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Double Launch: India to send MOM to Mars with A NASA Maven to Follow
#67
Bob  Take note of the article dates in my last post.

Thursday, December 14th, 2017, 01:53 pm #65

Dec. 8th and 13th

5 days apart.

NASA/Goddard didn't get the update yet... Doh


Thats why I crossed out the whole Article.
Quote:However, Brain and his colleagues have considered a particularly challenging situation for habitability by placing Mars around an M-class star. A different planet might have some mitigating factors—for example, active geological processes that replenish the atmosphere to a degree, a magnetic field to shield the atmosphere from stripping by the stellar wind, or a larger size that gives more gravity to hold on to the atmosphere.
"Habitability is one of the biggest topics in astronomy, and these estimates demonstrate one way to leverage what we know about Mars  Naughty  and the Sun to help determine the factors that control whether planets in other systems might be suitable for life," said Bruce Jakosky, MAVEN's principal investigator at the University of Colorado Boulder.


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-12-mars-missi...s.html#jCp

"...mitigating factors—for example,  a magnetic field to shield the atmosphere from stripping by the stellar wind -NASA"

Arrow Mars atmosphere well protected from the solar wind
[Image: marsatmosphe.jpg]
LilD Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-12-mars-atmos...r.html#jCp
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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#68
Clay I GOT that. So thank you Worship

But as you point out the REAL boys are  Doh 

Meanwhile some are looking FORWARD with their SCIENCE eyes OPEN rather than walking backward trying to get
a HEAD

Researchers design mock galaxies and more to prepare for sky-mapping instrument
December 15, 2017


[Image: 191-researchersd.jpg]

This plot shows a thin slice through a mock galaxies catalog. The blue and green points are “bright” and “faint” galaxies simulated for the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument’s Bright Galaxy Survey, and the red points show galaxies that are brighter than the magnitude limit of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, a predecessor sky survey. Credit: Alex Smith/Durham University

Seeing is believing, or so the saying goes.

And in some cases, a world of make-believe can help you realize what you're actually seeing, too.

Scientists are creating simulated universes, for example – complete with dark matter mock-ups, computer-generated galaxies, quasi quasars, and pseudo supernovae – to better understand real-world observations.

Their aim is to envision how new Earth-based and space-based sky surveys will see the universe, and to help analyze and interpret the vast treasure troves of data that these surveys will amass.

"We want to be able to hit the ground running once we get real data," said Stephen Bailey, a physicist at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) who is the technical lead and manager of data systems for a 3-D sky-mapping project known as the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, or DESI, that is slated to begin observing in 2019.

Several DESI teams are building out separate simulations populated with the many types of objects DESI will encounter. "What is this going to look like for DESI?" Bailey asked. "What is the actual spectra, or light signature, that DESI is going to observe? We have to make sure the mock objects have the right colors and chemical abundances."


[Image: 192-researchersd.jpg]

The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), shown in this illustration, will be mounted on the 4-meter Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory near Tucson, Ariz. It will collect data on light from 35 million galaxies and quasars to make the biggest 3-D map of the universe ever. Credit: R. Lafever, J. Moustakas/DESI Collaboration
John Moustakas, an assistant professor of physics at Siena College in New York who is also working on the simulations for DESI, added, "And that's challenging because nothing like DESI exists."

The computerized models are informed by observations from previous surveys and by large-scale simulations of the universe that account for complex physics including dark matter, an unknown form of matter that, together with dark energy, makes up about 95 percent of the total mass and energy in the universe.

"To the greatest extent possible, the simulations are based on models of real objects – from pulling out all of these pieces from other surveys," Moustakas said. "Perhaps in a perfect world these would be purely theoretical models, but we don't understand galaxies well enough to be able to do that."

And even though there is data from previous surveys, DESI will see the sky in a different way. "You have to extract out all the instrument parts of all these other surveys to get to: 'This is what other galaxies look like, intrinsically,'" he said. Next, he said, scientists must figure out how DESI's unique set of instruments will see them.

The simulated objects and universes created and refined using powerful supercomputers, including Berkeley Lab's National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), must ultimately take into account the Earth's atmospheric noise, and weather and lighting conditions including the phases of the moon, which all affect observations.

DESI will operate from the Nicholas U. Mayall 4-Meter Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona. It will measure the light from tens of millions of galaxies and other objects with a carefully choreographed array of 5,000 swiveling robots – each pointing a fiber-optic cable at a targeted space object. The robotic array will cycle through a sequence of objects, peering up to 11 billion years back in the history of our universe.




This animation shows a zooming view of the dark matter distribution in the universe in the present, based on the Millennium Simulation. The simulation extends from scales of several billion parsecs to fewer than 10,000 parsecs. A parsec equals 3.3 light-years. Credit: Springel et al., 2005; Millennium Simulation

The light captured by DESI will provide precise measurements that will help scientists to retrace the evolution of the universe and learn more about dark energy, which is responsible for the universe's mysterious, accelerating expansion. Berkeley Lab is the lead lab for the DESI project, and the collaboration now involves about 200 scientists at 40 institutions.

Alex Smith, a graduate student at Durham University in England and a DESI collaboration member, worked with a team to develop a mock catalog of galaxies for DESI that taps into a powerful simulation of how the universe's matter has evolved over the past 13 billion years.

Carried out at the Jülich Supercomputer Center in Germany, this Millennium-XXL simulation used 12,000 computer cores – the equivalent to about 300 years' worth of computer processing time. It generated about 100 terabytes of data, which is nearly as much data as the Hubble Space Telescope transmitted in space images during its first 24 years of operation.

The mock galaxy catalog that Smith's team developed focused on the same one-third of the sky that DESI will survey. The catalog shows how galaxies' clustering and 'redshift' – the color based on their distance and movement away from us – changes over time and will likely appear to DESI.

Due to cosmic expansion, very distant objects appear redder and fainter. Earlier mock catalogs had not accounted for these changes in redshift, Smith said.

"It's important to have mock catalogs that have realistic properties – that look similar to how we think the actual survey is going to look," he added.

[Image: 193-researchersd.jpg]
The predicted galaxy distribution in the Millennium XXL simulation. Each galaxy is represented by a sphere whose intensity and size are related to the expected total mass in stars and the size of its cold gas disk. Credit: Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics

His team's survey used a method known as halo occupation distribution, or HOD, to model the average number of galaxies and their brightness based on the Millennium-XXL survey's detailed simulations of the distribution of dark matter. In dark matter models, matter forms within clumps of dark matter known as halos, and galaxies are enveloped by these halos.

Smith noted that the distribution of galaxies within these halos, and other properties incorporated in the latest catalog, are taken from data collected in past surveys, including the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Galaxy and Mass Assembly Survey.

The galaxies in the catalog are simplified to their brightness, as it will appear in one of the wavelength bands that DESI will be scanning. The mock catalog is also intended to simulate the type of galaxies that will be targeted during sky conditions that favor brighter objects, such as those that exist around the times of sunrises and sunsets, or when the moon is brighter in the sky, for example. Separate simulations will account for darker viewing conditions.

"The mock catalog I created assumes you can observe everything with perfect precision," Smith noted, so additional properties will need to be added to simulate weather and other effects. The DESI collaboration has access to a decade of weather statistics collected at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, Bailey said.

Even after the start of DESI's survey, collaboration scientists will continue to adapt and improve the models.

"There is a learning component to it," Moustakas said. "As we start to observe things, we will then use those targeted objects to build better models of what those objects are."

[Image: 194-researchersd.jpg]
A view of some candidate targets for DESI obervations is shown here, along with overlay images showing mock spectra, or light signatures, generated in the planning stages for DESI. Credit: legacysurvey.org, John Moustakas, DESI collaboration

Relying too much on simulations can also be a problem, DESI scientists noted, so observations will provide a needed reality check. For example, superbright objects called quasars, which are among the targets for DESI, have been particularly difficult to simulate.

"You don't want to believe your simulations too much, because nature is much harsher," Moustakas said.*

Bailey added, "We are currently bootstrapping off other experiments; then we'll be bootstrapping off ourselves."
Smith noted that to prepare for ever-larger surveys, there will be a need for more detailed and accurate models to home in on the nature of dark energy and gravity, for example.

"To be able to make cosmological measurements at the required high precision to be able to tell all of these viable models apart, it's really important to have more and more realistic mock catalogs," he said.*
[Image: 1x1.gif]
Explore further: 3-D Galaxy-mapping project enters construction phase

Provided by: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory


*Emphasis by rhw007

"MOCK" means you made it up.  Granted you "may" have used your BEST judgement, but then the CREATOR OF UNIVERSE MOCKS you like a long long cigar rock NASA/JPL SHOULD have seen it coming ( or they did and kept it secret).  ALWAYS be willing to back down from what you SAID "Just a trick of light and Shadow" based on THIS:

[Image: catbox-april-1998-image.jpg]

When Now Acts Snake Attacks - EA "MOCKED" the American people, actually ALL EARTHLINGS and has NOT turned themselves around so that they are looking FORWARD while WALKING FORWARD.... HONESTLY !!!

Reality must be truthful to be properly useful.


If there's nothing to hide...why hide the information, objects or gag people or documents or loose emails violating Federal Law?

Say what you mean and mean what you say.

Don't make promises and policies you don't intend to keep and to keep the policies and promises you do make.

ACTIONS speak louder than words.
ACTIONS are PROOF of intent.
ACTIONS are the final judgment of character.
It REALLY is that simple.

#2020CydoniaRover

S   P   R   E   A    D            I    T           E      V     E     R     Y     W     H     E     R     E  




Original Source: https://phys.org/news/2017-12-mock-galax....html#nRlv

Bob... Ninja


In 'preview' the YouTube Video SHOWED initial image and I have it DOWNLOADED so if it needs a link on my site for people to watch it, I'll upload it and make a single page for it. I used a Fake News image of a "DickHEAD" but took it out thinking it might have an issue with the video playing...still doesn't play within post.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LnptJb-O9sc

Visualizing Dark Matter in the Universe: The Millennium Simulation
Unlisted
179 views

2 0 Share
Berkeley Lab  Uploaded on Dec 13, 2017
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#69
Doh

Quote:Before MAVEN reached Mars, many scientists expected to see loss of hydrogen from the top of the atmosphere occurring at a rather steady rate, with variation tied to changes in the solar wind's flow of charged particles from the Sun. Data from MAVEN and Mars Express haven't fit that pattern, instead showing a pattern that appears more related to Martian seasons than to solar activity. Heavens and coauthors present the dust storms' hoisting of water vapor to higher altitudes as a likely key to the seasonal pattern in hydrogen escape from the top of the atmosphere. MAVEN observations during the stronger effects of a global dust storm could boost understanding of their possible link to the escape of gas from the atmosphere.
 

Dust storms linked to gas escape from Martian atmosphere
January 23, 2018, University of Colorado at Boulder


[Image: duststormsli.jpg]
Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder
Some Mars experts are eager and optimistic for a dust storm this year to grow so grand it darkens skies around the entire Red Planet. This type of phenomenon in the environment of modern Mars could be examined as never before possible, using the combination of spacecraft now at Mars.


A study published today and co-authored by CU Boulder scientists looked at observations by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) during the most recent Martian global dust storm. That 2007 event suggests such storms play a role in the ongoing process of gas escaping from the top of Mars' atmosphere, a process which long ago transformed wetter, warmer ancient Mars into today's arid, frozen planet.
"We found there's an increase in water vapor in the middle atmosphere in connection with dust storms," said Nicholas Heavens of Hampton University, Hampton, Virginia, lead author of the report in Nature Astronomy. "Water vapor is carried up with the same air mass rising with the dust."
A link between the presence of water vapor in Mars' middle atmosphere—roughly 30 to 60 miles (50 to 100 kilometers) high—and escape of hydrogen from the top of the atmosphere has been detected by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter, but mainly in years without the dramatic changes produced in a global dust storm. NASA's MAVEN mission arrived at Mars in 2014 to study the process of atmosphere escape.
"It would not be a surprise to see a global dust storm this year, and we would love that opportunity," said MAVEN Principal Investigator Bruce Jakosky of CU Boulder.
"It would be great to have a global dust storm we could observe with all the assets now at Mars, and that could happen this year," said David Kass of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. He is a co-author of the new report and deputy principal investigator for the instrument that is the main source of data for it, MRO's Mars Climate Sounder.
Not all Mars watchers are thrilled with the idea of a global dust storm, which can adversely affect ongoing missions. For instance: Opportunity, as a solar powered rover, would have to hunker down to save energy; the upcoming InSight lander's parameters will need to be adjusted for safe entry, descent and landing in November; and all the cameras on rovers and orbiters will need to deal with low visibility.


Decades of Mars observations document a pattern of multiple regional dust storms arising during the northern spring and summer. In most Martian years, which are nearly twice as long as Earth years, all the regional storms dissipate and none swells into a global dust storm. But such expansion happened in 1977, 1982, 1994, 2001 and 2007. The next Martian dust storm season is expected to begin this summer and last into early 2019.
The Mars Climate Sounder on MRO can scan the atmosphere to directly detect dust and ice particles and can indirectly sense water vapor concentrations from effects on temperature. Heavens and co-authors of the new paper report the sounder's data show slight increases in middle-atmosphere water vapor during regional dust storms and reveal a sharp jump in the altitude reached by water vapor during the 2007 global dust storm. Using recently refined analysis methods for the 2007 data, the researchers found an increase in water vapor by more than a hundred-fold in the middle atmosphere during that global storm.
Before MAVEN reached Mars, many scientists expected to see loss of hydrogen from the top of the atmosphere occurring at a rather steady rate, with variation tied to changes in the solar wind's flow of charged particles from the Sun. Data from MAVEN and Mars Express haven't fit that pattern, instead showing a pattern that appears more related to Martian seasons than to solar activity. Heavens and coauthors present the dust storms' hoisting of water vapor to higher altitudes as a likely key to the seasonal pattern in hydrogen escape from the top of the atmosphere. MAVEN observations during the stronger effects of a global dust storm could boost understanding of their possible link to the escape of gas from the atmosphere.
"What would the climate have been like when the atmosphere was thicker?" said Michael Chaffin, a researcher at CU Boulder's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) and a co-author of the study.
"Perhaps not as dry, but perhaps windier. We can't really say whether there would have been more dust storms or what their effect on loss of gas from the atmosphere would have been during those earlier conditions. A good way to improve our understanding about dust storms on ancient Mars would be to get more observations during a global dust storm on today's Mars."
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: MAVEN spacecraft gears up to observe global dust storm on Mars
More information: Nicholas G. Heavens et al. Hydrogen escape from Mars enhanced by deep convection in dust storms, Nature Astronomy (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41550-017-0353-4

Journal reference: Nature Astronomy [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: University of Colorado at Boulder


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-01-storms-lin...e.html#jCp

[/url]

[url=https://phys.org/news/2018-01-storms-linked-gas-martian-atmosphere.html#jCp]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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#70
...

http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/nasa-n...-1.4493659
NASA tests nuclear power system for future astronauts on Mars
A different source of power will be needed to work and live on red planet

Initial tests in Nevada on a compact nuclear power system 
designed to sustain a long-duration NASA human mission on the inhospitable surface of Mars 
have been successful and a full-power run is scheduled for March Whip 
officials said on Thursday.

At a news conference in Las Vegas, 
officials from the NASA and the U.S. Department of Energy 
detailed the development of the nuclear fission system under NASA's Kilopower project.

Months-long testing of the system began in November at the energy department's Nevada National Security Site, with an eye toward providing energy for future human and robotic missions in space and on the surface of Mars, the moon or other solar system destinations.

A key hurdle for any lengthy human mission on the surface of a planet or moon, 
as opposed to NASA's six short lunar surface visits from 1969 to 1972, 
is possessing a power source strong enough to meet the various energy needs to sustain a base 
but small and light enough to allow for transport through space.

"Mars is a very difficult environment for power systems, 
with less sunlight than Earth or the moon, 
very cold nighttime temperatures, 
very interesting dust storms that can last weeks and months that engulf the entire planet," 
said Steve Jurczyk, associate administrator of NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate.

"So Kilopower's compact size and robustness Whip
allows us to deliver multiple units on a single lander to the surface 
that provides tens of kilowatts of power," Jurczyk added.

Testing that has been completed on components of the system, dubbed KRUSTY, 
has been "greatly successful — 
the models have predicted very well what has happened, 
and operations have gone smoothly," 
said Dave Poston, chief reactor designer at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Officials said a full-power test will be conducted near the middle or end of March, 
a bit later than originally planned.

President Donald Trump in December signed a directive intended to pave the way for a return to the moon, 
with an eye toward an eventual mission to Mars.

The new system could potentially supply the power human crews on the Martian surface 
would need to energize habitats and run processing equipment to transform resources 
such as ice on the planet into oxygen, water and fuel, NASA said.

NASA's prototype power system uses a uranium-235 reactor core described 
as roughly the size of a paper towel roll.

[Image: nasa-kilopower.jpg]

artists rendition

...
Reply
#71
Are they going to supply Rovers the same way Tesla wanted to do with electricity .... through the air?

[Image: humans-on-mars.jpg]


From the same article last January these folks & rover seems too small to carry its OWN nuke power in that size rover.  Looks like my Chevy Spark than a REAL 4 wheel drive that should be 6 wheels drive on Mars surface and also BIGGER !!!  Should also have airlock, dust down room etc.  A FEW of this tiny 4 wheel Zippers would do well for running errands AT some built site, but out in the boonies hitting some Dune drifts, Thunder Sands, Quick Sands, Sinkholes, you name it...these 4 wheelers would get STUCK !!!

Wonder if we get to SEE it happen. Angel


Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Reply
#72
MAVEN spacecraft shrinking its Mars orbit to prepare for Mars 2020 rover
February 11, 2019 by Lonnie Shekhtman, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

[Image: nasasmavensp.jpg]
This illustration shows the MAVEN spacecraft and the limb of Mars. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
NASA's 4-year-old atmosphere-sniffing Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission is embarking on a new campaign today to tighten its orbit around Mars. The operation will reduce the highest point of the MAVEN spacecraft's elliptical orbit from 3,850 to 2,800 miles (6,200 to 4,500 kilometers) above the surface and prepare it to take on additional responsibility as a data-relay satellite for NASA's Mars 2020 rover, which launches next year.


"The MAVEN spacecraft has done a phenomenal job teaching us how Mars lost its atmosphere and providing other important scientific insights on the evolution of the Martian climate," said Jim Watzin, director of NASA's Mars Exploration Program. "Now we're recruiting it to help NASA communicate with our forthcoming Mars rover and its successors."

While MAVEN's new orbit will not be drastically shorter than its present orbit, even this small change will significantly improve its communications capabilities. "It's like using your cell phone," said Bruce Jakosky, MAVEN principal investigator from the University of Colorado, Boulder. "The closer you are to a cell tower, the stronger your signal."

A strong telecommunications antenna signal is not the only benefit of a tighter orbit. Coming in nearly 1,000 miles (about 1,500 kilometers) closer also will allow the MAVEN orbiter to circle Mars more frequently—6.8 orbits per Earth day versus 5.3 previously—and thus communicate with the Mars rovers more frequently. While not conducting relay communications, MAVEN will continue to study the structure and composition of the upper atmosphere of Mars. "We're planning a vigorous science mission far into the future," Jakosky said.

[Image: 1-nasasmavensp.jpg]
Aerobraking plan for MAVEN. (left) Current MAVEN orbit around Mars: 6,200 kilometers (~3,850 miles) at highest altitude, and an orbit period of about 4.5 hours. (center) Aerobraking process: MAVEN performs a series of "deep dip" orbits …more
The MAVEN mission was designed to last two years in space, but the spacecraft is still operating normally. With the mission managing its fuel to last through 2030, NASA plans to use MAVEN's relay capability as long as possible. The MAVEN orbiter carries an ultra high-frequency radio transceiver—similar to transceivers carried on other Mars orbiters ­­— that allows it to relay data between Earth and rovers or landers on Mars. The MAVEN spacecraft already has served occasionally as NASA's communication liaison with the Curiosity rover.

Over the next few months, MAVEN engineers will use a navigation technique known as aerobraking—like applying the brakes on a car—to take advantage of the drag of the Red Planet's upper atmosphere to slow the spacecraft down gradually, orbit by orbit. This is the same drag you would feel if you put your hand out of the window of a moving car.



Based on the tracking of the spacecraft by the navigation team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, and at Lockheed Martin in Littleton, Colorado, engineers will begin carefully lowering the lowest part of the spacecraft's orbit into the Martian upper atmosphere over the next couple of days by firing its thrusters. The spacecraft will circle Mars at this lower altitude about 360 times over the next 2.5 months, slowing down slightly with each pass through the atmosphere. While it may seem like a time-consuming process, aerobraking is the most efficient way to change the spacecraft's trajectory, said Jakosky: "The effect is the same as if we fired our thrusters a little bit on every orbit, but this way, we use very little fuel."

Fortunately, the team has ample experience operating the spacecraft at these lower altitudes. On nine previous occasions throughout the mission, MAVEN engineers have dipped the orbiter into the same altitude targets for aerobraking to take measurements of the Martian atmosphere. As a result of these "deep dips" and other measurements, NASA has learned that solar wind and radiation had stripped Mars of most of its atmosphere, changing the planet's early climate from warm and wet to the dry environment we see today. MAVEN also discovered two new types of auroras on Mars and the presence of charged metal atoms in its upper atmosphere that tell us that a lot of debris is hitting Mars that may affect its climate.

MAVEN's principal investigator is based at the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, Boulder. The university provided two science instruments and leads science operations, as well as education and public outreach, for the mission. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, manages the MAVEN project and provided two science instruments for the mission. Lockheed Martin built the spacecraft and is responsible for mission operations. The University of California at Berkeley's Space Sciences Laboratory also provided four science instruments for the mission. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, provides navigation and Deep Space Network support, as well as the Electra telecommunications relay hardware and operations.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: MAVEN selfie marks four years in orbit around Mars

Provided by: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
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