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Moon Base - 50 ??? years from Moon bases
(01-03-2018, 03:00 PM)Vianova Wrote: why? 
alien presence?

Yep Spacecraft

Bob... Ninja Alien2
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video:]
Quote:Sorting out what happens on the Moon could also help researchers understand the sources of water and its long-term storage on other rocky bodies throughout the solar system.

On second thought, Doh  the Moon's water may be widespread and immobile
February 23, 2018, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

[Image: scientistsch.jpg]
A new analysis of data from two lunar missions finds evidence that the Moon's water is widely distributed across the surface and is not confined to a particular region or type of terrain. The water appears to be present day and night, though it's not necessarily easily accessible.

The findings could help researchers understand the origin of the Moon's water and how easy it would be to use as a resource. If the Moon has enough water, and if it's reasonably convenient to access, future explorers might be able to use it as drinking water or to convert it into hydrogen and oxygen for rocket fuel or oxygen to breathe.
"We find that it doesn't matter what time of day or which latitude we look at, the signal indicating water always seems to be present," said Joshua Bandfield, a senior research scientist with the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colorado, and lead author of the new study published in Nature Geoscience. "The presence of water doesn't appear to depend on the composition of the surface, and the water sticks around."
The results contradict some earlier studies, which had suggested that more water was detected at the Moon's polar latitudes and that the strength of the water signal waxes and wanes according to the lunar day (29.5 Earth days). Taking these together, some researchers proposed that water molecules can "hop" across the lunar surface until they enter cold traps in the dark reaches of craters near the north and south poles. In planetary science, a cold trap is a region that's so cold, the water vapor and other volatiles which come into contact with the surface will remain stable for an extended period of time, perhaps up to several billion years.
The debates continue because of the subtleties of how the detection has been achieved so far. The main evidence has come from remote-sensing instruments that measured the strength of sunlight reflected off the lunar surface. When water is present, instruments like these pick up a spectral fingerprint at wavelengths near 3 micrometers, which lies beyond visible light and in the realm of infrared radiation.
But the surface of the Moon also can get hot enough to "glow," or emit its own light, in the infrared region of the spectrum. The challenge is to disentangle this mixture of reflected and emitted light. To tease the two apart, researchers need to have very accurate temperature information.
Bandfield and colleagues came up with a new way to incorporate temperature information, creating a detailed model from measurements made by the Diviner instrument on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, or LRO. The team applied this temperature model to data gathered earlier by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper, a visible and infrared spectrometer that NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, provided for India's Chandrayaan-1 orbiter.

The new finding of widespread and relatively immobile water suggests that it may be present primarily as OH, a more reactive relative of H2O that is made of one oxygen atom and one hydrogen atom. OH, also called hydroxyl, doesn't stay on its own for long, preferring to attack molecules or attach itself chemically to them. Hydroxyl would therefore have to be extracted from minerals in order to be used.
The research also suggests that any H2O present on the Moon isn't loosely attached to the surface.
"By putting some limits on how mobile the water or the OH on the surface is, we can help constrain how much water could reach the cold traps in the polar regions," said Michael Poston of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas.
Sorting out what happens on the Moon could also help researchers understand the sources of water and its long-term storage on other rocky bodies throughout the solar system.
The researchers are still discussing what the findings tell them about the source of the Moon's water. The results point toward OH and/or H2O being created by the solar wind hitting the lunar surface, though the team didn't rule out that OH and/or H2O could come from the Moon itself, slowly released from deep inside minerals where it has been locked since the Moon was formed.
"Some of these scientific problems are very, very difficult, and it's only by drawing on multiple resources from different missions that are we able to hone in on an answer," said LRO project scientist John Keller of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Researchers create first global map of water in Moon's soil
More information: Joshua L. Bandfield et al. Widespread distribution of OH/H2O on the lunar surface inferred from spectral data, Nature Geoscience (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41561-018-0065-0

Journal reference: Nature Geoscience [/url]
Provided by: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

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Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
This is more Nastiest Angry Scientists Alive / Jokingly Presenting Lies it was same article in 2017:


Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video:]

How does water change the Moon's origin story?
February 27, 2018,
Carnegie Institution for Science

[Image: howdoeswater.jpg]
Screen shot from a video simulation of the canonical model of the Moon's formation, in which the proto-Earth was hit by a Mars-sized object between 4.4. and 4.5 billion years ago. Credit: Miki Nakajima and Dave Stevenson.
It's amazing what a difference a little water can make. The Moon formed between about 4.4 and 4.5 billion years ago when an object collided with the still-forming proto-Earth. This impact created a hot and partially vaporized disk of material that rotated around the baby planet, eventually cooling and accreting into the Moon.

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Model based on hydrothermal sources evaluate possibility of life Jupiter's icy moon
February 26, 2018 by José Tadeu Arantes, FAPESP

[Image: modelbasedon.jpg]
Europa has an enormous ocean of warm liquid water under its frozen crust. The bottom of this ocean could be a similar environment to primitive Earth, potentially hosting microorganisms. Credit: NASA
Jupiter's icy moon Europa is a major target of astrobiology research as it offers a possible habitable environment. Under its 10 km-thick icy crust is an ocean of liquid water over 100 km deep. Energy deriving from the moon's gravitational interaction with Jupiter keeps this ocean warm.

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Alien life in our Solar System? Study hints at Saturn's moon
February 27, 2018

[Image: saturnsmoont.jpg]
Saturn's moon, the icy orb known as Enceladus, may boast ideal living conditions for single-celled microorganisms known as archaeans, according to a new study
Humanity may need look no further than our own Solar System in the search for alien life, researchers probing one of Saturn's moons said Tuesday.

The icy orb known as Enceladus may boast ideal living conditions for single-celled microorganisms known as archaeans found in some of the most extreme environments on Earth, they reported in the science journal Nature Communications.
A methanogenic (methane-producing) archaean called Methanothermococcus okinawensis thrived in laboratory conditions mimicking those thought to exist on Saturn's satellite, the team said.

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Levin's Day.

Wickramasinghe's Day.

Hoagland's Day... Stay tuned.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Making the moon: Study details new story for how the moon formed
February 28, 2018, Harvard University

[Image: 583d73c61a5b8.jpg]
Credit: CC0 Public Domain

Simon Lock wants to change the way you think about the Moon.

A graduate student in Harvard's Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Lock is the lead author of a study that suggests the Moon - rather than being spun out of the aftermath of a collision - emerged from a massive, donut-shaped cloud of vaporized rock called a synestia.
Along with Lock, the study, published February 28 in Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, is co-authored by Sarah Stewart (UC Davis), Michail Petaev (Harvard), Zoë Leinhardt (Bristol), Mia Mace (Bristol), Stein Jacobsen (Harvard), and Matija Ćuk (SETI).
"The commonly accepted theory as to how the Moon was formed is that a Mars sized body collided with the proto-Earth and spun material into orbit," Lock said. "That mass settled into a disk and later accreted to form the moon. The body that was left after the impact was the Earth. This has been the canonical model for about 20 years."
It's a compelling story, Lock said, and it's also probably not correct.
"Getting enough mass into orbit in the canonical scenario is actually very difficult, and there's a very narrow range of collisions that might be able to do it," he said. "There's only a couple of degree window of impact angles and a very narrow range of sizes...and even then some impacts still don't work."
"This new work explains features of the Moon that are hard to resolve with current ideas," said Stewart, a professor of Earth and Planetary Sciences at UC Davis. "This is the first model that can match the pattern of the Moon's composition."
What's more, he said, tests have shown that the isotopic "fingerprint" for both the Earth and Moon are nearly identical, suggesting both came from the same source. But in the canonical story, the Moon formed mostly from the remnants of just one of the two bodies that collided.
But just as similarities between the Earth and Moon raise questions about the accepted story for the Moon's creation, so too do their differences.
Tests have shown that the Moon is far less abundant in many volatile elements - such as potassium, sodium and copper - that are relatively common on Earth.

"There hasn't been a good explanation for this," Lock said. "People have proposed various hypotheses for how the Moon could have wound up with fewer volatiles, but no one has been able to quantitatively match the Moon's composition."
The scenario outlined by Lock and colleagues still begins with a massive collision, but rather than creating a disc of rocky material, the impact creates a synestia.
"It's huge," Lock said. "It can be ten times the size of the Earth, and because there's so much energy in the collision, maybe 10 percent of the rock of Earth is vaporized, and the rest is the way you form the Moon out of a synestia is very different."
It begins with a "seed" - a small amount of liquid rock that gathers just off the center of the donut-like structure. As the structure cools, vaporized rock condenses and rains down toward the center of the synestia. Some of the rain runs into the Moon, causing it to grow.
"The rate of rain fall is about ten times that of a hurricane on Earth," Lock said. "Over time, the whole structure shrinks, and the Moon emerges from the vapor. Eventually, the whole synestia condenses and what's left is a ball of spinning liquid rock that eventually forms the Earth as we know it today."
The whole process happens remarkably fast, with the Moon emerging from the synestia in just a few tens of years, and the Earth forming about 1,000 years later.
More importantly, Lock said, it addresses each of the problems with the canonical model for the Moon's creation. Since both the Earth and Moon are created from the same cloud of vaporized rock, they naturally share similar isotope "fingerprints." The lack of volatile elements on the Moon, meanwhile, can be explained by the fact that the Moon formed surrounded by tens of atmospheres of vapor and at temperature of 4000-6000 Fahrenheit.
"Basically, this is the first model that that has been able to explain the complications, and that has been able to do it quantitatively," Lock said. "This is a dramatically different way of forming the Moon. You just don't think of a satellite forming inside another body, but this is what appears to happen."
While the model appears to address some long-standing questions regarding the creation of the Moon, Lock said the work is still in its preliminary stages, and more work must be done to refine the model further.
"This is a basic model," Lock said. "We've done calculations of each of the processes that go into forming the Moon and shown that the model could work, but there are various aspects of our theory that will need more interrogation.
"For example, when the Moon is in this vapor, what does it do to that vapor? How does it perturb it? How does the vapor flow past the Moon? These are all things we need to go back and examine in more detail."
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: How does water change the Moon's origin story?
More information: Simon J. Lock et al. The origin of the Moon within a terrestrial synestia, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets (2018). DOI: 10.1002/2017je005333

Provided by: Harvard University

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Vodafone, Nokia are tech partners for 4G network on the moon
March 1, 2018 by Nancy Owano, Tech Xplore

[url=][Image: moon.png]

This is a composite image of the lunar nearside taken by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter in June 2009, note the presence of dark areas of maria on this side of the moon. Credit: NASA

This is not a prank post, and, yes, April Fools is still many weeks away. With that out of the way, it can be reported that the moon will get a mobile phone network.

A launch is scheduled next year from Cape Canaveral on a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket. Expect high-definition streaming from the lunar landscape back to earth, according to a report from Reuters.
It's 4G, said Reuters. What? As long as technology thinkers are reaching for the moon, why not go for a 5G network?
Paul Sandle and Eric Auchard in Reuters answered: A Vodaphone executive noted how next generation networks are still in the testing and trial stage. He said they were not stable enough to ensure they would work from the lunar surface.
Nokia said a 4G network was "highly energy efficient compared to analogue radio." Nokia also said its Ultra Compact Network will be the lightest ever developed.
Vodafone Germany, Nokia and Audi are working to support the mission.
Vodafone said it appointed Nokia as its technology partner "to develop a space-grade network which would be a small piece of hardware weighing less than a bag of sugar," according to Reuters.
Berlin-based company PTScientists is on the 2019 mission, and is taking on this moon landing. They said they have developed a spacecraft capable of delivering two rovers, or up to 100 kg of payload, to the lunar surface.
So what's the point other than making great headlines? CNET said it is to support "scientists whose rovers need to communicate and transfer data on the first privately funded moon landing, set for next year." The rovers will study NASA's Apollo 17 lunar roving vehicle used in 1972.
Where does Audi fit in this plan? Joan Solsman, CNET, said, "The network would connect two Audi lunar quattro rovers to a base station, so they can communicate and transfer scientific data and HD video."
Their aims are to bring down the cost of space exploration, democratize access to the Moon and inspire the next generation of explorers.
As a learning experience, the project could help advance the communications infrastructure required for institutions conducting lunar research. Nokia Chief Technology Officer and Bell Labs President, Marcus Weldon, considers the mission important in supporting the development of "new space-grade technologies for future data networking, processing and storage."
Nokia issued a statement on Tuesday, regarding its participation and plans for broadcast.
"Vodafone testing indicates that the base station should be able to broadcast 4G using the 1800 MHz frequency band and send back the first ever live HD video feed of the Moon's surface."
The broadcast to a global audience will be via a deep space link interconnecting with the PTScientists server in the Mission Control Center in Berlin.
[Image: img-dot.gif] Explore further: Audi lends engineering know-how to moon rover initiative

Research details mineralogy of potential lunar exploration site
February 28, 2018, Brown University

[Image: researchdeta.jpg]
A new study shows four distinct compositional regions within and around the Moon's largest impact basin. The findings could help guide future exploration of the basin. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
A detailed study of a giant impact crater on the Moon's far side could provide a roadmap for future lunar explorers.

The study, by planetary scientists from Brown University, maps the mineralogy of the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin, a gash in the lunar surface with a diameter of approximately 2,500 kilometers (1,550 miles). SPA is thought to be the oldest and largest impact basin on the Moon, and scientists have long had their eyes on it as a target for future lunar landers.
"This is a highly detailed look at the compositional structure of this huge impact basin using modern, cutting-edge data," said Dan Moriarty, a postdoctoral researcher at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center who led the research while a doctoral student at Brown. "Given that it's such an important target for future exploration and perhaps returning a sample to Earth, we hope this will serve as a framework for more detailed study and landing site selection."
The study will be published in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets. A preprint version is available online.
The impact that created SPA is thought to have blasted all the way through the Moon's crust and into the mantle, which is part of the reason that scientists are so interested in it. Visiting SPA and grabbing a sample of that exposed mantle material could provide critical clues about the Moon's origin and evolution. A sample could also help scientists put a firm date on the impact. SPA is thought to be the Moon's oldest basin, so a firm date would be a key milestone in the timeline of lunar history as well as events affecting early Earth.
But in order to get the right samples, it's important to know the best spots to find them. That's what Moriarty and co-author Carlé Pieters, a professor in Brown's Department of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences, had in mind for this study. They used detailed data from Moon Mineralogy Mapper, a spectrometer that flew aboard India's Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft for which Pieters is principal investigator.
"Having global access with modern imaging spectrometers from lunar orbit is the next best thing to having a geologist with a rock hammer doing the field work across the surface." Pieters said. "Ideally, in the future we'll have both working together."

The research identified four distinct mineralogical regions that form a bullseye pattern within and around the basin. At the bulleye's center is a region of what appears to be deposits of volcanic material, a sign that the center of the basin may have been covered by a volcanic flow sometime soon after the SPA impact. That central region is surrounded by a ring of material dominated by magnesium-rich pyroxene, a mineral thought to be plentiful in the lunar mantle. Outside of that is a ring in which pyroxene mixes with the standard crustal rocks of the lunar highlands. Outside of that ring is the basin exterior, where the signatures of impact-related material disappear.
The findings have some interesting implications for SPA exploration, the researchers say. The research suggests, for example, that finding pristine mantle material in the middle of the basin might be a bit tricky because of the large volcanic deposit.
"That's a little bit counterintuitive," Moriarty said. "Typically the deepest excavation would be in the middle of the crater. But we show that the middle of SPA has been covered over by what looks like a volcanic flow."
So if you're looking for mantle, it might be wise to land in the ring surrounding the center, where what appears to be mantle material is highly concentrated.
But an ideal landing site, Moriarty says, might be a spot that has both mantle and volcanic material, because those volcanics are interesting in their own right. Their composition is a little different than that of other volcanic rocks found on the Moon, which suggests they have a unique origin.
"If these rocks are indeed volcanic, it means that there was a really interesting kind of volcanism happening at SPA," Moriarty said. "It could be related to the extreme geophysical environment that would have been in place during the formation of the basin. That would be really interesting to look at in more depth."
With that in mind, Moriarty says a good spot to land might be near the border of the volcanic center and the pyroxene ring. Another strategy could be to look for a spot where the volcanic material has been pierced by a subsequent impact. Moriarty and Pieters found several such craters in the volcanic patch where the pyroxene material has been re-excavated.
"We think going after both mantle and volcanics would make for a richer science return," Moriarty said.
Moriarty is hopeful that these findings will give mission planners something to think about. China is currently in the process of planning for a mission to SPA. The region has appeared repeatedly on NASA's "decadal survey" of planetary scientists, which is used to inform the agency's mission priorities.
"Impacts are the dominant process that drove solar system creation and evolution, and SPA is the largest confirmed impact structure on the Moon, if not the entire solar system," Moriarty said. "That makes it an important end member in understanding impact processes. We think this work could provide a roadmap for exploring SPA in more detail."
The research was supported by NASA's LASER (NNX12AI96G) and SSERVI (NNA14AB01A) programs.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Mound near lunar south pole formed by unique volcanic process
More information: D. P. Moriarty et al, The Character of South Pole - Aitken Basin: Patterns of Surface and Sub-Surface Composition, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets (2018). DOI: 10.1002/2017JE005364

Provided by: Brown University
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
I was watching a video with Fire-Stick and there's a period of time when, in ancient texts, there was NO MOON mentioned at all.

It came and "parked".

How 'valid' is this?  As much as the older texts are and those who deciphered them, and also WHAT was 'allowed' to be told and by whom?

Since the Moon is "hallow" and rings like a bell...that alone is enough, for me anyhoo, to say it's a Spaceship.  With a hard-inner core made out of some High-Tech super strong stuff to withstand interplanetary travel, accumulate the debris it strikes as an outer shell to help protect the inner HARD CORE shell.

As for magma material, that could just be industrial slag released on its ONE surface facing away from the high impact zone on the far-side.

I still think "Space Ship Moon" is a lot better than "Yellow Submarine"... and more likely.

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video:]
Ice confirmed at the Moon's poles
August 21, 2018, Jet Propulsion Laboratory

[Image: iceconfirmed.jpg]
The image shows the distribution of surface ice at the Moon's south pole (left) and north pole (right), detected by NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument. Blue represents the ice locations, plotted over an image of the lunar surface, …more
In the darkest and coldest parts of its polar regions, a team of scientists has directly observed definitive evidence of water ice on the Moon's surface. These ice deposits are patchily distributed and could possibly be ancient. At the southern pole, most of the ice is concentrated at lunar craters, while the northern pole's ice is more widely, but sparsely spread.

A team of scientists, led by Shuai Li of the University of Hawaii and Brown University and including Richard Elphic from NASA's Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley, used data from NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument to identify three specific signatures that definitively prove there is water ice at the surface of the Moon.

M3, aboard the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft, launched in 2008 by the Indian Space Research Organization, was uniquely equipped to confirm the presence of solid ice on the Moon. It collected data that not only picked up the reflective properties we'd expect from ice, but was able to directly measure the distinctive way its molecules absorb infrared light, so it can differentiate between liquid water or vapor and solid ice.

Most of the newfound water ice lies in the shadows of craters near the poles, where the warmest temperatures never reach above minus 250 degrees Fahrenheit. Because of the very small tilt of the Moon's rotation axis, sunlight never reaches these regions.

Previous observations indirectly found possible signs of surface ice at the lunar south pole, but these could have been explained by other phenomena, such as unusually reflective lunar soil.

With enough ice sitting at the surface—within the top few millimeters—water would possibly be accessible as a resource for future expeditions to explore and even stay on the Moon, and potentially easier to access than the water detected beneath the Moon's surface.

Learning more about this ice, how it got there, and how it interacts with the larger lunar environment will be a key mission focus for NASA and commercial partners, as we endeavor to return to and explore our closest neighbor, the Moon.

The findings were published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on August 20, 2018.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, designed and built the moon mineralogy mapper instrument and was home to its project manager.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: NASA's Moon Mapper Beholds Home

More information: Shuai Li et al. Direct evidence of surface exposed water ice in the lunar polar regions, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2018). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1802345115

Journal reference: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: Jet Propulsion Laboratory [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]

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Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Seems to me that water is absolutely not scarce, at least not in our Solar System.

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