Thread Rating:
  • 0 Vote(s) - 0 Average
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
DNA traces origin of domestic cat
#1
DNA traces origin of domestic cat
Domestic cats around the world can trace their origins back to the Middle East's Fertile Crescent, according to a genetic study in Science journal.
They may have been domesticated by early farming communities, experts say.

The study suggests the progenitors of today's cats split from their wild counterparts more than 100,000 years ago - much earlier than once thought.

At least five female ancestors from the region gave rise to all the domestic cats alive today, scientists believe.

DNA evidence suggests that, apart from accidental cross-breeding, European wildcats are not part of the domestic moggy's family tree.

Neither are the Central Asian wildcat, the Southern African wildcat, or the Chinese desert cat.

Ancient evidence

The earliest archaeological evidence of cat domestication dates back 9,500 years, when cats were thought to have lived alongside humans in settlement sites in Cyprus.

However, the new results show the house cat lineage is far older. Ancestors of domestic cats are now thought to have broken away from their wild relatives and started living with humans as early as 130,000 years ago.


The researchers focused on DNA in the mitochondria, the power plants of cells which supply energy and have their own genetic material.
Comparison of the genetic sequences enabled researchers to determine the relationships between different cat lineages.

The scientists found the cats fell into distinctive genetic "clades", or groups.

One of the clades included domestic cats and some wildcats from the Middle East, suggesting that today's moggy stems from the wild felines of this region.

Experts believe cats originally sought out human company, attracted by rodents infesting the first agricultural settlements.

The early farmers of the fertile crescent - present-day Iraq, Syria, Lebanon and Israel - would have found the animals extremely useful for protecting their grain stores - an association that continues to this day.

"The felidae family is well known as a successful predator - very deadly, very ferocious, very threatening to all species including humankind," said co-author Stephen O'Brien, of the US National Cancer Institute.

"But this little guy actually chose not to be that," he said, "he actually chose to be a little bit friendly and also was a very good mouser."

The study included researchers from the UK, the US, Germany, Israel, Spain and France.


Story from BBC NEWS:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/1/hi/s ... 251434.stm

Published: 2007/06/28 19:42:45 GMT

© BBC MMVII

<img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/cheers.gif" alt="Cheers" title="cheers" />
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
Reply
#2
Published: 2007/06/28 19:42:45 GMT <img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/cheers.gif" alt="Cheers" title="cheers" />
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#3
Quote:"The felidae family is well known as a successful predator - very deadly, very ferocious, very threatening to all species including humankind," said co-author Stephen O'Brien, of the US National Cancer Institute.

"But this little guy actually chose not to be that," he said, "he actually chose to be a little bit friendly and also was a very good mouser."

Ever hear that saying about a tiger not changing its stripes? I figure we were engineered, so maybe a few helper/companion animals were engineered, too. Because the whole domestication thing just doesn't add up, not to mention selective breeding that far back....based on conventional science.
Don't believe anything they say. <br />And at the same time, <br />Don't believe that they say anything without a reason. <br />---Immanuel Kant
Reply
#4
http://www.keithlaney.net/phpBB/viewtopic.php?t=7018

Quote:Mutations in Moms' Genes Reveal Human Migration Through the Ages

[Image: human_genographic_project_wide.jpg]

06.29.07

DNA passed down through generations of mothers could help answer big questions about the human journey across continents, thanks to a massive new database created by the The Genographic Project.

The project has already yielded some provocative evidence about modern humans' interactions with Neanderthals. The DNA data shows no evidence of mutations known to be common in Neanderthals, which suggests that modern humans -- at least those of European descent -- may not have mated with the long-extinct humans.

"We don't see any Neanderthal lineages in the European gene pool," said Spencer Wells, a population geneticist and director of the Genographic Project. "It would be my guess that there was no interbreeding. I can’t imagine that humans and Neanderthals didn't give it a try -- maybe they formed infertile offspring. But it's speculative."

The database is the tip of the iceberg for a burgeoning field of science called genetic anthropology, which involves combining DNA data with physical evidence and histories of past civilizations. The database contains more samples than in any previous collection of its kind. As scientists study it further, they expect a detailed history of human migration in Europe will emerge.

Researchers collected mitochondrial DNA, or mtDNA, from nearly 80,000 people, who received a report on how their ancestors came to live where they live.

The scientists analyzed mutations in the samples, which came mostly from people of European descent who could afford the $100 fee (another somewhat controversial arm of the project is analyzing mtDNA mutations in indigenous people).

IBM and the National Geographic Society launched the $40 million project in 2005. The database will become publicly available Friday, and the researchers published their first results in the open-access journal PLoS Genetics.

While many scientists believe the new information will be a boon for research, others take issue with the Genographic Project's methods.

The scientists partially analyzed many mutations in nearly 80,000 samples. Instead, said Hans Bandelt of the University of Hamburg, one of the world's foremost mtDNA experts, it would have been more useful to completely sequence a smaller number of samples to get a more complete picture of mutations that have emerged since the Ice Age.

"For the time span of 15,000 to 5,000 years ago, where additional information is badly needed, the genographers can hardly offer anything useful," said Bandelt.

But Stanford University population geneticist Peter Underhill said whole mtDNA-genome sequencing is too expensive. As the project adds information about indigenous people, he added, the database will become even more powerful.

"If you couple their strategy with a breathtaking inventory of DNA samples," Underhill said, "then you've got a powerful, high-definition image of the genetic landscape."

Link

Steve
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
Reply
#5
Quote:"But this little guy actually chose not to be that," he said, "he actually chose to be a little bit friendly and also was a very good mouser."
Yep. That's exactly the way Kipling told it: Cat made a bargain with the first Woman. With the emphasis on little in "a little bit friendly".
Reply
#6
Recall: a DECADE ago...

Quote:Posted by Wook - Friday, June 29th, 2007, 03:30 am

DNA traces origin of domestic cat 

Ancient DNA reveals role of Near East and Egypt in cat domestication
June 19, 2017

[Image: 2-ancientdnare.jpg]
A cat buried in a 6000-year-old in Hierakonpolis, Egypt. Credit: © Hierakonpolis Expedition
DNA found at archaeological sites reveals that the origins of our domestic cat are in the Near East and ancient Egypt. Cats were domesticated by the first farmers some 10,000 years ago. They later spread across Europe and other parts of the world via trade hub Egypt. The DNA analysis also revealed that most of these ancient cats had stripes: spotted cats were uncommon until the Middle Ages.


Five subspecies of the wildcat Felis silvestris are known today. All skeletons look exactly alike and are indistinguishable from that of our domestic cat. As a result, it's impossible to see with the naked eye which of these subspecies was domesticated in a distant past. Paleogeneticist Claudio Ottoni and his colleagues from KU Leuven (University of Leuven) and the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences set out to look for the answer in the genetic code. They used the DNA from bones, teeth, skin, and hair of over 200 cats found at archaeological sites in the Near East, Africa, and Europe. These remains were between 100 and 9,000 years old.
The DNA analysis revealed that all domesticated cats descend from the African wildcat or Felis silvestris lybica, a wildcat subspecies found in North Africa and the Near East. Cats were domesticated some 10,000 years ago by the first farmers in the Near East. The first agricultural settlements probably attracted wildcats because they were rife with rodents. The farmers welcomed the wildcats as they kept the stocks of cereal grain free from vermin. Over time, man and animal grew closer, and selection based on behaviour eventually led to the domestication of the wildcat.
[Image: 3-ancientdnare.jpg]
Professor Wim Van Neer (Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences and KU Leuven) digging up 6000-year-old cats in Hierakonpolis, Egypt Credit: © Hierakonpolis Expedition
Migrating farmers took the domesticated cat with them. At a later stage, the cats also spread across Europe and elsewhere via trade hub Egypt. Used to fight vermin on Egyptian trade ships, the cats travelled to large parts of South West Asia, Africa, and Europe. Bones of cats with an Egyptian signature have even been found at Viking sites near the Baltic Sea.



"It's still unclear, however, whether the Egyptian domestic cat descends from cats imported from the Near East or whether a separate, second domestication took place in Egypt," says researcher Claudio Ottoni. "Further research will have to show." The scientists were also able to determine the coat pattern based on the DNA of the old cat bones and mummies. They found that the striped cat was much more common in ancient times. This is also illustrated by Egyptian murals: they always depict striped cats. The blotched pattern did not become common until the Middle Ages.
[Image: 4-ancientdnare.jpg]
Several cats buried in a 6000-year-old pit in Hierakonpolis, Egypt. Credit: © Hierakonpolis Expedition

The study is published in Nature Ecology & Evolution.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Cat domestication traced to Chinese farmers 5,300 years ago
More information: The palaeogenetics of cat dispersal in the ancient world, Nature Ecology & Evolutionnature.com/articles/doi:10.1038/s41559-017-0139 
Journal reference: Nature Ecology & Evolution [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: KU Leuven



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-06-ancient-dna-reveals-role-east.html#jCp[url=https://phys.org/news/2017-06-ancient-dna-reveals-role-east.html#jCp][/url]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#7
...

I suppose then that :

all domesticated cats descend from the African wildcat 
or Felis silvestris lybica,

... this wild cat naturally buried it's poop ... {to not attract larger predators} ..
or were they trained as kits to use the box in ancient Egypt ... or to go outside ?
I trained my cat to go outside on his own ;... no cat box in my house ... he had a cat door.

feral cats don't bury the mess ...

I saw the part about Vikings having Egyptian cats, and cats on ancient boats to keep vermin levels down,
jeez
I wonder what kind of cat box they had on those boats ... 
...
Reply
#8
Quote:The researchers report that they found over 13,000 genes that were similar through all of the species included in the study. They also found that the cats all diverged from a single ancestor approximately 4.6 million years ago—one that was apparently most like the modern leopard. The team also found that all of the species populations have also declined over the past 300,000 years, which means lower genetic diversity.

[Image: catbox5.jpg]



Genome study offers clues about history of big cats
July 21, 2017 by Bob Yirka report

[Image: 59720408d29bc.jpg]
Jaguar individual, called 'Vagalume' ('Firefly' in Portuguese), whose genome was sequenced. Credit: Rodrigo Teixeira
(Phys.org)—A large international team of researchers has conducted a genetic analysis and comparison of the world's biggest cats to learn more about their history. In their paper published on the open source site Science Advances, the team describes their work mapping the genome of the jaguar and comparing the results with other big cats.



The jaguar is the largest wild cat in the Americas, and as the researchers note, it is also in danger of becoming extinct. While some of the reasons for the rapid decline in jaguar populations are obvious, others are not so clear. That is why the team embarked on a five-year mission to study the animals hoping to learn how to save them.
One of the avenues of research involved mapping the genome of the jaguar—such mapping for other big cats had already been done. That allowed the researchers to compare markers between cats belonging to the genus Panthera, which, in addition to jaguars, also includes tigers, lions, snow leopards and regular leopards. Also, because so much genetic work has been done on the common house cat, they, too, were included in the study.
The researchers report that they found over 13,000 genes that were similar through all of the species included in the study. They also found that the cats all diverged from a single ancestor approximately 4.6 million years ago—one that was apparently most like the modern leopard. The team also found that all of the species populations have also declined over the past 300,000 years, which means lower genetic diversity.
[Image: 597204176c51b.jpg]
Species tree of the genus Panthera estimated from genome-wide data. All five extant species are represented as follows: lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus), jaguar (Panthera onca), snow leopard (Panthera uncia), and tiger …more
One surprise they found was that the big cats have all engaged in cross-breeding multiple times over the course of their history, and because of that, have evolved new features that have proved useful in other areas. They suspect, for example, that the jaguar, which has the strongest bite of all the big cats, found itself with a larger head after breeding with lions—that may have led to a bite strength increase, which made it possible for them to hunt better protected animals in the New World.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Scientists say the American lion is not a lion after all
More information: Henrique V. Figueiró et al. Genome-wide signatures of complex introgression and adaptive evolution in the big cats, Science Advances (2017). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1700299
Abstract 
The great cats of the genus Panthera comprise a recent radiation whose evolutionary history is poorly understood. Their rapid diversification poses challenges to resolving their phylogeny while offering opportunities to investigate the historical dynamics of adaptive divergence. We report the sequence, de novo assembly, and annotation of the jaguar (Panthera onca) genome, a novel genome sequence for the leopard (Panthera pardus), and comparative analyses encompassing all living Panthera species. Demographic reconstructions indicated that all of these species have experienced variable episodes of population decline during the Pleistocene, ultimately leading to small effective sizes in present-day genomes. We observed pervasive genealogical discordance across Panthera genomes, caused by both incomplete lineage sorting and complex patterns of historical interspecific hybridization. We identified multiple signatures of species-specific positive selection, affecting genes involved in craniofacial and limb development, protein metabolism, hypoxia, reproduction, pigmentation, and sensory perception. There was remarkable concordance in pathways enriched in genomic segments implicated in interspecies introgression and in positive selection, suggesting that these processes were connected. We tested this hypothesis by developing exome capture probes targeting ~19,000 Panthera genes and applying them to 30 wild-caught jaguars. We found at least two genes (DOCK3 and COL4A5, both related to optic nerve development) bearing significant signatures of interspecies introgression and within-species positive selection. These findings indicate that post-speciation admixture has contributed genetic material that facilitated the adaptive evolution of big cat lineages. 

Journal reference: Science Advances


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-07-genome-clu...s.html#jCp[url=https://phys.org/news/2017-07-genome-clues-history-big-cats.html#jCp][/url]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#9
Ancient DNA offers new view on saber-toothed cats' past
October 19, 2017

[Image: ancientdnaof.jpg]
Drawing of a Homotherium. Credit: Binia De Cahsan
Researchers who've analyzed the complete mitochondrial genomes from ancient samples representing two species of saber-toothed cats have a new take on the animals' history over the last 50,000 years. The data suggest that the saber-toothed cats shared a common ancestor with all living cat-like species about 20 million years ago. The two saber-toothed cat species under study diverged from each other about 18 million years ago.


"It's quite crazy that, in terms of their mitochondrial DNA, these two saber-toothed cats are more distant from each other than tigers are from house cats," says Johanna Paijmans at the University of Potsdam in Germany.
Paijmans and colleagues reconstructed the mitochondrial genomes from ancient-DNA samples representing three Homotherium from Europe and North America and one Smilodon specimen from South America. One of the Homotherium specimens under investigation is a unique fossil: a 28,000-year-old mandible recovered from the North Sea.
"This find was so special because Homotherium is generally believed to have gone extinct in Europe around 300,000 years ago, so [this specimen is] over 200,000 years younger than the next-to-youngest Homotherium find in Europe," Paijmans explains.
The new DNA evidence confirmed that this surprisingly young specimen did indeed belong to a Homotherium. The discovery suggests that the saber-toothed cats continued to live in Europe much more recently than scientists previously thought.
[Image: 1-ancientdnaof.jpg]
Photograph of a homotherium fossil recovered from the North Sea. Credit: Natural History Museum Rotterdam
"When the first anatomically modern humans migrated to Europe, there may have been a saber-toothed cat waiting for them," Paijmans says.
The finding raises new questions about how and why the saber-toothed cats went extinct. Paijmans says they are now interested in studying DNA from other samples of saber-toothed cats. Although it will be technically challenging, they also hope to recover and analyze DNA from much older Homotherium specimens.
[Image: 2-ancientdnaof.jpg]
Photograph of a homotherium fossil recovered from the North Sea. Credit: Natural History Museum Rotterdam
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Saber-toothed kittens may have been born with thicker bones than other contemporary cats
More information: Current Biology, Paijmans et al.: "Evolutionary History of Saber-Toothed Cats Based on Ancient Mitogenomics" http://www.cell.com/current-biology/full...17)31198-3DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2017.09.033 
Journal reference: Current Biology [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: Cell Press



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-10-ancient-dna-view-saber-toothed-cats.html#jCp[url=https://phys.org/news/2017-10-ancient-dna-view-saber-toothed-cats.html#jCp][/url]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply


Forum Jump:


Users browsing this thread: 1 Guest(s)