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Rosetta stone"7 hours of terror" Philae approaches 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
Twins are not always identical.
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Just asking a question.

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Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
Quote:Twins are not always identical.

No. Not always.

Paternal Twins nonwithstanding.

Otherwise in the other case.

Although identical @ origin perhaps... they can be differentiated under simple scrutiny.

The last time we heard the duck's neck was an erosive process.

Now It is a Dual Interred and Sintered Duel but itz not the last word.

My answer is as a quantum Random Walk was...
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Now I have a question for you Wook.

Will Philae  Jump up^   ?
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
why not
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
Coinciding things with comet Siding-Spring...

In unexpected discovery, comet contains alcohol, sugar
October 23, 2015

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Picture of the comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) on 12 February 2015. Image taken by French amateur astronomer Fabrice Noel, 50 kilometers south of Paris. (4 minute exposure, 6400 ISO, Sony A7s DSLR). Credit: Fabrice Noel, France

Comet Lovejoy lived up to its name by releasing large amounts of alcohol as well as a type of sugar into space, according to new observations by an international team. The discovery marks the first time ethyl alcohol, the same type in alcoholic beverages, has been observed in a comet. The finding adds to the evidence that comets could have been a source of the complex organic molecules necessary for the emergence of life. 
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More Wine?

Quote:Peak Activity @  a comet Pink Elephant
[Image: 20942855879_49f209a8db_o.jpg]

"We found that comet Lovejoy was releasing as much alcohol as in at least 500 bottles of wine every second during its peak activity,"
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Peek @ a comet Activity  Duck Heirophant 

said Nicolas Biver of the Paris Observatory, France, lead author of a paper on the discovery published Oct. 23 in Science Advances

The team found 21 different organic molecules in gas from the comet, including ethyl alcohol and glycolaldehyde, a simple sugar.

Comets are frozen remnants from the formation of our solar system. Scientists are interested in them because they are relatively pristine and therefore hold clues to how the solar system was made. Most orbit in frigid zones far from the sun. However, occasionally, a gravitational disturbance sends a comet closer to the sun, where it heats up and releases gases, allowing scientists to determine its composition.

Comet Lovejoy (formally cataloged as C/2014 Q2) was one of the brightest and most active comets since comet Hale-Bopp in 1997. Lovejoy passed closest to the sun on January 30, 2015, when it was releasing water at the rate of 20 tons per second. The team observed the atmosphere of the comet around this time when it was brightest and most active. They observed a microwave glow from the comet using the 30-meter (almost 100-foot) diameter radio telescope at Pico Veleta in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of Spain.
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The IRAM 30m radiotelescope in the Sierra Nevada, Spain. Credit: IRAM-30m radiotelescope by Nicolas Biver
Sunlight energizes molecules in the comet's atmosphere, causing them to glow at specific microwave frequencies (if microwaves were visible, different frequencies would be perceived as different colors). Each kind of molecule glows at specific, signature frequencies, allowing the team to identify it with detectors on the telescope. The advanced equipment was capable of analyzing a wide range of frequencies simultaneously, allowing the team to determine the types and amounts of many different molecules in the comet despite a short observation period.
Some researchers think that comet impacts on ancient Earth delivered a supply of organic molecules that could have assisted the origin of life. Discovery of complex organic molecules in Lovejoy and other comets gives support to this hypothesis.
"The result definitely promotes the idea the comets carry very complex chemistry," said Stefanie Milam of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, a co-author on the paper. "During the Late Heavy Bombardment about 3.8 billion years ago, when many comets and asteroids were blasting into Earth and we were getting our first oceans, life didn't have to start with just simple molecules like water, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. Instead, life had something that was much more sophisticated on a molecular level. We're finding molecules with multiple carbon atoms. So now you can see where sugars start forming, as well as more complex organics such as amino acids—the building blocks of proteins—or nucleobases, the building blocks of DNA. These can start forming much easier than beginning with molecules with only two or three atoms."

In July, the European Space Agency reported that the Philae lander from its Rosetta spacecraft in orbit around comet 67P/Churyumov­-Gerasimenko detected 16 organic compounds as it descended toward and then bounced across the comet's surface. According to the agency, some of the compounds detected play key roles in the creation of amino acids, nucleobases, and sugars from simpler "building-block" molecules.
Astronomers think comets preserve material from the ancient cloud of gas and dust that formed the solar system. Exploding stars (supernovae) and the winds from red giant stars near the end of their lives produce vast clouds of gas and dust. Solar systems are born when shock waves from stellar winds and other nearby supernovae compress and concentrate a cloud of ejected stellar material until dense clumps of that cloud begin to collapse under their own gravity, forming a new generation of stars and planets.
These clouds contain countless dust grains. Carbon dioxide, water, and other gases form a layer of frost on the surface of these grains, just as frost forms on car windows during cold, humid nights. Radiation in space powers chemical reactions in this frost layer to produce complex organic molecules. The icy grains become incorporated into comets and asteroids, some of which impact young planets like ancient Earth, delivering the organic molecules contained within them.
"The next step is to see if the organic material being found in comets came from the primordial cloud that formed the solar system or if it was created later on, inside the protoplanetary disk that surrounded the young sun," said Dominique Bockelée-Morvan from Paris Observatory, a co-author of the paper.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: What Philae did in its 60 hours on Comet 67P
More information: "Ethyl alcohol and sugar in comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy)," by N. Biver et al.
Journal reference: Science Advances [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

Read more at:[url=][/url]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Quote:First detection of molecular oxygen at a comet
28 October 2015
ESA’s Rosetta spacecraft has made the first in situ detection of oxygen molecules outgassing from a comet, a surprising observation that suggests they were incorporated into the comet during its formation.
Rosetta has been studying Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko for over a year and has detected an abundance of different gases pouring from its nucleus. Water vapour, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are the most prolific, with a rich array of other nitrogen-, sulphur- and carbon-bearing species, and even ‘noble gases’ also recorded.
Oxygen is the third most abundant element in the Universe, but the simplest molecular version of the gas, O2, has proven surprisingly hard to track down, even in star-forming clouds, because it is highly reactive and readily breaks apart to bind with other atoms and molecules.
For example, oxygen atoms can combine with hydrogen atoms on cold dust grains to form water, or a free oxygen split from O2 by ultraviolet radiation can recombine with an O2 molecule to form ozone (O3).
Despite its detection on the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn, O2 had been missing in the inventory of volatile species associated with comets until now.
“We weren’t really expecting to detect O2 at the comet – and in such high abundance – because it is so chemically reactive, so it was quite a surprise,” says Kathrin Altwegg of the University of Bern, and principal investigator of the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis instrument, ROSINA.
“It’s also unanticipated because there aren’t very many examples of the detection of interstellar O2. And thus, even though it must have been incorporated into the comet during its formation, this is not so easily explained by current Solar System formation models.”
The team analysed more than 3000 samples collected around the comet between September 2014 and March 2015 to identify the O2. They determined an abundance of 1–10% relative to H2O, with an average value of 3.80 ± 0.85%, an order of magnitude higher than predicted by models describing the chemistry in molecular clouds.
The amount of molecular oxygen detected showed a strong relationship to the amount of water measured at any given time, suggesting that their origin on the nucleus and release mechanism are linked. By contrast, the amount of O2 seen was poorly correlated with carbon monoxide and molecular nitrogen, even though they have a similar volatility to O2. In addition, no ozone was detected.
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
Lefty Hates when I AM WRITE.

Although Lincoln can not 'officially ' respond @ THM anymore a sock puppet eventually realises it was old and freyed and needed to be darned.

Them Darn pseudo's they always reward itza with back-handed kudo's!!!

Chances 'fair' for Philae contact: ground controllers
November 3, 2015

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This picture released by the European Space Agency on December 20, 2013 of an artist's impression of Rosetta's lander Philae on the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

Chances are "fair" for renewed contact with Europe's robot lab Philae, hurtling through space perched on a comet, a ground controller said Tuesday, four months after the tiny lander fell silent.

"There is indeed a fair chance again to reestablish contact with the lander. Let's say 50-50," project manager Stephan Ulamec of German space agency DLR told AFP.

What if Philae "Relocates"

Actually loses its tenuos grip and without harpooned cable-tows, repositions itself.

It may yet just jet to a new locale...ya never know since this is a quantum thread.

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When the sun enters the scene things may or may not change.
depends on pov. That was my first post after post #5050

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[sup] EA 
Non Official Cover

Posts: 5051
Mojo: 13

50/50  [Image: reefer.gif]
[sub]« Reply #55 on: Today at 09:56:17 PM »[/sub]

Yesterday = day [sup]333[/sup] don't gamble with improv. [Image: rover.jpg] Today = day [sub]334[/sub]
[move]50 [glow=red,2,300]Here is / There Was[/glow] a "Schrödinger's Cat" 50[/move]

It ex-cites itself

Maybe 67p will split in two and be 50/50   

Philae touched down on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on November 12 last year after a 10-year, 6.5-billion-kilometre (four-billion-mile) journey through space, piggybacking on European spacecraft Rosetta.
The landing was rough, and the robot tumbled into a ditch shadowed from the Sun's battery-recharging rays.
After three days of comet sniffing and prodding, its power ran out, and Philae went into hibernation on November 15.
But as 67P drew closer to the Sun on its elliptical orbit, Philae recharged and woke up on June 13.

It made eight intermittent contacts with Earth via its orbiting mothership, only to fall silent again on July 9.
The washing machine-sized robot's current status is unknown.
'Reasonably optimistic'
In July, controllers expressed fears that Philae may have shifted on the rough, alien surface, out of radio range.
Another risk was that its solar panels may be covered in the dust blasting off 67P around the time of its closest approach to the Sun in August.
Contact was possible "only if not too much dust has fallen on the solar generators, which is difficult to estimate, and if the communication system is working properly," said Ulamec.
It is quite possible that Philae is awake without anyone knowing.
Rosetta has had to move further away, out of radio range, to prevent damage to its navigation system from the outpouring of dust from 67P as it shaved past the Sun.
At a distance of some 300 kilometres (186 miles) from the comet—compared to less than 10 km at its closest last October—Rosetta was too far away to communicate with Philae.
"The comet has been less active since September, and conditions are more favourable moving closer," said Sylvain Lodiot, Rosetta operations manager at the European Space Agency.
On Tuesday, the orbiter was at a distance of about 270 km from the comet, and will continue descending until about 200 km, if all goes well.
"We are preparing for fresh contact with Philae," said Philippe Gaudon, Rosetta project manager at French space agency CNES.
"We are reasonably optimistic," he added.

Posted by Wook - Wednesday, September 30th, 2015, 07:21 pm

Quote:why not
Posted by EA - Wednesday, September 30th, 2015, 06:07 am
"We are reasonably optimistic,"

Now I have a question for you Wook.

Will Philae  Jump up^   ?

The window for contact should remain open until about the end of the year.
"End of December or January we start reaching an area too far away from the Sun to be able to communicate," said Ulamec.
The ground-breaking Rosetta mission was conceived to learn more about the origins of life on Earth.
Some experts believe comets smashed into our infant planet, providing it with precious water and the chemical building blocks for life.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Comet mission in bid to contact dormant Philae probe

Read more at:[/url][url=]

Quote: Wrote:what I want to know is if the cat lived.

"Here is/There was a "Schrödinger's Cat" 

@ the moment keith  [Image: damned.gif] 
"Schrödinger's Philae" is alive/dead

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itz in a coma...     literally!!!  
It Rights itself
It Writes itself
Itza Rite itself

Quote:It is quite possible that Philae is awake without anyone knowing

Let's say     50-50   

Don't Gamble with Improv 

Go for a   Arrow  Quantum Random Walk instead.

Your odds are always wayyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy better and it enriches gnosis not measure of a treasure.

and sew forth  And Ever A Non-Profit Prophet -Anon Ever and... endeavor and sow forth

Quote:Merely as Expat/Lincoln claims...

Poetic Twaddle for the neurons.

Easy as Bamf Pi  LilD

Quote:It Sights itself.
It Sites Itself.
Itza Cite Itself.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Team maps gas emissions from comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
November 12, 2015

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These images, acquired with Rosetta's OSIRIS wide-angle camera using specific wavelength filters, map the emissions of three gases from the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. From left to right, the panels show hydroxyl molecules (blue; 308nm filter), oxygen atoms (orange; 630nm), and cyanide molecules (green; 387nm). The OSIRIS instrument captured the images on March 12, 2015, when Rosetta was 80 km from the comet. Credit: OSIRIS Team
The European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft began orbiting comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in August 2014, providing the closest and most detailed look at a comet to date. Now, a team led by astronomers at the University of Maryland has used data from Rosetta's Optical, Spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS) cameras to generate maps of multiple gas emissions just above the comet's surface.

The work has already revealed surprising physical and chemical processes never before seen up close. The researchers will present their findings at the 47th Annual Meeting of the American Astronomical Society's Division for Planetary Sciences, November 8-13, 2015, in National Harbor, Maryland.
The group focused on gases produced by the breakdown of water molecules (H2O) and hydrogen cyanide molecules (HCN). Both reactions are caused by ultraviolet radiation from the sun, and the gases produced by these reactions give off light at characteristic wavelengths that can help researchers identify where and when the specific gases are produced.
"Because Rosetta is very close to the comet, it can observe gas much closer to the nucleus than can be seen from Earth," said Dennis Bodewits, an assistant research scientist in astronomy at UMD who will present the group's findings. "This has already revealed unanticipated physical processes that are important both in breaking apart the original molecules of gas and in causing the fragments to shine."

When water (H2O) is broken down, it produces molecular hydrogen (H2) and a single oxygen atom. This oxygen remains in an excited state, which allows it to directly emit a photon instead of waiting to absorb a photon from the sun. This means that this excited oxygen can be used as a proxy to track the location and amount of water.
"Since we first arrived at the comet, the emissions have been far stronger than expected," Bodewits said. Early measurements of water by the Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta Orbiter (MIRO) camera provided a basis for these predictions. "However, these measurements came into agreement when the comet drew closer to the sun."
The team was also surprised by the signature from cyanide gas (CN), produced as a byproduct of the breakdown of hydrogen cyanide (HCN). In early Earth-based observations, cyanide could be seen emitting light thousands of kilometers away from 67P's nucleus. However, when viewed up close as the comet approached the sun, the light emitted by cyanide fragments dropped off very sharply within about 10 kilometers.
"This indicates that, as with oxygen formed by the breakdown of water, cyanide also emits light immediately after it is formed," Bodewits explained. "As an interesting historical note, cyanide emission is very bright and was the first molecular emission identified in comets. This led to panicked news headlines in 1910, when both Halley's comet and the Daylight comet visited Earth. We now know that cyanide concentrations in comets are too low to be of any concern."
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Image: Jet activity at the neck of the Rosetta comet
More information: The presentation, titled "Observed changes in the physical environment and chemistry in the inner coma of 67p/Churyumov-Gerasimenko," Dennis Bodewits et al., will be presented at 10:50am on Friday, November 13, 2015, at the at the 47th Annual Meeting of the American Astronomical Society's Division for Planetary Sciences. 
Provided by: University of Maryland

Read more at:[/url][url=]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Hocus-Pocus Horus-Chorus.
All Ma'at @ That.

Ride along with Rosetta through the eyes of OSIRIS
December 14, 2015

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Single-frame OSIRIS narrow-angle camera image taken on 10 December 2015, when Rosetta was 103.3 km from the nucleus of Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. The scale is 1.87 m/pixel. Credit: ESA/Rosetta/MPS for OSIRIS Team MPS/UPD/LAM/IAA/SSO/INTA/UPM/DASP/IDA
Rosetta's OSIRIS camera team has launched a new website to showcase their recent images of Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko.

The high-resolution images, taken either with the narrow- or wide-angle scientific imaging camera, will show the comet as recently as the day before.
They will be posted to a dedicated website but followers can also subscribe to a mailing list to receive the images directly via email.
The cadence of the images released will depend on the scientific operations of the spacecraft and in particular on the as-run OSIRIS observations on any given day, along with the availability of images downloaded from the spacecraft.
A minimum of an image per week should be expected, up to an image a day if they are taken daily.
"Following perihelion and a far excursion, we are now back at closer distances – about 100 km – to the comet, providing a view similar to that when we first arrived on 6 August 2014," says Holger Sierks, principal investigator for the camera at the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in Göttingen, Germany.

"We'd like to share this view with the community and the general public, in near-real time, as we re-approach and eventually descend to the surface of the comet."
The images will be released by a robotic system in JPG format, raw or calibrated as available, following a brief pre-selection by OSIRIS scientists. Basic 'metadata' stating the date, time, distance to the comet and the Sun, and the resolution of the image will be included with each.
There will not be a detailed scientific description of the images because the goal is to provide up-to-date 'postcards' of the comet. Traditional image releases with scientific interpretation will still be made, separately, in the usual way.
The images will also be added to our ESA galleries and shared on our Rosetta social media channels. In addition, we plan to showcase them in a weekly blog post alongside our regular navigation camera (NavCam) CometWatch feature.
"This new initiative is a welcome addition to our long-established NavCam CometWatch releases, and gives us another way to enjoy riding along with Rosetta as it follows the comet through the Solar System," notes Patrick Martin, ESA's Rosetta mission manager.
"Now that we're closer to the comet again we're looking forward to seeing its surface in more detail. We're also looking forward to sharing a fantastic view as Rosetta descends to the surface of the comet next September," says Matt Taylor, ESA's Rosetta project scientist.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Image: Rosetta's comet looms
More information: Visit the website at: 
Provided by: European Space Agency

Read more at:[/url]


ESA Rosetta and Philae Cartoons
All the vowels are trowels and sum-times Y.
Logan loves these cartoons. 
My Grandkid is getting a fast-track universal education on why the sky is blue and all the other-wise whys? 

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Could molecular oxygen be common on comets?

December 10, 2015 by Tomasz Nowakowski

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An image of Halley's Comet taken in 1986. Credit: NASA

(—A team of researchers, encouraged by the latest discovery of ESA's Rosetta spacecraft of molecular oxygen (O2) on the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, are going over comet 1P/Halley (known as Halley's Comet) with a fine-tooth comb, searching for the traces of this essential molecule. The new study, led by Martin Rubin of the University of Bern, Switzerland, shows that molecular oxygen is also present on 1P/Halley and therefore might be common on other comets.

The scientists used the data from the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) instrument aboard ESA's Giotto probe, which passed 1P/Halley in 1986. They found that O2 is the third most abundant species on this celestial body. The results were published on Dec. 4 in the Astrophysical Journal Letters.

Giotto approached Halley's nucleus at a distance of 596 kilometers. Despite being hit by the comet's small particles, the spacecraft gathered important scientific data during a flyby lasting only few minutes. This close encounter enabled the chemical characterization of the material being ejected from the comet. The results indicated that Halley releases mainly water and carbon monoxide. The data showed also traces of methane, ammonia, other hydrocarbons, as well as iron and sodium. Now, Rubin and his colleagues report abundant amounts of molecular oxygen in the comet's coma.

"Our investigation indicates that a production rate of O2 with respect to water is, indeed, compatible with the obtained Halley data, and therefore that O2 might be a rather common and abundant parent species," the scientist wrote in the paper.

The first comet on which molecular oxygen was detected is 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, representing Jupiter family comets originating from the Kuiper belt. The Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) found this molecule in October 2015, and since then, the scientists have wondered whether the O2 abundance is peculiar to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko or Jupiter family comets in general. The new results hint that the existence of molecular oxygen could also be characteristic for the Oort cloud family of comets that includes Halley.

"We now have an indication for abundant O2 in the comas of two comets, one from the Oort cloud and the other from the Kuiper belt or possibly the scattered disk. This is particularly interesting, as both families of comets are believed to have formed at different locations in our early solar system," the paper reads.

The authors of the new study also address what caused the abundance of molecular oxygen on Halley. One possible explanation offered by the scientists is that the O2 has already been formed through irradiation of ices in the molecular cloud phase and the oxygen remained trapped before the comet eventually formed. According to the scientists, the close abundance of oxygen on both comets, despite very different dynamical histories and erosion rates, confirms this hypothesis.

Comets are essential to improving our understanding of the origins of life. These icy leftovers from the planet-forming process have been preserved at low temperatures since their formation. Thus, the cometary material could provide invaluable hints on how solar system was created.

Now, when we know that the presence of molecular oxygen is not unique to one comet, a new chapter opens in the search for the ingredients of life on the icy visitors from the outskirts of the solar system. With that in mind, further studies could reveal a vast number of comets rich in oxygen, water and even organic compounds.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Image: Jet activity at the neck of the Rosetta comet

More information: M. Rubin et al. MOLECULAR OXYGEN IN OORT CLOUD COMET 1P/HALLEY, The Astrophysical Journal (2015). DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/815/1/L11

Recently, the ROSINA mass spectrometer suite on board the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft discovered an abundant amount of molecular oxygen, O2, in the coma of Jupiter family comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko of O2/H2O = 3.80 ± 0.85%. It could be shown that O2 is indeed a parent species and that the derived abundances point to a primordial origin. Crucial questions are whether the O2 abundance is peculiar to comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko or Jupiter family comets in general, and also whether Oort cloud comets such as comet 1P/Halley contain similar amounts of molecular oxygen. We investigated mass spectra obtained by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer instrument during the flyby by the European Space Agency's Giotto probe of comet 1P/Halley. Our investigation indicates that a production rate of O2 of 3.7 ± 1.7% with respect to water is indeed compatible with the obtained Halley data and therefore that O2 might be a rather common and abundant parent species. 

Journal reference: Astrophysical Journal Letters [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]Astrophysical Journal [Image: img-dot.gif]

Read more at:[url=]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...

Why Cells Divide - Introduction to Biology - 6.1
Quote:I am homeschooling my son, and we are studying cell division.  The texbook* says that SPECIALISED CELLS (eg muscle cells) do not divide.  WHY?
I'd really appreciate an answer to this!  Thanks.

« Last Edit: 21/12/2006 23:34:42 by chris »

[Image: ip.gif] Logged

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[Image: xx.gif]
Re: Why don't some "specialised" (differentiated) cells divide?
« Reply #1 on: 24/09/2006 16:47:46 »

I am sure there are people who will come along to give you a more definitive answer to this, but I will try and give you the little that I know, and some web pages it might be worth to look up.

The primary cells that divide to create new cells in the human (or any animal) body are stem cells.  There are different types of stem cells, with different capabilities (some can only create certain types of cells, while others can create almost any type of cell, and some cells that have differentiated can turn back into stem cells).  Stem cells not only have the capability to divide to create new cells, but they are flexible enough to turn themselves into different types of cells (i.e. to differentiate themselves).  The trouble is that this differentiation, with some exceptions, is a one way process (a little like wet clay that is fired in a kiln – while it is wet, it can be moulded into anything, but once it is fired, it is what it is but can be nothing else).

The liver is among the few internal human organs capable of natural regeneration of lost tissue; as little as 25% of remaining liver can regenerate into a whole liver again. This is predominantly due to the hepatocytes acting as unipotential stem cells (i.e. a single hepatocyte can divide into two hepatocyte daughter cells). There is also some evidence of bipotential stem cells, called oval cells, which can differentiate into either hepatocytes or cholangiocytes (cells that line the bile ducts).

Regeneration is a form of tissue repair. The restoration of lost or damaged tissues, organs or limbs. When tissue is damaged, it will be either regenerated or replaced by connective tissue. Regeneration is common in invertebrates but far more limited in most vertebrates, where usually only certain kinds of tissue can regenerate if the damage is not too substantial. Nevertheless, even humans are capable of some degree of regeneration. Humans can regenerate finger tips (distal to the last joint). It can occur throughout the human lifetime, but it is generally best in young children. The human liver also retains its ability to regenerate throughout a person's lifetime. Other tissues, such as the epidermis, blood vessels and peripheral nerves also regenerate under many conditions. Regeneration of some tissues, such as the epidermis, is related to the fact that these tissues are continuously being replaced throughout life.

Regeneration of a lost limb occurs in two major steps, first de-differentiation of adult cells into a stem cell state similar to embryonic cells and second, development of these cells into new tissue more or less the same way it developed the first time. Some animals like planarians instead keep clusters of non-differentiated cells within their bodies, which migrate to the parts of the body that need healing.

Cellular differentiation is a concept from developmental biology describing the process by which cells acquire a "type". The morphology of a cell may change dramatically during differentiation, but the genetic material remains the same, with few exceptions.
A cell that is able to differentiate into many cell types is known as pluripotent. These cells are called stem cells in animals and meristematic cells in higher plants. A cell that is able to differentiate into all cell types is known as totipotent. In mammals, only the zygote and early embryonic cells are totipotent, while in plants, many differentiated cells can become totipotent with simple laboratory techniques.

Stem cells in people are primal undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to produce an identical copy of themselves when they divide (clone) and differentiate into other cell types. In higher animals this function is the defining property of the deleted cells. Stem cells have the ability to act as a repair system for the body, because they can divide and differentiate, replenishing other cells as long as the host organism is alive.
Powers of Ten - Ultimate Zoom (micro-macro - Imax combined)
Macro To Micro In The Universe
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
17 December 2015

High-res movie lets you float by a comet with Rosetta spacecraft

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This has got to be one of the best views of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenk we’ve ever seen. It’s an animation of a series of images taken by the high-resolution OSIRIS camera on board the European Space Agency’s Rosetta spacecraft, which has been orbiting the comet since August last year. Be sure to download the full 65MB high-resolution version, which is so crisp that it is almost as if you are floating with Rosetta alongside 67P.
The gif was created by Herobrine of the Unmanned Spaceflight forum, where space enthusiasts gather to play with data from the various probes exploring the cosmos.
Their Christmas has come early, because the OSIRIS team has just put a treasure-trove of images online for the first time. Until now, these pictures were highly guarded because of their scientific value, giving us only a few glimpses at the high-res glory of 67P.

Look closely at Herobrine’s animation and you’ll see the stars passing in the background as Rosetta rotates around the comet, while tiny dust particles fly in front. You can also see ghostly gas jets extending off the surface, lit up by the sun.
These images only cover the period from June to September 2014, but the OSIRIS team has also created a web page to showcase more recent pictures from Rosetta, which they say will be regularly updated. But Rosetta’s mission will end in September next year, when ESA will land it on 67P to capture even more close-up data – and symbolically reunite it with the stranded lander Philae.

Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
This is a Quantum Thread.

Philae is was/in a superposition as far as itz exact location is concerned.

I think we should consider the corporeal location of this elusive fuzzy object.

Quote:I have mapped itz general non- locality...

It Sights Itself.
It Sites Itself.
Itza Cite Itself.

is philae @ ~33.3 degrees?
[Image: 23854144071_f2f6813419_o.jpg]

Quote: Wrote:what I want to know is if the cat lived.

"Here is/There was a "Schrödinger's Cat" 

@ the moment keith  [Image: damned.gif] 
"Schrödinger's Philae" is alive/dead

[Image: schrodingers-cat-is-alive-dead.jpg]

itz in a coma...     literally!!!  [Image: rofl.gif] [Image: rofl.gif] [Image: rofl.gif]
It Rights itself
It Writes itself
Itza Rite itself

This finding reveals that superposition is possible at the distances and timescales of everyday life, researchers said.
[Image: 0.jpg]

Fuzzy  can expand to 33 feet but more importantly a Decameter!!!

Quote: Wrote:"I think it is amazing that the laws of physics allow this to happen," Kasevich told Live Science.

Big 'Schrödinger's Cats' Created

by Charles Q. Choi, Live Science Contributor   |   December 23, 2015 02:14pm ET
[Image: dark-cat-silhouette.jpg?1450887427]
Quote: Wrote:The researchers hope to extend their WORK to more than 33 feet (10 m) in the next few years, Kasevich said.

The imaginary feline known as Schrödinger's cat, which is both alive and dead (or neither) until beheld, is the best-known representation of the real-life phenomenon known as superposition.

Quote: Wrote:

Now, for the first time, scientists have demonstrated superposition over a macroscopic scale of about a half-yard (0.54 meters). This finding reveals that superposition is possible at the distances and timescales of everyday life, researchers said.
This research could one day help test the limits of quantum physics, potentially yielding insights that could rewrite what researchers know about the nature of reality, scientists added. [5 Reasons We May Live in a Multiverse]

The quirky laws of quantum physics suggest the universe can be a fuzzy, surreal place. 
[Image: 21181760803_dd8054d050_o.jpg]

One strange consequence of quantum physics is that particles can actually exist in states known as "superpositions." 

Quote:is philae @ ~33.3 degrees?

This means they could literally be located in two or more places at once, until they are "observed" — that is, until they interact with their surroundings in some way. This concept is often illustrated using the thought experiment of Schrödinger's cat.

Superpositions are very delicate. Once perturbed in some way, they collapse or "decohere" to just a single outcome. Previous research has revealed that particles can act like Schrödinger's cat on microscopic scales, but the delicacy of superpositions prevented scientists from generating larger examples of the phenomenon.

By checking for a limit to superposition and finding out at what scale quantum physics might break down, researchers could discover clues that could link two seemingly disparate theories: quantum physics and the theory of general relativity, said study senior author Mark Kasevich, a quantum physicist at Stanford University in California. The former, which explains the universe at the tiniest level, by describing the behavior of all known particles,; and the theory of general relativity while the latter, which explains the universe at its largest level, by describing the nature of space-time and gravity. Uniting the two would provide a better description and understanding of the workings of the cosmos in its entirety.

Now researchers have created macroscopic instances of superposition, like life-size versions of Schrödinger's cat.

"I think it is amazing that the laws of physics allow this to happen," Kasevich told Live Science.

The scientists experimented with ultracold clouds, each made up of about 100,000 rubidium atoms. Using a lattice of laser beams, the researchers propelled these atom clouds up like fountains, making them behave like packets of waves.

As these wave packets were launched upward, laser pulses split each packet up into two wave packets that were in superposition with each other. The wave packets recombined after traveling a short distance, and by analyzing their properties after they reunited, the scientists could tell whether they had been in superposition. The researchers succeeded in preserving superposition even when these wave packets were separated by distances of up to about 21.25 inches (54 centimeters), on a timescale of about 1 second.

The keys to such macroscopic superpositions include the extreme cold — less than a billionth of a degree above absolute zero, the coldest theoretical temperature possible — as well as the careful use of light to minimize disturbances that might lead to decoherence.

Kasevich emphasized that "while we can create superpositions for atoms, we can't do this for larger objects, for example, humans."

The researchers hope to extend their WORK to more than 33 feet (10 m) in the next few years, Kasevich said.

Superposition by EA

[Image: 21647465461_72e28bd8c9_o.jpg]

They detailed their findings in the Dec. 24 issue of the journal Nature.
Last-chance bid to contact space robot Philae
January 9, 2016 by Mariëtte Le Roux, Pascale Mollard-Chenebenoit

[Image: thishandoutf.jpg]
This handout from the European Space Agency shows an artist's impression of Rosetta's lander Philae on the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

Scientists initiated Friday a last-chance manoeuvre to contact a long-silent robot-lab dropped more than a year ago onto the surface of a comet hurtling through our solar system.

Part of the European Space Agency's Rosetta mission, the Philae probe has yielded spectacular scientific results—and a few moments of high drama—since its near crash-landing onto comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in November 2014.
But it has been six months since mission control engineers at the German Aerospace Centre in Darmstadt have been in communication with Philae, and the odds of reestablishing contact are diminishing fast as the solar-powered probe speeds away from the Sun.
"The last clear sign of life was received from Philae on July 9, 2015," the German Space Agency said in a statement. "Since then it has remained silent."
Scientists sent a command to the fridge-sized robot to spin up its flywheel, initially used to stabilise the probe when it landed.

The hope is that so doing will "shake dust from its solar panels and better align it with the Sun", explained technical project manager Koen Geurts.
It is also possible, however, that the command—routed through the Rosetta spacecraft orbiting the comet—will never even reach Philae.
Several further attempts will be made, he added.
"It's an admittedly desperate move," Philippe Gaudon of the French National Space Agency told AFP. "It is very unlikely the robot will become functional again."
Mission managers believe that one of the lander's two radio transmitters, and one of its two receivers, have both failed. Even the remaining ones may not be fully functional.
The window of opportunity for making contact with Philae will close definitively toward the end of January, when the comet and its companion hardware will be some 300 million kilometres (185 million miles) from the Sun.
That's when the temperature is likely to fall below minus 51 degrees Celsius (minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit), the threshold beyond which Philae can no longer operate.
The robot-probe—packed with nearly a dozen instruments—landed on 67P after a 10-year, 6.5-billion-kilometre journey piggybacking on mothership Rosetta.
It bounced several times on the craggy surface before ending up at an angle in deep shade, where it sent home some 60 hours of data before going into standby mode on November 15, 2014.
The lander's power pack was recharged as 67P drew closer to the Sun on its elliptical orbit, and Philae woke up on June 13.
After that, it made intermittent contact, uploading data, only to fall silent again on July 9.
The ground-breaking mission was conceived to learn more about the origins of life on Earth.
Comets are pristine leftovers from the Solar System's formation some 4.6 billion years ago. Many experts believe they smashed into our infant planet, providing it with water and the chemical building blocks for life.
Philae has found several organic molecules, including four never before detected on a comet.

Read more at:[/url][url=]

[Image: 23854144071_f2f6813419_o.jpg]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Quote:Exclamation Snark @BadPhysics Follow 

Now Philae down to sleep
We pray a sunbeam soon to sweep
And if the hibernation break
We have more science yet to make 
5:49 PM - 14 Nov 2014 
534 Retweets 391 favorites ReplyRetweetFavorite


11 January 2016

Philae lander fails to respond to last-ditch efforts to wake it

[Image: dn28752-1_800.jpg]
Farewell, Philae.   Cry   The space lander that touched down on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (and in our hearts) in November 2014 has not responded to a last-ditch attempt to wake it, and it now looks almost certain that the lander is permanently sleeping.

Quote:Comet 67P is moving away from the sun, and in just a few weeks will become too cold and dim for the lander to survive. It has not been heard from since July 2015. Last night, mission managers at the German Aerospace Center in Cologne sent a signal to Philae commanding it to spin its internal flywheel, a risky and unpredictable manoeuvre that could dislodge it from its shady landing spot in the hope of getting more sunlight on its solar panels. It didn’t work.
“We did not hear anything,” says lander manager Stephan Ulamec. In the best-case scenario, Philae may have received the command and moved, but be unable to respond due to a damaged transmitter. It is more likely that the signal was not received.
In mourning Sad
The team will try a few more commands, but it looks like Philae has officially gone. “We have to face reality, and chances get less and less every day as we are getting farther and farther away from the sun,” says Ulamec. “At some point we have to accept we will not get signals from Philae anymore.”

Philae’s orbiting companion Rosetta has scanned the landing zone with its camera. Ulamec’s team will scour the images for any sign of a dust cloud thrown up by the lander moving, but Rosetta is far away from the comet and Philae is too small to be seen directly.
Besides mourning the loss of the most famous space probe of recent times, the team is also disappointed that Philae may have more data about 67P stored in its memory that will now be lost. “It’s certainly a bit sad that we could not retrieve more data after the wake-up in June,” says Ulamec. “We have to live with the data that we got in November 2014.”
There remains one small hope. As Rosetta comes to the end of its mission in September this year, mission managers are planning to bring it down into a very low orbit of the comet, eventually touching down on the surface itself. Rosetta should be able to capture close-ups of Philae’s final resting spot, giving us one last look at the probe. “You should clearly see the lander, and this will help us interpret the data we received in November,” says Ulamec.

Above reproach and unapproachable  Applause PHILAE!!!

(p.s.)   Arrow   Jump ^up.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...

Quote:There remains one small hope.
As Rosetta comes to the end of its mission in September this year,
mission managers are planning to bring it down into a very low orbit of the comet,
eventually touching down on the surface itself.
Rosetta should be able to capture close-ups of Philae’s final resting spot,

Now that will be excellent to see happen.
Planetary Resources take note:  Arrow

Water ice found on the surface of comet 67P  LilD

January 14, 2016 by Deborah Netburn, Los Angeles Times

[Image: 569767a8ea3cf.jpg]

Rosetta NAVCAM context images of the two debris falls. Credit: © Nature (2016) doi:10.1038/nature16190

For the first time, scientists have spotted large patches of water ice on the surface of a comet, thanks to instruments aboard the European Space Agency's Rosetta orbiter.

The finding, published Wednesday in Nature, solves a long-standing mystery about water ice in comets. Scientists already knew that the coma - the expansive cloud of gas surrounding the comet's nucleus - is dominated by water molecules. They also knew that water ice is one of the main components of the nucleus. But until now, traces of water ice on the surface of the comet had been difficult to detect.

"First, not finding ice was a surprise; now, finding it is a surprise," said Murthy Gudipati a planetary scientist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in La Canada Flintridge, Calif., and an author on the paper. "It is exciting because now we are starting to understand the upper dynamic layers of the comet and how they evolved."

The surface of comet 67P, like most comets, is primarily covered by dark organic materials that appear almost black. That's because as comets fly toward the sun, they are exposed to warm temperatures that cause volatiles like water ice on their surface to sublimate - or go directly from solid to gas.

What remains on the crust are what are known as refractory materials. These include silicates similar to rocks, sand and dirt on Earth and carbonaceous materials. Because these materials do not sublimate, the comet's surface becomes increasingly organic and silicate rich over time, said Michael Combi, who studies comets at the University of Michigan and co-authored the paper.

The surface water ice on comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko was discovered in two places several tens of feet across in a region known as Imhotep, on the bottom part of the main lobe of the comet. It was found using the VIRTIS infrared instrument, which scanned the area looking for water ice spectra signals not long after the Rosetta orbiter caught up with 67P in the fall of 2014.

In both cases the ice appeared on cliff walls and debris falls, and appeared as noticeably bright patches in visible light.

"It looked like there was a breakage, or something fell down on the surface of the comet, and a large, new inside area that had water ice was exposed," Gudipati said. "Although we knew water ice had to be in the nucleus, this was our first direct detection of that interior ice."

Further analysis of the VIRTIS data revealed the water ice grains in the newly exposed areas came in two different sizes.

The small grains that are in the micrometer range are likely associated with a thin layer of frost that forms as a function of the comet's rotation. As this region of the comet turns away from the sun, water ice condenses out of the coma and onto the nucleus, the authors wrote. During the "day" the water goes back into the coma.

The larger ice grains, which are a few millimeters across, probably have a more complex origin story, the authors said. One possibility is that water ice in the shallow subsurface of the comet might vaporize as the comet flies closer to the sun, and then move downward into the cooler lower surface lawyers where it condenses again in the voids.

"Keep in mind that comets are very porous, like cotton candy," Gudipati said. "Seventy percent of this comet is a void, and because of that, the heat from the surface does not go that deep."

It should be noted that water ice made up just a small percentage of the material scanned by VIRTIS, suggesting that it is mixed in with the refractory materials in the upper layers of the comet.

The research team, lead by Gianrico Filacchione of the Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology in Rome, is now analyzing data captured by the same instrument later in the mission to see how the amount of ice exposed on the surface changed as the comet zoomed closer to the sun.

In the meantime, Gudipati said the new findings have already given comet scientists a lot to work with.

"We knew water ice made up the majority of the comet, but we didn't know how deep or in what condition it was," he said. "This shows that it not very deep at all - perhaps just a few feet beneath the surface."

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Rosetta measures comet's temperature

More information: G. Filacchione et al. Exposed water ice on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, Nature (2016). DOI: 10.1038/nature16190 

Journal reference: Nature

Read more at:[/url][url=]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...

3.333 Tripodal Touchdowns!!!  LilD
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
My Grandson is a huge fan of Philae.

I Hope they close the story with a reunion. Luv

Philae comet probe: World prepares for final farewell
February 3, 2016 by Mariëtte Le Roux

[Image: amodelofthee.jpg]
A model of the European Space Agency's robot craft Philae is seen at the Cite de l'espace in Toulouse on November 12, 2014, the day Philae began a 20km descent toward the Churyumov-Gerasimenko comet after being launched from the space probe Rosetta
In November 2014, a brave explorer on a daring mission strapped on a pair of studded boots and a hard hat, stuffed a cheese sandwich and a compass into a backpack, and leapt from a spacecraft.

After a seven-hour freefall, our protagonist touched down on a comet and became a hero back home, where Earthlings followed his every tweet, collected soft toys in his likeness, and fretted when he fell silent.
For all the warm human emotion he evokes, our daredevil adventurer, Philae, is a cold metal box the size of a washing machine.
Twitter and Youtube turned the robot lab into a cartoon hero with human qualities—an intrepid little boy who dozed off after an historic mission to probe a comet zipping though space.
But the success of the campaign to humanise a scientific instrument has left the European Space Agency (ESA) with a dilemma: how to communicate Philae's demise?

"When finally we 'kill' Philae, it will be like 'who killed Bambi'," ESA senior science adviser Mark McCaughrean told AFP in November last year, when ground controllers started considering when, and how, to draw a line under the lander mission.
Philae is perched on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, now some 340 million kilometres (211 million miles) from the Sun and speeding further away.
[Image: philaefinall.jpg]
Chronology of the Rosetta and Philae mission with data.
"We're going to get accused... of abandoning the poor little boy," said McCaughrean.
Scientists have said that by January 2016, 67P will be too far out for rejuvenating rays to reach Philae's solar panels ever again.
January has come and gone without any announcement.
"That's a really difficult question, how to kill this character that people have taken to love," said Sebastian Marcu, founder of Design & Data, the agency that drew the ESA cartoon.
Little brother
In a first for space exploration, Philae was dropped onto 67P's surface on November 12, 2014 after a 10-year, 6.5-billion-kilometre (four-billion-mile) journey through space, piggybacking on mothership Rosetta.
The feat was followed by adults and children around the world, many enthralled by the media campaign of animated cartoons and Twitter chitchat between the duo.
[Image: anillustrati.jpg]
An illustration by cartoonist Carlo Palazzari of the European Space Agency's (ESA) 'Philae' cartoon character, conceived by the ESA as a way to generate public interest in its programmes
In the videos, Rosetta and Philae are hand-drawn as a small box and a bigger one, with dots for eyes and pen-stripe mouths with which they express joy, affection, surprise, fright and trepidation.

Imbuing objects with human qualities is called anthropomorphism—a tried-and-trusted marketing technique.
In the case of Philae and Rosetta, it seems to have worked wonders to build public backing for a costly, taxpayer-funded endeavour.
"Time and time again when a space mission didn't go as planned, the media was very quick at saying... 'We could have built so many schools for it, and so many hospitals for it'," recalled Marcu.
"In this mission... we have managed to create this empathy amongst the general public for the well-being of a metal box... They really didn't question the money aspect of it."
The videos portray Philae as Rosetta's smaller "brother", riding on her back through space, his thin little legs dangling across her forehead.
At some point on the long journey, Philae jumps up and down like a bored child on a road trip, exclaiming: "Are we there yet? Are we there yet?"
[Image: thenationalc.jpg]
The National Centre for Space Studies (CNES) president Jean-Yves Le Gall (L), French President Francois Hollande and French astrophysicist Francis Rocard looking at a model of Rosetta lander Philae, in 2014
There are even childhood "photographs" of the pair, Rosetta sucking a pacifier, and Philae riding a tricycle, long before their careers as space explorers.
Then, on arrival at 67P, the pair separate after 10 years together.
Philae puts on his boots, tests his flashlight and loads his backpack, which has an "I love Earth" patch sewn onto it.
'I'm tired'
There is a sad glance, a hug, then Philae jumps.
The cartoons depict Philae's bumpy landing, bouncing off the comet's craggy surface several times before ending up at an angle in a shaded crevice.
It spent 60 hours sniffing and prodding the comet, and sent home invaluable data before its batteries ran flat.
Just before it went into standby mode, Philae tweeted "I'm feeling a bit tired", followed by "zzzzz". In the video, the robot is asleep on a mat, under a green blanket.
"We're kind of guilty because we created this kind of sentimental opinion: Philae is a little boy and he's shivering on the surface," McCaughrean said of the public concern for the lander's welfare.
Then on June 13 last year, as the comet and its precious charge drew closer to the Sun, Philae's power pack was recharged and it woke up, tweeting: "Hello Earth! Can you hear me?"
After eight broken calls to Earth, Philae fell silent again on July 9, and hasn't been heard from since.
There are discussions on how to "close the story", said Marcu—also for Rosetta's scheduled crash landing on the comet in September, joining Philae at the mission's end.
"Anthropomorphism does carry the risk that although it can conjure euphoric emotions like joy and excitement, it can also cause stress or dysphoric emotions like grief," a Indiana-based philosophy professor Grant Ramsey told AFP of the campaign.
"If something is alive, then it will eventually die, and it is difficult to avoid the distress of death."
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Europe's Rosetta craft swoops for close look at comet

Read more at:[/url][url=]

Can an ever-unending improv have closure or ANU open eye?
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Inside Rosetta's comet
February 4, 2016

[Image: insiderosett.jpg]
These images of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko were taken by Rosetta’s navigation camera between August and November 2014. Credit: ESA/Rosetta/NavCam – CC BY-SA IGO 3.0
There are no large caverns inside Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. ESA's Rosetta mission has made measurements that clearly demonstrate this, solving a long-standing mystery.

Comets are the icy remnants left over from the formation of the planets 4.6 billion years ago. A total of eight comets have now been visited by spacecraft and, thanks to these missions, we have built up a picture of the basic properties of these cosmic time capsules. While some questions have been answered, others have been raised.
Comets are known to be a mixture of dust and ice, and if fully compact, they would be heavier than water. However, previous measurements have shown that some of them have extremely low densities, much lower than that of water ice. The low density implies that comets must be highly porous.
But is the porosity because of huge empty caves in the comet's interior or it is a more homogeneous low-density structure?

In a new study, published in this week's issue of the journal Nature, a team led by Martin Pätzold, from Rheinische Institut für Umweltforschung an der Universität zu Köln, Germany, have shown that Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is also a low-density object, but they have also been able to rule out a cavernous interior.
This result is consistent with earlier results from Rosetta's CONSERT radar experiment showing that the double-lobed comet's 'head' is fairly homogenous on spatial scales of a few tens of metres.
The most reasonable explanation then is that the comet's porosity must be an intrinsic property of dust particles mixed with the ice that make up the interior. In fact, earlier spacecraft measurements had shown that comet dust is typically not a compacted solid, but rather a 'fluffy' aggregate, giving the dust particles high porosity and low density, and Rosetta's COSIMA and GIADA instruments have shown that the same kinds of dust grains are also found at 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.
Pätzold's team made their discovery by using the Radio Science Experiment (RSI) to study the way the Rosetta orbiter is pulled by the gravity of the comet, which is generated by its mass.
[Image: 1-insiderosett.jpg]
ESA's 35 m-diameter deep-space tracking station at New Norcia, Australia, seen during a dramatic sunset, 11 November 2014.  Credit: ESA

The effect of the gravity on the movement of Rosetta is measured by changes in the frequency of the spacecraft's signals when they are received at Earth. It is a manifestation of the Doppler effect, produced whenever there is movement between a source and an observer, and is the same effect that causes emergency vehicle sirens to change pitch as they pass by.

In this case, Rosetta was being pulled by the gravity of the comet, which changed the frequency of the radio link to Earth. ESA's 35-metre antenna at the New Norcia ground station in Australia is used to communicate with Rosetta during routine operations. The variations in the signals it received were analysed to give a picture of the gravity field across the comet. Large internal caverns would have been noticeable by a tell-tale drop in acceleration.

ESA's Rosetta mission is the first to perform this difficult measurement for a comet.
"Newton's law of gravity tells us that the Rosetta spacecraft is basically pulled by everything," says Martin Pätzold, the principal investigator of the RSI experiment.

"In practical terms, this means that we had to remove the influence of the Sun, all the planets – from giant Jupiter to the dwarf planets – as well as large asteroids in the inner asteroid belt, on Rosetta's motion, to leave just the influence of the comet. Thankfully, these effects are well understood and this is a standard procedure nowadays for spacecraft operations."
Next, the pressure of the solar radiation and the comet's escaping gas tail has to be subtracted. Both of these 'blow' the spacecraft off course. In this case, Rosetta's ROSINA instrument is extremely helpful as it measures the gas that is streaming past the spacecraft. This allowed Pätzold and his colleagues to calculate and remove those effects too.

Whatever motion is left is due to the comet's mass. For Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, this gives a mass slightly less than 10 billion tonnes. Images from the OSIRIS camera have been used to develop models of the comet's shape and these give the volume as around 18.7 km3, meaning that the density is 533 kg/m3.

Extracting the details of the interior was only possible through a piece of cosmic good luck. Improv. LilD

Given the lack of knowledge of the comet's activity, a cautious approach trajectory had been designed to ensure the spacecraft's safety. Even in the best scenario, this would bring Rosetta no closer than 10 km.

Unfortunately, prior to 2014, the RSI team predicted that they needed to get closer than 10 km to measure the internal distribution of the comet. This was based on ground-based observations that suggested the comet was round in shape. At 10 km and above, only the total mass would be measurable.
Then the comet's strange shape was revealed as Rosetta drew nearer. Luckily for RSI, youareaduck the double-lobed structure meant that the differences in the gravity field would be much more pronounced, and therefore easier to measure from far away.

"We were already seeing variations in the gravity field from 30 km away," says Pätzold.

When Rosetta did achieve a 10 km orbit, RSI was able to gather detailed measurements. This is what has given them such high confidence in their results, and it could get even better.

In September, Rosetta will be guided to a controlled impact on the surface of the comet. The manoeuvre will provide a unique challenge for the flight dynamics specialists at ESA's European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany. As Rosetta gets nearer and nearer the complex gravity field of the comet will make navigating harder and harder. But for RSI, its measurements will increase in precision. This could allow the team to check for caverns just a few hundred metres across.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: How big is Rosetta's comet?
More information: M. Pätzold et al. A homogeneous nucleus for comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko from its gravity field, Nature (2016). DOI: 10.1038/nature16535 
Journal reference: Nature [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: European Space Agency

Read more at:[/url][url=]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Quote:Philae est ce tresor et il est la mort 

Despite rocky start, Philae comet probe has raked in science data
February 12, 2016

[Image: themostactiv.jpg]
The most active pit, known as Seth 01, observed by Rosetta on the surface of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
Twelve years ago, the European Space Agency (ESA) launched a spacecraft with a very precious cargo—a robot laboratory designed to land on a comet and photograph, prod and sniff its surface.

The 1.3-billion-euro ($1.5-billion) mission of robot lab Philae and its orbiting mothership, Rosetta, was to shed light on the Solar System's formation, and possibly the origins of life on Earth.
While Rosetta will remain with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko until September, scientists on Friday bade farewell to Philae from which there has been no word for seven months.
Philae had 10 instruments, of which eight sprung into action despite a bumpy landing in November 2014.
The lander examined its alien host for 60-plus hours before going into standby mode.
These are some of Philae's contributions to science:

Organic molecules
The lander's COSAC gas analyser sniffed the dust kicked up by Philae's comet ricochet, and identified 16 different carbon-containing organic compounds—found in all living things.
Four of them, methyl isocyanate, acetone, propionaldehyde and acetamide, had never been detected on comets before. Eight comets in total have been visited by spacecraft, but Philae was the first to land on one.
Another instrument, Ptolemy, detected water vapour, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the comet's hazy "coma", as well as organic compounds such as formaldehyde.
"Importantly, some of these compounds detected by Ptolemy and COSAC play a key role in the... synthesis of amino acids, sugars and nucleobases: the ingredients for life," ESA said at the time.
Comets are believed to contain materials left over from the Solar System's formation some 4.6 billion years ago, and scientists see them as time capsules that may provide insights into Earth's own origins.
One theory is that comets smashed into our infant planet, providing it with precious water and the chemical building blocks for life.
Hard on top, porous inside
Many had feared that Philae would land on a soft and fluffy surface, possibly even sink. Instead it bounced when its harpoons failed to fire.
This very rebound, though unintended, allowed scientists to compare the surface characteristics of the spot where Philae first touched down, dubbed Agilkia, and where it finally settled, Abydos.
The lander's ROLIS camera captured a dark, non-reflective surface littered with pebbles and rocks ranging from a few centimetres (inches) across to five metres (5.5 yards).
There was much less water ice than expected.
While the surface at Agilkia was relatively soft, Philae's MUPUS hammer failed to break the surface at Abydos, where it conducted its experiments.
Under a thin dust layer just a few centimetres thick, MUPUS slammed into super-dense mixture of compacted dust and ice.
The hardness of the surface was the "biggest surprise" of 67P, the German Aerospace Centre DLR, which hosts the lander control centre, has said.
In contrast, the CONSERT radar instrument found that inside, the 10-billion-tonne comet was made of a very loosely compacted mix of dust and ice—so porous it would float on water on Earth.
The ROMAP magnetometer found that, surprisingly, the comet had no measurable magnetic field—throwing into question a key theory on the formation of comets and other solar system bodies.
It could mean that magnetic forces may not have played a role, as theorised by some, in a crucial stage of planet building.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Comet probe 'sniffed' organic molecules, early data show

Read more at:[/url]

Farewell Philae: Earth says goodbye to comet probe (Update 2)

February 12, 2016

[Image: scientistsst.jpg]
In this Nov. 12, 2014 file photo a model of Rosetta lander Philae stands on a model of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, at the European Space Agency ESA in Darmstadt, Germany. European scientists said Friday Feb. 12, 2016 they have stopped sending commands to the Philae space probe, which became the first to touch down on a comet more than a year ago. (AP Photo/Michael Probst)

Scientists gave up Friday trying to contact robot lab Philae, stubbornly silent on the surface of a comet streaking through space—closing a captivating chapter in an historic quest.

"Time to say goodbye to Philae," announced the German Aerospace Center DLR, and said it "will no longer be sending any commands."

Philae's comet host is moving further and further away from the Sun and its battery-boosting rays, and by this point "there is indeed little hope to still get a signal," project manager Stephan Ulamec told AFP.

The probe was "probably" covered with comet dust, and shaded on the craggy surface of its alien home—comet 67P/Churyomov-Gerasimenko.

Comet-orbiting mothership Rosetta will continue listening for Philae for a month or two, until it can no longer spare the energy required.

But Ulamec insisted: "to be honest and to be realistic: It's really not likely that we will hear anything any more."

The washing machine-sized probe's exploits captured the hearts and minds of thousands, hardened scientists and children alike, who followed its every move via social media and fretted when it fell silent.

Philae touched down on November 12, 2014, after a 10-year, 6.5-billion-kilometre (four-billion-mile) odyssey through space, piggybacking on Rosetta.

Placing a probe on 67P marked a breakthrough moment in the European Space Agency's mission to prod a comet for clues to the origins of life on Earth.

The months that followed yielded exciting scientific finds, and more than a little drama, as Philae intermittently phoned home between long bouts of sleep.

The lander "tweeted" about its exploits, also captured in a cartoon depicting Philae as an intrepid adventurer with a hard hat and studded boots—Rosetta's brave little "brother".

Permanent hibernation

Philae last phoned home on July 9 last year as the comet closed in on its closest and most sunbathed point, or perihelion, reached on August 13.

Looping out again on its 6.5-year orbit, the comet by now is some 350 million km from the Sun, likely too far and much too cold for Philae to recharge and reboot.

Once out of the Sun's reach, Philae "will go into permanent hibernation," according to the DLR, which hosts the lander control centre in Cologne.

"Still listening, but I fear @Philae2014 is facing tough conditions on #67P...," Rosetta "tweeted" on Friday.

The tweet sported a drawing of a worried-looking Rosetta imagining Philae in a thought bubble—a cute box-shaped character asleep on a mat on the ground in complete darkness between cliffs, little fingers gripping a blanket.

"... we can't prove anything, but certainly the suggestion is that the lander is either dead or broken," European Space Agency (ESA) senior science adviser Mark McCaughrean told AFP.

"In July-August, we tried very hard with Rosetta to make contact, including flying trajectories close enough and in the same direction as those where we did hear from Philae previously," but to no avail.

General consensus: 'It's over'

The absence of a signal does in itself not prove the lander is dead, as it may simply be unable to make contact with Rosetta.

But after seven months of silence, "I think the general consensus is that it's over," said McCaughrean.

Philae's landing 15 months ago was bumpy—the lab bounced several times before ending up at an angle in shade.

But this also changed its mission specs.

If it had been out in the open, as planned, Philae would likely have overheated around April 2015, as 67P approached the Sun.

Instead, the probe entered standby mode on November 15, 2014 after sending home data from some 60 hours of comet sniffing and prodding with eight of its 10 instruments.

It awoke on June 13, and "tweeted": "Hello Earth! Can you hear me?"

After eight brief contacts, the lab fell silent again.

In January this year, ground controllers relayed commands for Philae to activate an onboard instrument in the hopes this would shake dust from its solar panels and better align the robot.

They heard nothing back.

Rosetta will continue its comet observations, said ESA, moving in closer and closer until September when it will join Philae on the surface of 67P in an endless loop around the Sun.

Just before touching down, Rosetta will try and spot Philae, allowing scientists to finally pinpoint its exact location and recalibrate some of the data it had sent home.

"We should not be too sad about what we could not achieve, but should be happy about what we could achieve," Ulamec said.

"We knew there was an end to the mission."

[Image: themostactiv.jpg]

The most active pit, known as Seth 01, observed by Rosetta on the surface of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

Europe's comet-chasing Rosetta mission: timeline

A timeline of Europe's Rosetta mission, which marked the end of a chapter Friday when ground controllers said they would stop trying to contact robot lab Philae on the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.

- March 2, 2004:

Rosetta, with Philae riding piggyback, is launched on an Ariane 5 rocket from the European Space Agency's base in Kourou, French Guiana.

- March 2005:

Rosetta flies past Earth, using the planet's gravity as a slingshot to boost its speed. It zips by Mars in 2007 and twice more by Earth, in 2007 and 2009, to accelerate more.

- June 2011 to January 2014:

At its maximum distance—about 800 million kilometres (500 million miles)—from the Sun and a billion km from home, Rosetta hibernates to conserve energy.

- August 6, 2014:

Rosetta arrives at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, and goes into its orbit. It has 11 onboard instruments: cameras, radar, microwave, infrared and other sensors to analyse the comet surface and gases escaping from it.

- November 12, 2014:

Rosetta sends down Philae, a 100-kilogram (220-pound) lab equipped with 10 instruments. After bouncing several times, Philae ends in a ditch, shadowed from the Sun's battery-replenishing rays.

- November 15, 2014:

Philae's stored battery power runs out after about 60 hours of work. It sends home reams of data before going into standby mode.

- June 13, 2015:

As 67P nears the Sun, Philae's batteries are recharged, it emerges from hibernation and sends home a two-minute message.

- July 9, 2015:

Philae goes into "silent mode" after eight intermittent communications with Earth.

- August 13, 2015:

67P comes within 186 million km of the Sun, its closest distance to our star, before shooting off again to restart its 6.5-year orbit.

- January 2016:

Ground controllers command Philae to spin up its flywheel in the hope it would shake dust from its solar panels and better align itself with the Sun to charge its battery and re-establish contact. Philae did not send any message back.

Looking ahead:

- September 2016:

Projected end of the mission, with Rosetta to be reunited with Philae on the comet surface in September.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Scientists will try to contact the Philae comet lander on March 12

Read more at:

Farewell Philae:



  1. 1.
    used to express good wishes on parting.
    "farewell, Albert!"
    goodbye, so long, byebye-bye, see you (later), cheersMore



  1. 1.
    an act of parting or of marking someone's departure.
    "the dinner had been arranged as a farewell"

That fared well for A QRW 
So much in fact that If I say to Logan.

Philae est ce tresor et il est la mort

[Image: Rosetta%2Band%2BPhilae%2Bin%2Bhand.JPG]

One Day we will know where he is...???
And ANU generation learns.
So  is this wayyyyyy better than hansel and gretel or what!
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...

Quote:The probe was "probably" covered with comet dust, 
and shaded on the craggy surface of its alien home—
comet 67P/Churyomov-Gerasimenko.

So in a thousand years it will be a relic artificial construct covered in comet dust.
My question is how long can the relic remian intact just structurally, on the comet surface?
Assuming that it has found a relatively inactive spot to happen to be resting.
They know that the comet has a hard crust from exposure dynamics in space.
If enough of the dust accumulates on the lander,
it might be preserved there for thousands of years.
Anything ancient alien in a relic craft on the moon surface covered in dust,
may have survived a lengthy time intact as well.
Perhaps a hundred thousand years. Maybe much longer.

Comets are exempt from planetary protection.
Land the probe, then let it go relic after the experiment is over.
The comet just takes the trash out into space.

Assuming that alien spacecraft have advanced materials built into structural and shell components,
how long can such relic technology remain intact on the moon?

A lot longer than on Earth or Mars.
Under extreme arid conditions in caves in Israel small ancient bronzes were found totally untarnished.
2000 year old polychromed potteries are unearthed in mint condition,
found in arid tombs in Chile and Bolivia and Peru.

But that is next to nothing in Moon time.

Place the toughest hardest strongest material that this planet technology can produce,
as a ... tall Hi  monolith ... mounted firm on the lunar surface, 
and it will get covered in layers of dust slowly but surely,
and it will begin to develop a hardening thin crust to it's facial surfaces overall.

That crust may become a protective coating, a super hard patina for the surface,
and the built in structural integrity of the material,
will maintain its statuesque composure there for perhaps millions of years.

Corrosive material possible in the comet dust may compromise Philae's surface,
along with the constant exposure to intense space conditions,
until it finally crumbles into a heap of sharding flakes well into the near future.

Meanwhile ET's spacecraft crashed landed relatively intact on the moon,
about a million or so years ago.
ET is now petrified and covered in dust in his disintegrating command seat.
ET is now a moon mummy Whip 
and his empty eye sockets Damned are half filled with deuterium moon dust. 

The comet mission was fun and informative and successful in the face of failure,
but Philae has a less than romantic end as alien technology space litter.

The Hyper Galactic Refuse Disposal Co. 
acquires an ancient relic Chinese Taikonaut in mint condition,
from their 2035 Mars mission disaster, 3,000 years prior. 
[Image: slowdeath2-4thwraparound.jpg]

On display in a museum somewhere in the future.
Type of ice reveals the age of comets
March 9, 2016

[Image: typeoficerev.jpg]
Figure 1. N2/CO and Ar/CO ratios in Churi measured by Rosina, compared to laboratory data and models. The green and blue areas represent respectively the variations in N2/CO and Ar/CO ratios measured by the Rosina instrument (Rubin et al. 2015; Balsiger et al. 2015). The black and red curves show respectively the evolution of N2/CO and Ar/CO ratios in gas hydrates calculated according to their formation temperature in the protosolar nebula. The black and red dots correspond to laboratory measurements of N2/CO and Ar/CO ratios trapped in amorphous ice (Bar-Nun et al. 2007). The two vertical dotted lines show the temperature range allowing the formation of gas hydrates with N2/CO and Ar/CO ratios consistent with the values measured in Churi.
The ice buried inside comet 67P/ Churyumov-Gerasimenko is mainly found in crystalline form, which implies that it originated in the protosolar nebula and is therefore the same age as the Solar System. This discovery was made by an international team led by a researcher at the LAM (CNRS/Aix Marseille Université) and also including scientists from the Laboratoire J.-L. Lagrange (OCA/CNRS/Université Nice Sophia Antipolis) and the Centre de Recherches Pétrographiques et Géochimiques (CNRS/ Université de Lorraine), with support from the CNES. Their findings were obtained by analyzing data from the Rosina instrument, placed on board ESA's Rosetta spacecraft. This work has been published on 08 March 2016 in The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

Little by little, the Rosetta mission is uncovering the secrets of comets, and has now succeeded in settling a decades-old debate about the nature of their ice. Until now, there were two opposing hypotheses, one that the ice is crystalline, and the water molecules are arranged in a regular pattern, and the other that the ice is amorphous, and the water molecules are disordered. This question is especially important because of its implications for the origin and formation of comets and the Solar System.
The issue has now been settled thanks to the Rosetta spacecraft's Rosina instrument. This is a mass spectrometer, which in October 2014 first measured amounts of molecular nitrogen (N2), carbon monoxide (CO) and argon (Ar) in Churi's ice. The data was compared with that from laboratory experiments on amorphous ice, as well as from models describing the composition of gas hydrates, a type of crystalline ice in which water molecules can trap molecules of gas. The ratios of molecular nitrogen and argon found in Churi correspond to those in the gas hydrate model, while the amount of argon detected in Churi is a hundred times smaller than the quantity that can be trapped in amorphous ice. The ice in the comet therefore definitely has a crystalline structure.

This is a major discovery, since it makes it possible to determine the age of comets. Gas hydrates are made of crystalline ice that formed in the protosolar nebula (which gave rise to the early Solar System) from the crystallization of grains of water ice and the adsorption of gas molecules onto their surfaces as the nebula slowly cooled. If comets are made of crystalline ice, this means that they must have formed at the same time as the Solar System, rather than earlier in the interstellar medium. The crystalline structure of comets also shows that the protosolar nebula was hot and dense enough to sublime the amorphous ice that came from the interstellar medium. The gas hydrates agglomerated by Churi must have formed between -228 °C and -223 °C to produce the observed abundances. This work also lends weight to scenarios for the formation of the gas giant planets, as well as their moons, which require the agglomeration of crystalline ice.
[Image: 1-typeoficerev.jpg]
Comet Churi's nucleus observed by the Rosetta probe
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: The origin of Uranus and Neptune elucidated?
More information: O. Mousis et al. A PROTOSOLAR NEBULA ORIGIN FOR THE ICES AGGLOMERATED BY COMET 67P/CHURYUMOV–GERASIMENKO, The Astrophysical Journal (2016). DOI: 10.3847/2041-8205/819/2/L33 
Journal reference: Astrophysical Journal Letters [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]Astrophysical Journal [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: CNRS

Read more at:[/url][url=]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
(09-30-2015, 12:18 AM)Wook Wrote: Twins are not always identical.

Quote:~50/~50 -Han Solo

[Image: 271F05AA00000578-3017232-image-a-20_1427670839417.jpg]
A 'tail' of two comets
March 18, 2016

[Image: atailoftwoco.jpg]
Comet 252P/LINEAR will safely fly past Earth on March 21, 2016, at a range of about 3.3 million miles (5.2 million kilometers). The following day, comet P/2016 BA14 will safely fly by our planet at a distance of about 2.2 million miles (3.5 million kilometers). Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
Two comets that will safely fly past Earth later this month may have more in common than their intriguingly similar orbits. They may be twins of a sort.

Read more at:



Just asking a question.

I don't gamble but feel free if you wish... and to re-answer the question as best I can via QRW:

Wook . Flip a coin and let spring(March 21st) decide by   Arrow choosing sides.  LilD

Comet P/2016 BA14 was discovered on Jan. 22, 2016, by the University of Hawaii's PanSTARRS telescope on Haleakala, on the island of Maui. It was initially thought to be an asteroid, but follow-up observations by a University of Maryland and Lowell Observatory team with the Discovery Channel Telescope showed a faint tail, revealing that the discovery was, in fact, a comet. The orbit of this newly discovered comet, however, held yet another surprise. Comet P/2016 BA14 follows an unusually similar orbit to that of comet 252P/LINEAR, which was discovered by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Lincoln Near Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR) survey on April 7, 2000. The apparent coincidence may be an indication of twin nature in that comet. P/2016 BA14 is roughly half the size of comet ?252P/LINEAR and might be a fragment that calved off sometime in the larger comet's past

"Comet P/2016 BA14 is possibly a fragment of 252P/LINEAR. The two could be related because their orbits are so remarkably similar," said Paul Chodas, manager of NASA's Center of NEO Studies (CNEOS) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. "We know comets are relatively fragile things, as in 1993 when comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 was discovered and its pieces linked to a flyby of Jupiter. Perhaps during a previous pass through the inner-solar system, or during a distant flyby of Jupiter, a chunk that we now know of as BA14 might have broken off of 252P."

Observations made by the Hubble Space Telescope of comet 252P/LINEAR, and by NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility of comet P/2016 BA14 will further investigate their possible twin nature.

Comet 252P/LINEAR, approximately 750 feet (230 meters) in size, will zip past Earth on Monday, March 21 at a range of about 3.3 million miles (5.2 million kilometers). The following day, comet P/2016 BA14 will safely fly by our planet at a distance of about 2.2 million miles (3.5 million kilometers). This will be the third closest flyby of a comet in recorded history next to comet D/1770 L1 (Lexell) in 1770 and comet C/1983 H1 (IRAS-Araki-Alcock) in 1983.

The time of closest approach for comet 252P/LINEAR on March 21 will be around 5:14 a.m. PDT (8:14 a.m. EDT). The time of closest approach for P/2016 BA14 on March 22 will be around 7:30 a.m. PDT (10:30 a.m. EDT). While both comets will safely fly past at relatively close distances, anyone hoping to see them will need powerful, professional-grade telescopes, due to their relatively small size.
The approaches of these two comets will be the closest they come to Earth for the foreseeable future. "March 22 will be the closest comet P/2016 BA14 gets to us for at least the next 150 years," said Chodas. "Comet P/2016 BA14 is not a threat. Instead, it is an excellent opportunity for scientific advancement on the study of comets."
The CNEOS website has a complete list of recent and upcoming close approaches, as well as all other data on the orbits of known NEOs, so scientists and members of the media and public can track information on known objects.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Comet to make close flyby of Red Planet in October 2014
Provided by: NASA

Read more at:

Just coinciding things with comet siding spring.

Close comet flyby threw Mars' magnetic field into chaos
March 10, 2016

[Image: 160310125226_1_540x360.jpg]
The close encounter between comet Siding Spring and Mars flooded the planet with an invisible tide of charged particles from the comet's coma. The dense inner coma reached the surface of the planet, or nearly so. The comet's powerful magnetic field temporarily merged with, and overwhelmed, the planet's weak field, as shown in this artist's depiction.

Credit: NASA/Goddard

ust weeks before the historic encounter of comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) with Mars in October 2014, NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft entered orbit around the Red Planet. To protect sensitive equipment aboard MAVEN from possible harm, some instruments were turned off during the flyby; the same was done for other Mars orbiters. But a few instruments, including MAVEN's magnetometer, remained on, conducting observations from a front-row seat during the comet's remarkably close flyby.

The one-of-a-kind opportunity gave scientists an intimate view of the havoc that the comet's passing wreaked on the magnetic environment, or magnetosphere, around Mars. The effect was temporary but profound.
"Comet Siding Spring plunged the magnetic field around Mars into chaos," said Jared Espley, a MAVEN science team member at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. "We think the encounter blew away part of Mars' upper atmosphere, much like a strong solar storm would."
Unlike Earth, Mars isn't shielded by a strong magnetosphere generated within the planet. The atmosphere of Mars offers some protection, however, by redirecting the solar wind around the planet, like a rock diverting the flow of water in a creek. This happens because at very high altitudes Mars' atmosphere is made up of plasma -- a layer of electrically charged particles and gas molecules. Charged particles in the solar wind interact with this plasma, and the mingling and moving around of all these charges produces currents. Just like currents in simple electrical circuits, these moving charges induce a magnetic field, which, in Mars' case, is quite weak.
Comet Siding Spring is also surrounded by a magnetic field. This results from the solar wind interacting with the plasma generated in the coma -- the envelope of gas flowing from a comet's nucleus as it is heated by the sun. Comet Siding Spring's nucleus -- a nugget of ice and rock measuring no more than half a kilometer (about 1/3 mile) -- is small, but the coma is expansive, stretching out a million kilometers (more than 600,000 miles) in every direction. The densest part of the coma -- the inner region near the nucleus -- is the part of a comet that's visible to telescopes and cameras as a big fuzzy ball.
When comet Siding Spring passed Mars, the two bodies came within about 140,000 kilometers (roughly 87,000 miles) of each other. The comet's coma washed over the planet for several hours, with the dense inner coma reaching, or nearly reaching, the surface. Mars was flooded with an invisible tide of charged particles from the coma, and the powerful magnetic field around the comet temporarily merged with -- and overwhelmed -- the planet's own weak one.
"The main action took place during the comet's closest approach," said Espley, "but the planet's magnetosphere began to feel some effects as soon as it entered the outer edge of the comet's coma."
At first, the changes were subtle. As Mars' magnetosphere, which is normally draped neatly over the planet, started to react to the comet's approach, some regions began to realign to point in different directions. With the comet's advance, these effects built in intensity, almost making the planet's magnetic field flap like a curtain in the wind. By the time of closest approach -- when the plasma from the comet was densest -- Mars' magnetic field was in complete chaos. Even hours after the comet's departure, some disruption continued to be measured.
Espley and colleagues think the effects of the plasma tide were similar to those of a strong but short-lived solar storm. And like a solar storm, the comet's close passage likely fueled a temporary surge in the amount of gas escaping from Mars' upper atmosphere. Over time, those storms took their toll on the atmosphere.
"With MAVEN, we're trying to understand how the sun and solar wind interact with Mars," said Bruce Jakosky, MAVEN's principal investigator from the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics in Boulder. "By looking at how the magnetospheres of the comet and of Mars interact with each other, we're getting a better understanding of the detailed processes that control each one."
This research was published in Geophysical Research Letters.

  1. J. S. Halekas, D. A. Brain, S. Ruhunusiri, J. P. McFadden, D. L. Mitchell, C. Mazelle, J. E. P. Connerney, Y. Harada, T. Hara, J. R. Espley, G.A. DiBraccio, B. M. Jakosky. Plasma Clouds and Snowplows: Bulk Plasma Escape From Mars Observed by MAVENGeophysical Research Letters, 2016; DOI: 10.1002/2016GL067752

NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. "Close comet flyby threw Mars' magnetic field into chaos." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 10 March 2016. <>.

Now I have a question for you Wook.

Will  TWIN Equinoctial Close comet(s) flyby throw Earth's magnetic field into chaos?

Itza Dual Interred and Sintered Duel but itz not the last word.

My answer is as a Quantum Random Walk was...
It ex-cites itself

Quote:Maybe 67p will split in two and be 50/50   
I side with Improv.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Earth's magnetic field is much stronger than Mars
so I doubt that you will experience much chaos.
We have Politian's that cause more chaos effectively .
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
Sorry about the Jedi Mind Tricks...

Naughty  "They never work... "


You are Prescient @ Present.

Kalter would find it Jungian.

Twixt the tew(march)two - a different drummer?

Or is 252p and BA14 relative to Twins identicality from a parent body?

In a synchronicity we call this thread Twin Comet Comments popped outta your head two replace by actions spooky a two-pronged approach forked tongue in itz stead.

Improv is as QRW was.

Your Twins,not mine

any other questions?
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
[Image: animals-bird-twin-idioms-pun-flock-shl100422_low.jpg]
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
I would have to disagree that Earth magnetic field would not be affected by the comets,
dependent upon:
how close they come to Earth.

Quote:When comet Siding Spring passed Mars, 
the two bodies came within about 140,000 kilometers (roughly 87,000 miles) of each other

Quote:Comet 252P/LINEAR, approximately 750 feet (230 meters) in size, 
will zip past Earth on Monday, March 21 
at a range of about 3.3million miles (5.2 million kilometers).

Any Long Period large comet closing in at perihelion close to the sun,
also greatly stimulates the solar CME output.
The interesting aspect of that however,
is that the CME output occurs before and after perihelion itself.
Quote:Earth's magnetic field is much stronger than Mars
so I doubt that you will experience much chaos.
We have Politian's that cause more chaos effectively .
didn't say it wouldn't have "effect"
lol .
Big difference between mosquitoes passing your face > small hum and very little breeze with little effect
for much chaos
that would be same mosquitoes
hitting your face at warp speed.
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
and no
Comets are not just dirty snowballs
but Cosmic Sperm
Sperming across he Universe
with water & life
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
man, i don't know about ya'll, but this comet looks like an exploded death star or something! the images of 67P are f'in fantastically anomalous!
On a satellite I ride. Nothing down below can hide.
Quote:Scientists discovered alien life in 1961. What, you don’t remember? There was even a drawing of them in the prestigious science journal Nature. True, you might not have known that from the decorous title of the paper in which it appeared – and the aliens were disappointingly microscopic in size. But early the following year, the French magazine Planète was more upfront about the claim, reproducing the Nature picture accompanied by a note declaring: ‘This is the first image of an extraterrestrial being.’
Those reports seemed like the culmination of a century of speculation about a meteorite that had fallen to Earth near the town of Orgueil, France, in 1864. For a moment, its fossilised cargo had appeared to prove that life existed beyond Earth. Yet those claims did not stand the test of time. They were instantly disputed; within a few years, they were generally dismissed, and today they are largely forgotten. But while the specifics of the controversy have faded, the broader narrative has remained remarkably durable.
Meteorites are literally otherworldly, providing a physical connection between heaven and Earth. If life existed anywhere up there, falling space rocks were – until quite recently – the only way that scientists could get their hands on it down here. It isn’t surprising then that meteorites have long been the focal point of feverish debates about the connection between our living world and the rest of the Universe. Those debates continue today.
But their context shifts over time. When the Orgueil meteorite arrived, it crashed into furious mid-19th-century arguments about the evolution of life and its origins. Five decades later, scientific interest in meteorites was coloured by ideas that space rocks might have helped to scatter life throughout the solar system. By the time of the Nature paper in 1961, notions about extraterrestrial life had become caught up in the tense atmosphere of the Cold War space race, which gave the question of what might be found in outer space fresh urgency.
In recent times, meteorites have informed our view of, and our priorities about, what spacecraft – and perhaps, one day, human explorers – might find on Mars and other planets. And we now recognise that a cosmic delivery of life with an independent origin from our own would revolutionise our ideas about the extent of life throughout the whole known Universe. The legacy of the Orgueil meteorite provides a cautionary tale about how we should regard these messengers from beyond. For what we read into the meteorites’ messages crisply reflects the metaphysical preoccupations of the age in which they fall.

The very reality of meteorites was a matter of dispute through much of history. Around 77 AD, the Roman author Pliny wrote in his encyclopedic compendium Natural History: ‘That Stones fall often, no Man will make any doubt.’ Since those stones appeared to come down from the eternal heavens, it’s hardly surprising that they were invested with spiritual significance. Like comets, they seemed to be signs from God, and in mediaeval Europe they were sometimes treated as holy objects – or as portents of doom.
But by the early Enlightenment, Pliny’s Natural History had come to seem like a collection of credulous tittle-tattle, and meteorites were derided by serious natural philosophers as the fantasies of ignorant people. ‘A sign of being rational and enlightened was that you found the idea of falling stones a joke,’ says Simon Schaffer, a historian of science at the University of Cambridge. Rather like ghosts and other paranormal phenomena today, meteorites served to define the border between science and pseudoscience.
Those attitudes began to change in Germany in the 1790s, due in no small part to the scientist Ernst Chladni, a pioneer of acoustics. Inspired by a conversation at Göttingen with the polymath Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, Chladni decided to examine records of stones from the sky, looking for common factors in the descriptions. Chemical analyses of a few of these objects had shown that they were made of familiar elements, particularly iron. Chladni became convinced that the objects were authentic. More extraordinarily, he suggested that meteorites were cosmic debris, bits of the solar system left over from the formation of the planets out of gas and dust. This mode of the genesis of the solar system had been proposed by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant in 1755, and then expanded in 1796 by the French savant Pierre-Simon Laplace.
It was all there, pretty much, in Chladni’s book On the Origin of the Natural Iron Mass (1794): an outline of the science that became meteoritics. Lumps of iron-rich rock from space, Chladni said, would be turned to fireballs as they fell through Earth’s atmosphere and were heated up by air friction. Their composition was similar to that of our planet because all the objects of the solar system had a common origin. In place of the classical Greek notion of the heavens as a separate realm, whose perfection contrasted with the corruptible domain of earthly existence, Chladni proposed a messy continuity.
did the presence of apparently organic matter in the meteorite mean that there was life in space?
To suggest that the heavens were so untidily strewn with rubble was still controversial at the time. But the discovery of the first asteroid, Ceres, in 1801 made it a much more plausible idea. So too did a huge increase in the number of sightings of meteorites and meteors in the closing years of the 18th century. Not that there was a sudden blizzard of space debris; rather, serious people had needed to acknowledge the existence of such things before they could start to ‘see’ them.
In April 1803, the perfect opportunity to put the new ideas to the test arose in France. A meteorite fall near the town of L’Aigle in Normandy scattered thousands of fragments over the countryside, witnessed by many observers. The young scientist Jean-Baptiste Biot was sent from Paris to investigate. His report sealed the idea that meteorites are genuine. In its entry on meteorites in 1824, the French Dictionary of Natural History expressed astonishment that, even recently, some savants were known to ‘ridicule those who were defending their existence’ – as if, but for these foolish sticks-in-the-mud, science had known all along that country-folk were telling the truth.
Stones and iron from space were startling enough, but a meteorite that fell in the commune of Alais in southern France in 1806 hinted at a more remarkable connection between heaven and Earth. Unlike most, this meteorite was soft and friable. Chemical analysis showed that it was 2.5 per cent carbon. The French chemist Louis-Jacques Thénard declared the meteorite to look and feel so much like peat that ‘several individuals had a hard time to believe it was not’. That was truly odd. Peat is the remains of decayed vegetation, so the Alais meteorite immediately raised a question: did the presence of apparently organic matter in it mean that there was life in space?
In some ways, the idea seemed less shocking to scientists back then than it would today. Almost as soon as it was understood, in the 17th century, that the Moon and other planets are worlds like ours, it was almost taken for granted that they’d have life on them. When the German chemist Friedrich Wöhler studied a sample of carbon-rich meteorites in the late 1850s, he confidently wrote that their organic (carbon-based) material ‘can only have formed from organised bodies’ – in other words, from living organisms.
Wöhler was fascinated by the boundary of the living and non-living. In 1828, he synthesised the compound urea, which is made by living organisms, from ammonium cyanate, which was considered to be an inorganic chemical. This process seemed to reveal a continuum between the biotic and abiotic worlds. Until the early 19th century, many chemists believed that living and non-living substances are distinguished by some mysterious principle that gives rise to the organisation of living things – a ‘vital force’. But Wöhler’s chemical synthesis of urea implied it was possible to cross this boundary.
‘Life is the germ,’ Pasteur declared in 1864, ‘and the germ is life’
A continuum between the organic and inorganic worlds was consistent with the old idea of spontaneous generation: the belief that living things could arise spontaneously from non-living matter, such as insect grubs forming in dead, rotten meat. By the mid-19th century, that particular example seemed far-fetched, but there was a new possibility for spontaneous generation that arose from close study of biological decay and the related process of fermentation. Scientists had come to understand that these processes were caused by microorganisms. There was an active debate at the time: do these invisibly-small organisms appear spontaneously, or are they seeded somehow?
In 1859 the French chemist Louis Pasteur seemed to settle that question, pointing toward a conclusion that contrasted with Wöhler’s continuity of living and non-living matter. Pasteur showed that meat broth boiled to sterilise it didn’t putrefy when kept in a flask open to the air but with a bent, swan-like neck so that airborne particles (carrying microorganisms) couldn’t get in. For Pasteur, this showed that living and non-living matter were totally different substances, and couldn’t be inter-converted. ‘Life is the germ,’ he declared in 1864, ‘and the germ is life.’
In that decade, the world of science, particularly in France, was bubbling with these conflicting ideas about how life begins and what it is. Then it seemed that the divine hand decided to stir the pot.
On Saturday 14 May 1864, the sky exploded above Orgueil, a picturesque little commune in the Midi-Pyrénées. According to newspaper reports, a glowing object with a bluish-green colour appeared in the sky and grew larger, turning first white, then yellow and red. When it was half the diameter of the Moon, there was a sound like cannon fire, and the object vanished, leaving a white cloud in the sky. Moments later, there was a smell of sulphur in the air, and a shower of small stones rained down over the region. Some of those stones were delivered into the safekeeping of the Natural History Museum in the regional prefecture of Montauban.
In a local newspaper report, a professor of physics named Peyridieu said that he had managed to get hold of a fragment of the meteorite, which was soft and blackish inside its crust. When he put it in water, it dissolved into mud as ‘black as shoeshine’. Over the next couple of years, a procession of French chemists studied pieces of the Orgueil meteorite, and several attested to its peaty character. Gabriel Auguste Daubrée, the doyen of French meteoritics, cautioned that ‘nothing proves so far the existence of organised beings, animal or vegetal’ in these fragments, but others were less guarded. The astronomer and science populariser Camille Flammarion (the Neil deGrasse Tyson of his day, you might say) decided that chemical analyses of the Orgueil meteorite ‘reveal the existence of organised beings on the globes from which they came’: in other words, aliens.
Who better to adjudicate this controversy than the famous Pasteur? He knew from his fermentation studies how easy it is for terrestrial microorganisms to contaminate a sample. He got hold of a piece of the meteorite and used a sterilised drill to extract material from the core and put it in a solution of nutrients to see if any microbes would grow. They didn’t. Pasteur considered the results such an anticlimax that he didn’t even bother to publish them.
Nevertheless, the Orgueil meteorite continued to fuel speculations. Even if it did not contain life itself, it seemed perhaps to harbour the ingredients of life. That idea resonated with the contemporary ideas of Charles Darwin. In 1871, thinking back to the origin of all species, he speculated privately about life appearing spontaneously on Earth in some ‘warm little pond’ nourished by ‘ammonia and phosphoric salts’ along with light, heat and electrical discharges. This was the original ‘primordial soup’ theory of the origin of life.
If it happened here, why not anywhere? In 1903, the Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius proposed that life might not have started from scratch on Earth. Instead, its seeds – primitive life forms – might have arisen elsewhere and drifted here on lumps of space debris, such as dust and small meteorites. Arrhenius’s hypothesis became known as panspermia, meaning in effect ‘ubiquitous seeding’, and it imbued carbon-rich meteorites such as Orgueil with fertile – even ominous – new meaning.
The notion of meteorites as lifeboats for aliens chimed with the mood of the times. Darwinian evolution provided a scientific framework for thinking about alien life, and the idea of life travelling from planet to planet began to look not just plausible but scary. H G Wells’s The War of the Worlds (1898) suggested that, if there’s life on Mars, we might not want to get intimate with it.
Panspermia seemed even more threatening in the paranoid years after the Second World War. The takeover of the Earth by carnivorous plants in John Wyndham’s novel The Day of the Triffids (1951) is made possible by a shower of green meteors that turn most of the human population blind. It’s not hard to feel the bitter wind of the Cold War blowing through Wyndham’s book, or in thematically similar movies such as Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1956), in which alien pods fallen from space take on human form.
In the post-Sputnik era, meteorites once again entered the discussion about outer space. By this time, human explorers were gearing up to follow extraterrestrial rocks to their source. In May 1961, President John F Kennedy announced that the United States would send men to the Moon before the end of the decade. What would they find there?
Right on cue, the Orgueil meteorite delivered another provocative answer. Just months after Kennedy’s epochal speech, at a meeting of the prestigious New York Academy of Sciences, the Hungarian-American scientist Bartholomew Nagy and his coworkers reported that they had analysed hydrocarbon compounds in a shard from the Orgueil meteorite and found that their chemical composition was very similar to that in animal products such as butter. Nagy’s conclusion echoed Wöhler’s from more than a century earlier: life must exist elsewhere in the Universe to create such a blend.
Months after this claim hit the headlines, Nagy and the microbiologist George Claus made an even more extraordinary announcement: their studies of the Orgueil meteorite, and of a similar one that fell near Ivuna in Tanzania in 1938, revealed apparent fossils of tiny organisms such as algae. The researchers included a sketch of what they called an ‘organised element’: a hexagonal structure, reminiscent of a virus, surrounded by what looked like a kind of spherical membrane. These were the ‘aliens’ that so excited the writers at the magazine Planète.
Just as the Orgueil meteorite had pitched up during the debates about spontaneous generation and vitalism in the mid-19th century, Nagy’s claims fell onto fertile ground. In 1953, the chemists Harold Urey and Stanley Miller, working in Chicago, had carried out an experiment in which they had sent electrical sparks through a mixture of simple gases, allegedly mimicked lightning in the Earth’s early atmosphere – an update of Darwin’s ‘warm little pond’. The next day, in the bottom of their apparatus they found amino acids; the building blocks of proteins, key molecules of life.
seeds and pollen grains were deliberately glued into the stone, and then covered by a fake crust of coal: this was a 19th-century hoax
Urey, a chemistry Nobel laureate, was somewhat skeptical about Nagy’s claims, but he was open to the idea that extraterrestrial life forms might exist. In a special issue of Nature in 1962 devoted to the topic of ‘Life-forms in meteorites’, Urey suggested that perhaps the early Moon had been seeded with Earthly microorganisms flung out by asteroid impacts – a kind of reverse panspermia. The Orgueil meteorite, then, might be a lump of Moon rock that ferried the remnants of these primitive lunarians back to their ancestral home. In this view, the cosmos was like a garden full of drifting seeds that would let worlds cross-pollinate.
Pollen and seeds there were indeed – but not from space. One of the scientists skeptical of Nagy’s claims was a meteorite expert in Chicago called Ed Anders. In 1962, he reported that many of the ‘organised elements’ described by Nagy were just mineral crystals, and that the Orgueil and Ivuna meteorites had been contaminated by terrestrial pollen grains. Nagy contested those conclusions, so Anders and his team scrutinised even more carefully one of the original specimens of the Orgueil meteorite from the museum at Montauban. What they then found shocked the meteorite community.
In 1964, on the centenary of the meteorite fall, Anders reported that he had found seeds and pollen grains deliberately glued into the stone, and then covered by a fake crust of coal. In other words, this was not chance contamination but a 19th-century hoax.
Who would have done that? Could it have been someone wanting to undermine Pasteur’s argument that life can only emerge from germs? Or, since the hoax was likely to have been exposed eventually, might it have been an attempt to cast Pasteur’s enemies as cheats? Either way, says Schaffer, ‘it’s too complex an intervention for it just to be a joke. Something much more interesting and sinister must have been in play.’ We might never get to the bottom of the mystery, but the consequence of the hoax was clear enough: even though the glued-on grains and seeds weren’t the actual particles that misled Nagy, Anders’s exposé killed off any remaining support for Nagy’s claims.
Many elements of the Orgueil story replayed in 1996, when NASA scientists announced evidence of life inside a meteorite denoted ALH84001: a piece of Mars blasted off the planet millions of years ago and recovered from the ice of Antarctica in 1984. In a press conference on the White House lawn, President Bill Clinton intoned that the rock ‘speaks of the possibility of life’. The evidence, though, was highly indirect, and controversial from the outset. Partly it relied on chemical analysis, which revealed carbon-containing compounds conceivably, but by no means unquestionably, of organic origin. There were also worm-like microscopic structures in the minerals, which the NASA team suggested might be remains of Martian bacteria – but which might instead have been an unusual kind of crystal growth.
At the time, the much-hyped ‘discovery’ boosted NASA administrator Dan Goldin’s advocacy of a robotic mission to Mars that would look for signs of fossil life, or an environment that could have supported it. But today, most meteoriticists and planetary scientists regard ALH84001, like the Orgueil meteorite, as a false alarm.
Orgueil was no harbinger of extraterrestrial life, then, but it is far from mute about the connection between the evolution of the solar system in general, and of Earth in particular. The meteorite is now recognised as a fragment of debris left over from the early days of the solar system. It is a prime example of what today are known as carbonaceous chondrites. A chondrite is a meteorite containing a mixture of elements that hasn’t been affected by melting or separation within the celestial body from which it originated, and which therefore offers a largely unaltered sample of primeval gas and dust.
Most chondrites are rocky. Those that contain a lot of carbon are rare, and highly prized. ‘Orgueil is one of the most important meteorites that’s ever fallen on the Earth,’ says Monica Grady, professor of planetary and space sciences at The Open University in the UK. Its carbon cargo is some of the most primitive material in the solar system, dating back nearly 4.6 billion years to the time before the planets had formed. ‘When we analyse Orgueil, we are looking back through all those billions of years to read the record of what made the Earth and the other planets,’ says Grady.
Life’s building blocks could have arrived ready-made from space
Carbon-rich meteorites such as Orgueil have inspired a modern reinvention of the panspermia hypothesis. Even if meteorites and comets don’t bring life hither, they undoubtedly carry its potential seeds. Orgueil and other carbon-rich meteorites have been found to contain amino acids, just like the ones studied by Urey and Miller. The first proteins and cells therefore might not have needed to use ingredients made on Earth. Life’s building blocks could have arrived ready-made from space.
Life from Earth also could have spread outward. Computer simulations show that asteroid bombardment scattered large quantities of material from planet to planet in the early solar system. Meteorites such as ALH84001 demonstrate that the process is still happening. Urey’s idea that Earth organisms could have been sprayed onto the Moon therefore seems not just possible but probable. Earth rocks surely reached Mars and Venus as well. Whether meteorites from Earth carried intact life, and whether that life could have survived the journey, is quite another matter. Yet we now know that some microorganisms are astonishingly resilient to vacuum and cosmic radiation. In 2008, scientists reported that tiny animals called tardigrades survived 10 days of exposure to space on a satellite.
Did life move the other way as well, originating on faraway worlds or even in space itself? There might be no evidence for panspermia, but neither does it seem impossible. Some scientists see fresh reasons to believe that the organic compounds found in meteorites might have been made by living organisms. Amino acids come in mirror-image forms – left and right handed – and some researchers (including Nagy) have reported that amino acids in Orgueil and other carbonaceous chondrites have an excess of one handedness over the other. Biochemical reactions are the only means known of creating such an imbalance. Those claims are controversial, though, because of the exact same contamination problems identified by Pasteur a century and a half ago.
Perhaps our ideas about meteorites are still being shaped by philosophical or scientific orthodoxies, or by even deeper-seated and less visible preconceptions. But perhaps, too, this is the best we can do. Meteorites generally carry only the faintest traces of their stories. We have to fill in the rest ourselves. And in doing so, we reveal our hopes, dreams and fears about life and the Universe.
Never invite a Yoda to a frog leg dinner.
Go ahead invite Yoda to a Frog leg dinner
Whatever it is...

It is making us Comet "amateur- experts".

By the time this thread witnesses Rossetta join her l'il bro Philae on surface Keith.

What so-called experts(Pseudo-Sceptics) that troll forums will be behind the learning curve because they are dogmatic and resistant to change whereas Comets are not... and are initiators of change.

While the Solar-System is being Massively re-written via cosmology will be too fast for them to evolve in time to say: 
Arrow We Told You So.

Naughty No fucking way is the internet gonna suffer these fools forever.

We will be equipped with not only the latest datasets of the last 3 years but actively within a re-fresher course I call this thread.

Threads can be like an  Anomalist Academy among many things.

The Most Blatant reason 67p is anomalous is because water is involved.

Any involvement of H2o automatically is an anomaly because they don't have a clue how water works.

Why this is not commonly discoursed is oddly a deafening silence.



  1. 1.
    written or spoken communication or debate.
    "the language of political discourse"

  2. verb


  1. 1.
    speak or write authoritatively about a topic.
    "she could discourse at great length on the history of Europe"
    hold forth, expatiatepontificate

There is not much discourse because they know water is an anomaly and they don't know why.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Comet flying by Earth observed with radar and infrared
March 25, 2016

[Image: cometflyingb.jpg]
Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/GSSR
Astronomers were watching when comet P/2016 BA14 flew past Earth on March 22. At the time of its closest approach, the comet was about 2.2 million miles (3.5 million kilometers) away, making it the third closest comet flyby in recorded history (see "A 'Tail' of Two Comets"). Radar images from the flyby indicate that the comet is about 3,000 feet (1 kilometer) in diameter.

The scientists used the Goldstone Solar System Radar in California's Mojave Desert to track the comet. "We were able to obtain very detailed radar images of the comet nucleus over three nights around the time of closest approach," said Shantanu Naidu, a postdoctoral researcher at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, who works with the radar team and led the observations during the comet's flyby. "We can see surface features as small as 8 meters per pixel.
"The radar images show that the comet has an irregular shape: looks like a brick on one side and a pear on the other," Naidu said. "We can see quite a few signatures related to topographic features such as large flat regions, small concavities and ridges on the surface of the nucleus."
According to the new radar observations, comet P/2016 BA14 appears to spin around its axis once every 35 to 40 hours.

Vishnu Reddy, of the Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, Arizona, also observed comet P/2016 BA14 using the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Data collected (infrared spectra) indicate that the comet reflects less than 3 percent of the sunlight that falls on its surface. Comet nuclei are as dark as fresh asphalt. However, infrared spectra can often yield clues to the makeup of these primitive denizens of the solar system.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Incoming comet ISON appears intact to Hubble
More information: More information on the IRTF observations of comet P/2016 BA14 is available at
The Center for Near-Earth Object Studies (CNEOS) website has a complete list of recent and upcoming close approaches of comets and asteroids, as well as all other data on the orbits of known near-Earth objects, so scientists, the media and the public can track information on known objects: 
Provided by: JPL/NASA

Read more at:[url=][/url]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...

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