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Garbage In / Garbage Out : Golgotha in Cydonia.
#1
Waste not want not.
Golgotha was an ancient wasteland that had the aspect of a skull.

One man's trash is anothers treasure.

Waste  will be managed differently in Cydonia.

Especially bio-waste.

Food will be grown and  any excess from the harvest will further fuel a colony.

plants animals  and humans are bioreactors in their own right.


This thread  is a supplement  to the water/solar threads keeping tabs on progress to a mars realised colonization effort  my grandson should see in his lifetime.


[b] U.K. grocery store to power itself on biogas generated from its own food waste

15 hours ago by Bob Yirka

Quote:



[Image: ukgrocerysto.jpg]

British supermarket chain Sainsbury's has announced that it plans to power one of its grocery stores using only biogas generated from its own food waste. The store in Cannock, West Midlands is approximately one mile away from one of British based Biffa's waste management systems, and will get its power from a single dedicated line.



Sainsbury's is already Britain's largest retail user of power generated by biogas, courtesy of anaerobic digestion systems. Food waste from its stores is used to generate enough power, the company claims, to run roughly 2,500 homes each year. In this new scheme, food waste from several of the chains' stores will be trucked to a central depot—from there it will be trucked to the Biffa facility near Cannock. Once there it will be dumped into an anaerobic digestion system—a big tank deprived of oxygen that allows for speedy decay. Biogas (mainly methane and carbon dioxide) rises to the top and will be sent to a separate mechanism that separates out the carbon dioxide and other gases. The methane is then sent to a generator for burning. The electricity produced will be sent by a cable to the grocery store, providing all of its electricity needs—any excess will be sold back to grid providers. Excess sludge from the digestion system will be sold to farmers for use as fertilizer. What happens to the carbon dioxide has not been made clear, though the company has noted in the past that carbon dioxide released into the air (directly or via burning) due to release from food products is not counted towards global warming gasses, because its considered neutral—the amount of the gas released by plant material is equal to the amount consumed by new plants that grow in their place.


[Image: 2-ukgrocerysto.jpg]


Sainsbury's announced last year that it had met its goal of no longer sending any food waste to a landfill. Previously they had instituted a policy whereby food that cannot be held overnight is sold at reduced prices in the afternoon and evenings. Afterwards, edible leftovers are sent to charities. The remainder is sent to Biffa for processing. The grocery store receiving the electricity is believed to be the first of its kind to be run only on biogas generated by an anaerobic digestion system.
http://phys.org/news/2014-07-uk-grocery-...-food.html
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#2
New tech could be "Mr. Fusion" for biofuel

Nov 20, 2013 by Else Tennessen


[Image: newtechcould.jpg]

Special bacteria can turn biological waste into fuel by converting pigments in their cells into a type of biofuel called phytol—which separates out into the colorless top layer on the left.


Quote: A new technology from Argonne may remind viewers of Mr. Fusion of Back to the Future fame, only with a biofuel twist: put in your waste and out comes diesel fuel.


The Endurance Bioenergy Reactor is a simple, easy-to-use portable system that puts bacteria to work on a variety of biological waste to produce fuel that can go directly into diesel engines and generators.

A team of Argonne scientists led by biophysicist Phil Laible have developed bioengineered photosynthetic bacteria capable of producing an alcohol called phytol from a variety of sources, including wood pulp, leftover corn stalks, food waste, and latrine waste. Once separated from the fermentation broth, phytol serves as a surrogate for diesel fuel that can be used alone or in blends to power generators or vehicles

With chemical and physical properties similar to diesel fuel, phytol is considered a "drop-in ready" biofuel, meaning it is ready to go directly into diesel engines and generators without any further refinement.

With insight from Air Force Fellow Major Matthew Michaud, Argonne researchers incorporated this groundbreaking discovery into the design of the Endurance Bioenergy Reactor. The process begins in a large fermentation vessel tank; once it's filled, the engineered organism begins converting waste to energy. The bacteria are freeze-dried and shipped along with the reactor hardware, so the operator can simply open the package of bacteria and drop them into the main tank. The reactor can use a variety of carbon and energy sources to make fuel.

A single reactor takes between two and four days to convert waste into fuel, but the system can be modified to generate fuel continually. The system can produce 25 to 50 gallons of biofuel a day.

This promising technology provides a viable alternative for military and civilians who need reliable power sources when they are not near a power grid. For military applications, the reactor prolongs operations, reduces costs, and improves safety by decreasing reliance on supply chains and eliminating dangerous convoy missions to deliver more fuel. According to an Army study, one in eight U.S. military casualties in Iraq happened during fuel convoys.

The system's mobility and simplicity also make it a logical choice for energy in remote and disaster areas. The Endurance Bioenergy Reactor is a rapidly deployable tool for humanitarian activities around the world, providing energy when and where it's needed.

"If the idea of converting on-site waste into a drop-in ready fuel with a small mobile unit seems outrageous, then why does moving refined fuel through a weak infrastructure make sense?" said Laible and Michaud. "Plentiful components to make convenient fuel are already at hand. The day has come for something as sensible as the Endurance Bioenergy Reactor."



http://phys.org/news/2013-11-tech-fusion-biofuel.html


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#3
Quote: The odd ESA description of it as “skull shaped” is attributed to the claim (by ESA) that some people have referred to it as such. In fact, we have never encountered this description in any anomaly related web article or public posting.
-mike bara

[Image: marte37_06.jpg]

In that respect  using the obvious aspect then I won't give it that description either.

I call it "golgotha" and it seems symmetric enough to be easily utilised as a reclaimation area for dead organic matters.
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#4

This article was posted on my sister's birthday 4  years ago.

Eye missed this article because i was present elsewhere... Bd2

Architect creates a bio brick

[quote]Architecture professor devises eco-bricks to reduce carbon emissions

By Fatima Mulla, Special to Campus Notes Published: 00:00 June 6, 2010


[Image: 984731880.jpg]

Professor Ginger Dosier experiments with eco-friendly bio bricks in her lab at the American University of Sharjah.

The bricks that we see today are most commonly made out of Claybut soon in the near future we may be able to see buildings made out of bacteria and waste products.

Ginger Krieg Dosier wants to do just that. She's an assistant architecture professor at the American University of Sharjah (AUS) who has grown a brick by cultivating easily accessible bacteria, mixing it with waste products and dispensing it over dry sand.

Her sustainable creation has already been fruitful for Dosier as she recently won the 2010 Metropolis Next Generation Design Competition. Her bio brick was chosen because it has the potential to globally revolutionise the future of buildings.

In a lab at the university, Dosier shows her successful eco-bricks that are currently small enough to fit in your palm. However, the full-scale tests are being conducted in a different lab because of the large size of the materials. "I'm only making bricks, but I plan on making larger concrete units that they use in construction," she explained. It's hard to believe that block of sand will be able to sustain large buildings, but she's confident that once she's created larger units, her brick can be used for any type of infrastructure.

Creation

Her first creation took 11 days to grow. With more testing, they now take between 4-7 days to form. She chuckled when pointing towards the array of failed attempts, which were tested with different kinds of sand. "I'm so amazed how many different sands there are in the UAE, it's insane — like some are bright red, they're really pretty."

So far, from all the kinds she's tested, the type of sand she found to be the most successful is the one that is being excavated where the new business school is being built on the AUS campus.

Since the bacteria used in the process eventually die, the brick would seem to be harmless. However, Dosier does admit that if it reaches the ground water it would be harmful as the product contains waste ammonium, which in large concentrations would be dangerous. "Anything in large concentration, even if it's a bunch of sesame seeds, would be bad." She said she needs to work with more environmental engineers to find ways of filtering the waste and recycling it.

How it all began

Dosier started this experiment five years ago. When she was doing her graduate studies at Cranbrook Academy, she started using biodegradable formwork for concrete. "I was really interested in having a formwork that dissolved as opposed to [materials which are] a lot of waste." She started making furniture out of salt that dissolved, but didn't just want to leave the salt outside. So she talked to chemists and material scientists on how to make the salt non-harmful to the environment. This triggered the idea of whether "we could grow materials as opposed to dissolve them". She then began studying crystal growth and eventually this led her to want to make a brick, as it's the "lowest common denominator" in architectural materials.

[Image: 1855924647.jpg]


Dosier's eco-bricks are 'grown' from bacteria, sand and waste products over a period of four to seven days.

— The writer is a mass communication major at the American University of Sharjah.

http://gulfnews.com/architect-creates-a-...k-1.637115[/quote]



That was then  Bd2

This is Now.



[quote='EA link' dateline='1406173593']
Waste not want not.
Golgotha was an ancient wasteland that had the aspect of a skull.

[Image: dn25952-1_1200.jpg]

Hy-Fi has been constructed to provide a pleasingly cool interior micro-climate (Image: Kris Graves)




One man's trash is anothers treasure.

Waste  will be managed differently in Cydonia.

Especially bio-waste.

Food will be grown and  any excess from the harvest will further fuel a colony.

plants animals  and humans are bioreactors in their own right.


This thread  is a supplement  to the water/solar threads keeping tabs on progress to a mars realised colonization effort  my grandson should see in his lifetime.

[Image: dn25952-2_1200.jpg]

Urban growth: bio-bricks offer a whiff of the future

18:00 25 July 2014 by Brendan Byrne, New York City


The bio-bricks used in Hy-Fi can be grown in five days (Image: Kris Graves)


A sweeping tower made from over 10,000 bio-waste bricks bound with fungal fibre has been growing in the courtyard of MoMA PS1, an offshoot of the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York. Looking like something between a three-headed grain silo, Zhang Huan's Three Legged Buddha and a Berlin flak tower, Hy-Fi is the winner of this year's MoMA PS1 Young Architects Program (YAP), and its organic aesthetic clashes hard with the museum's red-brick frontage and the green-glass Citicorp building behind.

This is appropriate. As the brainchild of environmentally conscious architects The Living, Hy-Fi is no corporate monolith or repurposed temple of high culture. Principal architect David Benjamin calls it a "prototype for the architecture of the future". Grown from local agricultural waste with almost no carbon emissions, Hy-Fi is designed to be composted, save for a few beams made of reclaimed wood and steel. (A side exhibit shows the distinct stages of the bricks' decomposition.) Hy-Fi isn't meant to blend with its human surroundings, so much as with the urban ecosystem.

[quote]Hy-Fi, like all YAP final products, provides aesthetically charged shade for PS1's Warm Up summer concert series, and its persistent, not entirely unpleasant fungal stench will no doubt mix well with the fragrance released by intoxicated revellers. But it seems a shame to limit such innovative building techniques to summer bacchanalias. Standing in Hy-Fi's interior shadow, where the July afternoon's swamp-like torpor became more manageable, another function suggested itself: temporary shelter for those displaced by disaster.


When Hurricane Katrina struck the US eastern seaboard in 2005, large institutional structures, such as the Louisiana Superdome and the Memorial Medical Center, proved to be inadequate shelters. This highlighted a need for rapidly deployed, weather-proof housing, a theme that was explored by the 2008 MoMA show Home Delivery, which featured a presentation of prefabricated, modular housing units.

With its open roof, Hy-Fi might not be up to disaster protection in its current form. But its construction provides surprisingly effective relief from heat: the structure draws in cool air at the bottom and pushes hot air out the top, creating a pleasant interior micro-climate. Similar buildings could see use as a temporary triage station or a meeting-point for first responders.

The future of disaster relief may be found in such structures, says Benjamin. He emphasizes the sturdiness of the bio-brick construction, including its ability "to withstand hurricane winds". Ecovative, the sustainable bio-materials firm partnering with The Living, can grow the bricks in approximately five days from agricultural by-products such as corn stalks held together with mycelium – the vegetative matter of mushrooms. It remains to be seen whether structures descended from Hy-Fi can be erected quickly enough to be useful, with minimal engineering input.

Right now, Hy-Fi is an environmentally friendly chill-tent for urban partygoers. But it is possible, as you wander through this loamy, shady space, to catch the scent of a much bigger opportunity.

Warm Up runs at MoMA PS1 in New York until 6 September 2014

http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn25...9W5bWYpCTn[/quote]
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#5
Future cydonian colonists will immediately enter the "Iron-Age" when they arrive.

Lying about in the breccia from impacts is the ubiquitous iron meteorite ripe for the picking like celestial quince.

well before any mining  operations  begin,  all metals will be at a premium value.

[Image: oilean-ruaidh.jpg]

Scouting for and retrieval will be a high work priority.

[Image: pia18387-MSL-ChemCam-Lebanon-br.jpg]



Iron is totally required to kickstart an in-situ industry based infrastructure.

Easy pickings on arrival but scarcer as you fan out too far beyond the base where the value reaches below 10 percent the effort.

it'll be like a goldrush for meteors except by cross-referencing orbital data from all the other mars probes  you already know where they are from the spectrometers and other sensors captured by landing instruments and gear.


[Image: 140122180609-08-mars-rovers-horizontal-gallery.jpg]

Iron will be worth more than gold for its strength as forged tools ,machines and structural building products.
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#6
Well lookie here. Damned
THE ultimate goal of a Cydonian Colonist. Dance2

They can Re-Claim the atmosphere of Cydonia's local environ.

Another possible impact of the findings by the team involves space exploration—if an apparatus could be built that could continually knock oxygen molecules out of the carbon dioxide breathed out by astronauts, they wouldn't have to carry oxygen tanks or use plants to do the conversion, making the whole process much more efficient

Researchers discover a way to tease oxygen molecules from carbon dioxide

Oct 03, 2014 by Bob Yirka

[Image: 1-carbondioxide.png]
Ball-and-stick model of carbon dioxide. Credit: Wikipedia

Quote:Phys.org) —A small team of researchers with the University of California has found a way break apart carbon dioxide molecules and get carbon atoms and oxygen molecules instead of carbon monoxide and an oxygen atom. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes how they did it, and the implications of their findings. Arthur Suits and David Parker offer a perspective piece in the same journal issue that describes in more depth, minimum energy path (MEP) where reactants don't always follow the easiest path during chemical reactions and how it pertains to the work done by this group.

Over the years, scientists have developed a theory about the development of life on planet Earth that's known as the "Great Oxidation Event," where plants developed and began taking in carbon dioxide and pumping out oxygen. In this new effort, the researchers believe they have found a way to achieve the same feat using a non-biological approach. They've used the shortest wavelength of ultraviolet light, aka, vacuum ultraviolet light (VUV) to break apart carbon dioxide molecules.

The VUV was provided in the form of a laser shooting a beam at carbon dioxide molecules to break them apart. Another laser was used to ionize the pieces from the broken molecule so that they could be measured by a mass spectrometer. The process resulted in just 5 percent of the carbon dioxide molecules splitting into oxygen molecules and carbon atoms (the rest went to carbon monoxide and oxygen atoms) but that was more than enough to show that the process can be used to get molecular oxygen from carbon dioxide—and that might have a far reaching impact.


[move]Our results may have implications for nonbiological oxygen production in CO2-heavy atmospheres. Dance2
[/move]
[Image: makingoxygen.jpg]
New work from UC Davis shows that carbon dioxide can be split by vacuum ultraviolet laser to create oxygen in one step. The discovery may change how we think about the evolution of atmospheres. Credit: Zhou Lu, UC Davis

The process works, the team explains because of MEP reactions and because of that, it seems reasonable to conclude that some oxygen in early Earth's atmosphere came about the same way—with all the oxygen in the atmosphere today, VUV doesn't penetrate very far but when the atmosphere had far more carbon dioxide in it, it follows that some of those molecules could have split into carbon atoms and oxygen molecules. That also means that the same process could occur on other planets, which means scientists looking for life on other planets would have to look for a lot more than just oxygen in their atmospheres.

Another possible impact of the findings by the team involves space exploration—if an apparatus could be built that could continually knock oxygen molecules out of the carbon dioxide breathed out by astronauts, they wouldn't have to carry oxygen tanks or use plants to do the conversion, making the whole process much more efficient.


Explore further: NASA research gives guideline for future alien life search

More information: Evidence for direct molecular oxygen production in CO2 photodissociation, Science 3 October 2014: Vol. 346 no. 6205 pp. 61-64 . DOI: 10.1126/science.1257156


Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2014-10-oxygen-mole...e.html#jCp


ABSTRACT
Photodissociation of carbon dioxide (CO2) has long been assumed to proceed exclusively to carbon monoxide (CO) and oxygen atom (O) primary products. However, recent theoretical calculations suggested that an exit channel to produce C + O2 should also be energetically accessible. Here we report the direct experimental evidence for the C + O2 channel in CO2 photodissociation near the energetic threshold of the C(3P) + O2(X3?g–) channel with a yield of 5 ± 2% using vacuum ultraviolet laser pump-probe spectroscopy and velocity-map imaging detection of the C(3PJ) product between 101.5 and 107.2 nanometers. Our results may have implications for nonbiological oxygen production in CO2-heavy atmospheres. Dance2

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2014-10-oxygen-mole...e.html#jCp



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With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#7
(08-05-2014, 01:52 AM)EA link Wrote:Future cydonian colonists will immediately enter the "Iron-Age" when they arrive.

Lying about in the breccia from impacts is the ubiquitous iron meteorite ripe for the picking like celestial quince.

well before any mining  operations  begin,  all metals will be at a premium value.

[Image: oilean-ruaidh.jpg]

Scouting for and retrieval will be a high work priority.

[Image: pia18387-MSL-ChemCam-Lebanon-br.jpg]



Iron is totally required to kickstart an in-situ industry based infrastructure.

Easy pickings on arrival but scarcer as you fan out too far beyond the base where the value reaches below 10 percent the effort.

it'll be like a goldrush for meteors except by cross-referencing orbital data from all the other mars probes  you already know where they are from the spectrometers and other sensors captured by landing instruments and gear.


[Image: 140122180609-08-mars-rovers-horizontal-gallery.jpg]

Iron will be worth more than gold for its strength as forged tools ,machines and structural building products.

Levitator suspends ball of liquid metal in space

21:00 24 November 2014 by Flora Graham

[Image: dn26609-1_1200.jpg]

Welcome to the space forge, where a perfect sphere of liquid metal can levitate freely, suspended by a magnetic field in the surrounding coil.

The electromagnetic levitator pictured, developed by the European Space Agency, was delivered to the International Space Station aboard a recent cargo mission. The device allows the formation of solid metals to be studied while eliminating the effect of gravity and without requiring a container to hold the liquid.

The floating ball of metal will be cooled fast to observe the process involved, which is key to producing solid materials with specific properties.

Quickly cooling red-hot metal, for example by plunging it into cold water, is a time-honoured way of making a hard and resilient solid, like the finest swords. But the process has such a complex effect on the material's structure that details of even some of the most spectacular methods, like the production of Damascus steel, are still a mystery.
Upcoming experiments at the ISS hope to give insights by testing various metal alloys while a high-speed camera records the forging.

http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn26...space.html
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#8
Britain's first poo-powered bus takes to the road

Nov 20, 2014

[Image: thepoopowere.jpg]
The poo-powered bus can travel up to 300 km (180 miles) on a full tank of gas - equivalent to the annual output of five people


Quote:Britain's first bus powered entirely by human and food waste took to the road in Bristol on Thursday.

The 40-seater Bio-Bus, running on gas generated by waste treatment, can travel up to 300 kilometres (180 miles) on a full tank—equivalent to the annual output of five people.

Bath Bus Company is using the poo-powered bus for its A4 service from Bath to Bristol Airport .

"Up to 10,000 passengers are expected to travel on the A4 service in a month, not only for airport travel, but also local journeys along the route," said Collin Field, engineering director at Bath Bus.

The gas is produced at Wessex Water subsidiary GENeco's Bristol sewage treatment plant. The company this week became the first in the UK to start providing gas generated from food waste and sewage to the national gas grid network.

GENeco general manager Mohammed Saddiq said: "Through treating sewage and food that's unfit for human consumption we're able to produce enough biomethane to provide a significant supply of gas to the national gas network that's capable of powering almost 8,500 homes as well as fuelling the Bio-Bus.

"Gas-powered vehicles have an important role to play in improving air quality in UK cities, but the Bio-Bus goes further than that and is actually powered by people living in the local area, including quite possibly those on the bus itself."

[Image: usingtheannu.jpg]
Using the annual waste generated from one bus load of passengers, would provide enough power for it to travel a return journey from Lands End to John O'Groats

Charlotte Morton, chief executive of the Anaerobic Digestion and Bioresources Association, said: "Biomethane is capable of replacing around 10 percent of the UK's domestic gas needs and is currently the only renewable fuel available for HGVs."

"The bus also clearly shows that human poo and our waste food are valuable resources," she added.

Explore further: Battery-electric bus does over 700 miles in 24 hours (w/ video)

http://phys.org/news/2014-11-britain-poo...-road.html
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#9
New process can convert human-generated waste into fuel in space

12 hours ago by Brad Buck

[Image: 3-newprocessca.jpg]
NASA hopes to eventually build a base on the moon to launch missions to other planets, including Earth. University of Florida researchers have designed a process that converts human waste into methane to be used as fuel that can propel spacecraft from the moon back to Earth. Pratap Pullammanappallil, a UF associate professor in agricultural and biological engineering, seen here standing in his Gainesville lab, worked with a former graduate student on the research. Credit: Amy Stuart

Quote:Human waste may have a new use: sending NASA spacecraft from the moon back to Earth.
Horsepoop
Until now, the waste has been collected to burn up on re-entry. What's more, like so many other things developed for the space program, the process could well turn up on Earth, said Pratap Pullammanappallil, a University of Florida associate professor of agricultural and biological engineering.

"It could be used on campus or around town, or anywhere, to convert waste into fuel," Pullammanappallil said.

In 2006, NASA began making plans to build an inhabited facility on the moon's surface between 2019 and 2024. As part of NASA's moon-base goal, the agency wanted to reduce the weight of spacecraft retuning to Earth. Historically, waste generated during spaceflight would not be used further. NASA stores it in containers until it's loaded into space cargo vehicles that burn as they pass back through the Earth's atmosphere. For future long-term missions, though, it would be impractical to bring all the stored waste back to Earth.

Dumping it on the moon's surface is not an option, so the space agency entered into an agreement with UF for ideas. Pullammanappallil and then-graduate student Abhishek Dhoble accepted the challenge.

"We were trying to find out how much methane can be produced from uneaten food, food packaging and human waste," said Pullammanappallil, a UF Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences faculty member and Dhoble's adviser. "The idea was to see whether we could make enough fuel to launch rockets and not carry all the fuel and its weight from Earth for the return journey. Methane can be used to fuel the rockets. Enough methane can be produced to come back from the moon."

NASA started by supplying the UF scientists with a packaged form of chemically produced human waste that also included simulated food waste and packaging materials, Pullammanappallil said. He and Dhoble, now a doctoral student at the University of Illinois, ran laboratory tests to find out how much methane could be produced from the waste and how quickly.

They found the process could produce 290 liters of methane per crew per day, all produced in a week, Pullammanappallil said.

Their results led to the creation of a process that uses an anaerobic digester. That process kills pathogens from human waste, and produces biogas – a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide.

In earth-bound applications, that fuel could be used for heating, electricity generation or transportation.

Additionally, the digester process breaks down organic matter from human waste. The process also would produce about 200 gallons of non-potable water annually from all the waste. That is water held within the organic matter, which is released as organic matter decomposes. Through electrolysis, the water can then be split into hydrogen and oxygen, and the astronauts can breathe oxygen as a back-up system. The exhaled carbon dioxide and hydrogen can be converted to methane and water in the process, he said.

The study was published last month in the journal Advances in Space Research.


Explore further: U.K. grocery store to power itself on biogas generated from its own food waste

Provided by University of Florida
http://phys.org/news/2014-11-human-gener...space.html
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#10
On Nov. 24, ground controllers sent the printer the command to make the first printed part:

[move]It Rites-...a faceplate of the extruder's casing. This demonstrated that the printer can make replacement parts for itself...-itself.[/move]

Open for business: 3-D printer creates first object in space on space station

Nov 26, 2014 by Bill Hubscher

[Image: openforbusin.png]
International Space Station Commander Barry 'Butch' Wilmore holds up the first object made in space with additive manufacturing or 3-D printing. Wilmore installed the printer on Nov. 17, 2014, and helped crews on the ground with the first print on Nov. 25, 2014. Credit: NASA


Quote:The International Space Station's 3-D printer has manufactured the first 3-D printed object in space, paving the way to future long-term space expeditions.

"This first print is the initial step toward providing an on-demand machine shop capability away from Earth," said Niki Werkheiser, project manager for the International Space Station 3-D Printer at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. "The space station is the only laboratory where we can fully test this technology in space."

NASA astronaut Barry "Butch" Wilmore, Expedition 42 commander aboard the International Space Station, installed the printer on Nov. 17 and conducted the first calibration test print. Based on the test print results, the ground control team sent commands to realign the printer and printed a second calibration test on Nov. 20. These tests verified that the printer was ready for manufacturing operations. On Nov. 24, ground controllers sent the printer the command to make the first printed part: a faceplate of the extruder's casing. This demonstrated that the printer can make replacement parts for itself. The 3-D printer uses a process formally known as additive manufacturing to heat a relatively low-temperature plastic filament and extrude it one layer at a time to build the part defined in the design file sent to the machine.

On the morning of Nov. 25, Wilmore removed the part from the printer and inspected it. Part adhesion on the tray was stronger than anticipated, which could mean layer bonding is different in microgravity, a question the team will investigate as future parts are printed. Wilmore installed a new print tray, and the ground team sent a command to fine-tune the printer alignment and printed a third calibration coupon. When Wilmore removes the calibration coupon, the ground team will be able to command the printer to make a second object. The ground team makes precise adjustments before every print, and the results from this first print are contributing to a better understanding about the parameters to use when 3-D printing on the space station.

"This is the first time we've ever used a 3-D printer in space, and we are learning, even from these initial operations," Werkheiser said. "As we print more parts we'll be able to learn whether some of the effects we are seeing are caused by microgravity or just part of the normal fine-tuning process for printing. When we get the parts back on Earth, we'll be able to do a more detailed analysis to find out how they compare to parts printed on Earth."

The 3-D Printing in Zero-G Technology Demonstration on the space station aims to show additive manufacturing can make a variety of 3-D printed parts and tools in space. The first object 3-D printed in space, the printhead faceplate, is engraved with names of the organizations that collaborated on this space station technology demonstration: NASA and Made In Space, Inc., the space manufacturing company that worked with NASA to design, build and test the 3-D printer. Made In Space is located on the campus of NASA's Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California.

"We chose this part to print first because, after all, if we are going to have 3-D printers make spare and replacement parts for critical items in space, we have to be able to make spare parts for the printers," Werkheiser said. "If a printer is critical for explorers, it must be capable of replicating its own parts, so that it can keep working during longer journeys to places like Mars or an asteroid. Ultimately, one day, a printer may even be able to print another printer."

Made In Space engineers commanded the printer to make the first object while working with controllers at NASA's Payload Operations Integration Center in Huntsville. As the first objects are printed, NASA and Made In Space engineers are monitoring the manufacturing via downlinked images and videos. The majority of the printing process is controlled from the ground to limit crew time required for operations.

"The operation of the 3-D printer is a transformative moment in space development," said Aaron Kemmer, chief executive officer of Made In Space. "We've built a machine that will provide us with research data needed to develop future 3-D printers for the International Space Station and beyond, revolutionizing space manufacturing. This may change how we approach getting replacement tools and parts to the space station crew, allowing them to be less reliant on supply missions from Earth."

The first objects built in space will be returned to Earth in 2015 for detailed analysis and comparison to identical ground control samples made on the flight printer after final flight testing earlier this year at, NASA's Marshall Center prior to launch. The goal of this analysis is to verify that the 3-D printing process works the same in microgravity as it does on Earth.
Provided by NASA

http://phys.org/news/2014-11-business-d-...ation.html
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#11
This passes the piss test! Beer


Quote:In both the lab and the lake, cyanobacteria's genetic makeup changed in response to increasing CO2 concentrations. "It's a textbook example of natural selection", says lead author Giovanni Sandrini. "Cyanobacteria absorb CO2 during photosynthesis to produce their biomass, and we observed that the strain best equipped to absorb dissolved CO2 eventually gains the upper hand."



Researchers partner with brewery to collect urine and generate fertilizer

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August 4, 2016 by Robert Kuo, The Sacramento Bee

When customers of Sudwerk Brewery Co. in Davis, Calif., answer nature's call, they can do their part to help nature.

Urine collected in a special outhouse outside the brewery is being used by University of California, Davis, researcher Harold Leverenz and his colleagues to develop natural fertilizer that may eventually support local agriculture.

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Installed in June, the outhouse solved a supply problem that Leverenz faced as he worked on a chemical process that isolates the nutrients in urine. He and his colleagues are perfecting the process and hope to attract funding to carry their project forward.
Referred to as the "pee hive," the outhouse contains a urinal made from a sawed-off beer keg that drips contributions from men and women into a small container below. When full, a pump powers on to move the urine out of the hive and into a collection tote that can hold about 250 gallons and requires changing about once a week. Leverenz and his team use a forklift to load the tote into a pickup truck and drive the collected urine to their nearby treatment facility.
Urine has high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus, essential plant nutrients in crop fertilizer. Leverenz, a wastewater treatment specialist, often thinks about the valuable nutrients lost down the pipes when we flush the toilet.
"How can we recover these nutrients as viable fertilizer rather than disposing of them?" he said.
At the treatment facility, Leverenz and his two colleagues –– UC Davis graduate student Jessica Hazard and sanitary engineer Russel Adams –– are able to process about 100 gallons of urine a day.
Leverenz describes the procedure in three main steps: hydrolysis, distillation and precipitation.
The first step uses enzymes from naturally occurring bacteria to convert the urea into ammonia. In the second step, steam evaporates the ammonia through one end of a column and condenses at the other end for collection as ammonium carbonate, which can be used for nitrogen fertilizer. The final step mixes in Epsom salt to recover the phosphate left over in the urine. The overall process separates and purifies the vast majority of nitrogen and phosphate, leaving behind any drugs or infectious materials that may be present.

To date, much of the research has been self-funded. Construction of the pee hive was made possible in part by donations from Sudwerk.
Adams has been leading the commercialization effort for the team. He says the fertilizer they make can be added directly to the drip irrigation systems farmers already use. And Adams believes the fertilizer will receive certification for use in organic farming.
Most of the fertilizer produced so far has been used for testing. Leverenz and his team need to know the outcome on fertilizer strength that adjusting conditions of their purification process would have. The next phases of the project involve working with farmers to produce fertilizers that meet the needs of different crops at different parts of their growing cycle.
Flushing the toilet sends nutrients into the wastewater system, where nitrogen is processed and treated into gas that is released into the atmosphere. The manufacturing of nitrogen fertilizers first extracts nitrogen from the atmosphere and ultimately converts it into ammonium nitrate. By processing urine at its source, Leverenz and his team cut out intermediate steps in fertilizer production and improve energy efficiency.
Other benefits of the pee hive include reduced water use since the toilet is flush-free. To keep it clean, workers rinse out the urinal each night with vinegar.
Thomas Miller, co-founder of Sudwerk, jumped at the opportunity to take part in the pee hive. He sees a close alignment between the mission of Leverenz's team and that of the craft brewery.
Miller views craft breweries as willing to try new ingredients or brewing processes to produce the highest-quality beer for customers. In the same way, he feels creating locally sourced fertilizer challenges conventional wastewater treatment.
"We're helping the process of science through urine collection," says Miller. "It's not your status quo thing," he said. "That's what we're doing in the craft brewery business, too."
The pee hive at Sudwerk is just the beginning in Leverenz's vision. Similar to the culinary movement toward locally sourced ingredients, Leverenz's goal is to decentralize wastewater treatment and create locally sourced fertilizers that could support local food production.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Human urine as a safe, inexpensive fertilizer for food crops



Food-smiley-004

BEER
Scientists use solar-powered machine to turn urine into beer
Published July 28, 2016


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From sewer to brewer. This bottle brew was crafted with recycled urine. (Reuters)



Mankind has been turning beer into urine for centuries.

Leave it to science to find a way to reverse that process. 
Scientists at Belgium’s University of Ghent say they’ve created a machine that turns urine into potable water, and fertilizer, using solar energy. The scientists have since crafted small batches of Belgian ale from the recycled water.

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Scientists demonstrate how the solar-powered water waste recycling machine converts urine to potable fluid. (Reuters)



"We call it from sewer to brewer," Sebastiaan Derese, one of the researchers from the University of Ghent, told Reuters. "We're able to recover fertiliser and drinking water from urine using just a simple process and solar energy." 

The machine collects urine in a big tank which is then heated in a solar-powered boiler. As the heated water evaporates it passes through a membrane, which separates the H2O from nutrients like phosphorous and nitrogen. Those nutrients can then be used to enrich fertilizers for plants.The water is then diverted to a separate tank. 

Since the system requires no electricity, the researchers hope it can be used to provide clean drinking water for people in developing countries. According to Derese, the process could help organize agriculture in a more sustainable way throughout many rural communities more susceptible to drought.

But the system can also be used for commercial purposes to quickly purify water where there are a lot of people—who have to go to the bathroom a lot—like sports stadiums, shopping malls and airports.

Scientists recently presented the machine at a 10-day music and theatre festival in central Ghent, using the slogan #peeforscience, according to the New York Daily News.

The team recycled 1,000 liters of water from urine collected at the event. Now the scientists plan to use that water to brew even more of their signature "Brewer to Sewer" beer. 

So the next time you take a swig of beer and think to yourself, “this tastes like warm p---,” you might just be providing an accurate flavor profile.
In March, California's Half Moon Bay Brewing Company began making small batches of its popular Mavericks Tunnel Vision IPA with recycled waste water—known to environmentalists as gray water (any used water not from toilets) as apartial solution to the state's drought problem.


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Caught short ? Researchers reveals 'urine battery' that could power handsets for three hours with a single bathroom break


  • Scientists say toilet can be used to supply electricity in disaster zones


  • Bristol system uses microbial fuel stacks in toilets which feed on urine


  • This then creates biochemical energy that can be turned into electricity


  • Its inventors say the system could cost as little as £600 ($900) to set up
By ELLIE ZOLFAGHARIFARD FOR DAILYMAIL.COM[/url]

PUBLISHED: 18:37 GMT, 11 July 2016 UPDATED: 11:29 GMT, 14 July 2016


Read more: [url=http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3685109/Caught-short-Researchers-reveals-urine-battery-charge-handsets-three-hours-single-bathroom-break.html#ixzz4GPvOaXJc]http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3685109/Caught-short-Researchers-reveals-urine-battery-charge-handsets-three-hours-single-bathroom-break.html#ixzz4GPvOaXJc
 
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Waste not Want not    ... some smartass said 'will knots'   

We are bio-reactors.

Cydonia is the Shit!

Where a self sustaining colony can say 'piss-off' Earth like July 4th 1776 


Toxic blue-green algae adapt to rising CO2

August 4, 2016


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Credit: Universiteit van Amsterdam (UVA)
A common type of blue-green algae is finding it easy to adapt to Earth's rising CO2 levels, meaning blue-green algae – of which there are many toxin-producing varieties – are even more adept at handling changing climatic conditions than scientists previously supposed. A team of microbiologists at the University of Amsterdam (UvA) are reporting this finding in the journal PNAS this week, and point here at implications for clean drinking water, swimming safety and freshwater ecosystems.



The research team, led by Professor of Aquatic Microbiology Jef Huisman, trained their microscopes on Microcystis, a type of blue-green algae that proliferate in lakes and reservoirs in summer. The team analysed the genetic composition of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae's scientific name), observing Microcystis in both the lab and the Kennemer lake, under CO2-rich and poor conditions. "Before this, the adaptive potential of these harmful cyanobacteria in response to increasing CO2 concentrations had never been studied systematically, even though this can help us predict how algal blooms will develop in future", explains Xing Ji, a PhD researcher on the team.

In both the lab and the lake, cyanobacteria's genetic makeup changed in response to increasing CO2 concentrations. "It's a textbook example of natural selection", says lead author Giovanni Sandrini. "Cyanobacteria absorb CO2 during photosynthesis to produce their biomass, and we observed that the strain best equipped to absorb dissolved CO2 eventually gains the upper hand."

Some Microcystis strains have a slow but efficient carbon uptake system that enables them to squeeze out the last bit of CO2 from the water even at very low concentrations. Those strains become dominant in low CO2 conditions. By contrast, other strains have a fast uptake system that allows them to take up dissolved CO2 at very high rates when in high concentrations. "We discovered that these high-speed strains enjoy a major selective advantage in CO2-rich water", Sandrini continues. "Given the rising atmospheric CO2 values, these strains are poised to thrive."

Bathing and drinking water

Cyanobacteria's adaptation to rising CO2 is cause for concern. That's because Microcystis can produce microcystin, a toxin that causes liver damage in birds and mammals. In high concentrations, cyanobacteria also disrupt freshwater ecosystems, killing fish and aquatic plants. In the Netherlands, blue-green algal blooms regularly put swimming areas off limits.

Ji personally experienced just how harmful these bacteria have already proved to be in 2007, when he was living in eastern China, where cyanobacteria covered the entire surface of Lake Taihu, a 2000-km2 lake, and led to a drinking water crisis affecting five million people. "I watched my mother arguing with other supermarket shoppers who all had their sights set on the last bottles of drinking water. It's precisely because I'm aware of how poor water quality can impact society that I am happy to be doing research that can yield relevant insights."



More information: Giovanni Sandrini et al. Rapid adaptation of harmful cyanobacteria to rising CO, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2016). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1602435113 





Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-08-toxic-blue-green-algae-co2.html#jCp
Reply
#12
It is technology like this that will sterilize and disinfect the colonization efforts.
Clean drinking water and sanitary conditions is a key factor in general health and epidemic prevention.  

Tiny device grabs more solar energy to disinfect water faster
August 15, 2016

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This nanostructured device, about half the size of a postage stamp, uses sunlight to quickly disinfect water. It consists of thin flakes of molybdenum disulfide arranged like walls on a glass surface and topped with a thin layer of copper. …more
In many parts of the world, the only way to make germy water safe is by boiling, which consumes precious fuel, or by putting it out in the sun in a plastic bottle so ultraviolet rays will kill the microbes. But because UV rays carry only 4 percent of the sun's total energy, the UV method takes six to 48 hours, limiting the amount of water people can disinfect this way.



Now researchers at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University have created a nanostructured device, about half the size of a postage stamp, that disinfects water much faster than the UV method by also making use of the visible part of the solar spectrum, which contains 50 percent of the sun's energy.
In experiments reported today in Nature Nanotechnology, sunlight falling on the little device triggered the formation of hydrogen peroxide and other disinfecting chemicals that killed more than 99.999 percent of bacteria in just 20 minutes. When their work was done the killer chemicals quickly dissipated, leaving pure water behind.
"Our device looks like a little rectangle of black glass. We just dropped it into the water and put everything under the sun, and the sun did all the work," said Chong Liu, lead author of the report. She is a postdoctoral researcher in the laboratory of Yi Cui, a SLAC/Stanford associate professor and investigator with SIMES, the Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences at SLAC.
Nanoflake Walls and Eager Electrons
Under an electron microscope the surface of the device looks like a fingerprint, with many closely spaced lines. Those lines are very thin films - the researchers call them "nanoflakes" - of molybdenum disulfide that are stacked on edge, like the walls of a labyrinth, atop a rectangle of glass.
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An electron micrograph shows the pattern of nanostructured walls on the surface of the device. Plopped into a sample of contaminated water and placed in sunlight, it killed more than 99.999 percent of bacteria in just 20 minutes. Credit: C. Liu et al., Nature Nanotechnology
In ordinary life, molybdenum disulfide is an industrial lubricant. But like many materials, it takes on entirely different properties when made in layers just a few atoms thick. In this case it becomes a photocatalyst: When hit by incoming light, many of its electrons leave their usual places, and both the electrons and the "holes" they leave behind are eager to take part in chemical reactions.
By making their molybdenum disulfide walls in just the right thickness, the scientists got them to absorb the full range of visible sunlight. And by topping each tiny wall with a thin layer of copper, which also acts as a catalyst, they were able to use that sunlight to trigger exactly the reactions they wanted - reactions that produce "reactive oxygen species" like hydrogen peroxide, a commonly used disinfectant, which kill bacteria in the surrounding water.


Molybdenum disulfide is cheap and easy to make - an important consideration when making devices for widespread use in developing countries, Cui said. It also absorbs a much broader range of solar wavelengths than traditional photocatalysts.
Solving Pollution Problems
The method is not a cure-all; for instance, it doesn't remove chemical pollutants from water. So far it's been tested on only three strains of bacteria, although there's no reason to think it would not kill other bacterial strains and other types of microbes, such as viruses. And it's only been tested on bacteria mixed with water in the lab, not on the complex stews of contaminants found in the real world.
Still, "It's very exciting to see that by just designing a material you can achieve a good performance. It really works," said Liu, who has gone on to work on a project in Cui's lab that is developing air filters for combating smog. "Our intention is to solve environmental pollution problems so people can live better."
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Dual-purpose film for energy storage, hydrogen catalysis: Chemists gain edge in next-gen energy
More information: Chong Liu et al, Rapid water disinfection using vertically aligned MoS2 nanofilms and visible light, Nature Nanotechnology (2016). DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2016.138 
Journal reference: Nature Nanotechnology [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory



Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-08-tiny-device...t.html#jCp[/url]


RE: Garbage  In / Garbage Out
Don't throw away that bubble wrap!  

Sponge creates steam using ambient sunlight

August 22, 2016 by Jennifer Chu



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MIT graduate student George Ni holds a bubble-wrapped, sponge-like device that soaks up natural sunlight and heats water to boiling temperatures, generating steam through its pores. Credit: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
How do you boil water? Eschewing the traditional kettle and flame, MIT engineers have invented a bubble-wrapped, sponge-like device that soaks up natural sunlight and heats water to boiling temperatures, generating steam through its pores.



The design, which the researchers call a "solar vapor generator," requires no expensive mirrors or lenses to concentrate the sunlight, but instead relies on a combination of relatively low-tech materials to capture ambient sunlight and concentrate it as heat. The heat is then directed toward the pores of the sponge, which draw water up and release it as steam.

From their experiments—including one in which they simply placed the solar sponge on the roof of MIT's Building 3—the researchers found the structure heated water to its boiling temperature of 100 degrees Celsius, even on relatively cool, overcast days. The sponge also converted 20 percent of the incoming sunlight to steam.(typical hot day in cydonia is relatively cool on Earth)

The low-tech design may provide inexpensive alternatives for applications ranging from desalination and residential water heating, to wastewater treatment and medical tool sterilization.

The team has published its results today in the journal Nature Energy. The research was led by George Ni, an MIT graduate student; and Gang Chen, the Carl Richard Soderberg Professor in Power Engineering and the head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering; in collaboration with TieJun Zhang and his group members Hongxia Li and Weilin Yang from the Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering at the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, in the United Arab Emirates.

Building up the sun

The researchers' current design builds on a solar-absorbing structure they developed in 2014—a similar floating, sponge-like material made of graphite and carbon foam, that was able to boil water to 100 C and convert 85 percent of the incoming sunlight to steam.

To generate steam at such efficient levels, the researchers had to expose the structure to simulated sunlight that was 10 times the intensity of sunlight in normal, ambient conditions.

"It was relatively low optical concentration," Chen says. "But I kept asking myself, 'Can we basically boil water on a rooftop, in normal conditions, without optically concentrating the sunlight? That was the basic premise."




In ambient sunlight, the researchers found that, while the black graphite structure absorbed sunlight well, it also tended to radiate heat back out into the environment. To minimize the amount of heat lost, the team looked for materials that would better trap solar energy.

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Bubble wrap, combined with a selective absorber, keeps heat from escaping the surface of the sponge. Credit: Massachusetts Institute of Technology

A bubbly solution

In their new design, the researchers settled on a spectrally-selective absorber—a thin, blue, metallic-like film that is commonly used in solar water heaters and possesses unique absorptive properties. The material absorbs radiation in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum, but it does not radiate in the infrared range, meaning that it both absorbs sunlight and traps heat, minimizing heat loss.

The researchers obtained a thin sheet of copper, chosen for its heat-conducting abilities and coated with the spectrally-selective absorber. They then mounted the structure on a thermally-insulating piece of floating foam. However, they found that even though the structure did not radiate much heat back out to the environment, heat was still escaping through convection, in which moving air molecules such as wind would naturally cool the surface.

A solution to this problem came from an unlikely source: Chen's 16-year-old daughter, who at the time was working on a science fair project in which she constructed a makeshift greenhouse from simple materials, including bubble wrap.

"She was able to heat it to 160 degrees Fahrenheit, in winter!" Chen says. "It was very effective."

Chen proposed the packing material to Ni, as a cost-effective way to prevent heat loss by convection. This approach would let sunlight in through the material's transparent wrapping, while trapping air in its insulating bubbles.

"I was very skeptical of the idea at first," Ni recalls. "I thought it was not a high-performance material. But we tried the clearer bubble wrap with bigger bubbles for more air trapping effect, and it turns out, it works. Now because of this bubble wrap, we don't need mirrors to concentrate the sun."

The bubble wrap, combined with the selective absorber, kept heat from escaping the surface of the sponge. Once the heat was trapped, the copper layer conducted the heat toward a single hole, or channel, that the researchers had drilled through the structure. When they placed the sponge in water, they found that water crept up the channel, where it was heated to 100 C, then turned to steam.

Chen and Ni say that solar absorbers based on this general design could be used as large sheets to desalinate small bodies of water, or to treat wastewater. Ni says other solar-based technologies that rely on optical-concentrating technologies typically are designed to last 10 to 20 years, though they require expensive parts and maintenance. This new, low-tech design, he says, could operate for one to two years before needing to be replaced.


Quote:Launch windows
The minimum-energy launch windows for a Martian expedition occur at intervals of approximately two years and two months (specifically 780 days, the planet's synodic period with respect to Earth).[9]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exploratio...ch_windows


"Even so, the cost is pretty competitive," Ni says. "It's kind of a different approach, where before, people were doing high-tech and long-term [solar absorbers]. We're doing low-tech and short-term."

"What fascinates us is the innovative idea behind this inexpensive device, where we have creatively designed this device based on basic understanding of capillarity and solar thermal radiation. Meanwhile, we are excited to continue probing the complicated physics of solar vapor generation and to discover new knowledge for the scientific community," Zhang says.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Material generates steam under solar illumination

More information: Steam generation under one sun enabled by a floating structure with thermal concentration, Nature Energy nature.com/articles/doi:10.1038/nenergy.2016.126

MIT Masdar web.mit.edu/mit-mi-cp/ 

Journal reference: Nature Energy [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: Massachusetts Institute of Technology





Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-08-bubble-wrapped-sponge-steam-sunlight.html#jCp[url=http://phys.org/news/2016-08-bubble-wrapped-sponge-steam-sunlight.html#jCp]
Reply
#13
Quote:"The thing that made this such an exciting finding," Sadoway says, "is that we could imagine doing the same for copper and nickel, metals that are used in large quantities."
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Quote: "we see no reason why this approach couldn't be generalized to oxide feedstocks," which represent the other major category of metal ores. (Iron Oxide)
[Image: a60e19c1e7985c3f6a4086bef0c15a7a.jpg]Such a process would produce pure oxygen as the secondary product, instead of sulfur.  



New method developed for producing some metals
August 25, 2016

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A chart shows electrolysis of a molten semiconductor. Credit: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The MIT researchers were trying to develop a new battery, but it didn't work out that way. Instead, thanks to an unexpected finding in their lab tests, what they discovered was a whole new way of producing the metal antimony—and potentially a new way of smelting other metals, as well.


The discovery could lead to metal-production systems that are much less expensive and that virtually eliminate the greenhouse gas emissions associated with most traditional metal smelting. Although antimony itself is not a widely used metal, the same principles may also be applied to producing much more abundant and economically important metals such as copper and nickel, the researchers say.
The surprising finding is reported this week in the journal Nature Communications, in a paper by Donald Sadoway, the John F. Elliott Professor of Materials Chemistry; postdoc Huayi Yin; and visiting scholar Brice Chung.
"We were trying to develop a different electrochemistry for a battery," Sadoway explains, as an extension of the variety of chemical formulations for the all-liquid, high temperature storage batteries that his lab has been developing for several years. The different parts of these batteries are composed of molten metals or salts that have different densities and thus inherently form separate layers, much as oil floats on top of water. "We wanted to investigate the utility of putting a second electrolyte between the positive and negative electrodes" of the liquid battery, Sadoway says.
Unexpected results
But the experiment didn't go quite as planned. "We found that when we went to charge this putative battery, we were in fact producing liquid antimony instead of charging the battery," Sadoway says.
Then, the quest was on to figure out what had just happened. 
The material they were using, antimony sulfide, is a molten semiconductor, which normally would not allow for the kind of electrolytic process that is used to produce aluminum and some other metals through the application of an electric current.
"Antimony sulfide is a very good conductor of electrons," Sadoway says. "But if you want to do electrolysis, you only want an ionic conductor"—that is, a material that is good at conducting molecules that have a net electric charge. But by adding another layer on top of the molten semiconductor, one that is a very good ionic conductor, it turned out the electrolysis process worked very well in this "battery," separating the metal out of the sulfide compound to form a pool of 99.9 percent pure antimony at the bottom of their cell, while pure sulfur gas accumulated at the top, where it could be collected for use as a chemical feedstock.


In typical smelting processes, the sulfur would immediately bond with oxygen in the air to form sulfur dioxide, a significant air pollutant and the major cause of acid rain. But instead this contained process provides highly purified metal without the need to worry about scrubbing out the polluting gas.


Simple, efficient process
Electrolysis is much more efficient than traditional heat-based smelting methods, because it is a single-step continuous process, Sadoway explains. The discovery of that process is what transformed aluminum, more than a century ago, from a precious metal more valuable than silver into a widely used inexpensive commodity. If the process could be applied to other common industrial metals such as copper, it would have the potential to significantly lower prices as well as reduce the air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions associated with traditional production.
"The thing that made this such an exciting finding," Sadoway says, "is that we could imagine doing the same for copper and nickel, metals that are used in large quantities." It made sense to start with antimony because it has a much lower melting point—just 631 degrees Celsius—compared to copper's 1,085 C. Though the higher melting temperatures of other metals add complication to designing an overall production system, the underlying physical principles are the same, and so such systems should eventually be feasible, he says.
"Antimony was a good test vehicle for the idea, but we could imagine doing something similar for much more common metals," Sadoway says. And while this demonstration used an ore that is a sulfide (metal combined with sulfur), "we see no reason why this approach couldn't be generalized to oxide feedstocks," which represent the other major category of metal ores. Such a process would produce pure oxygen as the secondary product, instead of sulfur.
[Image: images?q=tbn:ANd9GcT-bAdTbgEryc4KEjXyNdv...AON0qZ8KCB] Iron Oxide is everywhere!!! LilD

Ultimately, if steel could be produced by such a process, it could have a major impact, because "steel-making is the number one source of anthropogenic carbon dioxide," the main greenhouse gas, Sadoway says. But that will be a more difficult process to develop because of iron's high melting point of about 1,540 C.
"This paper demonstrates a novel approach to produce transition metals by direct electrolysis of their sulfides," says John Hryn, an Institute Senior Fellow at Northwestern University and a senior advisor at Argonne National Laboratory, who was not involved in this work. He praised the MIT team's use of a second electrolyte in the cell to counter the effects of electron conduction, "which has previously stymied efficient high-volume production of transition metals by electrolysis. This seminal paper should usher in a new environmentally sound methodology for extraction of metals from sulfide ores."

Hryn adds that although this demonstration used one specific metal, "The primary value of using antimony is that it can be a demonstration metal for other transition-metal recovery by electrolysis." In addition, he says, "The potential goes beyond the production of transition metals by electrolysis. The value is the approach used to control electronic conduction in an electrolytic cell, which has value beyond metal production."

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Liquid Battery Offers Promising Solar Energy Storage Technique
More information: Huayi Yin et al. Electrolysis of a molten semiconductor, Nature Communications (2016). DOI: 10.1038/ncomms12584 
Journal reference: Nature Communications [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: Massachusetts Institute of Technology



Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-08-method-metals.html#jCp[/url][url=http://phys.org/news/2016-08-method-metals.html#jCp]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#14
Quote:"Reducing," or breaking apart, carbon dioxide molecules requires tremendous energy, he says, because carbon dioxide is very stable.
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"Use of phototrophs opens a new world of possibilities," says Seefeldt, who received USU's D. Wynne Thorne Career Research Award in 2012.

"These kinds of bacteria could be used to make not only fuel, but all kinds of materials we use in everyday life, without the use of environmentally harmful energy sources. The future of this research is incredible."


Green light: Biochemists describe light-driven conversion of greenhouse gas to fuel
August 24, 2016 by Mary-Ann Muffoletto

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From left, Utah State University biochemists Sudipta Shaw, Derek Harris and Lance Seefeldt are part of the seven-institution, US Department of Energy Office of Science's Energy Frontier Research Center program-funded Center for Biological and Electron Transfer and Catalysis (BETCy) collaboration. The multi-institution team generated methane from carbon dioxide in one enzymatic step. Credit: Mary-Ann Muffoletto/Utah State University


By way of a light-driven bacterium, Utah State University biochemists are a step closer to cleanly converting harmful carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion into usable fuels. Using the phototropic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustrisas a biocatalyst, 

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the scientists generated methane from carbon dioxide in one enzymatic step.

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"It's a baby step, but it's also a big step," says USU professor Lance Seefeldt. "Imagine the far-reaching benefits of large-scale capture of environmentally damaging byproducts from burning fossils fuels and converting them to alternative fuels using light, which is abundant and clean."


Seefeldt and USU doctoral students Derek Harris, Sudipta Shaw and Zhi-Yong Yang, along with colleagues Kathryn Fixen, Yanning Zheng and Caroline Harwood of the University of Washington, and Dennis Dean of Virginia Tech, published findings in the 22 August 2016, online Early Edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The team's work is supported by a grant awarded through the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science's Energy Frontier Research Center program to the Center for Biological and Electron Transfer and Catalysis or "BETCy." Based at Montana State University, BETCy is a seven-institution collaboration, of which USU is a partner.

"To our knowledge, no other organism can achieve what this bacterium has done with a single enzyme," says Seefeldt, professor in USU's Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and an American Association for the Advancement of Science Fellow.

"Reducing," or breaking apart, carbon dioxide molecules requires tremendous energy, he says, because carbon dioxide is very stable.
"Use of phototrophs opens a new world of possibilities," says Seefeldt, who received USU's D. Wynne Thorne Career Research Award in 2012. "These kinds of bacteria could be used to make not only fuel, but all kinds of materials we use in everyday life, without the use of environmentally harmful energy sources. The future of this research is incredible."

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Biochemists reveal new twist on old fuel source
More information: Kathryn R. Fixen et al, Light-driven carbon dioxide reduction to methane by nitrogenase in a photosynthetic bacterium, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2016). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1611043113 
Journal reference: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences[Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: Utah State University



Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-08-green-biochemists-light-driven-conversion-greenhouse.html#jCp[url=http://phys.org/news/2016-08-green-biochemists-light-driven-conversion-greenhouse.html#jCp][/url]
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#15
Making high-performance batteries from junkyard scraps
November 2, 2016
[Image: makinghighpe.jpg]

A prototype high-performance battery made from scrap metal and common household chemicals. Credit: Daniel Dubois, Vanderbilt University

Take some metal scraps from the junkyard; put them in a glass jar with a common household chemical; and, voilà, you have a high-performance battery.



"Imagine that the tons of metal waste discarded every year could be used to provide energy storage for the renewable energy grid of the future, instead of becoming a burden for waste processing plants and the environment," said Cary Pint, assistant professor of mechanical engineering at Vanderbilt University.
To make such a future possible, Pint headed a research team that used scraps of steel and brass - two of the most commonly discarded materials - to create the world's first steel-brass battery that can store energy at levels comparable to lead-acid batteries while charging and discharging at rates comparable to ultra-fast charging supercapacitors.
The research team, which consists of graduates and undergraduates in Vanderbilt's interdisciplinary materials science program and department of mechanical engineering, describe this achievement in a paper titled "From the Junkyard to the Power Grid: Ambient Processing of Scrap Metals into Nanostructured Electrodes for Ultrafast Rechargeable Batteries" published online this week in the journal ACS Energy Letters.
The secret to unlocking this performance is anodization, a common chemical treatment used to give aluminum a durable and decorative finish. When scraps of steel and brass are anodized using a common household chemical and residential electrical current, the researchers found that the metal surfaces are restructured into nanometer-sized networks of metal oxide that can store and release energy when reacting with a water-based liquid electrolyte.
The team determined that these nanometer domains explain the fast charging behavior that they observed, as well as the battery's exceptional stability. They tested it for 5,000 consecutive charging cycles - the equivalent of over 13 years of daily charging and discharging - and found that it retained more than 90 percent of its capacity.
Unlike the recent bout of exploding lithium-ion cell phone batteries, the steel-brass batteries use non-flammable water electrolytes that contain potassium hydroxide, an inexpensive salt used in laundry detergent.
"When our aim was to produce the materials used in batteries from household supplies in a manner so cheaply that large-scale manufacturing facilities don't make any sense, we had to approach this differently than we normally would in the research lab," Pint said.
The research team is particularly excited about what this breakthrough could mean for how batteries are made in the future.
"We're seeing the start of a movement in contemporary society leading to a 'maker culture' where large-scale product development and manufacturing is being decentralized and scaled down to individuals or communities. So far, batteries have remained outside of this culture, but I believe we will see the day when residents will disconnect from the grid and produce their own batteries. That's the scale where battery technology began, and I think we will return there," Pint said.
The Vanderbilt team drew inspiration from the "Baghdad Battery," a simple device dating back to the first century BC, which some believe is the world's oldest battery. It consisted of a ceramic terracotta pot, a copper sheet and an iron rod, which were found along with traces of electrolyte. Although this interpretation of the artifacts is controversial, the simple way they were constructed influenced the research team's design.
The team's next step is to build a full-scale prototype battery suitable for use in energy-efficient smart homes.
"We're forging new ground with this project, where a positive outcome is not commercialization, but instead a clear set of instructions that can be addressed to the general public. It's a completely new way of thinking about battery research, and it could bypass the barriers holding back innovation in grid scale energy storage," Pint said.

[Image: img-dot.gif] Explore further: A marriage made in sunlight: Invention merges solar with liquid battery
More information: Nitin Muralidharan et al, From the Junkyard to the Power Grid: Ambient Processing of Scrap Metals into Nanostructured Electrodes for Ultrafast Rechargeable Batteries, ACS Energy Letters (2016). DOI: 10.1021/acsenergylett.6b00295 
Provided by Vanderbilt University





Fuel from sewage is the future—and it's closer than you think

November 2, 2016 by Susan Bauer



[Image: fuelfromsewa.jpg]
Sludge from Metro Vancouver's wastewater treatment plant has been dewatered prior to conversion to biocrude oil at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Credit: Courtesy of WE&RF
It may sound like science fiction, but wastewater treatment plants across the United States may one day turn ordinary sewage into biocrude oil, thanks to new research at the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.





The technology, hydrothermal liquefaction, mimics the geological conditions the Earth uses to create crude oil, using high pressure and temperature to achieve in minutes something that takes Mother Nature millions of years. The resulting material is similar to petroleum pumped out of the ground, with a small amount of water and oxygen mixed in. This biocrude can then be refined using conventional petroleum refining operations.

Wastewater treatment plants across the U.S. treat approximately 34 billion gallons of sewage every day. That amount could produce the equivalent of up to approximately 30 million barrels of oil per year. PNNL estimates that a single person could generate two to three gallons of biocrude per year.

Sewage, or more specifically sewage sludge, has long been viewed as a poor ingredient for producing biofuel because it's too wet. The approach being studied by PNNL eliminates the need for drying required in a majority of current thermal technologies which historically has made wastewater to fuel conversion too energy intensive and expensive. HTL may also be used to make fuel from other types of wet organic feedstock, such as agricultural waste.

Using hydrothermal liquefaction, organic matter such as human waste can be broken down to simpler chemical compounds. The material is pressurized to 3,000 pounds per square inch—nearly one hundred times that of a car tire. Pressurized sludge then goes into a reactor system operating at about 660 degrees Fahrenheit. The heat and pressure cause the cells of the waste material to break down into different fractions—biocrude and an aqueous liquid phase.







What we flush can be converted into a biocrude oil with properties very similar to fossil fuels. PNNL researchers have worked out a process that does not require that sewage be dried before transforming it under heat and pressure to biocrude. Metro Vancouver in Canada hopes to build a demonstration plant. Credit: PNNL

"There is plenty of carbon in municipal waste water sludge and interestingly, there are also fats," said Corinne Drennan, who is responsible for bioenergy technologies research at PNNL. "The fats or lipids appear to facilitate the conversion of other materials in the wastewater such as toilet paper, keep the sludge moving through the reactor, and produce a very high quality biocrude that, when refined, yields fuels such as gasoline, diesel and jet fuels."




In addition to producing useful fuel, HTL could give local governments significant cost savings by virtually eliminating the need for sewage residuals processing, transport and disposal.

Simple and efficient

"The best thing about this process is how simple it is," said Drennan. "The reactor is literally a hot, pressurized tube. We've really accelerated hydrothermal conversion technology over the last six years to create a continuous, and scalable process which allows the use of wet wastes like sewage sludge."

An independent assessment for the Water Environment & Reuse Foundation calls HTL a highly disruptive technology that has potential for treating wastewater solids. WE&RF investigators noted the process has high carbon conversion efficiency with nearly 60 percent of available carbon in primary sludge becoming bio-crude. The report calls for further demonstration, which may soon be in the works.

[Image: 1-fuelfromsewa.jpg]

Biocrude oil, produced from wastewater treatment plant sludge, looks and performs virtually like fossil petroleum. Credit: WE&RF

Demonstration Facility in the Works

PNNL has licensed its HTL technology to Utah-based Genifuel Corporation, which is now working with Metro Vancouver, a partnership of 23 local authorities in British Columbia, Canada, to build a demonstration plant.

"Metro Vancouver hopes to be the first wastewater treatment utility in North America to host hydrothermal liquefaction at one of its treatment plants," said Darrell Mussatto, chair of Metro Vancouver's Utilities Committee. "The pilot project will cost between $8 to $9 million (Canadian) with Metro Vancouver providing nearly one-half of the cost directly and the remaining balance subject to external funding."

Once funding is in place, Metro Vancouver plans to move to the design phase in 2017, followed by equipment fabrication, with start-up occurring in 2018.

"If this emerging technology is a success, a future production facility could lead the way for Metro Vancouver's wastewater operation to meet its sustainability objectives of zero net energy, zero odours and zero residuals," Mussatto added.

Nothing left behind

In addition to the biocrude, the liquid phase can be treated with a catalyst to create other fuels and chemical products. A small amount of solid material is also generated, which contains important nutrients. For example, early efforts have demonstrated the ability to recover phosphorus, which can replace phosphorus ore used in fertilizer production.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Optimizing sludge treatment

Provided by: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory




Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-11-fuel-sewage-futureand-closer.html#jCp[/url][url=http://phys.org/news/2016-11-fuel-sewage-futureand-closer.html#jCp]
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#16
Good two articles for electricity and burning fuel from human animal waste. Clap

Bob... Ninja Alien2
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
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#17
NASA on the hunt for space poop geniuses
November 23, 2016

[Image: nasavowedtoa.jpg]
NASA vowed to award up to three $30,000 prizes for the most promising in-suit waste management systems
When you've got to go, but you're out there in space, zipped up in a spacesuit, with no toilet in sight and a crew of other astronauts around, what do you do?



NASA has launched a contest for inventors to solve this uncomfortable issue, and promises to award $30,000 to the best "space poop" solutions.
Inventors have until December 20 to submit designs for a personalized waste-wicking system that will handle everything, hands-free, for a period of up to six days.
"The old standby solution consisted of diapers," said the description of contest details at www.herox.com/SpacePoop.
"However, the diaper is only a very temporary solution, and doesn't provide a healthy/protective option longer than one day."
Sometimes, astronauts have to wait even longer. The two men and one woman who packed themselves into a Russian Soyuz space capsule last week had to wait two full days between launching from Kazakhstan and arriving at the International Space Station.
The Soyuz is equipped with a portable toilet, which looks like an air-powered pee jug.
On future missions to deep space destinations like an asteroid or Mars, NASA suspects it could take up to 144 hours, or six days, to get to a proper toilet.
In emergency situations, astronauts may need to zip themselves into a fully pressurized, bulky orange spacesuit, complete with helmet and gloves.
"While sealed, it is impossible for an astronaut to access their own body, even to scratch their nose," NASA said.
That's where the inventors come in. Astronauts need some way to clear away urine, fecal matter and menstrual blood efficiently, or they risk infection.
The problem is that in weightlessness, fluids can blob up and stick to surfaces, while solids float in the air.
"You don't want any of these solids and fluids stuck to your body for six days," NASA said, recalling how easy babies can get diaper rash.
Currently, while at the International Space Station, astronauts use a toilet contraption that includes a vacuum and a tube to help evacuate fecal matter. Arrow Horsepoop

To urinate, they use a funnel attached to a hose that can be adapted for a sitting or standing position, and uses air to move urine away.
NASA vowed to award up to three $30,000 prizes for the most promising in-suit waste management systems.
The goal is to test them within a year and fully implement them within three years.
NASA says the first human missions to Mars could take place by the 2030s.


Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-11-nasa-space-poop-geniuses.html#jCp[url=http://phys.org/news/2016-11-nasa-space-poop-geniuses.html#jCp][/url]
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#18
...

Quote:...  we will see the day when residents will disconnect from the grid
and produce their own batteries. 
That's the scale where battery technology began, and I think we will return there," Pint said.

The Vanderbilt team drew inspiration from the "Baghdad Battery,"


The team also drew upon the Baghdad battery design into their modern junk scrap battery design.
Now that is good work!
Scientists that inspire true innovation and hope.
That was great.

On the next article with the NASA poop suit award,
which is need of an auto-enema feature ... a 30K award for the best design ...
I thought about it ... then I thought ... I don't want to think about it ...
and passed on the 30K award.
...
Reply
#19
Tp Good one V!!!
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#20
This capability may benefit Free Martians.

MIT Chemists Reveal Bacterial Enzyme That Can Produce Biodegradable Plastics
November 15, 2016
Science

[Image: Chemists-Discover-Structure-of-Bacterial...lymers.jpg]Pictured here is a structural diagram of the PHA enzyme, which bacteria use to produce long polymer chains similar to plastics. MIT chemists have identified the openings through which the polymer building blocks enter and the finished chain emerges.
Researchers at MIT have determined the structure of a bacterial enzyme that can produce biodegradable plastics, an advance that could help chemical engineers tweak the enzyme to make it even more industrially useful.
The enzyme generates long polymer chains that can form either hard or soft plastics, depending on the starting materials that go into them. Learning more about the enzyme’s structure could help engineers control the polymers’ composition and size, a possible step toward commercial production of these plastics, which, unlike conventional plastic formed from petroleum products, should be biodegradable.
“I’m hoping that this structure will help people in thinking about a way that we can use this knowledge from nature to do something better for our planet,” says Catherine Drennan, an MIT professor of chemistry and biology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator. “I believe you want to have a good fundamental understanding of enzymes like this before you start engineering them.”
Drennan and JoAnne Stubbe, the Novartis Professor of Chemistry Emeritus and a professor emeritus of biology, are the senior authors of the study, which appears in the Journal of Biological Chemistry. The paper’s lead author is graduate student Elizabeth Wittenborn.
An elusive structure
The enzyme polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase is found in nearly all bacteria, which use it to produce large polymers that store carbon when food is scarce. The bacterium Cupriavidus necator can store up to 85 percent of its dry weight as these polymers.
The enzyme produces different types of polymers depending on the starting material, usually one or more of the numerous variants of a molecule called hydroxyalkyl-coenzyme A, where the term alkyl refers to a variable chemical group that helps determine the polymers’ properties. Some of these materials form hard plastics, while others are softer and more flexible or have elastic properties that are more similar to rubber.
PHA synthase holds great interest for chemists and chemical engineers because it can string together up to 30,000 subunits, or monomers, in a precisely controlled way.
“What nature can do in this case and many others is make huge polymers, bigger than what humans can make,” Stubbe says. “And they have uniform molecular weight, which makes the properties of these polymers distinct.”
Drennan, Stubbe, and other chemists have been pursuing this enzyme’s structure for many years, but until now it has proven stubbornly elusive because of the difficulty in crystallizing the protein. Crystallization is a necessary step to performing X-ray crystallography, which reveals the atomic and molecular structure of the protein.
Two former graduate students, Marco Jost and Yifeng Wei, who are also co-authors on the paper, worked on the crystallization as a side project and succeeded just before leaving MIT.
Once the researchers had the crystals, Wittenborn collected and analyzed the resulting crystallographic data to come up with the structure. The analysis revealed that PHA synthase consists of two identical subunits that form what is known as a dimer. Each subunit has an active site in which the polymerization occurs, thus eliminating an earlier proposal that the active site would be located at the dimer interface.
The analysis also revealed that the enzyme has two openings — one where the starting materials enter and another that allows the growing polymer chain to exit.
“The coenzyme A part of the substrate has to come back out because you have to put in another monomer,” Stubbe says. “There’s a lot of gymnastics that are going on, which I think makes this fascinating.”
The location of the entry channel was obvious as a gaping hole bordered by highly conserved amino acids, that is, amino acids that have remained constant as the enzyme has evolved. The exit channel was more difficult to identify because it is a much smaller opening, but the researchers were able to find it in part because it is also surrounded by conserved amino acids.
“The conserved residues form an arc-like network around the exit channel,” Wittenborn says. “They’re almost completely surrounding a very narrow portion of the channel, and we think they’re there to help secure the protein as the polymer starts to push its way through this tube.”
New framework
Drennan’s lab now plans to try to solve structures of the enzyme while it is bound to substrates and products, which should yield even more information critical to understanding how it works.
“This is the beginning of a new era of studying these systems where we now have this framework, and with every experiment we do, we’re going to be learning more,” Drennan says.
Some biotechnology companies have pursued making PHAs using PHA synthase and other enzymes needed to make the polymer, and one company is now using it to make polymers for medical use. Although for the most part the process is not cost-efficient enough to be economically competitive with low-cost conventional plastics derived from oil, the technology has enabled the production of unique PHA polymer compositions that can be used for specialty polymer additives, latex, and medical applications.
The new structural information yielded by this study will have little impact on cost but may open up the possibility of other new materials and applications, says Kristi Snell, the chief scientific officer and vice president of research at Yield10 Bioscience/Metabolix, which recently sold its PHA biopolymer technology to another company.
“The structure and mechanism of this enzyme has been a big question for over 20 years, and finding the structure could provide insight to help researchers make better polymers with unique properties,” Snell says.
Publication: Elizabeth C. Wittenborn, et al., “Structure of the Catalytic Domain of the Class I Polyhydroxybutyrate Synthase from Cupriavidus necator,” JBC, 2016; doi: 10.1074/jbc.M116.756833
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#21
...
didn't know where to put this so it goes here

http://www.asianscientist.com/2015/04/in...eractions/
Self-Organization Without Static Interactions 

Quote:Scientists have shown that self-organizing systems 
can be achieved through flow alone, 
challenging previous assumptions

This self-organization in a liquid flow 

is completely different to the normal concept of self-organization 
in that it is realized entirely from the flow alone and does not require any form of static interaction, 
something that had been considered necessary. 

This result should open up new avenues of research into self-organization 
through the demonstration that it is possible to control the spatial arrangement of particles 
using liquid flow alone.


hydrodynamic flow [from above link}
[Image: Self-assembly-of-hydrodynamic-flow-2yy92...i3rlds.jpg]
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#22
Earth's 'technosphere' now weighs 30 trillion tons, research finds
November 30, 2016

[Image: earthstechno.jpg]
Earth and cling film. Credit: University of Leicester
"The technosphere is a major new phenomenon of this planet – and one that is evolving extraordinarily rapidly" – Professor Mark Williams, University of Leicester



An international team led by University of Leicester geologists has made the first estimate of the sheer size of the physical structure of the planet's technosphere – suggesting that its mass approximates to an enormous 30 trillion tons.
The technosphere is comprised of all of the structures that humans have constructed to keep them alive on the planet – from houses, factories and farms to computer systems, smartphones and CDs, to the waste in landfills and spoil heaps.
In a new paper published in the journal the Anthropocene Review, Professors Jan Zalasiewicz, Mark Williams and Colin Waters from the University of Leicester Department of Geology led an international team suggesting that the bulk of the planet's technosphere is staggering in scale, with some 30 trillion tons representing a mass of more than 50 kilos for every square metre of the Earth's surface.
Professor Zalasiewicz explained: "The technosphere is the brainchild of the USA scientist Peter Haff – also one of the co-authors of this paper. It is all of the structures that humans have constructed to keep them alive, in very large numbers now, on the planet: houses, factories, farms, mines, roads, airports and shipping ports, computer systems, together with its discarded waste.
"Humans and human organisations form part of it, too – although we are not always as much in control as we think we are, as the technosphere is a system, with its own dynamics and energy flows – and humans have to help keep it going to survive."
The Anthropocene concept – a proposed epoch highlighting the impact humans have made to the planet - has provided an understanding that humans have greatly changed the Earth.
Professor Williams said: "The technosphere can be said to have budded off the biosphere and arguably is now at least partly parasitic on it. At its current scale the technosphere is a major new phenomenon of this planet – and one that is evolving extraordinarily rapidly.
"Compared with the biosphere, though, it is remarkably poor at recycling its own materials, as our burgeoning landfill sites show. This might be a barrier to its further success – or halt it altogether."
The researchers believe the technosphere is some measure of the extent to which we have reshaped our planet.
"There is more to the technosphere than just its mass," observes Professor Waters. "It has enabled the production of an enormous array of material objects, from simple tools and coins, to ballpoint pens, books and CDs, to the most sophisticated computers and smartphones. Many of these, if entombed in strata, can be preserved into the distant geological future as 'technofossils' that will help characterize and date the Anthropocene."
If technofossils were to be classified as palaeontologists classify normal fossils - based on their shape, form and texture – the study suggests that the number of individual types of 'technofossil' now on the planet likely reaches a billion or more – thus far outnumbering the numbers of biotic species now living.
The research suggests the technosphere is another measure of the extraordinary human-driven changes that are affecting the Earth.
Professor Zalasiewicz added: "The technosphere may be geologically young, but it is evolving with furious speed, and it has already left a deep imprint on our planet."
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Scientists put mankind's technological impact on the planet to the test
More information: J. Zalasiewicz et al. Scale and diversity of the physical technosphere: A geological perspective, The Anthropocene Review (2016). DOI: 10.1177/2053019616677743 
Provided by: University of Leicester


Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-11-earth-techn...s.html#jCp[/url]



Food scientist aiding fuel ethanol with new engineered bacteria

November 29, 2016 by David Tenenbaum



[Image: 8-foodscientis.jpg]
UW-Madison food science Professor James Steele with homemade fermenters he’s using to explore genetic engineering of lactic acid bacteria, a common contaminant of many fermentation processes, including cheese, wine, beer and biofuel production. Credit: Sevie Kenyon
For James Steele, moving from the small fermenters where microbes make cheese, wine and beer to the multimillion-gallon tanks where corn is converted to ethanol was a natural progression.




Steele, the University of Wisconsin–Madison Winder-Bascom professor of food science, specializes in food, beverage and biofuel fermentation. Understanding how bacteria and yeast convert biomass into products has been his stock-in-trade for more than 30 years.
The fermentation of beer and wine can be plagued by contamination with lactic acid bacteria, which make lactic acid rather than alcohol. The same problem affects the ethanol industry.
Steele's new company, Lactic Solutions, is advancing a judo-like remedy: using genetic engineering to transform enemy into friend. Instead of killing lactic acid bacteria with antibiotics, he's spliced in genes for ethanol production so these organisms produce ethanol, not lactic acid.
"We are taking the problem and trying to turn it into a solution," Steele says. The company will sell bags of bacteria to the ethanol industry to be added to the fermenter alongside the yeast that presently makes ethanol.
About 70 percent of ethanol plants fight lactic acid bacteria with antibiotics, including erythromycin, virginiamycin and penicillin. But these and other life-saving drugs are the subject of frantic concern as bacteria evolve resistance to one antibiotic after another.
The ethanol industry's problem arises because one-third of the incoming corn goes out the door, after fermentation. This material, called "dried distillers grains with solubles," is one of the largest sources of animal feed in the United States says Steele. "Distillers grains can carry antibiotics or bacteria that evolved in the fermentation facility to resist antibiotics."
The result could be dangerous drugs—or dangerous bugs—in the human food supply.
According to Steele, "Tyson Foods, McDonald's, Panera, Perdue, etc. say they will, by the end of this year or next year, eliminate the use of meat from animals fed antibiotics, so the primary way to control lactic acid bacteria in the ethanol industry is going away."


Like the beer industry, some ethanol plants use hops to control lactic acid bacteria, but that's more expensive and less effective than antibiotics.
[Image: 9-foodscientis.jpg]
The Siouxland ethanol plant west of Jackson, Nebraska. An invention at UW–Madison may improve fermentation results while reducing the hazard of antibiotic resistance. Credit: Ammodramus/Wikimedia Commons
As an ecologist of the microbial realm, Steele recognizes that the engineered bacteria must reproduce and survive rising levels of ethanol in the fermenter. To give them a competitive edge, a large number of engineered bacteria will be introduced as early as possible.
The reformulated lactic acid bacteria have also received a gene that produces inhibitors of garden variety lactic acid bacteria, which uses "the same systems they have evolved to compete against each other over millions of years," Steele says. "We want to give our organisms every advantage."
As a fringe benefit, the new bacteria consume types of sugar that are not available to the yeast. "At the end of the day, there is more ethanol produced from the same amount of corn," Steele says, "but we would have never found this if we had not started trying to solve the antibiotics problem."
Steele's patent, assigned to the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation, covers his concept for altering lactic acid bacteria to fight competing bacteria and to make ethanol, based on unused sugars.
Lactic Solutions was incorporated in October. "We know where every potential customer is," says Steele, the CEO. "There are about 200 ethanol plants in the United States. Indiana, Iowa and Illinois alone have 59 plants."
As a legacy of Wisconsin's leadership in the cheese industry, the state has two of the world's largest producers of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic Solutions will outsource manufacturing and distribution and focus on providing service to customers and developing new strains.
Steele credits assistance from the Discovery to Product (D2P) program, cosponsored by WARF and UW–Madison. "D2P has been a remarkable experience, in preparing us to talk to customers, helping us understand things from their point of view, developing our business plan, and preparing our 'elevator speech.' We would not be here without D2P."
Other assistance has come from the Business and Entrepreneurship Clinic at the Wisconsin School of Business. Steele has recently begun the gBETA incubator program, "where we'll polish our story and learn to put together a team to run the company."
The ethanol industry, Steele says, "understands that antibiotics are a short-term solution, and we plan to provide them with a long-term solution that also increases conversion of sugars to ethanol. Hops are way more expensive and less effective than antibiotics. We think we can do much better for less."
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Bacteria from bees possible alternative to antibiotics
Provided by: University of Wisconsin-Madison


Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-11-food-scient...l.html#jCp[url=http://phys.org/news/2016-11-food-scientist-aiding-fuel-ethanol.html#jCp]


Mars will be chock-full of our engineered bio-waste! LilD
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#23
Mars will be chock-full of our engineered bio-waste! [Image: lilD.gif]

World's first biobricks grown from human urine
October 26, 2018 by Helen Swingler, University of Cape Town

[Image: worldsfirstb.jpg]
The world’s first bio-brick made using human urine was unveiled at UCT this week. In picture are (from left) the Department of Civil Engineering’s Dr Dyllon Randall and his students,Vukheta Mukhari and Suzanne Lambert. Credit: University of Cape Town
The world's first bio-brick grown from human urine has been unveiled by University of Cape Town (UCT) master's student in civil engineering Suzanne Lambert, signalling an innovative paradigm shift in waste recovery.




The bio-bricks are created through a natural process called microbial carbonate precipitation. It's not unlike the way seashells are formed, said Lambert's supervisor Dr. Dyllon Randall, a senior lecturer in water quality engineering.

In this case, loose sand is colonised with bacteria that produce urease. An enzyme, the urease breaks down the urea in urine while producing calcium carbonate through a complex chemical reaction. This cements the sand into any shape, whether it's a solid column, or now, for the first time, a rectangular building brick.

For the past few months Lambert and civil engineering honours student Vukheta Mukhari have been hard at work in the laboratory testing various bio-brick shapes and tensile strengths to produce an innovative building material. Mukhari is being co-supervised by Professor Hans Beushausen, also from the civil engineering department. Beushausen is helping to test the products.

The development is also good news for the environment and global warming as bio-bricks are made in moulds at room temperature. Regular bricks are kiln-fired at temperatures around 1 400°C and produce vast quantities of carbon dioxide.

The strength of the bio-bricks would depend on client needs.

"If a client wanted a brick stronger than a 40 percent limestone brick, you would allow the bacteria to make the solid stronger by 'growing' it for longer," said Randall.

"The longer you allow the little bacteria to make the cement, the stronger the product is going to be. We can optimise that process."

Foundational work

The concept of using urea to grow bricks was tested in the United States some years back using synthetic solutions, but Lambert's brick uses real human urine for the first time, with significant consequences for waste recycling and upcycling. Her work builds on foundational research by Jules Henze, a Swiss student who spent four months working with Randall on this concept in 2017.

"It's what I love about research. You build on the foundations of other work," said Randall.

Fertilisers as by-products



In addition, the bio-brick process produces as by-products nitrogen and potassium, which are important components of commercial fertilisers.

Chemically speaking, urine is liquid gold, according to Randall. It accounts for less than 1 percent of domestic waste water (by volume) but contains 80 percent of the nitrogen, 56 percent of the phosphorus and 63 percent of the potassium of this waste water.

Some 97 percent of the phosphorus present in the urine can be converted into calcium phosphate, the key ingredient in fertilisers that underpin commercial farming worldwide. This is significant because the world's natural phosphate reserves are running dry.

Zero waste

The fertilisers are produced as part of the phased process used to produce the bio-bricks.

First, urine is collected in novel fertiliser-producing urinals and used to make a solid fertiliser. The remaining liquid is then used in the biological process to grow the bio-brick.

"But in that process, we're only after two components: carbonate ions and the calcium. What we do last is take the remaining liquid product from the bio-brick process and make a second fertiliser," he explained.

The overall scheme would effectively result in zero waste, with the urine completely converted into three useful products.

"No-one's looked at it in terms of that entire cycle and the potential to recover multiple valuable products. The next question is how to do that in an optimised way so that profit can be created from urine."

There are also logistics to be considered; urine collection and transport to a resource recovery. Randall has discussed these opportunities in a recent review paper on urine. Another of his master's students is investigating the transport logistics of urine collection and treatment with some very promising results.

Social acceptance is another consideration.

"At the moment we're only dealing with urine collection from male urinals because that's socially accepted. But what about the other half of the population?"

In the run-up to unveiling the bio-brick, both students expressed optimism about the potential of innovation in the sustainability space.

"This project has been a huge part of my life for the past year and a half, and I see so much potential for the process's application in the real world. I can't wait for when the world is ready for it," Lambert said.

"Working on this project has been an eye-opening experience. Given the progress made in the research here at UCT, creating a truly sustainable construction material is now a possibility," Mukhari added.

Randall said the work is creating paradigm shifts with respect to how society views waste and the upcycling of that waste.

"In this example you take something that is considered a waste and make multiple products from it. You can use the same process for any waste stream. It's about rethinking things," he said.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Nutrient recovery from biowaste for mineral fertiliser production

More information: J. Henze et al. Microbial induced calcium carbonate precipitation at elevated pH values (>11) using Sporosarcina pasteurii, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering (2018). DOI: 10.1016/j.jece.2018.07.046

C.P. Flanagan et al. Development of a novel nutrient recovery urinal for on-site fertilizer production, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering (2018). DOI: 10.1016/j.jece.2018.09.060

D.G. Randall et al. Urine: The liquid gold of wastewater, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering (2018). DOI: 10.1016/j.jece.2018.04.012 

Provided by: University of Cape Town


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-10-world-biob...e.html#jCp
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
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Reply
#24
Awesome more GOOD news Applause


Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
Reply
#25
NOVEMBER 13, 2018
Purple bacteria 'batteries' turn sewage into clean energy
by Frontiers
[Image: 1-sewage.jpg]Credit: CC0 Public Domain
You've flushed something valuable down the toilet today.

Organic compounds in household sewage and industrial wastewater are a rich potential source of energy, bioplastics and even proteins for animal feed—but with no efficient extraction method, treatment plants discard them as contaminants. Now researchers have found an environmentally-friendly and cost-effective solution.
Published in Frontiers in Energy Research, their study is the first to show that purple phototrophic bacteria—which can store energy from light—when supplied with an electric current can recover near to 100% of carbon from any type of organic waste, while generating hydrogen gas for electricity production.
"One of the most important problems of current wastewater treatment plants is high carbon emissions," says co-author Dr. Daniel Puyol of King Juan Carlos University, Spain. "Our light-based biorefinery process could provide a means to harvest green energy from wastewater, with zero carbon footprint."
Purple photosynthetic bacteria
When it comes to photosynthesis, green hogs the limelight. But as chlorophyll retreats from autumn foliage, it leaves behind its yellow, orange and red cousins. In fact, photosynthetic pigments come in all sorts of colors—and all sorts of organisms.
Cue purple phototrophic bacteria. They capture energy from sunlight using a variety of pigments, which turn them shades of orange, red or brown—as well as purple. But it is the versatility of their metabolism, not their color, which makes them so interesting to scientists.
"Purple phototrophic bacteria make an ideal tool for resource recovery from organic waste, thanks to their highly diverse metabolism," explains Puyol.
The bacteria can use organic molecules and nitrogen gas—instead of CO2 and H2O—to provide carbon, electrons and nitrogen for photosynthesis. This means that they grow faster than alternative phototrophic bacteria and algae, and can generate hydrogen gas, proteins or a type of biodegradable polyester as byproducts of metabolism.

Tuning metabolic output with electricity
Which metabolic product predominates depends on the bacteria's environmental conditions—like light intensity, temperature, and the types of organics and nutrients available.
"Our group manipulates these conditions to tune the metabolism of purple bacteria to different applications, depending on the organic waste source and market requirements," says co-author Professor Abraham Esteve-Núñez of University of Alcalá, Spain.
"But what is unique about our approach is the use of an external electric current to optimize the productive output of purple bacteria."
This concept, known as a "bioelectrochemical system", works because the diverse metabolic pathways in purple bacteria are connected by a common currency: electrons. For example, a supply of electrons is required for capturing light energy, while turning nitrogen into ammonia releases excess electrons, which must be dissipated. By optimizing electron flow within the bacteria, an electric current—provided via positive and negative electrodes, as in a battery—can delimit these processes and maximize the rate of synthesis.
Maximum biofuel, minimum carbon footprint
In their latest study, the group analyzed the optimum conditions for maximizing hydrogen productionby a mixture of purple phototrophic bacteria species. They also tested the effect of a negative current—that is, electrons supplied by metal electrodes in the growth medium—on the metabolic behavior of the bacteria.
Their first key finding was that the nutrient blend that fed the highest rate of hydrogen production also minimized the production of CO2.
"This demonstrates that purple bacteria can be used to recover valuable biofuel from organics typically found in wastewater—malic acid and sodium glutamate—with a low carbon footprint," reports Esteve-Núñez.
Even more striking were the results using electrodes, which demonstrated for the first time that purple bacteria are capable of using electrons from a negative electrode or "cathode" to capture CO2 via photosynthesis.
"Recordings from our bioelectrochemical system showed a clear interaction between the purple bacteria and the electrodes: negative polarization of the electrode caused a detectable consumption of electrons, associated with a reduction in carbon dioxide production.
"This indicates that the purple bacteria were using electrons from the cathode to capture more carbon from organic compounds via photosynthesis, so less is released as CO2."
Towards bioelectrochemical systems for hydrogen production
According to the authors, this was the first reported use of mixed cultures of purple bacteria in a bioelectrochemical system—and the first demonstration of any phototroph shifting metabolism due to interaction with a cathode.
Capturing excess CO2 produced by purple bacteria could be useful not only for reducing carbon emissions, but also for refining biogas from organic waste for use as fuel.
However, Puyol admits that the group's true goal lies further ahead.
"One of the original aims of the study was to increase biohydrogen production by donating electrons from the cathode to purple bacteria metabolism. However, it seems that the PPB bacteria prefer to use these electrons for fixing CO2 instead of creating H2.
"We recently obtained funding to pursue this aim with further research, and will work on this for the following years. Stay tuned for more metabolic tuning."

https://techxplore.com/news/2018-11-purp...nergy.html
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#26
I am still waiting for my help man to get me a ton of bio-bricks to inside my house.  I offered to pay the $50 to deliver the ton rather than have him try to put I ton on a small trailer that will NOT hold that ton without breaking the axle on tiny two wheel trailer with a car towing it.  He's badly injured as well so, I pretty patient right now.

With a septic system and a cellar where some of these "systems" about Urine bricks ( are they burnable? )  Or changing the sewage and paper into some energy to drive electric light bulbs through the system, could likely do that-- have to have a way to send the air from cellar outside and not just waft throughout the old house.

Then there is talk of small Nuclear Engines for heat and electricity, A new Tesla company is starting that is NOT associated with Musk.

Don't know.  Wait and see what come out of the pipe.

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
Reply
#27
RE: Garbage  In  Arrow


Colonizing Mars Means Contaminating Mars — And Never Knowing For Sure If It Had Its Own Native Life
By David Weintraub, Vanderbilt University November 14, 2018 07:25am ET

Once people get there, Mars will be contaminated with Earth life.
[Image: aHR0cDovL3d3dy5saXZlc2NpZW5jZS5jb20vaW1h...RzLmpwZw==]
Credit: Pat Rawlings, SAIC/NASA
The closest place in the universe where extraterrestrial life might exist is Mars, and human beings are poised to attempt to colonize this planetary neighbor within the next decade. Before that happens, we need to recognize that a very real possibility exists that the first human steps on the Martian surface will lead to a collision between terrestrial life and biota native to Mars.
If the red planet is sterile, a human presence there would create no moral or ethical dilemmas on this front. But if life does exist on Mars, human explorers could easily lead to the extinction of Martian life. As an astronomer who explores these questions in my book "Life on Mars: What to Know Before We Go," I contend that we Earthlings need to understand this scenario and debate the possible outcomes of colonizing our neighboring planet in advance. Maybe missions that would carry humans to Mars need a timeout.
Where life could be 
Life, scientists suggest, has some basic requirements. It could exist anywhere in the universe that has liquid water, a source of heat and energy, and copious amounts of a few essential elements, such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and potassium.
Mars qualifies, as do at least two other places in our solar system. Both Europa, one of Jupiter's large moons, and Enceladus, one of Saturn's large moons, appear to possess these prerequisites for hosting native biology.
I suggest that how scientists planned the exploratory missions to these two moons provides valuable background when considering how to explore Mars without risk of contamination.
Below their thick layers of surface ice, both Europa and Enceladus have global oceans in which 4.5 billion years of churning of the primordial soup may have enabled life to develop and take root. NASA spacecraft have even imaged spectacular geysers ejecting plumes of water out into space from these subsurface oceans.
To find out if either moon has life, planetary scientists are actively developing the Europa Clipper mission for a 2020s launch. They also hope to plan future missions that will target Enceladus.
Taking care to not contaminate
Since the start of the space age, scientists have taken the threat of biological contamination of other worlds seriously. As early as 1959, NASA held meetings to debate the necessity of sterilizing spacecraft that might be sent to other worlds. Since then, all planetary exploration missions have adhered to sterilization standards that balance their scientific goals with limitations of not damaging sensitive equipment, which could potentially lead to mission failures. Today, NASA protocols exist for the protection of all solar system bodies, including Mars.
Since avoiding the biological contamination of Europa and Enceladus is an extremely well-understood, high-priority requirement of all missions to the Jovian and Saturnian environments, their moons remain uncontaminated.
NASA's Galileo mission explored Jupiter and its moons from 1995 until 2003. Given Galileo's orbit, the possibility existed that the spacecraft, once out of rocket propellant and subject to the whims of gravitational tugs from Jupiter and its many moons, could someday crash into and thereby contaminate Europa.
Such a collision might not occur until many millions of years from now. Nevertheless, though the risk was small, it was also real. NASA paid close attention to guidance from the National Academies' Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration, which noted serious national and international objections to the possible accidental disposal of the Galileo spacecraft on Europa.
To completely eliminate any such risk, on Sept. 21, 2003, NASA used the last bit of fuel on the spacecraft to send it plunging into Jupiter's atmosphere. At a speed of 30 miles per second, Galileo vaporized within seconds.
Fourteen years later, NASA repeated this protect-the-moon scenario. The Cassini mission orbited and studied Saturn and its moons from 2004 until 2017. On Sept. 15, 2017, when fuel had run low, on instructions from NASA Cassini's operators deliberately plunged the spacecraft into Saturn's atmosphere, where it disintegrated.
But what about Mars?
Mars is the target of seven active missions, including two rovers, Opportunity and Curiosity. In addition, on Nov. 26 NASA's InSight mission is scheduled to land on Mars, where it will make measurements of Mars' interior structure. Next, with planned 2020 launches, both ESA's ExoMars rover and NASA's Mars 2020 rover are designed to search for evidence of life on Mars.
The good news is that robotic rovers pose little risk of contamination to Mars, since all spacecraft designed to land on Mars are subject to strict sterilization procedures before launch. This has been the case since NASA imposed "rigorous sterilization procedures" for the Viking Lander Capsules in the 1970s, since they would directly contact the Martian surface. These rovers likely have an extremely low number of microbial stowaways.
Any terrestrial biota that do manage to hitch rides on the outside of those rovers would have a very hard time surviving the half-year journey from Earth to Mars. The vacuum of space combined with exposure to harsh X-rays, ultraviolet light and cosmic rays would almost certainly sterilize the outsides of any spacecraft sent to Mars.
Any bacteria that sneaked rides inside one of the rovers might arrive at Mars alive. But if any escaped, the thin Martian atmosphere would offer virtually no protection from high energy, sterilizing radiation from space. Those bacteria would likely be killed immediately. Because of this harsh environment, life on Mars, if it currently exists, almost certainly must be hiding beneath the planet's surface. Since no rovers have explored caves or dug deep holes, we have not yet had the opportunity to come face-to-drill-bit with any possible Martian microbes.
Given that the exploration of Mars has so far been limited to unmanned vehicles, the planet likely remains free from terrestrial contamination.
But when Earth sends astronauts to Mars, they'll travel with life support and energy supply systems, habitats, 3D printers, food and tools. None of these materials can be sterilized in the same ways systems associated with robotic spacecraft can. Human colonists will produce waste, try to grow food and use machines to extract water from the ground and atmosphere. Simply by living on Mars, human colonists will contaminate Mars.

Can't turn back the clock after contamination
Space researchers have developed a careful approach to robotic exploration of Mars and a hands-off attitude toward Europa and Enceladus. Why, then, are we collectively willing to overlook the risk to Martian life of human exploration and colonization of the red planet?
Contaminating Mars isn't an unforeseen consequence. A quarter century ago, a National Research Council report entitled "Biological Contamination of Mars: Issues and Recommendations" asserted that missions carrying humans to Mars will inevitably contaminate the planet.
I believe it's critical that every attempt be made to obtain evidence of any past or present life on Mars well in advance of future missions to Mars that include humans. What we discover could influence our collective decision whether to send colonists there at all.
Even if we ignore or don't care about the risks a human presence would pose to Martian life, the issue of bringing Martian life back to Earth has serious societal, legal and international implications that deserve discussion before it's too late. What risks might Martian life pose to our environment or our health? And does any one country or group have the right to risk back contamination if those Martian lifeforms could attack the DNA molecule and thereby put all of life on Earth at risk?
But players both public – NASA, United Arab Emirates' Mars 2117 project – and private – SpaceXMars OneBlue Origin – already plan to transport colonists to build cities on Mars. And these missions will contaminate Mars.
[img=545x0]https://img.purch.com/w/640/aHR0cDovL3d3dy5saXZlc2NpZW5jZS5jb20vaW1hZ2VzL2kvMDAwLzA4MC82OTcvaTAyL3dhbGFuYWUtcml2ZXItMi5qcGc/MTQ1MjcxMzY3Nw==[/img][Image: aHR0cDovL3d3dy5saXZlc2NpZW5jZS5jb20vaW1h...UyNzEzNjc3]

Another look at the Walanae River on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi.
Credit: Gerrit van den Bergh
Some scientists believe they have already uncovered strong evidence for life on Mars, both past and present. If life already exists on Mars, then Mars, for now at least, belongs to the Martians. Mars is their planet, and Martian life would be threatened by a human presence there.
Does humanity have an inalienable right to colonize Mars simply because we will soon be able to do so? We have the technology to use robots to determine whether Mars is inhabited. Do ethics demand that we use those tools to answer definitively whether Mars is inhabited or sterile before we put human footprints on the Martian surface?
David Weintraub, Professor of Astronomy, Vanderbilt University


Garbage Out :  Arrow
https://www.livescience.com/64084-coloni...-mars.html
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#28
Quote:I am still waiting for my help man to get me a ton of bio-bricks to inside my house.  I offered to pay the $50 to deliver the ton rather than have him try to put I ton on a small trailer that will NOT hold that ton without breaking the axle on tiny two wheel trailer with a car towing it.  He's badly injured as well so, I pretty patient right now.


With a septic system and a cellar where some of these "systems" about Urine bricks ( are they burnable? )  Or changing the sewage and paper into some energy to drive electric light bulbs through the system, could likely do that-- have to have a way to send the air from cellar outside and not just waft throughout the old house.

Then there is talk of small Nuclear Engines for heat and electricity, A new Tesla company is starting that is NOT associated with Musk.

Don't know.  Wait and see what come out of the pipe.

Bob...


More news on these bio-bricks...

All of a sudden!

Mars regolith could be one of the first stages for water filtration and reclamation for purification.


Arrow "We are still far from actually commercialising this as a full scale system," Randall cautioned, but said there was plenty of scope for gains in efficiency.
"At the moment we need between 20 to 30 litres to make one standard brick. That does sound like a lot, but remember that about 90 percent of urine is actually water," said Randall.
"We are looking at reducing the amount of urine we are requiring to make one brick, and I'm sure within the next few years will have much better results".


Astronauts Can Piss Bricks! And Shit gold!




NOVEMBER 15, 2018
Waste not: South Africa makes world's first human urine brick
by Amy Gibbings, Susan Njanji In Johannesburg
[Image: mindoverblad.jpg]Mind over bladder: Vukheta Mukhari, one of the developers of the world's first bio-brick based on human urine, shows off a prototype
One day, when nature calls, your urine could be put to better use than to be flushed down the loo.

Instead it could be a key ingredient in the construction of a greener office or new home.
In one of the latest innovations in the search for eco-friendly building materials, South African university researchers have created bricks using human urine.
The first of their kind in the world, the bio-bricks hold out the prospect of a sustainable alternative to standard clay and concrete bricks, they hope.
The prototypes have been "grown" from urine using a technique somewhat similar to the natural formation of seashells, taking six to eight days to form.
The groundbreaking invention is the brainchild of two University of Cape Town students and a lecturer.
With a grant from a government-run Water Research Council, the feasibility study was launched last year using synthetic urea. And then the study escalated to using human urine.
"I was always curious to know why don't we use urine to do the same thing," Dyllon Randall, the lecturer who supervised one of the two students, told AFP.
"The simple answer is: 'Yes, we can'."
A year later they successfully produced their first bio-brick in a laboratory.
Using a natural process known as microbial carbonate precipitation, they mix urine, sand and bacteria to make the brick.



Quote:The normal range of urine output is 800 to 2,000 milliliters per day if you have a normal fluid intake of about 2 liters per day. However, different laboratories may use slightly different values.May 30, 2017
Urine 24-Hour Volume Test: Purpose, Procedure, and Results
https://www.healthline.com/health/urine-24-hour-volume
[/url]

The research is still in its early days. So far, it requires up to 30 litres (eight US gallons) of urine to make just one brick—with the urine provided by male students at the university via a special urinal.
"We basically made the first bio-brick from real urine," Randall said.
"This process is amazing because essentially what we've done is we grew bricks at room temperature."
The first three bricks are on display. They are grey weighty blocks and indistinguishable from any standard limestone.
[Image: 3ds%20Max%20rendering.jpg]
[Image: forthoseconc.jpg]

For those concerned about the odour of urine permeating from the walls, the good news is that the brick does not smell
[size=undefined][size=undefined]
Mould

Suzanne Lambert, a civil engineering Masters student, marvels at how the team copied "nature's natural processes" to create a sustainable way of building.
"This process mimics the way coral is formed and the natural processes produce a cement," she said.
Conventional bricks or clay-fired bricks are manufactured in kilns, where they are dried at 1,400 degrees Celsius (2,500 degrees Fahrenheit), a process that causes large emissions of carbon dioxide.

In contrast, the bio-brick is "grown" through loose sand seeded with bacteria that produce an enzyme called urease.
The urease reacts with the urea in urine to produce a cement-like compound that bonds with the sand.
The product can be moulded into any shape and dries at ambient temperatures—no ovens, no greenhouse-gas emissions.
"We take something that is considered a waste stream such as urine and use it in a completely sustainable [url=https://techxplore.com/tags/process/]process
," said Randall.
And for those concerned about the odour of urine permeating from the walls, the good news is that the brick does not smell. The strong ammonia smell that comes from urine dissipates after a few days of drying.
Fellow researcher Vukheta Mukhari said the strength of the brick can be tailored to specific building requirements but the ones they have produced so far are "as strong as common bricks you find on the market".
Bio-bricks are already manufactured in the US, but they use synthetic forms of urine.
These, though, are the first to use natural human waste.
Will the bio-brick one day supplant standard clay or concrete counterparts?
The key factor is price, but at this very early stage of development there has been no attempt to research costs.
"We are still far from actually commercialising this as a full scale system," Randall cautioned, but said there was plenty of scope for gains in efficiency.
"At the moment we need between 20 to 30 litres to make one standard brick. That does sound like a lot, but remember that about 90 percent of urine is actually water," said Randall.
"We are looking at reducing the amount of urine we are requiring to make one brick, and I'm sure within the next few years will have much better results".[/size][/size]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#29
Buzz Aldrin threw bags of shit on the lunar surface.  Tp
Cry Future Fast Food >>>

Will Free-Martians rely on re-supply?

Itza uncommon sense.

Earth is too far the logistics unreliable and landing success statistics(aka 'cosmic ghoul' etc....) Angel

Bread Needs/Kneads wheat Though/Dough Fed with Grain/Brain meat Know/No
How can a cow not have a steak in this bullshit?
Recall:
Quote:But new research from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis has identified rogue cells—namely brain and muscle cells—lurking within kidney organoids.
https://medicalxpress.com/news/2018-11-b...idney.html

US paves way to get 'lab meat' on plates

November 17, 2018 by Juliette Michel

[Image: quotlabmeatq.jpg]
"Lab meat"'s backers argue avoiding slaughtering animals will reduce both suffering and greenhouse emissions
US authorities on Friday agreed on how to regulate food products cultured from animal cells—paving the way to get so-called "lab meat" on American plates.




The Department of Agriculture and the Food and Drug Administration agreed to share regulation of cell-cultured food products, they said in a joint statement, following a public meeting in October.

While technical details have yet to be confirmed, the FDA would oversee the collection and differentiation of cells—when stem cells develop to specialized cells— while USDA would oversee production and labeling of food products.

"This regulatory framework will leverage both the FDA's experience regulating cell-culture technology and living biosystems and the USDA's expertise in regulating livestock and poultry products for human consumption," the statement said, adding that the agencies see no need for legislation on the matter.

The question of whether to approve cell-cultured food products has never really arisen in the US. In fact, several niche "lab-meat" startups already exist, but production costs are very high and nobody has a product that is ready to sell yet.

Californian company Just, known for its eggless mayonnaise, has said previously it plans to sell cell-cultured meat by the end of this year—and told AFP it looked forward to working with the agencies.

Others such as Memphis Meats and Mosa Meat, in the Netherlands, are working to get production costs down—with some backing from the agri-food industry.

The backers of "lab meat" argue avoiding slaughtering animals will reduce both suffering and greenhouse emissions—and is a sustainable option to feed growing populations hungry for protein.

"American consumers deserve a wide array of healthy, humane, and sustainable choices," said Jessica Almy, policy director at The Good Food Institute.

But they are locked in disagreement with farming organizations about whether such products can indeed be called "meat."

The authorities have made no statement on that—but the US Cattlemen's Association welcomed the news.

"USDA is going to oversee labeling, which we are ecstatic about because the FDA does not require pre-market label approval... before the products hits the shelves," said spokeswoman Lia Biondo.

Explore further: Lab-grown meat could be in restaurants in 3 years (Update)





Free Martians will be bio-factories as their natural processes will help fuel feed and fortify future Cydonia.

There is no way around us leaving a biological presence on Cydonia.

[Image: images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRJMkm80qTIGPK5iwsnYcP...InowDAloEw]

Quote:"This scaled down cabinet means the technology is accessible and democratic. Researchers all over the world can set it up on their desk to get the benefits of speedbreeding for their research programme."

Space-inspired speed breeding for crop improvement
November 16, 2018, John Innes Centre

[Image: 5beef6d05576a.jpg]
Credit: John Innes Centre
Technology first used by NASA to grow plants extra-terrestrially is fast tracking improvements in a range of crops. Scientists at John Innes Centre and the University of Queensland have improved the technique, known as speed breeding, adapting it to work in vast glass houses and in scaled-down desktop growth chambers.




The ability to work at these scales gives scientists greater opportunities than ever before to breed disease resistant, climate resilient and nutritious crops to feed a growing global population. The research is published in the peer reviewed journal Nature Protocols.

Speed breeding uses enhanced LED lighting and day-long regimes of up to 22 hours to optimise photosynthesis and promote rapid growth of crops. It speeds up the breeding cycle of plants: for example, six generations of wheat can be grown per year, compared to two generations using traditional breeding methods.

By shortening breeding cycles, the method allows scientists and plant breeders to fast-track genetic improvements such as yield gain, disease resistance and climate resilience in a range of crops such as wheat, barley, oilseed rape and pea.

Being able to do this in a compact desktop chamber enables affordable, cutting-edge research on a range of crops to take place before the experiments are scaled up to larger glass houses.

The latest advances come at a crucial time for European crop development. They follow a decision this summer by the Court of Justice of the European Union which ruled that crops improved using modern gene-editing techniques should be classed as genetically modified organisms.

The decision was greeted with dismay among many leading plant scientists, breeders and farming industry leaders in the UK, because it frustrates efforts to meet the challenge of a growing world population.

Dr. Brande Wulff a wheat scientist at the John Innes Centre and one of the lead authors on the paper explains that European crop research and breeding will become more dependent on speed breeding in the light of these developments.

"Speed breeding allows researchers to rabidly mobilise the genetic variation found in wild relatives of crops and introduce it into elite varieties that can be grown by farmers. The EU ruling that heavily regulates gene editing means we are more reliant on speed breeding to grow sturdier, more resilient crops."



Dr. Wulff's team at the John Innes Centre has developed techniques such as rapid gene discovery and cloning that, alongside speed breeding, would allow crop improvements via a non-GM route.



Collaborators in Australia—currently experiencing one of the worst droughts on record—are using the technology to rapidly cycle genetic improvements to make crops more drought resilient.

Dr. Wulff predicts the speed breeding technology will become the norm in research institutes: "We know that more and more institutes across the world will be adopting this technology and by sharing these protocols we are providing a pathway for accelerating crop research."

The refinements, outlined in this study, aim to optimise the technology as a research tool. Changes to soil/media composition, lighting, temperature, spacing of plants and premature seed harvest have led to the team cutting down the seed-to-seed generation time in wheat to just eight weeks.

This means the speed breeding technology allows six generations of wheat to be grown per year, compared to two generations using traditional breeding methods.

Sreya Ghosh, first author on the paper, from the John Innes Centre, highlights the benefit of making the technology accessible to more researchers.

"It was important to us that we developed something that could be bought quickly and set up with minimum skill.

"This scaled down cabinet means the technology is accessible and democratic. Researchers all over the world can set it up on their desk to get the benefits of speedbreeding for their research programme."

Generation time in most plant species represents a bottleneck in applied research programmes and breeding. Tackling this bottleneck means scientists can respond quicker to emerging diseases, changing climate and increased demand for certain traits.

Explore further: Pioneering new technology set to accelerate the global quest for crop improvement

Journal reference: Nature Protocols
Provided by: John Innes Centre



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-11-space-insp...p.html#jCp




Brain, muscle cells found lurking in kidney organoids grown in lab

November 15, 2018, Washington University School of Medicine



[Image: brainmusclec.jpg]
Scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have identified rouge cells -- namely brain and muscle cells -- lurking in kidney organoids, an indication that the 'recipes' used to coax stem cells into becoming kidney …more
Scientists hoping to develop better treatments for kidney disease have turned their attention to growing clusters of kidney cells in the lab. One day, so-called organoids—grown from human stem cells—may help repair damaged kidneys in people or be used to test drugs developed to fight kidney disease.








But new research from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis has identified rogue cells—namely brain and muscle cells—lurking within kidney organoids. Such cells make up only 10 to 20 percent of an organoid's cells, the scientists found, but their presence indicates that the "recipes" used to coax stem cells into becoming kidney cells inadvertently are churning out other cell types.



While at first glance the discovery might be viewed as a setback for using kidney organoids as stand-ins for human kidneys, there's still promise. The researchers found an easy way to prevent most of those wayward cells from forming, and that same approach could be adopted by other scientists who find rogue cells in other organoids, such as those of the brain, lung or heart.



The research is published Nov. 15 in Cell Stem Cell.



"There's a lot of enthusiasm for growing organoids as models for diseases that affect people," said senior author Benjamin D. Humphreys, MD, Ph.D., director of the Division of Nephrology. "But scientists haven't fully appreciated that some of the cells that make up those organoids may not mimic what we would find in people. The good news is that with a simple intervention, we could block most of ­­the rogue cells from growing. This should really accelerate our progress in making organoids better models for human kidney disease and drug discovery, and the same technique could be applied to targeting rogue cells in other organoids."



A major reason for the excitement around kidney organoids is the challenge of caring of patients with kidney failure. In the United States alone, nearly 500,000 people receive dialysis for end-stage kidney disease.



"Developing kidney organoids is driven by the reality that we have so many patients with failing kidneys and no effective drugs to offer them," said Humphreys, who is also the Joseph Friedman Professor of Renal Diseases in Medicine.







For the current study, the researchers looked at two recipes widely used by scientists worldwide to grow kidney organoids. One starts with embryonic stem cells approved for research by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the other begins with induced pluripotent stem cells, which are reprogrammed from adult cells and have the ability to develop into any type of human cell.



A cocktail of drugs and growth factors are added to the stem cells, channeling their development into kidney cells. After growing the organoids in the lab for four weeks, a time frame long enough for the cells to specialize, the researchers asked: What kinds of cells did we get?



Rather than conduct a spot check to identify cells that made up the organoids, the researchers relied on a relatively new technique to take a deep dive. Using single cell RNA sequencing, they analyzed the activity of many thousands of genes in 83,130 cells from 65 kidney organoids.



"This generates massive amounts of data, and there's no way our brains can make sense of it all," Humphreys explained. "But computers can easily compare gene activity across 83,000 cells and, using artificial intelligence, group cell types together based on their gene expression. So rather than looking for cells that we think we thought we'd find in the organoid, it helped us find cells even if we'd never imagined they'd be there."

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Regardless of the recipe, the researchers found that 10 to 20 percent of the cells in the organoids missed the cue to develop into kidney cells and instead became brain and muscle cells. However, by reconstructing the step-by-step process by which stem cells developed into brain cells, for example, they were able to see precisely where things went off the rails and block the formation of off-target cells. This reduced the number of brain cells by 90 percent, and the approach provides a road map to help other scientists eliminate rogue cells in other types of organoids.



"Progress to develop better treatments for kidney disease is slow because we lack good models," Humphreys said. "We rely on mice and rats, and they are not little humans. There are many examples of drugs that have done magically well at slowing or curing kidney disease in rodents but failed in clinical trials. So, the notion of channeling human stem cells to organize into a kidney-like structure is tremendously exciting because many of us feel that this potentially eliminates that 'lost in translation' aspect of going from a mouse to a human."



Explore further: Growing kidney tissue simpler and faster will help fight disease



More information: Wu H, Uchimura K, Donnelly E, Kirita Y, Morris SA and Humphreys, BD. Comparative analysis and refinement of human kidney organoid differentiation and single cell transcriptomics. Cell Stem Cell, Nov. 15, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.stem.2018.10.010 


Journal reference: Cell Stem Cell
Provided by: Washington University School of Medicine


https://medicalxpress.com/news/2018-11-b...idney.html


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Golgotha will be the Dump.

EA  
Thursday, July 24th, 2014, 04:57 am
Quote: Wrote:The odd ESA description of it as "skull shaped" (*Golgotha)...is attributed to the claim (by ESA) that some people have referred to it as such. In fact, we have never encountered this description in any anomaly related web article or public posting.
-mike bara
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In that respect  using the obvious aspect then I won't give it that description either.

I call it "golgotha" and it seems symmetric enough to be easily utilised as a reclaimation area for dead organic matters.
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Quote:[/url]Archaeologists Trace Jesus' Final Hours - ABC News
https://abcnews.go.com/2020/story?id=124100&page=1
Apr 13, 2018 - Although the exact route to the crucifixion is in unknown, there is general agreement that it took place at Golgotha, a garbage dump outside ...

Cydonian's will need a Processing center for our Bio-hazardous wastes so that we don't 'infect' some pussy-ass scientists who don't have a clue that mars is still alive.

But no shit and shinola by god we are gonna piss off the wannabe gate-keepers 

Garbage Out :  
I believe it's critical that every attempt be made to obtain evidence of any past or present life on Mars well in advance of future missions to Mars that include humans. What we discover could influence our collective decision whether to send colonists there at all.
[url=https://www.livescience.com/64084-colonizing-mars-means-contaminating-mars.html]https://www.livescience.com/64084-coloni...-mars.html
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With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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#30
Life on Mars: Will humans trash the planet like we have Earth?
December 20, 2018 by Katharine Lackey, Usa Today

[Image: 5-mars.jpg]
Credit: CC0 Public Domain
Mountains of garbage, plastics that take thousands of years to disintegrate, oil spills in pristine environments from drilling into the soil or underneath the ocean: When we go to Mars, is it inevitable we'll repeat the same mistakes on Earth?




Resources will be so limited that creating a waste stream will be nearly impossible—at least at first. That's because humans will only take what we absolutely need due to the limited space on rockets and spaceships and the time it takes to get to the planet—nine to 11 months, one-way.

"Everything that you use and you create on Mars is so valuable. You simply can't afford a pollution stream, you can't afford a waste stream at all. Everything will absolutely be recycled ... at least in the beginning," said Stephen Petranek, author of "How We'll Live on Mars."

As part of the efforts to eventually get humans to Mars, we've already put our mark on the planet through rovers and the latest NASA mission, InSight, which recently snapped a selfie as it begins getting to work mapping the inside of the planet in 3-D to better understand it's evolutionary origins.

But we will have a far greater impact on the planet when humans get there, especially if terraforming—making the planet more Earth-like by modifying its atmosphere—occurs.

"It will probably become a problem when Mars does seem a lot more like Earth and resources just aren't as hard to come by," Petranek said. "But people on Mars can choose, once they figure out to have a non-waste environment and a non-pollution environment, there's no reason for them not to keep that."

That doesn't mean it will be easy, said Leland Melvin, a former NASA astronaut.

"That balance of not polluting and terraforming versus understanding how we can live in this ecosystem in a way that's not going to damage it for our own use: That's a really tough balance to strike," he said. "We need to learn from our mistakes here on planet Earth as to all of these systems and things that have been damaged because of, some of it's greed, some of it's let's get as much oil out of the ground."

When you put it in perspective, it didn't take that long for humans to create issues here on Earth. While we've been around for hundreds of thousands of years, it's only in the past couple hundred that we've created major problems, said Antonia Juhasz, an author, analyst and investigative journalist with expertise in oil and energy.



"We have made this planet increasingly inhospitable to an increasing number of humans who live here," Juhasz said. "The lessons from what has gone wrong with fossil fuel extractions on Earth must be understood because no matter what, even if we go to Mars, not everybody is going to Mars."

To do that, she said, we need to change our mindset—we can't just look at Mars as an empty space with no value other than how it can provide for us.

"If we do that on Mars, will we then just create another planet that is no longer hospitable for us? Are we going to then go down through the solar system destroying planets or are we going to learn from our mistakes?" said Juhasz, who speaks about the potential of industry colliding with environment on the Red Planet on National Geographic's "MARS" series.

"If you look at Mars and all you see is red dirt, but it turns out that if humans are going to live on Mars, they're going to actually need some critical component of that red dirt," she added.

But Petranek said the driver for the pollution and trash on Earth just won't be a factor on Mars—at least for a very long time.

"The primary problem on Earth is that the reason we are so wasteful and so destructive is we can't seem to agree both within our own country on what we should do and nations don't agree," Petranek said. "That isn't going to happen on Mars because survival is going to be so much more critical."

While there will be little to no waste at first on Mars, that doesn't mean we can ignore the potential to backslide down the road, Juhasz said.

"We have a much longer history which is people knowing that they could only use certain resources, and reusing them much more conscientiously, then we have only a limited history in which we decided you could use anything and everything and it didn't matter what we did with it," she said. "Hopefully, we can reflect back on that longer history, and keep that with us if we go to another planet."

 Explore further: Mars makes closest approach to Earth in 15 years


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-12-life-mars-...t.html#jCp


[/url]
Quote:Here's How Much Poop Is on the Moon - Popular Mechanics


https://www.popularmechanics.com/.../moo...n-17630231...



Jan 13, 2015 - Given that most of the Apollo missions stayed on the Moon for about a day, ... Future space archaeologists are sure to find bags of urine, feces ...






Israeli Company Claims Invention of First ‘Lab Grown’ Steak
December 19, 2018


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Aleph Farms, an Israeli company based in Tel Aviv, announced it has created the world's first steak grown in a laboratory. (Photo: Aleph Farms) [/size]

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An Israeli company says it has produced the world’s first steak “grown” in a laboratory.
Researchers from Tel Aviv-based Aleph Farms say they successfully created the meat using methods that do not harm animals. The company [url=https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/aleph-farms-jump-starts-first-cell-grown-steak-300764157.html]claims its scientific invention has the “true texture and structure of beef muscle tissue steak.”
Shulamit Levenberg is the co-founder and chief scientific officer of Aleph Farms. She considers the company’s product “clean meat.” She says this is because it is grown in a clean, controlled setting and does not require the killing of an animal.
Some opponents of lab meat production have rejected the term “clean meat” and suggested that “synthetic meat” would be more exact. Many companies have attempted to create realistic meat replacements with mostly vegetable-based products. Others, like U.S.-based company Just, also have plans to produce beefgrown inside a lab.
The process begins when scientists collect live cell tissue from real cows. Aleph Farms says this is easily completed without harming the animals. The cells are then fed nutrients to make them grow.
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Aleph Farms, an Israeli company based in Tel Aviv, announced it has created the world's first steak grown in a laboratory. (Photo: Aleph Farms)
The cells are then combined through a process the company says uses three-dimensional or 3-D technology to form realistic tissue. The company says small pieces of meat can be produced in as little as three weeks, with each costing about $50 to make.
Levenberg says animal meat grown in a controlled setting has mostly been limited to simple structures of one or two kinds of cell tissue. This has meant companies have struggled to produce a lab-grown meat that enjoys the similar texture, shape and taste of real steak. So far, cell-created meat development has been limited to ground meat.
Levenberg said Aleph Farms uses four different kinds of animal cells found in traditional cuts of meat. As a result, it can produce a product containing similar properties of steak, including muscle, fat and connective tissues. The company considers this “the key to a product that will be closer to the beef that people crave."
Aleph Farms includes a video on its website that shows its steaks being cooked, prepared and eaten.



The company is still developing its technology in an effort to bring production costs down. The steak product is expected to be ready to sell within two years. Aleph Farms hopes the process can greatly reduce the amount of land, water and food resources necessary for traditional beef production methods.
The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization has estimated that demand for meat is likely to grow by nearly 70 percent by 2050. The U.N. says such demand could create resource shortages around the world and have harmful effects on the environment.
Earlier this year, Dutch company Mosa Meat announced plans to make and sell laboratory-grown meat in restaurants by 2021. The company has been developing its methods since announcing in 2013 it had produced the world’s first hamburger in a lab.
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Dutch company Mosa Meat announced in 2013 it had produced the world's first hamburger in a lab. It is continuing to develop its products and expects to begin selling commercially by 2021. (Photo: Mosa Meat)
Mosa Meat uses a similar scientific process for creating beef. But instead of steak, Mosa Meat plans to begin its market launch with ground beef products, mainly for making hamburgers.
The company says its production process uses 96 percent less greenhouse gasemissions than traditional meat production. In addition, it says it requires 99 percent less land and 96 percent less water.[/size]


[size=undefined]https://learningenglish.voanews.com/a/israeli-company-claims-invention-of-first-lab-grown-steak/4704238.html[/size]

The aim is to efficiently transform simple, abundant molecules—in some cases even chemical waste materials—into much more complex, value-added molecules. Functionalizing C-H bonds opens new chemical pathways for the synthesis of fine chemicals—pathways that are more streamlined, less costly and cleaner.

Organic synthesis, for example, typically involves the use of many reagents, and can produce toxic, inorganic byproducts.
In contrast, each dirhodium catalyst developed by the Davies lab uses only a single reagent and speeds up a reaction without being used up in the reaction. Most of the catalyst can be recycled and the only byproduct generated is nitrogen, which is innocuous.
 



Chemical catalyst turns 'trash' into 'treasure,' making inert C-H bonds reactive
December 19, 2018, Emory University

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"We can change a cheap and abundant hydrocarbon with limited usefulness into a valuable scaffold for developing new compounds -- such as pharmaceuticals and other fine chemicals," says J.T. Fu (above), a graduate student at Emory University …more
For decades, chemists have aspired to do carefully controlled chemistry on carbon-hydrogen bonds. The challenge is staggering. It requires the power of a miniature wrecking ball to break these extremely strong bonds, combined with the finesse of microscopic tweezers to single out specific C-H bonds among the many crowded onto a molecule.




The journal Nature published a method that combines both these factors to make an inert C-H bond reactive—effectively turning chemical "trash" to "treasure."

"We can change a cheap and abundant hydrocarbon with limited usefulness into a valuable scaffold for developing new compounds—such as pharmaceuticals and other fine chemicals," says J.T. Fu, a graduate studentat Emory University and first author of the paper.

The Nature paper is the latest in a series from Emory University demonstrating the ability to use a dirhodium catalyst to selectively functionalize C-H bonds in a streamlined manner, while also maintaining virtually full control of the three-dimensional shape of the moleculesproduced.

"This latest catalyst is so selective that it goes cleanly for just one C-H bond—even though there are several C-H bonds very similar to it within the molecule," says Huw Davies, Emory professor of organic chemistry and senior author of the paper. "That was a huge surprise, even to us."

This dirhodium catalyst works on a substrate of tert-butyl cyclohexane, a hydrocarbon—one of the simplest of organic molecules, consisting entirely of C-H bonds.

"Not only can we do a totally unprecedented reaction, we can do it under extremely simple conditions," Davies says. "Tert-butyl cyclohexane is a classic organic structure in chemistry. That helps validate the mainstream potential of C-H functionalization."

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A 3-D model of the new chemical catalyst, which makes inert Carbon-Hydrogen bonds reactive. The bowl-shaped scaffold acts like a lock and key to allow only particular C-H bonds in a compound to approach the catalyst and undergo the reaction. Credit: Emory University
Davies is also the founding director of the National Science Foundation's Center for Selective C-H Functionalization, a consortium based at Emory and encompassing 15 major research universities from across the country as well as industrial partners.

The co-authors of the Nature paper are Djamaladdin Musaev, director of Emory's Cherry L. Emerson Center for Scientific Computation; Zhi Ren, a post-doctoral fellow in the Davies lab; and John Bacsa, facilities director of Emory's Crystallography Lab.



Organic synthesis traditionally focuses on modifying reactive, or functional, groups in a molecule. C-H functionalization breaks this rule for how to make compounds: It bypasses the reactive groups and does synthesis at what would normally be considered inert carbon-hydrogen bonds, abundant in organic compounds.

The aim is to efficiently transform simple, abundant molecules—in some cases even chemical waste materials—into much more complex, value-added molecules. Functionalizing C-H bonds opens new chemical pathways for the synthesis of fine chemicals—pathways that are more streamlined, less costly and cleaner.

Organic synthesis, for example, typically involves the use of many reagents, and can produce toxic, inorganic byproducts.

In contrast, each dirhodium catalyst developed by the Davies lab uses only a single reagent and speeds up a reaction without being used up in the reaction. Most of the catalyst can be recycled and the only byproduct generated is nitrogen, which is innocuous.

Chemists experimenting with C-H functionalization often use a directing group—a chemical entity that combines to a catalyst and then directs the catalyst to a particular C-H bond. The process works, but it is cumbersome.

[Image: 1-chemicalcata.jpg]
"Not only can we do a totally unprecedented reaction, we can do it under extremely simple conditions," says Huw Davies, Emory professor of organic chemistry and senior author of the paper. Credit: Emory University
The Davies lab bypassed the need for a directing group by developing catalysts encased within three-dimensional scaffolds. The bowl-shaped scaffold acts like a lock and key to allow only particular C-H bonds in a compound to approach the catalyst and undergo the reaction.

"Each of the catalysts are unprecedented, achieving a different kind of selectivity than has been seen before," Davies says. "We're developing a toolkit of new catalysts and reagents that will do selective C-H functionalization at different sites on different molecules."

In addition to controlling site selectivity, the scaffold of the dirhodium catalysts controls the chirality of the molecules produced in the reaction. Chirality, also known as "handedness," refers to a property of three-dimensional symmetry. Just as the human hand is chiral, because the right hand is a mirror image of the left, molecules can be "right-handed" or "left-handed."

The handedness of a molecule is important in organic chemistry, since this 3-D shape affects how it interacts with other handed molecules. When developing a new drug, for instance, it is vital to control the chirality of the drug molecules because biological molecules recognize the difference.

The current Nature paper describes the fifth major new catalyst for C-H functionalization that the Davies lab has developed during the past two years.

As a graduate student, Kuangbiao Liao (who has since received his Ph.D. from Emory and is now working for the pharmaceutical company AbbVie) was first author on two papers that appeared in Nature and another published by Nature Chemistry for catalysts developed in 2016 and 2017. Graduate student Wenbin Liu led the work on a fourth catalyst developed earlier this year, published by the Journal of the American Chemical Society.

"We've achieved exquisite catalyst control that is beyond what people thought would be possible even two or three years ago," Davies says. "It's incredible what my students have been able to achieve."

The Davies lab is now exploring adding electronic effects to its dirhodium catalysts. "Instead of just interacting with inert shapes, we want our catalysts to have the ability to electronically repel or attract different molecules," Davies explains. "That could make our methods even more sophisticated and subtle than what we can achieve now, opening up additional new chemical pathways."

 Explore further: New catalyst controls activation of a carbon-hydrogen bond

More information: Desymmetrization of cyclohexanes by site- and stereoselective C–H functionalization, Nature(2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-018-0799-2 , https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-018-0799-2 

Journal reference: Nature Nature Chemistry Journal of the American Chemical Society 
Provided by:  Emory University


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-12-chemical-catalyst-trash-treasure-inert.html#jCp
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