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We Never Forgot About Mars
#1
http://www.esi-topics.com/nhp/2006/janu ... chiya.html

Quote:By Taku Tsuchiya and Renata Wentzcovitch

ESI Special Topics, January 2006
Citing URL - http://www.esi-topics.com/nhp/2006/janu ... chiya.html

Taku Tsuchiya and Renata Wentzcovitch answer a few questions about this month's new hot paper in the field of Geosciences.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

From •>>January 2006

Field: Geosciences
Article Title: Phase transition in MgSiO3 perovskite in the earth's lower mantle
Authors: Tsuchiya, T;Tsuchiya, J;Umemoto, K;Wentzcovitch, RA
Journal: EARTH PLANET SCI LETT
Volume: 224 (3-4)
Page: 241-248
Year: AUG 15 2004
* Univ Minnesota, Dept Chem Engn & Mat Sci, Minnesota Supercomp Inst Digital Technol & Adv Co, 421 Washington Av SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA.
* Univ Minnesota, Dept Chem Engn & Mat Sci, Minnesota Supercomp Inst Digital Technol & Adv Co, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA.


Why do you think your paper is highly cited?



"Our results have extensive and interdisciplinary impact for the geophysics community."
~Taku Tsuchiya


Because we reported an important theoretical discovery related to MgSiO3 perovskite, the major Earth-forming mineral. This work provided theoretical support for the discovery by Murakami et al of this phase transition produced by in situ diamond anvil experiments ("Post-Perovskite Phase Transition in MgSiO3," Science7: May 2004: Vol. 304, No. 5672, pp. 855-858). Our paper, however, reported on the thermodynamic phase boundary, indicating that this transition occurs in the Earth’s mantle and could be the cause of the enigmatic D" seismic discontinuity in the lowermost mantle. This had not previously been clearly shown experimentally. Since the discovery of the parent phase in 1974, this has been the most important discovery in the field of mineral physics. Our results have extensive and interdisciplinary impact in the field of geophysics.

Could you summarize the significance of your paper in layman's terms?

MgSiO3 perovskite is the major mineral component in the Earth’s lower mantle (from 660 km depth to the core-mantle boundary (CMB) at 2890 km depth). Our study confirmed that this mineral transforms into a new form, MgSiO3 post-perovskite, and showed that this occurs at pressures and temperatures expected at 200-300 km above the Earth’s CMB. Below these depths, there is a layer of different chemical/mineralogical make-up, the D" (dee-double-prime) layer. Seismic velocities change discontinuously at the boundary of this layer defining the so-called D" discontinuity. Its origin was very unclear. The newly found post-perovskite transition appears to explain, at least in part, these velocity changes. MgSiO3 post-perovskite offers a new paradigm for interpreting properties of the D" layer.

How did you become involved in this research?

We received a copy of the unidentified X-ray diffraction pattern obtained by Motohiko Murakami and Kei Hirose from the Tokyo Institute of Technology, before the new phase was identified and became public. We all became highly motivated and started very early searching theoretically for a crystal structure that could explain the experimental finding. We were in a particularly special position to conduct this research because the computational techniques that had been developed by Renata during the past 15 years permitted reliable and predictive investigations of materials under extreme pressures and temperatures.

What are the social or political implications of your research?

The scientific implications are huge and interdisciplinary. The discovery of this phase transition is one of the most important advances in geophysics in decades. It sets new directions for research and scientific funding. This discovery also arouses the interest of other scientific fields, such as that of materials science, crystallography, etc., since perovskite-related materials are quite common in many areas of applied science. In fact this structural change has already been found in several other perovskite materials since then. Culturally/socially, it points to the major role that the field of materials physics is playing within the field of geophysics. This discovery was made outside a geophysics department. It is pure theoretical materials science. This trend that had been developing throughout the last decade is now undeniable. Indeed, it is even changing the way in which theoretical mineral physicists are being trained.

Taku Tsuchiya, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Theoretical and Computational Mineral Physics
Geodynamics Research Center
Ehime University
Matsuyama, Japan

Renata Wentzcovitch, Ph.D.
Professor
Chemical Engineering and Materials Science
Institute of Technology
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, MN, USA

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#2
I agree but I think Essential Indicators of environmental catastrophy are far more important. One paradigm at a time please!
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#3
Quote:I agree but I think Essential Indicators of environmental catastrophy are far more important. One paradigm at a time please!
_________________
Quote:environmental catastrophy are far more important

Not Me for me Smoke

I like Multi- paradigms Hmm2
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#4
Hey Wook
here is a little more on perovskite

http://ruby.colorado.edu/~smyth/min/ima ... vskite.gif

http://ruby.colorado.edu/~smyth/min/perovskite.html

The Perovskite group is composed of the minerals perovskite CaTiO3),
and MgSiO3
in the perovskite structure.
The latter phase does not have a proper mineral name
because we do not have natural sample of it,
but it is generally believed to be the most abundant solid phase in the Earth, making up 70 to 80% of the lower mantle (670-2900 km depth).

http://mineral.galleries.com/minerals/o ... rovski.htm

Its most common mineral, perovskite, lends its name to this important group of oxides. The importance of this group is two fold. First, every member of this group has rare earth metals as trace elements in their structures and second, the structure of this group is unique and many ceramic, synthetic and useful substances can be created using the structure. The Perovskite Group is a group of oxides with a general formula of AXO3.
***The A can be either cerium, calcium, sodium, strontium, lead and/or various rare earth metals. The X site can be occupied by titanium, niobium and/or iron. All members of this group have the same basic structure.***

http://mineral.galleries.com/minerals/o ... rovski.htm

Chemical Formula: CaTiO3, Calcium Titanium Oxide



Olivine
(Mg, Fe)2SiO4, Magnesium Iron Silicate.

file http://cars9.uchicago.edu/gsecars/LVP/p ... _al_97.pdf.

The Breakdown of Olivine to Perovskite and Magnesiowustite

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-b ... mp;format=

The 10 Micron Spectra of Comet C/2002 V1 (NEAT) and C/2001 RX14 (LINEAR)
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#5
Olivine
<img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/hmm2.gif" alt="Hmm2" title="hmm2" />
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#6
Quote:The crystal structure of MgSiO3 perovskite. The structure is composed of an octahedrally coordinated Si or Ti atom and the Mg or Ca in irregular 10-coodination. The structure would ideally be cubic if the divalent cation were large enough, but both of the mineral forms are orthorhombic.

Quote:strontium
That rings a bell too <img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/hmm2.gif" alt="Hmm2" title="hmm2" />
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#7
http://mineral.galleries.com/minerals/o ... /prv-3.jpg[Image: prv-3.jpg]
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#8
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strontium

Quote:Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic
Quote: It burns in air to produce both strontium oxide and strontium nitride, but since it does not react with nitrogen below 380 °C it will only form the oxide spontaneously at room temperature. It should be kept under kerosene to prevent oxidati
Quote:Applications
At present the primary use for strontium is in glass for color television cathode ray tubes.

Other commercial uses:

Production of ferrite magnets and refining zinc.
Strontium titanate has an extremely high refractive index and an optical dispersion greater than that of diamond, making it useful in a variety of optics applications.
Strontium titanate has been cut into gemstones, in particular for its use as diamond simulant. However, it is very soft and easily scratches so it is rarely used.
Strontium is also used in fireworks for red color.
Strontium aluminate is used as a bright phosphor with long persistence of phosphorescence.
Strontium chloride is sometimes used in toothpastes for sensitive teeth. One popular brand includes 10% strontium chloride hexahydrate by weight.
Strontium-89 is the active ingredient in Metastron, a radiopharmaceutical used for bone pain secondary to metastatic prostate cancer. The strontium acts like calcium and is preferentially incorporated into bone at sites of increased osteogenesis. This localization focuses the radiation exposure on the cancerous lesion.
Strontium-90 has been used as a power source for RTGs. Strontium-90 produces about 0.46 watts of heat per gram, about 15% less power per gram then plutonium-238 which is the most common RTG fuel. Strontium-90 also decays roughly 3 times faster than plutonium-238. Most disadvantageously strontium-90 produces very little energy per volume (because of low density), making for large and bulky RTGs not suited for use in outer space. Its only advantages over plutonium-238 are that strontium-90 is much cheaper to produce (common waste product of nuclear reactors) and lacks negative public image (at least among those too young to remember milk scares involving strontium-90).
Strontium-90 is also used in cancer therapy. Its beta emission and long half-life is ideal for superficial radio-therapy.
Quote:Isotopes
The alkali earth metal strontium has four stable, naturally occurring isotopes: Sr-84 (0.56%), Sr-86 (9.86%), Sr-87 (7.0%) and Sr-88 (82.58%). Only Sr-87 is radiogenic; it is produced by decay from the radioactive alkali metal rubidium-87, which has a half-life of 48,800,000,000 years. Thus, there are two sources of Sr-87 in any material: that formed during primordial nucleo-synthesis along with Sr-84, Sr-86 and Sr-88, as well as that formed by radioactive decay of Rb-87. The ratio Sr-87/Sr-86 is the parameter typically reported in geologic investigations. Because strontium has an atomic radius similar to that of calcium, it readily substitutes for Ca in minerals. Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios in minerals and rocks have values ranging from about 0.7 to greater than 4.0.

Sixteen unstable isotopes are known to exist. Of greatest importance is Sr-90 with a half-life of 28.78 years. It is a by-product of nuclear fallout and presents a health problem since it substitutes for calcium in bone, preventing expulsion from the body. This isotope is one of the best long-lived high-energy beta emitters known, and is used in SNAP (Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power) devices. These devices hold promise for use in spacecraft, remote weather stations, navigational buoys, etc, where a lightweight, long-lived, nuclear-electric power source is required
[Image: strontia.jpg]
http://mineral.galleries.com/minerals/c ... rontia.jpg
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#9
http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/bookde ... escription

http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/physics ... nance.html

http://elchem.kaist.ac.kr/vt/chem-ed/spec/spin/epr.htm
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#10
Wook said:
Quote:Not Me for me Smoke

That's fine with me Wook. At least you're stating your position and reinforcing your interest in this subject, as evidenced by other posts and responses you have made on this forum, (some of which I have read with interest).

However, this is a "Hidden Mission" forum and I try to look for aspects of relevance to that, in any post.

I was referring to the following:
Quote:Could you summarize the significance of your paper in layman's terms?

MgSiO3 perovskite is the major mineral component in the Earth’s lower mantle (from 660 km depth to the core-mantle boundary (CMB) at 2890 km depth). Our study confirmed that this mineral transforms into a new form, MgSiO3 post-perovskite, and showed that this occurs at pressures and temperatures expected at 200-300 km above the Earth’s CMB. Below these depths, there is a layer of different chemical/mineralogical make-up, the D" (dee-double-prime) layer. Seismic velocities change discontinuously at the boundary of this layer defining the so-called D" discontinuity. Its origin was very unclear. The newly found post-perovskite transition appears to explain, at least in part, these velocity changes. MgSiO3 post-perovskite offers a new paradigm for interpreting properties of the D" layer.

This is a typical "glibbers" response (or bad reporting?). It doesn't answer the question for a "layman", is patronising and quite frankly an "embarassing" (IMO) response from a member of the scientific community.

As far as I'm aware the the only significant "civilisation sustaining" outcome of current research is the potential for "encapsulating" radioactive waste material, which of course would be a big boost to those advocating nuclear energy as the only option to solving the environmental problems we face.

Otherwise, if we are really talking about a new "paradigm" then we have to look at the political angle in terms of location and the economics and control of mining the ores, be they on this or other planets :scream:

<img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/cheers.gif" alt="Cheers" title="cheers" /> .
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#11
Offtopic Boobs <img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/food-smiley-004.gif" alt=":cheers2:" title="cheers2" />
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#12
Quote:KeithLaney.net Site Discussion
Seen something that intrigues you on KeithLaney.net? Discuss it here with Keith
Moderator Chain Mail

:scream: <img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/rofl.gif" alt="Rofl" title="rofl" />
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#13
Didn't know that Keith had raised this subject on KeithLaney.net?

Suppose I'd better leave you to discuss it with Keith, and bow to your superior knowledge and concern for humankind Cheers
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#14
Thank you Cheers

Keith is capble of Speaking His Mind!
So Am I <img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/smoke.gif" alt="Smoke" title="smoke" />
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#15
I didn't bring Keith into this...you did!

I can listen to Keith's Heavy Metal "music" but this thread is suffering from Heavy Metal "poisoning" so it's time to put the ear plugs in!

Thanks for the interesting discussion

<img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/cheers.gif" alt="Cheers" title="cheers" />
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#16
Olivine Smoke
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#17
Hey Wook... :hmm3: like playin the vibes with a weird waveform?

Role of self-organisation processes in physico-chemical properties of superconducting cuprates. The results of microwave absorption method showed that superconducting properties are registered not only in concentrated oxides but also in extremely diluted Sr and Ba-containing solutions. The introduction of Eu, Li, Ca suppresses superconductivity in a diluted systems. All experimental results can be accounted for by suggesting the existence of nanoclusters of heterovalent Cu (II) and Cu (III) atoms, formed at spontaneous ordering of crystal structure of solid solutions. The electron structure of such clusters depends on a local distortion of nearest oxygen environment, caused by an attitude component of self-organizing process of a substance. The most important point is a temperature-dependent character of local distortions, in this case sharp changes of parameter of exchange interactions between copper atoms and, as a consequence, of superconducting properties of system are probable. By our opinion these nanoclusters are responsible for magnetic and superconducting properties of multicomponent diluted perovskite-like cuprates. The form, size and electron structure of clusters as well as the character of intraclusters interactions will be discussed in details.
http://www.science24.com/emrs2004fall/p ... phtml?2297

where you going with this Wookie ..
http://tinyurl.com/cf3jm
http://tinyurl.com/a78a4
http://tinyurl.com/e3qws
http://tinyurl.com/8oxep
http://tinyurl.com/c9h9o



and how much of the mantle is this material? <img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/cow.gif" alt="Cow" title="cow" />
pppfffttt time to put the palm on my blonde...
&quot;The impure can become pure through the process of elimination, <br />but error can never be transformed into truth.&quot; <br /> Schwaller De Lubicz
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#18
Quote:where you going with this Wookie ..
Now that NASA can See Organic Molecules and DNA through out the Known Universe
and
Gauge certain Mineral Groups between Earth, Mars, and the Moon

I think
NASA is About to Re-Gauge the Age of the Universe <img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/hmm2.gif" alt="Hmm2" title="hmm2" />
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#19
or fork with it..
Think harder Wook...
course I could be wrong..

Forward versus back-scattering
When an electrical current exists in a metal, the electron population has a net drift velocity anti-parallel to the E-field (or parallel if the FS is hole-like). In familiar metals, the (out-of-equilibrium) electrons are brought back to equilibrium by scattering from phonons (in novel metals, such as the cuprates, scattering from other electrons, ee scattering, are more important). The situation for a heat current is quite different; the FS is left undisplaced. By measuring the Wiedemann-Franz ratio, we may learn about the different scattering processes that affect the two types of currents. It is useful to represent the difference between a charge current and an entropy current in momentum k-space.

http://www.princeton.edu/~npo/Wiedemann.html

http://www.agu.org/meetings/fm05/fm05-s ... SA23A.html
&quot;The impure can become pure through the process of elimination, <br />but error can never be transformed into truth.&quot; <br /> Schwaller De Lubicz
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#20
Quote:A Technique to Separate Ground and Ionospheric HF Radar Backscatter for Ionospheric Remote Sensing
<img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/hmm2.gif" alt="Hmm2" title="hmm2" />
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#21
I'm probably just..

Pennywise <img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/pennywise.gif" alt="Pennywise" title="pennywise" />
I like your idea better..
&quot;The impure can become pure through the process of elimination, <br />but error can never be transformed into truth.&quot; <br /> Schwaller De Lubicz
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#22
Quote:Forward versus back-scattering
When an electrical current exists in a metal, the electron population has a net drift velocity anti-parallel to the E-field (or parallel if the FS is hole-like). In familiar metals, the (out-of-equilibrium) electrons are brought back to equilibrium by scattering from phonons (in novel metals, such as the cuprates, scattering from other electrons, ee scattering, are more important). The situation for a heat current is quite different; the FS is left undisplaced. By measuring the Wiedemann-Franz ratio, we may learn about the different scattering processes that affect the two types of currents. It is useful to represent the difference between a charge current and an entropy current in momentum k-space.
I crossed my eyes 3 times reading <img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/damned.gif" alt="Damned" title="damned" />
Now I am thinking about cold fusion!
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#23
http://www.hwscience.com/physics/sound/ ... de0001.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonons
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#24
There is no energy gap for phonons because (acoustic) phonons are the Goldstone bosons for spontaneously broken Galilean symmetry/Lorentz symmetry.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Thermodynamic properties
A crystal lattice at zero temperature lies in its ground state, and contains no phonons. According to thermodynamics, when the lattice is held at a non-zero temperature its energy is not constant, but fluctuates randomly about some mean value. These energy fluctuations are caused by random lattice vibrations, which can be viewed as a gas of phonons. (Note: the random motion of the atoms in the lattice is what we usually think of as heat.) Because these phonons are generated by the temperature of the lattice, they are sometimes referred to as thermal phonons.

Unlike the atoms which make up an ordinary gas, thermal phonons can be created or destroyed by random energy fluctuations. Their behavior is similar to the photon gas produced by an electromagnetic cavity, wherein photons may be emitted or absorbed by the cavity walls. This similarity is not coincidental, for it turns out that the electromagnetic field behaves like a set of harmonic oscillators; see Black-body radiation. Both gases obey the Bose-Einstein statistics: in thermal equilibrium, the average number of phonons (or photons) in a given state is

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonons

WOW
Eyes crossed again <img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/cow.gif" alt="Cow" title="cow" />
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#25
yup...wavelength and amplitude
Packets of sound found present in the lattice as it vibrates … but the lattice vibration cannot be heard...

backscatter
1. n. [Geophysics] ID: 624

A reflection phenomenon of energy in which a nonreflective surface, which is a surface that does not reflect energy coherently, randomly scatters energy.

http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/Di ... ackscatter

The January 1978 edition of Specula magazine ran an article describing an incredibly profound phenomenon that could be produced within the Earth by what is called the 'Tesla Effect.' According to the article, electromagnetic signals of certain frequencies can be transmitted through the Earth to form standing waves in the Earth itself. In certain cases, coherence to this standing wave can be induced wherein a fraction of the vast, surging electromagnetic current of the Earth itself feeds into and augments the induced standing wave. In other words, "much more energy is now present in the standing wave than the ...amount being fed in from the Earth's surface." By interferometer techniques, giant standing waves can be combined to produce a focused beam of very great energy. This can then be used to produce earthquakes induced at distant aiming points.

Tesla expressed grave concerns about the effects of this technology because it is exactly the type of thing that could easily get out of control once it begins vibrating within the Earth - and it could actually cause the Earth to vibrate to pieces. Could the use of this technique have been responsible for the great earthquake in Tangshan, China in 1976?

Another leading Tesla researcher and nuclear engineer, Lt. Col. Thomas Bearden, lecturing at a Symposium of the US Psychotronics Association (USPA) in 1981 stated:

Tesla found that he could set up standing waves. in the earth (the molten core), or, just set it up through the rocks - the telluric activity in the rocks would furnish activity into these waves and one would get more potential energy in those waves than he put in. He called the concept the Tesla Magnifying Transmitter (TMT).

Bearden goes on to explain how TMTs worked:

They will go through anything. What you do is that you set up a standing wave through the earth and the molten core of the earth begins to feed that wave (we are talking Tesla now). When you have that standing wave, you have set up a triode.

What you've done is that the molten core of the earth is feeding the energy and it's like your signal - that you are putting in - is gating the grid of a triode. Then what you do is that you change the frequency. If you change the frequency one way (start to dephase it), you dump the energy up in the atmosphere beyond the point on the other side of the earth that you focused upon. You start ionising the air, you can change the weather flow patterns (jet streams etc) - you can change all that - if you dump it gradually, real gradually - you influence the heck out of the weather. It's a great weather machine. If you dump it sharply, you don't get little ionisation like that. You will get flashes and fireballs (plasma) that will come down on the surfaces of the earth. you can cause enormous weather changes over entire regions by playing that thing back and forth.

http://www.bariumblues.com/telegeodynamics.htm

maybe though, just speculating you could use the mantle..

====

on another note I don't think this produces cold fusion ~ fusion yes, cold no and in another application than above. You'd actually have use something like liquid nitrogen to cool it..

I'll stick with the idea of dueterium for room temp superconductivity..
it seems intuitively a lot more user friendly..
&quot;The impure can become pure through the process of elimination, <br />but error can never be transformed into truth.&quot; <br /> Schwaller De Lubicz
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#26
Quote:on another note I don't think this produces cold fusion ~ fusion yes, cold no and in another application than above. You'd actually have use something like liquid nitrogen to cool it..

I'll stick with the idea of dueterium for room temp superconductivity..
it seems intuitively a lot more user friendly..

But you would Agree that it Must be a Natural occurring Phenomena and Common in the Universe? <img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/hmm2.gif" alt="Hmm2" title="hmm2" />
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#27
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_fusion

Quote:Experimental set-up and observations

A cold fusion calorimeter of the open type, used at the New Hydrogen Energy Institute in Japan. Source: SPAWAR/US Navy TR1862In their original set-up, Fleischmann and Pons used a Dewar flask (a double-walled vacuum flask) for the electrolysis, so that heat conduction would be minimal on the side and the bottom of the cell (only 5 % of the heat loss in this experiment). The cell flask was then submerged in a bath maintained at constant temperature to eliminate the effect of external heat sources. They used an open cell, thus allowing the gaseous deuterium and oxygen resulting from the electrolysis reaction to leave the cell (with some heat too). It was necessary to replenish the cell with heavy water at regular intervals. The cell was tall and narrow, so that the bubbling action of the gas kept the electrolyte well mixed and of a uniform temperature. Special attention was paid to the purity of the palladium cathode and electrolyte to prevent the build-up of material on its surface, especially after long periods of operation.

The cell was also instrumented with a thermistor to measure the temperature of the electrolyte, and an electrical heater to generate pulses of heat and calibrate the heat loss due to the gas outlet. After calibration, it was possible to compute the heat generated by the reaction.

A constant current was applied to the cell continuously for many weeks, and heavy water was added as necessary. For most of the time, the power input to the cell was equal to the power that went out of the cell within measuring accuracy, and the cell temperature was stable at around 30 °C. But then, at some point (and in some of the experiments), the temperature rose suddenly to about 50 °C without changes in the input power, for durations of 2 days or more. The generated power was calculated to be about 20 times the input power during the power bursts. Eventually the power bursts in any one cell would no longer occur and the cell was turned off.
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#28
I cannot keep up, right now
but I wanted to say something to Orpbit.

The tangentialities of psychic effect ,
stimulate unusual discourse thru the initiation of
thought and communication process of response.

We have traveled this path of spark and Flame On !
in Intuitive process ,
spontanaifying possibilities of discovery and understanding,
by presenting novel ideas from basic science evidences,
before this thread
with great success in quantum leaps of
knowledge and insight.

The "Forgot About Mars ? "thread at FCN was an example of that.
Rivers of factual knowledge and novel intuition
tuned to the oceanic tides of eternity pulsing new insight.

Perovskite
is a tool and bit of information
to be extarpolated into
Discovery
if it as at all possible.
And if it is not possible ,
then we had a fun ride anyways,
and some little spark of info data therein, '
will accomplish a catalyzation of quantum intuitive-inductive leap
into the future of total knowledge and awareness..

not all intuitive treasure searches yield a cornucopia of
fact and discovery,
but the practice of initiating a flow of inductive-intuitive mind fusions
of posters
often stimulates
either Discovery
or the new foundations of knowledge
by sheer interaction.

You never know where the Magic Path leads,
but it is a good idea to have a few clues
to chew on
and absorb the mind nutrients,
to seed and the sprout that reaches for the sunshine of the mind..
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#29
http://www.psrd.hawaii.edu/June04/martianMantle.html

g'nite
V
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#30
Cheers

hrm > All Night I dreamed of Red Balls going into Black Holes and coming out Blue ? <img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/hmm2.gif" alt="Hmm2" title="hmm2" />
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#31
Quote:Written by G. Jeffrey Taylor
Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology

Pieces of relatively young lava flows from Mars (all less than 600 million years old) preserve a record of the planet's initial segregation into core, mantle, and crust. Research by Lars Borg (University of New Mexico), his colleague David Draper, and his former colleagues at the Johnson Space Center, Chris Herd (University of Alberta, Canada), and Cyrena Goodrich (formerly at the University of Hawaii and now at Kingsborough Community College in Brooklyn, New York) shows that there are distinctive regions in the interior of Mars. These regions, or reservoirs as cosmochemists like to call them, formed early, about 4.5 billion years ago, and come in two flavors. One, dubbed "enriched," contains high concentrations of trace elements, has a high ratio of lanthanum to ytterbium (La/Yb), high strontium-87 to strontium-86 (87Sr/86Sr), a low ratio of neodynmium-143 to neodynmium-144 (143Nd/144Nd), and is relatively oxidized. The other, dubbed "depleted," contains lower levels of trace elements, has lower La/Yb and 87Sr/86Sr, higher 143Nd/144Nd, and is relatively reduced (much less oxidizing than the enriched reservoir). There are mixtures in between these extremes. The reservoirs may have formed in a global magma ocean. Their preservation for 4.5 billion years indicates that Mars, in contrast to Earth, did not have active plate tectonics since the reservoirs formed
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#32
Quote:The main evidence that the rocks actually come from Mars is from trapped gases in three of them. The mixture of gases is a striking match for the Martian atmosphere as measured by the Viking landers in the mid-1970s. All of the Martian meteorites share a unique oxygen isotopic composition, linking them to each other and to the three with trapped Mars air in them.
Stable atmopsphere <img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/hmm2.gif" alt="Hmm2" title="hmm2" />
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
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#33
http://tinyurl.com/bffr3

Quote:Based on this spectral data, it appears that the surface ice used to be inside Tempel 1, but became exposed over time. The team reported that jets – occasional blasts of dust and vapor – may send this surface ice, as well as interior ice, to the coma, or tail, of Tempel 1.

"So we know we're looking at a geologically active body whose surface is changing over time," Schultz said. "Now we can begin to understand how and why these jets erupt."

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Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
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