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Search for "Planet X" officially comes up empty (Oh yeah?)
#34
Lincoln I suggest you change your name to Abraham. So the people here can call you honest Abe. Honestly there is so much we dont know.
Seek and ye shall find. JESUS
------------------------------------------
I am a recovering vegetarian   Hi
Reply
#35
Lincoln I suggest you change your name to Abraham. So the people here can call you honest Abe. -7777

Mayito.
That may be a little premature.

Grow up.

Honestly there is so much we dont know.-7777

That's more like it!


Your Words not mine.

I recall a famous quote from our host.

Pffft!

Lincoln is a pedant as claimed.

He has no clue, let alone no choice but to further expand his gnosis.

When He tries to move the goalpost, a pro mover steps in and actually moves it where it rightfully belongs.

Rite where it left off,which is where it all began.

Nevermind the HUGE dwarf planets thrown in for good measure...

Volcanic blasts hint that Mercury is a migrant planet

17:48 07 April 2014 by Jacob Aron

[Image: dn25372-1_300.jpg]

Quote:... "We're at a [u]bit of a loss,"[/u]  he adds.


NASA offers 3 explanations for strange bright light seen in photo from Mars

One spin = .333 revolutions

By Carol Christian | April 7, 2014 | Updated: April 9, 2014 5:28pm

[Image: 622x350.jpg]

Quote:According to NASA, a bright spot appears in single images taken by the stereo camera's "right eye" camera, but the spot doesn't show up in images taken less than a second later by the left-eye camera.

In the two right-eye images, the spot is in different locations of the image frame, and, in both cases, at the ground surface level in front of a crater rim on the horizon, Justin Maki, a NASA imaging scientist said April 8 by email through a spokesman
http://www.chron.com/news/strange-weird/...382677.php



Saturn's hexagon: An amazing phenomenon

April 8, 2014

http://images.sciencedaily.com/2014/04/1...-large.jpg

Quote:"The movement of the hexagon could therefore be linked to the depths of Saturn, and the rotation period of this structure, which, as we have been able to ascertain, is 10 hours, 39 minutes and 23 seconds, could be that of the planet itself," he added. Saturn is the only planet in the Solar System whose rotation period is not yet known.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/201...074827.htm



Faraway moon or faint star? Possible exomoon found

Apr 10, 2014 by Whitney Clavin

[Image: farawaymoono.jpg]

Quote:The problem is that astronomers have [u]no way of telling which of these two scenarios is correct[/u].

http://phys.org/news/2014-04-faraway-moo...omoon.html

Speaking of Good Measure...

Hubble extends stellar tape measure 10 times farther into space

Apr 10, 2014

[Image: hubbleextend.jpg]   

Quote:Such measurements will be used to provide firmer footing for the so-called cosmic "distance ladder." This ladder's "bottom rung" is built on measurements to Cepheid variable stars that, because of their known brightness, have been used for more than a century to gauge the size of the observable universe. They are the first step in calibrating far more distant extra-galactic milepost markers such as Type Ia supernovae
http://phys.org/news/2014-04-hubble-stel...e.html#jCp

Itz sew funny how I am sitting here in my office pulling mayito's strings and listening to lincoln chuckle to itself. Rofl



[move]Honestly there is so much we dont know. -Things mayito taught us...[/move]


Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#36
Sarcasm is a virtue, and those who can see sarcasm when it shows itself are amazing people  :thwack: EA
Seek and ye shall find. JESUS
------------------------------------------
I am a recovering vegetarian   Hi
Reply
#37
By that virtue...then you are virtually not aware you are part of the act.

Grow up.


let it sink in...






Lincoln I suggest you change your name to Abraham. So the people here can call you honest Abe.


Mayito.
That may be a little premature.

Grow up.

Honestly there is so much we dont know.

That's more like it!


Your Words not mine.

I recall a famous quote from our host.

Pffft!

Lincoln is a pedant as claimed.

He has no clue,let alone no choice but to further expand his gnosis.

When He tries to move the goalpost, a pro mover steps in and actually moves it where it rightfully belongs.

Rite where it left off,which is where it all began.


« Reply #22 on: April 08, 2014, 091617 AM »

WTF is that supposed to mean?


Volcanic blasts hint that Mercury is a migrant planet

17:48 07 April 2014 by Jacob Aron

Quote:..."We're at a bit of a loss,"  he adds.
http://www.newscientist.com/data/images/...-1_300.jpg



NASA offers 3 explanations for strange bright light seen in photo from Mars

By Carol Christian | April 7, 2014 | Updated: April 9, 2014 5:28pm

[Image: 622x350.jpg]

Quote:According to NASA, a bright spot appears in single images taken by the stereo camera's "right eye" camera, but the spot doesn't show up in images taken less than a second later by the left-eye camera.

In the two right-eye images, the spot is in different locations of the image frame, and, in both cases, at the ground surface level in front of a crater rim on the horizon, Justin Maki, a NASA imaging scientist said April 8 by email through a spokesman
http://www.chron.com/news/strange-weird/...382677.php



Saturn's hexagon: An amazing phenomenon

April 8, 2014

http://images.sciencedaily.com/2014/04/1...-large.jpg

Quote:"The movement of the hexagon could therefore be linked to the depths of Saturn, and the rotation period of this structure, which, as we have been able to ascertain, is 10 hours, 39 minutes and 23 seconds, could be that of the planet itself," he added. Saturn is the only planet in the Solar System whose rotation period is not yet known.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/201...074827.htm



Faraway moon or faint star? Possible exomoon found

Apr 10, 2014 by Whitney Clavin

[Image: farawaymoono.jpg]

Quote:The problem is that astronomers have no way of telling which of these two scenarios is correct.

http://phys.org/news/2014-04-faraway-moo...omoon.html



Hubble extends stellar tape measure 10 times farther into space

Apr 10, 2014

[Image: hubbleextend.jpg]   

Quote:Such measurements will be used to provide firmer footing for the so-called cosmic "distance ladder." This ladder's "bottom rung" is built on measurements to Cepheid variable stars that, because of their known brightness, have been used for more than a century to gauge the size of the observable universe. They are the first step in calibrating far more distant extra-galactic milepost markers such as Type Ia supernovae
http://phys.org/news/2014-04-hubble-stel...e.html#jCp

[move]Itz sew funny how I am sitting here in my office pulling mayito's strings and listening to lincoln chuckle to itself.[/move]




Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#38
Just in from a 14 hour shift, so ill make this a short post, there is a link an a german news site to a video that is meant to show buildings on mars, i havent looked at it yet, will do that next week, perhaps EA would be so kind to watch it, and let me know if its anything interesting

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q5tfgCiYo88
Reply
#39
  Just -FLEW- in from a 14 hour shift...and Girl =  (PEGGY)  =are my arms tired ...shish-boom ba la bamba.  Dance2

Quote:INCOMMING stork!!!

[Image: stork.jpg]

Well watcher it was a bit too blobsquatchy for me and the video author is nonforth.

That's my take on it. Mellow



« Reply #33 on: April 11, 2014, 06:10:42 AM »

"...Honestly there is so much we dont know."

A baby Moon is born in Saturn's Rings.

Her name is "Peggy" and she's a little angel.
[Image: nasacassinii.jpg]

Peg that to Linke's scoreboard.

Yes so much unkown...
Now we know more.

Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#40
Quote:Yes so much unkown...
Now we know more.

Star is discovered to be a close neighbor of the Sun and the coldest of its kind

7 hours ago by Whitney Clavin

[Image: 1-starisdiscov.jpg]
LEFTY  
This image is an artist's conception of the brown dwarf WISE J085510.83-071442.5. The Sun is the bright star directly to the right of the brown dwarf. Credit: Robert Hurt/JPL, Janella Williams/Penn State University

Quote:(Phys.org) —A "brown dwarf" star that appears to be the coldest of its kind—as frosty as Earth's North Pole—has been discovered by a Penn State University astronomer using NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and Spitzer Space Telescopes. Images from the space telescopes also pinpointed the object's distance at 7.2 light-years away, making it the fourth closest system to our Sun.


"It is very exciting to discover a new neighbor of our solar system that is so close," said Kevin Luhman, an associate professor of astronomy and astrophysics at Penn State and a researcher in the Penn State Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds. "In addition, its extreme temperature should tell us a lot about the atmospheres of planets, which often have similarly cold temperatures."

Brown dwarfs start their lives like stars, as collapsing balls of gas, but they lack the mass to burn nuclear fuel and radiate starlight. The newfound coldest brown dwarf, named WISE J085510.83-071442.5, has a chilly temperature between minus 54 and 9 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 48 to minus 13 degrees Celsius).
Previous record holders for coldest brown dwarfs, also found by WISE and Spitzer, were about room temperature.

Although it is very close to our solar system, WISE J085510.83-071442.5 is not an appealing destination for human space travel in the distant future. "Any planets that might orbit it would be much too cold to support life as we know it" Luhman said.


[Image: 1-starisdiscov.gif]
WISE J085510.83-071442.5 was discovered through its rapid motion across the sky in two infrared images the WISE satellite taken six months apart in 2010. Two additional images were taken with the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2013 and 2014 to measure its distance via the parallax effect. Credit: NASA/JPL/IPAC

"This object appeared to move really fast in the WISE data," said Luhman. "That told us it was something special." The closer a body, the more it appears to move in images taken months apart. Airplanes are a good example of this effect: a closer, low-flying plane will appear to fly overhead more rapidly than a high-flying one.

WISE was able to spot the rare object because it surveyed the entire sky twice in infrared light, observing some areas up to three times. Cool objects like brown dwarfs can be invisible when viewed by visible-light telescopes, but their thermal glow—even if feeble—stands out in infrared light.

After noticing the fast motion of WISE J085510.83-071442.5 in March, 2013, Luhman spent time analyzing additional images taken with Spitzer and the Gemini South telescope on Cerro Pachon in Chile. Spitzer's infrared observations helped to determine the frosty temperature of the brown dwarf.


[Image: starisdiscov.jpg]
This diagram illustrates the locations of the star systems that are closest to the Sun. The year when each star was discovered to be a neighbor of the Sun is indicated. The brown dwarf WISE J085510.83-071442.5 is the fourth nearest system to the Sun. Credit: Janella Williams, Penn State University

WISE J085510.83-071442.5 is estimated to be 3 to 10 times the mass of Jupiter. With such a low mass, it could be a gas giant similar to Jupiter that was ejected from its star system. But scientists estimate it is probably a brown dwarf rather than a planet since brown dwarfs are known to be fairly common. If so, it is one of the least massive brown dwarfs known.

Combined detections from WISE and Spitzer, taken from different positions around the Sun, enabled the measurement of its distance through the parallax effect. This is the same principle that explains why your finger, when held out right in front of you, appears to jump from side to side when you alternate left-eye and right-eye views.

In March of 2013, Luhman's analysis of the images from WISE uncovered a pair of much warmer brown dwarfs at a distance of 6.5 light years, making that system the third closest to the Sun. His search for rapidly moving bodies also demonstrated that the outer solar system probably does not contain a large, undiscovered planet, which has been referred to as "Planet X" or "Nemesis."

"It is remarkable that even after many decades of studying the sky, we still do not have a complete inventory of the Sun's nearest neighbors," said Michael Werner, the project scientist for Spitzer at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), which manages and operates Spitzer. "This exciting new result demonstrates the power of exploring the universe using new tools, such as the infrared eyes of WISE and Spitzer."


Explore further: WISE survey finds thousands of new stars, but no 'Planet X'


Provided by  Pennsylvania State University search and more info website


Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2014-04-star-neighb...d.html#jCp 


Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#41
Hmmm, looks as if EA needs remedial coaching on the difference between a planet and a star.
Reply
#42
(04-25-2014, 11:08 PM)EA link Wrote:
Quote:Yes so much unkown...
Now we know more.

Star is discovered to be a close neighbor of the Sun and the coldest of its kind

7 hours ago by Whitney Clavin

[Image: 1-starisdiscov.jpg]
LEFTY  
This image is an artist's conception of the brown dwarf WISE J085510.83-071442.5. The Sun is the bright star directly to the right of the brown dwarf. Credit: Robert Hurt/JPL, Janella Williams/Penn State University

Quote:(Phys.org) —A "brown dwarf" star that appears to be the coldest of its kind—as frosty as Earth's North Pole—has been discovered by a Penn State University astronomer using NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and Spitzer Space Telescopes. Images from the space telescopes also pinpointed the object's distance at 7.2 light-years away, making it the fourth closest system to our Sun.


"It is very exciting to discover a new neighbor of our solar system that is so close," said Kevin Luhman, an associate professor of astronomy and astrophysics at Penn State and a researcher in the Penn State Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds. "In addition, its extreme temperature should tell us a lot about the atmospheres of planets, which often have similarly cold temperatures."

Brown dwarfs start their lives like stars, as collapsing balls of gas, but they lack the mass to burn nuclear fuel and radiate starlight. The newfound coldest brown dwarf, named WISE J085510.83-071442.5, has a chilly temperature between minus 54 and 9 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 48 to minus 13 degrees Celsius).
Previous record holders for coldest brown dwarfs, also found by WISE and Spitzer, were about room temperature.

Although it is very close to our solar system, WISE J085510.83-071442.5 is not an appealing destination for human space travel in the distant future. "Any planets that might orbit it would be much too cold to support life as we know it" Luhman said.


[Image: 1-starisdiscov.gif]
WISE J085510.83-071442.5 was discovered through its rapid motion across the sky in two infrared images the WISE satellite taken six months apart in 2010. Two additional images were taken with the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2013 and 2014 to measure its distance via the parallax effect. Credit: NASA/JPL/IPAC

"This object appeared to move really fast in the WISE data," said Luhman. "That told us it was something special." The closer a body, the more it appears to move in images taken months apart. Airplanes are a good example of this effect: a closer, low-flying plane will appear to fly overhead more rapidly than a high-flying one.

WISE was able to spot the rare object because it surveyed the entire sky twice in infrared light, observing some areas up to three times. Cool objects like brown dwarfs can be invisible when viewed by visible-light telescopes, but their thermal glow—even if feeble—stands out in infrared light.

After noticing the fast motion of WISE J085510.83-071442.5 in March, 2013, Luhman spent time analyzing additional images taken with Spitzer and the Gemini South telescope on Cerro Pachon in Chile. Spitzer's infrared observations helped to determine the frosty temperature of the brown dwarf.


[Image: starisdiscov.jpg]
This diagram illustrates the locations of the star systems that are closest to the Sun. The year when each star was discovered to be a neighbor of the Sun is indicated. The brown dwarf WISE J085510.83-071442.5 is the fourth nearest system to the Sun. Credit: Janella Williams, Penn State University

WISE J085510.83-071442.5 is estimated to be 3 to 10 times the mass of Jupiter. With such a low mass, it could be a gas giant similar to Jupiter that was ejected from its star system. But scientists estimate it is probably a brown dwarf rather than a planet since brown dwarfs are known to be fairly common. If so, it is one of the least massive brown dwarfs known.

Combined detections from WISE and Spitzer, taken from different positions around the Sun, enabled the measurement of its distance through the parallax effect. This is the same principle that explains why your finger, when held out right in front of you, appears to jump from side to side when you alternate left-eye and right-eye views.

In March of 2013, Luhman's analysis of the images from WISE uncovered a pair of much warmer brown dwarfs at a distance of 6.5 light years, making that system the third closest to the Sun. His search for rapidly moving bodies also demonstrated that the outer solar system probably does not contain a large, undiscovered planet, which has been referred to as "Planet X" or "Nemesis."

"It is remarkable that even after many decades of studying the sky, we still do not have a complete inventory of the Sun's nearest neighbors," said Michael Werner, the project scientist for Spitzer at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), which manages and operates Spitzer. "This exciting new result demonstrates the power of exploring the universe using new tools, such as the infrared eyes of WISE and Spitzer."


Explore further: WISE survey finds thousands of new stars, but no 'Planet X'


Provided by  Pennsylvania State University search and more info website


Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2014-04-star-neighb...d.html#jCp 


Hmmm, looks as if EA needs remedial coaching on the difference between a planet and a star.

Hmmm, typical.

A:  "pedantic's semantics"  as per usual. Meds

already have my Degree
thank you for Nothing
Dance2
and Yes



Quote:WISE J085510.83-071442.5 is estimated to be 3 to 10 times the mass of Jupiter. With such a low mass, it could be a gas giant similar to Jupiter that was ejected from its star system. But scientists estimate it is probably a brown dwarf rather than a planet since brown dwarfs are known to be fairly common. If so, it is one of the least massive brown dwarfs known.



Pretty sure I'm up to speed "Coach".  Rofl

[Image: review_baberuth_1.jpg]

thanx for the pointers. Koolaid



Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#43
"That means the system must contain error-correcting codes that allow any subset of up to half the information to be reconstructed from the rest." -Max Tegmark,theoretical physicist M.I.T. in Cambridge.

[move]Improv lives by the code.  Smoke[/move]

Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#44
I think I know what's confusing the astronomically-challenged mind of EA. The diagram showing the relative positions of WISE J085510.83-071442.5, Alpha Centauri, and Barnard's Star looks similar to a traditional school-classroom style diagram of the solar system, with the circles representing the planetary orbits.

That's NOT what they are, EA dearest. Alpha Centauri is not in orbit round the Sun. Neither is WISE J085510.83-071442.5. The circles are simply there to give scale to the diagram.

Please note this:
Quote:Explore further: WISE survey finds thousands of new stars, but no 'Planet X'

THE SEARCH CAME UP EMPTY. S'what I said.
Reply
#45
Heh!  grasping at straws,eh lefty.
Not in the least confused.

We are  not  In a binary / trinary star system  so give us a break  Meds

Quote:EA:

« Reply #2 on: March 24, 2014, 07:08:06 PM »

Give Planet X a Kelvin Wave g'bye...  Hi


That diagram indicates radial distance of these stars in light years but does not indicate they are all on the same plane wich wouldn't work out too well ---with all those rogue dark bodies out there. Koolaid

Reefer Not in the least a proponent of Planet x  or its probable non-existence.

Just pulling your strings from my office while I am in pro-bono defence of RCH/Bara as they are not present. Devil

How else can you stretch a thread this far when the topic was dead on opening post. Dunno

My cosmology is perfectly up to date coach... including these discoveries of ANU cool local stellar neighbour and    Rite in our own backyard Giant-Dwarfs.


Quote:You are confused because I am not??? Hmm2


Hmmm?That doesn't make much sense. Bricks



What does make sense is, Personally... I will allow for one large body to still be undetected by our primitive instruments.

That is not only likely but highly probable.

Nothing to do with any hyper-d nonsense though.

Just common sense.




Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#46
So now you're saying you understand perfectly well that WISE J085510.83-071442.5 has nothing to do with the topic of this thread.

In which case, what was the point of posting it?
Reply
#47
The same point as posting:

[move]dark matter disk .[/move]

I 'll update you when I return from my local tavern. Reefer

Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#48
Dark Matter Disk.

Quote:Lincoln:
the entire theory of what they call hyperdimensional physics (a concept stolen from Thomas Bearden, he of the diploma-mill doctorate and the never-demonstrated free energy device) depends on the discovery of at least one large planet beyond Pluto.

Linke?
You failed to notice in your opening post that you give no indication of the mass or diameter of what constitutes: "...at least one large planet beyond Pluto."

What size are you claiming RCH/Bara are claiming this so-called "Large Planet" is?

Thanx in advance for future clarification.
Once you state its assumed proportions that will at least give RCH/Bara no "Wiggle-room" as well as prevent you from moving any goal-posts in case a new object is found later.
Get back to us on that one just for the record please.

Quote:Lincoln:
So now you're saying you understand perfectly well that WISE J085510.83-071442.5 has nothing to do with the topic of this thread.

Nonsense on your part lefty,No one is confused about our local stellar neighbours nor their distances or celestial coordination.
In fact you were updated by me in this thread if you rightly recall.

Quote:Lincoln:
In which case, what was the point of posting it?

A good Investigator excludes nothing. Hmm2

A good Improviser includes everything. Smoke

WISE J085510.83-071442.5 made Bigfoot 73 wiser and is right on topic.
Images from the space telescopes also pinpointed the object's distance at 7.2 light-years away, making it the fourth closest system to our Sun.

Bigfoot73 is now currently updated to where the newest coldest brown dwarf is located.
Hint: not in our solar system  Reefer
And so cold it demonstrates anything that is possibly local must be supercold to escape ir detection.


Quote:Bigfoot73:
Presumably any hitherto unnoticed brown dwarfs can be eliminated too. I don't follow them but any reduction in BS emissions from H&B can only be a good thing.
Never thought I'd say this but thanks for posting Lincoln.

So it seems highly improbable locally and brown dwarfs are so far safe to exclude.
What size planet were you claiming that RCH/Bara are claiming again? Hmm2

This returns us to shepherding and Scott Sheppard.
There still seems to be "...a disturbance in the force Luke"



2012 VP113
2013 FY27
2013 FZ27.

Dark eye

The fresh haul of discoveries is no coincidence. All three objects were found in images from the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco telescope in Chile, which took its first images in 2012. Boasting 570 megapixels, this camera was designed to collect the faint light from millions of very distant galaxies in the hunt for clues to the nature of dark energy, the mysterious force that is causing the universe to expand at an accelerating rate.

In the process, the camera collects hundreds of gigabytes of data, which astronomers can sift through to find far-flung bodies in our solar system that until now have been invisible.

"That's why we're finding a lot of these objects, even though they're faint," says co-discoverer Scott Sheppard at the Carnegie Institution for Science in Washington DC. "We expect to have many more finds in the future."
http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn25...zyt8hRzbIU


Quote:Researchers suggest dark matter disk in Milky Way plane could signal rash of comet strikes on Earth

May 01, 2014 by Bob Yirka

[Image: researcherss.png]
Our Solar System orbits around the Milky Way’s center, completing a revolution every 250 million years or so. Along this path, it oscillates up and down, crossing the galactic plane about every 32 million years. If a dark matter disk were concentrated along the galactic plane, as shown here, it might tidally disrupt the motion of comets in the Oort cloud at the outer edge of our Solar System. This could explain possible periodic fluctuations in the rate of impacts on Earth. Credit: Physics 7, 41 (2014) | DOI: 10.1103/Physics.7.41

Quote:(Phys.org) —A pair of researchers at Harvard University has published a paper in the journal Physical Review Letters, in which they suggest that a dark matter disk hiding in the Milky Way plane might be responsible for causing asteroids or comets to head our way. In their paper, Lisa Randall and Matthew Reece suggest that such a dark matter disk could pull other bodies from the Oort cloud, some of which could wind up heading toward Earth.

It has been noted by scientists that asteroids and comets tend to strike the Earth in a cyclic pattern that occurs approximately every 35 million—as evidenced by telltale craters. But why such a cycle might occur is still up to conjecture. Some have suggested it's due to a mysterious planet hidden from our view, or perhaps the presence of an as yet undiscovered companion star. In this new effort, the research duo suggests it might be due to the gravitational pull of a dark matter disk residing in the Milky Way Galaxy plane



It has been noted by scientists that asteroids and comets tend to strike the Earth in a cyclic pattern that occurs approximately every 35 million—as evidenced by telltale craters. But why such a cycle might occur is still up to conjecture. Some have suggested it's due to a mysterious planet hidden from our view, or perhaps the presence of an as yet undiscovered companion star. In this new effort, the research duo suggests it might be due to the gravitational pull of a dark matter disk residing in the Milky Way Galaxy plane.

This is not the first time that scientists have suggested such a disk might exist—it's been suggested that a dark matter a disk would explain why our galaxy doesn't spin apart. It is the first time, however, that such a disk has been proposed as an answer to why our planet gets bombarded periodically with asteroids or comets.

In their paper, Randall and Reece note that the conventional view of the material that makes up dark matter, wouldn't work as a means of pulling other bodes from where they currently reside, it's evident in their name—weakly interacting massive particles. They suggest that some dark matter could be made instead of what they describe as "strong electromagnetic-like interactions among dark matter particles" which by their nature would exert a greater gravitational pull. And if that were the case, then it would seem plausible that as our solar system circles around the center of our galaxy, most particularly as we move closer to the Oort cloud, some of those bodies that exist there, could be jostled, which in turn could cause some of them to wind up on a collision course with our planet.

This new theory by the research pair has some problems—it assumes the periodicity of crater creation has been firmly established, which it hasn't, and, scientists aren't even sure which craters on the Earth's surface were cause by what sort of object. In any event, the theory is expected to gain or lose credence as the European Space Agency's Gaia mission gets underway—it's supposed to give us a better view of the Milky Way Galaxy than ever before.


Explore further: Physicists suggest possible existence of other kinds of dark matter

More information: Dark Matter as a Trigger for Periodic Comet Impacts, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 161301 – Published 21 April 2014. journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.161301

ABSTRACT
Although statistical evidence is not overwhelming, possible support for an approximately 35×106??yr periodicity in the crater record on Earth could indicate a nonrandom underlying enhancement of meteorite impacts at regular intervals. A proposed explanation in terms of tidal effects on Oort cloud comet perturbations as the Solar System passes through the galactic midplane is hampered by lack of an underlying cause for sufficiently enhanced gravitational effects over a sufficiently short time interval and by the time frame between such possible enhancements. We show that a smooth dark disk in the galactic midplane would address both these issues and create a periodic enhancement of the sort that has potentially been observed. Such a disk is motivated by a novel dark matter component with dissipative cooling that we considered in earlier work. We show how to evaluate the statistical evidence for periodicity by input of appropriate measured priors from the galactic model, justifying or ruling out periodic cratering with more confidence than by evaluating the data without an underlying model. We find that, marginalizing over astrophysical uncertainties, the likelihood ratio for such a model relative to one with a constant cratering rate is 3.0, which moderately favors the dark disk model. Our analysis furthermore yields a posterior distribution that, based on current crater data, singles out a dark matter disk surface density of approximately 10M?/pc2. The geological record thereby motivates a particular model of dark matter that will be probed in the near future.



Journal reference:  Physical Review Letters search and more info website


Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2014-05-dark-disk-m...h.html#jCp 

If Hoagland and Bara get wise to this possible Dark Matter Disk...
it could just open up a pandora's box of books  Bricks  lincoln will be forced to buy and read wich should keep him occupied.

I wonder if this possible "disk" tossed Mercury into the mix???



Volcanic blasts hint that Mercury is a migrant planet.

Rothery suggests the possibility that Mercury formed further out and migrated in.

Astronomers think gas giants like Jupiter and Saturn may have migrated from their orbits in the early days of the solar system,
so perhaps something similar happened to Mercury as well. "We're at a bit of a loss,"  he adds.
http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn25...0M4vBRzbIU

Gotta love how improv just continually produces new possibilities. Reefer

What size of planet do you say they(RCH/Bara) say again???


Perhaps this Disk can be a surrogate masked as a "Possible" planet. Dunno

So many possabilities versus probability. Hmm2


Good Thing I don't gamble.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#49
This is the figure from ch.2 of Dark Mission predicting that 1 or 2 additional massive planets are required by "hyperdimensional physics".

[Image: luminosity.jpg]

Note that the plot (stolen from Sky Publishing with copyright claimed by The Enterprise Mission) does not display what the authors think it does. The x axis is not angular momentum but specific angular momentum. The masses of the various bodies depicted are therefore irrelevant.

Neither author has ever estimated the actual mass of the "missing" outer planets.
Reply
#50
Thanx.

That pretty much sets the stage for an enterprise mission exclusive. Rofl
Now it is more likely as they get wise to the possible dark matter disk...you will get to review their next best-seller!

[tt]Dark Disk:

[Image: researcherss.png]
The Hidden History of Matter?
[/tt] Reefer

So in theory these preturberances do need to be addressed.
Hmmm... it could be a cloaked body in an ultrablack low albedo ultradense surface  possibly with multiple icy/watery upper strata with assumed layers  of a rocky midsection and perhaps a metallic core that may or may not be a magnetic dynamo of unknown feildstrength constantly occulted by various closer kupier or oort objects and innoportune scanning times.

Many possibilities filtered by probability.
At least the Brown dwarf is improbable...wich leaves:
[move] Bump  ~ ~ ~ preturbations...[/move]

What is causing this?

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With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#51
Two things here.

One, did the sky survey look at the ecliptic or did it cover the whole sky?  If it only looked at the ecliptic then captured brown dwarfs/planets that orbit North/South instead of East/West would not have been seen.  I haven't seen anything that says what area the sky survey covered. 

Two, Mercury's craters look like plasma strikes not lava eruptions or meteoric stikes.  The craters are flat bottomed and there is no effluvia.  I don't buy the lava thing and meteors leave effluvia.  What does that leave?  When you are the closest planet to the sun and all the electric activity there, I would guess plasma, but what do I know?
"Facts do not cease to exist because they are ignored." --Aldous Huxley
Reply
#52
WISE was an all-sky survey.
Reply
#53
Speaking of all-sky surveys. Whistle

A Chiral Fingerprint Rite where Arnik Left off... Hi


[Image: 140506120240-large.jpg]

The magnetic field of our Milky Way Galaxy as seen by ESA’s Planck satellite. This image was compiled from the first all-sky observations of polarised light emitted by interstellar dust in the Milky Way. Darker regions correspond to stronger polarised emission, and the striations indicate the direction of the magnetic field projected on the plane of the sky. The dark band running horizontally across the centre corresponds to the Galactic Plane. Here, the polarisation reveals a regular pattern on large angular scales, which is due to the magnetic field lines being predominantly parallel to the plane of the Milky Way. The data also reveal variations of the polarisation direction within nearby clouds of gas and dust. This can be seen in the tangled features above and below the plane, where the local magnetic field is particularly disorganised.


Add this to DARK DISK and RCH/Bara might put a spin on it if Eye don't.  Reefer

n international team of astrophysicists has released an unprecedented map of the entire sky that charts the magnetic field shaping the Milky Way galaxy and helps in our understanding of the birth of the universe.


 
Magnetic fingerprint of our galaxy revealed


Date:

May 6, 2014

University of British Columbia

Quote:The team -- which includes researchers from the University of British Columbia and the Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics (CITA) at the University of Toronto -- created the map using data from the Planck Space Telescope.

Since 2009, the Planck telescope has charted the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the light from the Universe a mere 380,000 years after the Big Bang.

But Planck also observes light from much closer than the farthest reaches of time and space. With its High Frequency Instrument, Planck detects the light from microscopic dust particles within our galaxy and helps identify the non-random direction in which the light waves vibrate -- known as polarization. It is this polarized light that indicates the orientation of the field lines.

"Just as the Earth has a magnetic field, our galaxy has a large-scale magnetic field -- albeit 100,000 times weaker than the magnetic field at the Earth's surface," says UBC Astrophysicist Douglas Scott. "And just as the Earth's magnetic field generates phenomena such as the aurorae, our galaxy's magnetic field is important for many phenomena within it."

"And now," says Scott, "Planck has given us the most detailed picture of it yet."

The "fingerprint" and other results are described in four forthcoming papers in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics.

CITA's Prof. Peter Martin uses Planck data to study the dust found throughout our galaxy. "Dust is often overlooked but it contains the stuff from which terrestrial planets and life form," he says. "So by probing the dust, Planck helps us understand the complex history of the galaxy as well as the life within it."

Background

For cosmologists studying the origin and evolution of the Universe, data to be released later this year by scientists from the Planck collaboration should allow astronomers to separate with great confidence any possible foreground signal from our Galaxy from the tenuous, primordial, polarized signal from the CMB. In March 2014, scientists from the BICEP2 collaboration claimed the first detection of such a signal.

The Planck data will enable a much more detailed investigation of the early history of the cosmos, from the accelerated expansion when the Universe was much less than one second old to the period when the first stars were born, several hundred million years later.

And according to Prof. J. Richard Bond (CITA), "These results help us lift the veil of emissions from these tiny but pervasive Galactic dust grains which obscure a Planck goal of peering into the earliest moments of the Big Bang to find evidence for gravitational waves created in that epoch, as reported by BICEP2."

Planck includes contributions from the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). The CSA funds two Canadian research teams that are part of the Planck science collaboration, and who helped develop both of Planck's complementary science instruments, the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) and the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI). Professors J. Richard Bond of the University of Toronto (Director of Cosmology and Gravity at the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research) and Douglas Scott of the University of British Columbia lead the Canadian Planck team, which includes members from the University of Alberta, Université Laval and McGill University.

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/201...120240.htm

A Dark Disk and a Magneto Disk may help your inquiry.


[move]Bump  ~ ~ ~ preturbations...[/move]
What is causing this?


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Reply
#54
Lincoln:

Ten threads from now... Reefer

Quote:Falsifying Dark Magnet:
The Hidden History Of Dark Disk



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With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#55
http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn25...5rXTvldWs8
Quote:The monsters are multiplying. Just months after astronomers announced hints of a giant "Planet X" lurking beyond Pluto, a team in Spain says there may actually be two supersized planets hiding in the outer reaches of our solar system.

When potential dwarf planet 2012 VP113 was discovered in March, it joined a handful of unusual rocky objects known to reside beyond the orbit of Pluto. These small objects have curiously aligned orbits, which hints that an unseen planet even further out is influencing their behaviour. Scientists calculated that this world would be about 10 times the mass of Earth and would orbit at roughly 250 times Earth's distance from the sun.

Now Carlos and Raul de la Fuente Marcos at the Complutense University of Madrid in Spain have taken another look at these distant bodies. As well as confirming their bizarre orbital alignment, the pair found additional puzzling patterns. Small groups of the objects have very similar orbital paths. Because they are not massive enough to be tugging on each other, the researchers think the objects are being "shepherded" by a larger object in a pattern known as orbital resonance.

Hmm2
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
Reply
#56
[move]The monsters are multiplying. Just months after astronomers announced hints of a giant "Planet X" lurking beyond Pluto, a team in Spain says there may actually be two supersized planets hiding in the outer reaches of our solar system.[/move]

Ya just never know...eh Lefty?  Hmm2

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With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#57
Flat Facts and Brutal Truths REVEAL the REAL Universe as it IS not as No Airhead Sensible Adults with Just Plain Ludicrous folks keep spouting Political Pigeon Poop.

Rofl

Bob  Ninja Reefer
"The Light" - Jefferson Starship-Windows of Heaven Album
I'm an Earthling with a Martian Soul wanting to go Home.   
You have to turn your own lightbulb on. ©stevo25 & rhw007
Reply
#58
[quote='EA link' dateline='1398979848']


Quote:EA:

« Reply #2 on: March 24, 2014, 07:08:06 PM »


What does make sense is, Personally... I will allow for one large body to still be undetected by our primitive instruments.

That is not only likely but highly probable.

Nothing to do with any hyper-d nonsense though.

Just common sense.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#59
[move]"...and we consider that the most probable explanation is that other unknown planets exist beyond Neptune and Pluto,"[/move]

Trans-Neptunian objects suggest that there are more planets in the solar system

7 hours ago

[Image: transneptuni.jpg]
At least two unknown planets could exist in our solar system beyond Pluto. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Quote:There could be at least two unknown planets hidden well beyond Pluto, whose gravitational influence determines the orbits and strange distribution of objects observed beyond Neptune. This has been revealed by numerical calculations made by researchers at the Complutense University of Madrid and the University of Cambridge. If confirmed, this hypothesis would revolutionise solar system models.

Astronomers have spent decades debating whether some dark trans-Plutonian planet remains to be discovered within the solar system. According to the calculations of scientists at the Complutense University of Madrid (UCM, Spain) and the University of Cambridge (United Kingdom) not only one, but at least two planets must exist to explain the orbital behaviour of extreme trans-Neptunian objects (ETNO).

The most accepted theory establishes that the orbits of these objects, which travel beyond Neptune, should be distributed randomly, and by an observational bias, their paths must fulfil a series of characteristics: have a semi-major axis with a value close to 150 AU (astronomical units or times the distance between the Earth and the Sun), an inclination of almost 0° and an argument or angle of perihelion (closest point of the orbit to our Sun) also close to 0° or 180°.

Yet what is observed in a dozen of these bodies is quite different: the values of the semi-major axis are very disperse (between 150 AU and 525 AU), the average inclination of their orbit is around 20° and argument of Perihelion -31°, without appearing in any case close to 180°.

"This excess of objects with unexpected orbital parameters makes us believe that some invisible forces are altering the distribution of the orbital elements of the ETNO and we consider that the most probable explanation is that other unknown planets exist beyond Neptune and Pluto," explains Carlos de la Fuente Marcos, scientist at the UCM and co-author of the study.
"The exact number is uncertain, given that the data that we have is limited, but our calculations suggest that there are at least two planets, and probably more, within the confines of our solar system," adds the astrophysicist.

To carry out the study, which is published as two articles in the journal 'Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters', the researchers have analysed the effects of the so-called 'Kozai mechanism', related to the gravitational perturbation that a large body exerts on the orbit of another much smaller and further away object. As a reference they have considered how this mechanism works in the case of comet 96P/Machholz1 under the influence of Jupiter.

Two problems to solve

Despite their surprising results, the authors recognise that their data comes up against two problems. On the one hand, their proposal goes against the predictions of current models on the formation of the solar system, which state that there are no other planets moving in circular orbits beyond Neptune.

However, the recent discovery by the ALMA radio telescope of a planet-forming disk more than 100 astronomical units from the star HL Tauri, which is younger than the Sun and more massive, suggests that planets can form several hundred astronomical units away from the centre of the system.

On the other hand, the team recognises that the analysis is based on a sample with few objects (specifically 13), but they point out that in the coming months more results are going to be published, making the sample larger. "If it is confirmed, our results may be truly revolutionary for astronomy," says de la Fuente Marcos.

Last year two researchers from the United States discovered a dwarf planet called 2012 VP113 in the Oort cloud, just beyond our solar system. The discoverers consider that its orbit is influenced by the possible presence of a dark and icy super-Earth, up to ten times larger than our planet.

Explore further: The origins of local planetary orbits

More information: Carlos de la Fuente Marcos, Raúl de la Fuente Marcos, Sverre J. Aarseth. "Flipping minor bodies: what comet 96P/Machholz 1 can tell us about the orbital evolution of extreme trans-Neptunian objects and the production of near-Earth objects on retrograde orbits". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 446(2):1867-1873, 2015.

C. de la Fuente Marcos, R. de la Fuente Marcos. "Extreme trans-Neptunian objects and the Kozai mechanism: signalling the presence of trans-Plutonian planets? Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters 443(1): L59-L63, 2014.


Journal reference: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters  Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#60
(06-14-2014, 10:57 AM)EA link Wrote:[quote author=EA link=topic=15459.msg171467#msg171467 date=1398979848]

[move]The discoverers consider that its orbit is influenced by the possible presence of a dark and icy super-Earth, up to ten times larger than our planet.[/move]


Quote:EA:

« Reply #2 on: March 24, 2014, 07:08:06 PM »


What does make sense is, Personally... I will allow for one large body to still be undetected by our primitive instruments.

That is not only likely but highly probable.

Nothing to do with any hyper-d nonsense though.
[Image: tumblr_n5mnasvTlr1rejb9lo1_500.jpg]

Just common sense.

"There could be at least two unknown planets hidden well beyond Pluto, whose gravitational influence determines the orbits and strange distribution of objects observed beyond Neptune. This has been revealed by numerical calculations made by researchers at the Complutense University of Madrid and the University of Cambridge. If confirmed, this hypothesis would revolutionise solar system models.


http://phys.org/news/2015-01-trans-neptu...solar.html

Reefer
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#61
(04-26-2014, 10:36 AM)lincoln link Wrote:Hmmm, looks as if EA needs remedial coaching on the difference between a planet and a star.

[Image: review_baberuth_1.jpg]

I applied the remedy  Nurse Thanx Coach!
RECALL:
Whose instructing who? Hmm2




(01-15-2015, 07:16 PM)EA link Wrote:[move]"...and we consider that the most probable explanation is that other unknown planets exist beyond Neptune and Pluto,"[/move]

Trans-Neptunian objects suggest that there are more planets in the solar system

7 hours ago

[Image: transneptuni.jpg]
At least two unknown planets could exist in our solar system beyond Pluto. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Quote:There could be at least two unknown planets hidden well beyond Pluto, whose gravitational influence determines the orbits and strange distribution of objects observed beyond Neptune. This has been revealed by numerical calculations made by researchers at the Complutense University of Madrid and the University of Cambridge. If confirmed, this hypothesis would revolutionise solar system models.

Astronomers have spent decades debating whether some dark trans-Plutonian planet remains to be discovered within the solar system. According to the calculations of scientists at the Complutense University of Madrid (UCM, Spain) and the University of Cambridge (United Kingdom) not only one, but at least two planets must exist to explain the orbital behaviour of extreme trans-Neptunian objects (ETNO).

The most accepted theory establishes that the orbits of these objects, which travel beyond Neptune, should be distributed randomly, and by an observational bias, their paths must fulfil a series of characteristics: have a semi-major axis with a value close to 150 AU (astronomical units or times the distance between the Earth and the Sun), an inclination of almost 0° and an argument or angle of perihelion (closest point of the orbit to our Sun) also close to 0° or 180°.

Yet what is observed in a dozen of these bodies is quite different: the values of the semi-major axis are very disperse (between 150 AU and 525 AU), the average inclination of their orbit is around 20° and argument of Perihelion -31°, without appearing in any case close to 180°.

"This excess of objects with unexpected orbital parameters makes us believe that some invisible forces are altering the distribution of the orbital elements of the ETNO and we consider that the most probable explanation is that other unknown planets exist beyond Neptune and Pluto," explains Carlos de la Fuente Marcos, scientist at the UCM and co-author of the study.
"The exact number is uncertain, given that the data that we have is limited, but our calculations suggest that there are at least two planets, and probably more, within the confines of our solar system," adds the astrophysicist.

To carry out the study, which is published as two articles in the journal 'Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters', the researchers have analysed the effects of the so-called 'Kozai mechanism', related to the gravitational perturbation that a large body exerts on the orbit of another much smaller and further away object. As a reference they have considered how this mechanism works in the case of comet 96P/Machholz1 under the influence of Jupiter.

Two problems to solve

Despite their surprising results, the authors recognise that their data comes up against two problems. On the one hand, their proposal goes against the predictions of current models on the formation of the solar system, which state that there are no other planets moving in circular orbits beyond Neptune.

However, the recent discovery by the ALMA radio telescope of a planet-forming disk more than 100 astronomical units from the star HL Tauri, which is younger than the Sun and more massive, suggests that planets can form several hundred astronomical units away from the centre of the system.

On the other hand, the team recognises that the analysis is based on a sample with few objects (specifically 13), but they point out that in the coming months more results are going to be published, making the sample larger. "If it is confirmed, our results may be truly revolutionary for astronomy," says de la Fuente Marcos.

Last year two researchers from the United States discovered a dwarf planet called 2012 VP113 in the Oort cloud, just beyond our solar system. The discoverers consider that its orbit is influenced by the possible presence of a dark and icy super-Earth, up to ten times larger than our planet.

Explore further: The origins of local planetary orbits

More information: Carlos de la Fuente Marcos, Raúl de la Fuente Marcos, Sverre J. Aarseth. "Flipping minor bodies: what comet 96P/Machholz 1 can tell us about the orbital evolution of extreme trans-Neptunian objects and the production of near-Earth objects on retrograde orbits". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 446(2):1867-1873, 2015.

C. de la Fuente Marcos, R. de la Fuente Marcos. "Extreme trans-Neptunian objects and the Kozai mechanism: signalling the presence of trans-Plutonian planets? Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters 443(1): L59-L63, 2014.


Journal reference: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters  Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society


Quote:Quote
EA:

« Reply #2 on: March 24, 2014, 07:08:06 PM »


What does make sense is, Personally... I will allow for one large body to still be undetected by our primitive instruments.

That is not only likely but highly probable.

Nothing to do with any hyper-d nonsense though.
[Image: tumblr_n5mnasvTlr1rejb9lo1_500.jpg]
Just common sense.

I will allow for one large body to still be undetected by our primitive instruments
The question is:
Will Lincoln? Hmm2
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#62
(03-13-2014, 02:24 PM)lincoln link Wrote:http://www.scientificamerican.com/podcas...-planet-x/

Clara Moskowitz, Sci. Am. podcast Wrote:Solar system conspiracy theorists have long harbored suspicions that a hidden extra planet or dwarf star lies beyond the orbit of Pluto. As a planet, it’s been called Tyche or simply Planet X. As a star, Nemesis.

But an exhaustive search has found no hints of this long-rumored object. NASA's Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer has scanned the entire sky in infrared light—twice—and ruled out any hidden bodies larger than Saturn out to 10,000 times the distance from the Earth to the sun.

Furthermore, it found no evidence for anything bigger than Jupiter out to 26,000 times the Earth-sun distance. Pluto, for comparison, lies only 40 times farther from the sun than Earth. [Kevin L. Luhman, A Search For a Distant Companion to The Sun with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer, in the Astrophysical Journal]

The finding deals a blow to theories that a Planet X- or Nemesis-type object may have caused periodic mass extinctions on Earth. Some theorists have mused that a hidden planet might have swept through bands of comets in the solar system, sending them crashing into Earth. Now it seems that for such mass species die-offs, the fault lies not in the stars.

I look forward to reading official retractions by enthusiasts for "Planet X".  Most particularly from Richard Hoagland and Mike Bara, who wrote in chapter 2 of their appallingly inaccurate book Dark Mission that the entire theory of what they call hyperdimensional physics (a concept stolen from Thomas Bearden, he of the diploma-mill doctorate and the never-demonstrated free energy device) depends on the discovery of at least one large planet beyond Pluto.

HD Physics is dead, folks --  remember, you heard it first here.[/font][/size]
http://phys.org/news/2015-01-trans-neptu...solar.html
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Reply
#63
"I look forward to reading official retractions by enthusiasts for "Planet X".-lincoln

The Old Paradigm withers away.

Lincoln.
You're coaching days are over.

[Image: seinfeld_episode110_337x233_040420061512.jpg]

Meteorite material born in molten spray as embryo planets collided

Jan 14, 2015 by Elizabeth K. Gardner

[Image: meteoritemat.jpg]
Purdue professors of earth, atmospheric and planetary sciences David Minton, from left, and Jay Melosh with a section of meteorite show the round chondrules within it. Melosh and Minton were part of a research team that studied chondrules, tiny beads of solidified melted rock that are some of the solar system's earliest solids, and suggests they were created through collisions of planetary embryos. Credit: Purdue University/John Underwood

Quote:Asteroids may be a byproduct of planet formation rather than planetary building blocks, according to a recent paper in Nature.

Research done at Purdue University suggests collisions of planetary embryos - the seeds to the planets in our solar system that existed 4 billion years ago - could be the origin of the material that formed asteroids.

When part of an asteroid falls onto the Earth it is called a meteorite. For more than a century scientists have studied the tiny bead-like grains of solidified melted rock called "chondrules" found in meteorites, but the origin of these grains remained a mystery, said Jay Melosh, a distinguished professor of earth, atmospheric and planetary sciences at Purdue who was involved in the research.

"Understanding the origin of chondrules is like looking through the keyhole of a door; while we can't see all that is happening behind the door, it gives us a clear view of one part of the room and a glimpse into the very beginnings of our solar system," said Melosh, who also is a professor of physics and aerospace engineering. "We've found that an impact model fits extremely well with what we know about this unique material and the early solar system, and this suggests that, contrary to the current opinion among meteorite experts, asteroids are not leftover planet-building material and clumps of chondrules are not prerequisite to a planet."

Some in the field may not warmly receive the study, said David Minton, an assistant professor of earth, atmospheric and planetary science at Purdue who also was involved in the research.

"Chondrule-bearing meteorites have long been thought to be similar to the building blocks of planets," said Minton, who studies planet formation and migration and the dynamics and structure of small bodies. "This study suggests that instead chondrules might actually be byproducts of impacts between objects of an earlier generation, and meteorites may not be representative of the material that made planets."

The impact model for chondrules also resolves striking similarities observed between chondrules and materials created by impacts on the Earth and the moon, Melosh said.

"Chondrules are identical in size, shape and texture to spherules on Earth and spherules found in the lunar soil," Melosh said. "The only difference among chondrules, impact spherules and lunar soil particles is in their chemical composition, which fits because they are made of different starting materials from impacts on different bodies."

Impact spherules are small droplets of solidified molten rock found embedded in rocks on Earth. It is widely accepted that impacts created the spherules, which formed from droplets of molten rock in the plume of debris ejected when large asteroids crashed into the Earth. The droplets condensed and solidified to form the spherules, which then fell back to the surface creating a distinct layer on the Earth, he said.

Melosh is an expert in impact cratering and has studied spherules and developed methods to infer the size and velocity of the responsible asteroid from characteristics of the spherules and the spherule layer.

The method of chondrule creation proposed by the team is slightly different and focuses on a small portion of debris ejected at the earliest moments of impact created by a process called "jetting." Jetting occurs at the beginning of impact as the surfaces of the two objects meet. The rock caught in the pinch between the two colliding objects is compressed to high pressure and intensely heated, which is responsible for the initial bright flash seen in laboratory impacts. The heat created by jetting is enough to melt rock and create droplets in the ejected debris that could become chondrules, Melosh said.

Impact origin theories proposed in the past had been dismissed because they could not explain the melted material found in chondrules, he said.

In the early solar system, collision speeds were much lower than they are now. The planetary embryos were no larger than the Earth's moon and their collisions were relatively gentle, occurring at a speed of a few kilometers per second. For the most part, impacts at this speed would blast rock into broken fragments, but not melt it, he said.

"Jetting allows a low-velocity impact to melt a small quantity of the target rock," Melosh said. "The melted material, but not the broken rock, is then ejected at high speed, such that the molten droplets can escape their parent bodies and depart into space, to later loosely bunch together. Millions of years of additional impacts and other compression mechanisms then created the asteroids and meteorites we know today."

The debris ejected at high speed escapes the gravitational pull of the planetary embryo, while the majority of the debris plume falls back to the surface. The dust and molten droplets quickly slow to relatively low velocities due to the nebular gas in the early solar system. The gas provides a "soft catch" for the chondrules that allows them to accumulate into smaller bodies that eventually become asteroids, he said.

Chondrules have long been a puzzling feature of meteorites and, if they weren't observable in meteorites, scientists would likely never have predicted their existence, Minton said.

"Chondrules are incredibly abundant and so they must be telling us something important about what conditions were like in the early solar system when the planets were forming," he said. "We think collisions were common in the early solar system and that planets are built out of the collisions between smaller bodies, so an impact theory for the origin of chondrules fits well with what we know of how planets formed."

The study was led by Brandon Johnson, a graduate student under Melosh when the research began, who is now a postdoctoral researcher at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Maria Zuber, the E.A. Griswold Professor of Geophysics and vice president for research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, also is a co-author of the paper.

The NASA-funded research focused on chondrules found in most stony meteorites. Chondrite is the term for meteorites that contain chondrules, and encompasses 92 percent of all meteorites, according to statistics produced by Washington University in St. Louis based on data from the Meteoritical Bulletin Database.

The idea of impact jetting producing chondrules is not entirely new, and a study of the creation of chondrules from jetting of the impacts of centimeter-scale particles was published in 1975. However, this model failed to produce chondrules that would cool at the expected rate or have the correct volatile abundance, Johnson said.

The idea of chondrule formation by jetting during large-scale impacts wasn't considered earlier because it was unknown if impacts could produce melt droplets that were millimeters in size and had cooling rates similar to the observed chondrules, he said. In addition, it was thought that because jetting only involves a small percentage of the mass of the impacting body it would not be able to produce the abundance of chondrules seen in meteorites.

"Chondrules are some of the earliest solar system solids and clearly contain important information about conditions in the nascent solar system," Johnson said. "It is no surprise that these enigmatic particles have intrigued countless scientists over more than a century. What had been thought of as the missing pieces of an impact theory fall into place in this model."

The team's model builds on an earlier study of impact jetting by Johnson, Melosh and Timothy Bowling, a graduate student in earth, atmospheric and planetary sciences at Purdue.

Minton created a computer simulation based on accepted hypotheses of solar system development that follows the formation and growth of planets and estimates the location, timing, sizes and velocities of chondrule-forming impacts. He used the simulation to model the early stage of planetary formation through the accumulation of smaller bodies called planetesimals.

The team also calculated the cooling rates of chondrules produced by the impacts and found that they matched the slow cooling that has been determined from analysis of the textures of chondrules in meteorites, Melosh said.

A paper detailing their methods and results will be published in an upcoming issue of Nature and will be made available online Thursday (Jan. 15).

The next step in the research may be to explore how this chondrule formation mechanism fits into a new model for the early stages of planet formation called "pebble accretion," in which the effect of gas drag from the protoplanetary nebula is important, Minton said.


Explore further: Magnetic fields frozen into meteorite grains tell a shocking tale of solar system birth

More information: Impact jetting as the origin of chondrules, Nature, DOI: 10.1038/nature14105

Journal reference: Nature 

Provided by Purdue University
http://phys.org/news/2015-01-meteorite-m...mbryo.html
Quack a doodle doo! Whistle
[Image: 624-understudy.png?w=300&h=225]
[move]Incomming... STORK!!![/move]
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With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#64
Meteorite material born in molten spray as embryo planets collided

Jan 14, 2015 by Elizabeth K. Gardner


[Image: stork.jpg]

[move]Asteroids may be a [sup]byproduct[/sup] of planet formation rather than planetary [sub]building blocks[/sub], according to a recent paper in Nature. [/move]

http://phys.org/news/2015-01-meteorite-m...mbryo.html


Quote:I will allow for one large body to still be undetected by our primitive instruments
The question is:
Will Lincoln?  Hmm2
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#65
This belongs to "Planet X" only indirectly, but I was not sure where to put it...

Recently, I have been reading about Walter Cruttenden's work on Precession. He does a good job of backing-away from the assumption that Precession is due mainly-to in-solar-system influences, and to just looking to see where the observed-phenomena data lead. His conclusion is that Precession is best and more-accurately explained by beyond-solar-system influences. From there, he jumps to the conclusion that we are in a loose binary-star system. I am in the early process of reading through his research. Intriguing concept...

Now, I also note that he has jumped to the conclusion that the "mass" causing our solar system to rotate around a common center-of-gravity (and thus producing the observed Precession) must be an ordinary (if dim) Star. I think that is too-early an assumption. There are several other possibilities for accumulated mass. Two I can immediately think of are a smaller-mass black hole and a dark matter 'aggregate' (whatever that might be). No doubt other possibilities exist. Here, we should stick with the observed phenomenon, note that we might be in orbit around some common center-of-mass in a way that duplicates the Precession data, and leave it at that. Otherwise, the baby stands a large chance of being thrown out with the bath water...
Hunter S. Thompson: "When the going gets weird, the weird turn pro."
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#66
I will allow for one large body to still be undetected by our primitive instruments
The question is:

Will goshawks?
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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