiple Sclerosis and Crohn's Disease within a few years.
It is published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation today.
The discovery of the molecular pathway regulated by a tiny molecule—known as microRNA-142—is a major advance in our understanding of the immune system.
The 10-year-study found that microRNA-142 controls Regulatory T cells, which modulate the immune system and prevent autoimmune disease. It is, they found, the most highly expressed regulator in the immune system.
Professor Lord, led the research while at Kings College London in collaboration with Professor Richard Jenner at UCL.
And according to Professor Lord, the discovery could be translated into a viable drug treatment within a few years.
He said: "Autoimmune diseases often target people in the prime of their life creating a significant socio-economic burden on them. Sometimes, the effect can be devastating, causing terrible hardship and suffering.
"But these findings represent a significant step forward in the understanding of the immune system and we believe many people worldwide may benefit."
If the activity of Regulatory T cells is too low, this can cause other immune cells to attack our own body tissues. If these Regulatory T cells are too active, this leads to suppression of immune responses and can allow cancers to evade the immune system.
So being able to control them is a major step forward in our ability to control- and harness—the therapeutic power of the immune system.
Professor Richard Jenner from UCL, who led the computational side of the project, said that: "We were able to trace the molecular fingerprints of this molecule across other genes to determine how it acted as such a critical regulator."
Professor Lord, now Vice President and Dean of the Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health at The University of Manchester, added: "Scientists over the past decade or so have developed therapies which are able to modulate different pathways of the immune system. We hope that this new discovery will lead to the development of new ways to treat autoimmunity, infectious diseases and cancer and we are incredibly excited about where this may lead."


Explore further
Research group discovers a new immune system regulator[/size]


More information: MicroRNA-142-mediated repression of phosphodiesterase 3B critically regulates peripheral immune tolerance, Journal of Clinical Investigation (2019).[/size]

[size=undefined]Discovery of the oldest evidence of mobility on Earth

February 11, 2019, CNRS

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Previously, the oldest traces of this kind found dated to approximately 600 million years ago: the Ediacaran period, also characterized by a peak in dioxygen and a proliferation in biodiversity. Scale bar: 1 cm. Credit: A. El Albani / IC2MP / CNRS - Université de Poitiers
An international multi-disciplinary team coordinated by Abderrazak El Albani at the Institut de chimie des milieux et matériaux de Poitiers (CNRS/Université de Poitiers) has uncovered the oldest fossilised traces of motility. Whereas previous remnants were dated to 570 million years ago, this new evidence is 2.1 billion years old. The fossils were discovered in a deposit in Gabon, where the oldest multicellular organisms were found. The results appear in the 11 February 2019 edition of PNAS.

A few years ago, geologist Abderrazak El Albani and his team at the Institut de chimie des milieux et matériaux de Poitiers (CNRS/Université de Poitiers) discovered the oldest existing fossils of multicellular organisms in a deposit in Gabon. Located in the Franceville Basin, the deposit allowed scientists to re-date the appearance of multicellular life on Earth to 2.1 billion years—approximately 1.5 billion years earlier than previously thought (600 million). At the time, the researchers showed that this rich biodiversity co-occurred with a peak in dioxygenation of the atmosphere, and developed in a calm and shallow marine environment.

In this same geological deposit, the team has now uncovered the existence of fossilised traces of motility. This shows that certain multicellular organisms in this primitive marine ecosystem were sophisticated enough to move through its mud, rich in organic matter.

The traces were analysed and reconstructed in 3-D using X-ray computed micro-tomography, a non-destructive imaging technique. The more or less sinuous structures are tubular, of a generally consistent diameter of a few millimetres, and run through fine layers of sedimentary rock. Geometrical and chemical analysis reveals that they are biological in origin and appeared at the same time the sediment was deposited.

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Microtomographical reconstruction with a transparent view of internal structures, and a sequence of virtual cross-sections of the sample. Credit: © A. El Albani & A. Mazurier / IC2MP / CNRS - Université de Poitiers

The traces are located next to fossilised microbial biofilms, which formed carpets between the superficial sedimentary layers. It is plausible that the organisms behind this phenomenon moved in search of nutritive elements and the dioxygen, both produced by cyanobacteria.

What did these living elements look like? Though difficult to know for certain, they may have been similar to colonial amoebae, which cluster together when resources become scarce, forming a type of slug, which moves in search of a more favourable environment.

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The tubes are filled with pyrite crystals (generated by the transformation by bacteria of biological tissue) found in layers of clay minerals. Parallel horizontal layers are fossilized microbial mats. Credit: © A. El Albani & A. Mazurier / IC2MP / CNRS - Université de Poitiers

Until now, the oldest traces of recognised movement were dated to 570 million years ago, an estimate that appeared to be confirmed by the molecular clock. Evidence of motility found in rock that is 2.1 billion years old raises new questions regarding the history of life—was this biological innovation the prelude to more perfected forms of movement, or an experiment cut short by the drastic drop in atmospheric oxygen rates that occurred approximately 2.083 billion years ago?

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Oldest biodiversity found in Gabonese marine ecosystem

More information: Abderrazak El Albani el al., "Organism motility in an oxygenated shallow-marine environment 2.1 billion years ago," PNAS (2019). 

[size=undefined]Journal reference: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: CNRS

Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...

reminds me of the old Mars image with all that controversy about fossil worm trails

[Image: screen-shot-2018-01-08-at-9-28-50-am.png?w=782]

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