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Archaeologists Believe They Found Location Where Jesus Christ Taught
What was the State of Science in circa.~33.3 A.D.  Hmm2

[flash=555,333]https://www.youtube.com/v/XUy8lELWhJg[/flash]

Antikythera Computer was operating a few centuries earlier.
"...a cycle starting in 205 BC"

(01-24-2015, 10:33 PM)deo link Wrote:
Quote:Was there "High-Science" Reefer in Jesus' time?

Hmm2  We know this at the very least. Dunno

http://phys.org/news/2014-11-antikythera...greek.html

What was operating in Eesho's day and age? Dunno
A father's child walks on water @ 1:11 minute mark.
[flash=555,333]https://www.youtube.com/v/5CqUYBopWLs[/flash]
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With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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Would a Tekton or engineer/mason/builder know about the antikythera mechanism or other celestial alignment tools?  Dunno
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Dunno Deo... You tell me?

[Image: 20140524_122143-1024x576.jpg]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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[move]While we wait for Deo to further instruct us... Dance2[/move]





Last week I relocated a recently retired prominent doctor and his wife,who is also a newley retired head nurse to their new location.
After Removing all their files in his home office I started extracting the custom furnishing.

I was in a general conversation with the doctor as I grasped the top leading edge of the corner of a six-foot bookshelf.I applied a known force,from the top corner down diagonally to the opposite bottom corner and
it caused a pirouette of sorts and Bear-Walked itself out of its former place and freed away from the wall it was set to.

The Dr. -exclaimed- as much as remarked: Wow! You made that look easy! as I manouvered the big shelf for tipping into the angle of "carry-mode."

I replied: "I just make it look that way." because it is truly hard work for anyone,even professionals.

I conversed with furniture show and tell when I said:
[move]"Walking" a bookshelf[/move]
Did you ever see the monolithic statues on Easter Island?

He said. Yes.

Long story short I demonstrated that they carved out the leading edge of the statues bellies into a rotund portund shape so it could bevel on its belly when not level.
These Statues are like a reverse-ostriche and  have A body below ground,vice/versa.
The Staues have no legs to stand on and are not belly-up but belly-down.
I described the two opposing tug-o-war teams of "Walkers" who raised the stone statues with ropes and just like legend said walked the statues from their quarry to their plot.
In a world's geographically remote spot.

His concern of his nice bookshelf was abated as I related how they solved the mystery of Easter Island.

He then went off on a few tangents from Rudolf Gantenbrink up to the interior spiral ramp in the Great Pyramid on a show he recently watched.

I Told him basically: if this was a rough trade,how much moreso would be the Capstone on the G.P.

He Agreed whole-heartedly.

Then he began recounting his youth.

He was a boy in Guatemala now 70-ish as he recounted to me.

He used to play in the pyramid(s?) where he lived.

I said: ???WHAT!!!

Long story shorter,he said:

We used to "Snap" the heads off of the idols and use them as...???WHAT!!! ---I interject in disbelief--- whilst he still spoke about Idol-Head projectiles.

He said Yes,He used to literally "SNAP" the heads off of idols and Use them as Sling-shot marbles.


I immediately went into my mode and put sheilds up.

I stepped forward.
"Those are priceless artifacts" I informed him ...as he found the nearest tile on the floor to concentrate on and evade my response.

After an uncomfortable moment his gaze nearly returned and he shrugged sideways and so dis his eyes.
He said:
"But I was just a boy ,you know."

In his defense he offered up something astounding to me.

He recanted how he watched the MORMONS arrive and dig up a huge round stone...they built a special road and everything.

I Asked/said: "A Calander Stone!?"

He said No,it had a tree.

He said after much effort the Military re-appropriated the artifact.
He was there and he saw all of this.

I said I am not a Mormon or anything else, but from what critics say,they absconned with a lost tribal bloodline from the old world as well as Central Americas history,But what the hell do I know??? I thought as he continued.
He gave me the "Don't Go There-"look"-away". anyway.


His gesticulations during these moments were punctuated by his points.

When He described Idol-Heads in his sling-shot he made a "Y" like a peace-sign with his fingers and pulled the sssling eyeward! ----- P-Ting!!!


Not all archaeological destruction is by malice.
Sometimes kids are just kids.
Some times idol heads are not where they should be because they were slung "just for kicks".

Any headless statues somewhere in Guatemala could be found just by looking further slung around the body radius.

The people I meet,every day.
Teach me their history.
By extracting them from their familiar environ and transporting them to their new horizon.
When my job is done,my hand is shook and am thanked all the way to the Nice tip that bought my brewskies on thursday!

Sling-Shot Idol-Heads snapped off in Guatemala and shot into this thread.
Perhaps the Guatemalen Antiquities Officials should be notified so that they don't mistake all the idols with missing heads as evidence of some sort of war or religious conflict in the past.
Anything the Mormons may claim to the site if any is Now Comprimised by what I just posted.
What I just posted CHANGED HISTORY.

This is real and happening now/then when the good doctor was but just a lad.
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Do I ever Know!
So, the words Autumn and Fall are not to be capitalized?
They are in my world!

What has been is what will be, and what has been done is what will be done; and there is nothing new under the sun.
Is there a thing of which it is said, "See, this is new?"It has been already, in the ages before us. Ecc 1: 9-10
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[move]The earliest of the tablets, which have dates inscribed on them, is from just 15 years after the destruction of the First Jewish Temple in Jerusalem,[/move]

Many contained incrustations, indicating they were "fresh out of the earth,"

Ancient tablets displayed in Jerusalem fuel looting debate

Feb 12, 2015 by By Daniel Estrin
   
[Image: ancienttable.jpg]
This undated photo provided by the Bible Lands Museum Jerusalem shows cuneiform, one of the world's earliest scripts, at display in Jerusalem. The tablets, which went on public display in February 2015 for the first time at the museum, provide the earliest written evidence of the Biblical exile of the Judeans in what is now southern Iraq, offering new insight into a formative period of early Judaism. (AP Photo/Avi Noam, Bible Lands Museum)

Quote:At first glance, the ancient Babylonian tablets on exhibit for the first time at a Jerusalem museum look like nothing more than pockmarked lumps of clay.

But the 2,500-year-old treasures from present-day Iraq have become part of a thorny archaeological debate over how to handle historically significant relics thought to have been dug up in the fog of war by Mideast antiquities robbers.

Experts in cuneiform writing, one of the world's earliest scripts, say the collection of 110 cracker-sized clay tablets provides the earliest written evidence of the Biblical exile of the Judeans in what is now southern Iraq, offering new insight into a formative period of early Judaism.

The tablets, though, also tell a murkier story, from the present era, according to scholars familiar with the antiquities trade—a story of the chaos in Iraq and Syria that has led to rampant pilfering of rich archaeological heritage and a rush of cuneiform tablets on the international antiquities' market.

The collector who owns the tablets on display this month at the Bible Lands Museum Jerusalem, insists they were purchased legally, decades before that looting began. However, an ancient history scholar familiar with the artifacts disputes that.

Leading U.S. museums have pledged not to exhibit unprovenanced artifacts that have surfaced in recent decades, as part of an effort over the last decade to discourage illicit antiquities trafficking. But cuneiform inscriptions have emerged as a notable exception, with some arguing these relics would be lost to history if they did not make it into scholarly hands.

"We are not interested in anything that is illegally acquired or sneaked out," said Amanda Weiss, director of the Bible Lands Museum Jerusalem.

"But it is the role of a museum to protect these pieces," she added. "It's what we are here for."

The plundering of antiquities in the war-torn Middle East has become a primary concern for the archaeological community, and some archaeologists even compare satellite images of sites in Iraq and Syria to moonscapes, after antiquities robbers went through them.

Archaeologists claim the Islamic State extremists and militants from other groups are funding their activities in part through illegal trafficking of antiquities, and authorities worldwide have been taking action to try to stem the flow.

[Image: 1-ancienttable.jpg]
This undated photo provided by the Bible Lands Museum Jerusalem shows cuneiform, one of the world's earliest scripts, at display in Jerusalem. The tablets, which went on public display in February 2015 for the first time at the museum, provide the earliest written evidence of the Biblical exile of the Judeans in what is now southern Iraq, offering new insight into a formative period of early Judaism. (AP Photo/Avi Noam, Bible Lands Museum)

What first sparked awareness of the issue, archaeologists say, was a deluge of cuneiform artifacts on the Western antiquities markets after the first Gulf War in 1991.

In the years that followed, archaeologists estimate that hundreds of thousands of small clay tablets with cuneiform inscriptions made their way into the hands of dealers. Many contained incrustations, indicating they were "fresh out of the earth," said Robert Englund of the Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative.

An American scholar of ancient Jewish history familiar with the tablets on display in Jerusalem said they were purchased on the London antiquities market at the time when cuneiform artifacts were flooding the market, a strong indication that the items were looted. He spoke on condition of anonymity to discuss a potentially illegal activity.

London-based Israeli collector David Sofer, who loaned the cuneiform collection to the Bible Lands Museum, denied any foul play. He said he purchased the tablets in the United States in the 1990s from a person who obtained them in public auctions in the 1970s.

Sofer said a few tablets from the collection were displayed in a New York museum and a Los Angeles museum in 2013, and their import and export in the U.S. was properly reported to U.S. authorities. He would not name the two museums, or the person who sold them to him.

"These things would be lost, and wouldn't be recognized for what they are" if he hadn't bought them, Sofer said.


As common as cuneiform tablets are, few have been as celebrated as those on display in Jerusalem.

The tablets fill in a 130-year gap in the history of the Judeans exiled to Babylon after the Babylonian destruction of Jerusalem in the 6th century B.C., said Laurie Pearce, a cuneiform expert from the University of California, Berkeley.


The earliest of the tablets, which have dates inscribed on them, is from just 15 years after the destruction of the First Jewish Temple in Jerusalem, and the inscription suggests the displaced Judeans were more quickly absorbed into the Babylonian society than previously thought, said Pearce, who studied the collection.

The tablets include administrative documents such as land agreements, showing the Judeans were  Damned "integrated almost immediately,"  Dunno wtf?  Hmm2 she added.


The Jerusalem museum says the tablets likely originate in today's southern Iraq, and reference common Judean names, including Netanyahu, the last name of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.

The topic of cuneiform artifacts still roils the archaeological community.

The American Schools of Oriental Research, an academic research association, bans scholars from publishing articles on artifacts illegally excavated or exported from their country of origin after 1970, when the U.N. adopted its policy against antiquities trafficking.


But in 2004, the association made an exception, allowing publications about cuneiform artifacts that have no record of how they were unearthed—under the condition that Iraqi antiquities authorities give their consent and that the artifacts are eventually returned to Iraq.

The exception was made because the esoteric wedge script writings are so valuable to historical study, said Eric Meyers of the association.

The policy is now again a point of contention in the field. Over the past year, scholars at the association have debated changing the policy again, with most experts leaning against publishing articles on cuneiform artifacts as these objects continue to hit the markets, Meyers said.

"It is a crisis in the region," he said.

http://phys.org/news/2015-02-ancient-tab...g.html#jCp
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
(01-31-2015, 01:39 PM)Keith link Wrote:Pascal's Wager

I'm calling heads.


Dance2

OK,

I'm calling hearts (And heads)
So, the words Autumn and Fall are not to be capitalized?
They are in my world!

What has been is what will be, and what has been done is what will be done; and there is nothing new under the sun.
Is there a thing of which it is said, "See, this is new?"It has been already, in the ages before us. Ecc 1: 9-10
Reply
All I've found lying around is a davidic queen that was hidden up someone's sleeve and a quantum cat lion king and a 3 of clubs from a different deck and some junk dna beside the amphora...

What did you win?  Dunno



Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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As far as the Current concensus is...
If that's all there is so far.

The Magdalene is to remain silent until further past is revealed.

Dogma may disagree.
[flash=555,333]https://www.youtube.com/v/KRzMtlZjXpU[/flash]

All it takes is another find by a couple of kids and we will know about Jesus' ole' lady.
[Image: 5-thishandouti.jpg]
Expect it within your generation.
It won't be hushed over now that researchers are on the lookout for her.

She's the Wife of The Son of God or not.
[Image: diable10.jpg]
The Magdalene Wager.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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Any man who is married knows this ain't his momma crying like that.

[Image: MM-Corpse.jpg]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
Quote: Dunno Deo... You tell me?

I thought the basic question was: What was the "technology" that He would have known of? 

If educated as recorded in the accepted traditional canon, He would have known the significance of the Temple alignments, at least.

A search of:  architectural cosmic alignment history Jerusalem

and more generally, the area of Archeo-Astronomy indicates that the general education of elite rabbis, scholars, builders and architects used systematized information with cosmological significance.  I don't know if we call that science, witchcraft, or divine inspiration but it was the coin of the day among the most powerful and the mystical.  Systematized information with cosmological significance is of course global and cross-cultural.

Since the Antikythera mechanism was around for at least two hundred years before His time, it seems curious there is no known historical reference to the technology, period. Perhaps the real question should be: What has been left out of the standard canon?

Dunno 

Reply
(02-17-2015, 04:27 AM)EA link Wrote:Any man who is married knows this ain't his momma crying like that.

[Image: MM-Corpse.jpg]

And you were there to take this picture, or the painter was there to take the picture? Amazing how your level of insanity, disrespect and stupidity can be mixed in one statement. Amazes me that you who is so brilliant in another science things is so dellusionally blinded about things that are spiritual.
Seek and ye shall find. JESUS
------------------------------------------
I am a recovering vegetarian   Hi
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Matthew 12:31-32

31 Therefore I say to you: Every sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven men, but the blasphemy of the Spirit shall not be forgiven.
32 And whosoever shall speak a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but he that shall speak against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, nor in the world to come.
Mellow
On a satellite I ride. Nothing down below can hide.
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In this thread we leave no stone unturned.
I want to split the tree and find him there at gisors.
To uncover him in a hybrid skull of neanderthal/human in a cave in gallilee right next to a coin for ceaser and a newfound scroll buried right beside it... place what value you have on that.

Although you are acting like a rabid dog foaming at the mouth mayito you are welcome to debate within this threads confines.
I am sure you will restrain yourself with your own leash when you realise it is you who is your trouble.

Your not yourself.
[Image: logo_turtles.jpg]
Have a Snickers  Reefer

Start a thread on the exact same subject.
Go Right back to christmas eve and start all over using the identical article I started with.

While noone would object to that restart on the bbs,wich is your perogative, I do not object to your contributions here.

Whatever your conduct please don't remove your posts anymore.Thank you.

Now that you are here and I must side step all the doo-doo  Horsepoop to cherry-pick what I can out of your frothing barks and snarls and growls. a word of advice. Control your animal and get a pooper-scooper.

Wait till we discuss the gospel of Thomas.

welcome back mayito.
the Quantum stuff we will cover will cause you to still-further reflect upon the tektons.

No one is blaspheming within this thread.
I am seeking jesus anew.

My jesus not some stagnant past interpretation and dogmas.

Don't ever presuppose what you think I am blind to again mayito.

If you were any kind of man you would shine the light a little bit higher than that last example of you.

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With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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Trending...

Aside from your 3rd post that was deleted wich skews the data spit out by the doink-headI see you trending towards the positive in a foamy frothy battle uphill againts your spittle.

I have faith in you,you are not really like that. Mellow

our social nature appears to be encoded in the building blocks of language.
Quote:And you were there to take this picture, or the painter was there to take the picture? Amazing how your level of insanity, disrespect and stupidity can be mixed in one statement. Amazes me that you who is so brilliant in another science things is so dellusionally blinded about things that are spiritual

Universal Trend towards a state of spirituality.
One day we will be welcomed to the club.

(01-24-2015, 10:25 PM)EA link Wrote:Manifest Complexity: A Foundational Ethic for Astrobiology? Hmm2

[Image: Blake.jpg]

Maybe guys like Jesus are just natural events that realised Two millenia before we did that: "Ye Are Gods" 

Was there "High-Science" Reefer in Jesus' time?
If Time is what we think of as his life and ministry.
Time may be one factor in a purley natural reason to be moral?
And if this is inherent in our very being we were not all being It.
So knowing what he knew by his advanced education and intuitive gut instinct and reasoning abilities...
He just acted like a "Kick-Starter" project and since he was creating a following like on facebook and twitter he was an independant free-thinker and a massive threat to the unenlightened minds around him.
Independant like an Indie-a-g0-g0 campaign gaining momentum as he said words like he meant 'em.

Two millenia is plenty enough to get back to excavating all aspects of the man,the myth,the legend and the truth.
Wether he was the son of god or an alien or a failed rebel king/rightful heir.


Think of it this way:
In a modern perspective of the now.


Researcher explores how the universe creates reason, morality

Jan 23, 2015 by Kelly Smith

[Image: solarsystem.jpg]

Quote:Recent developments in science are beginning to suggest that the universe naturally produces complexity. The emergence of life in general and perhaps even rational life, with its associated technological culture, may be extremely common, argues Clemson researcher Kelly Smith in a recently published paper in the journal Space Policy.

What's more, he suggests, this universal tendency has distinctly religious overtones and may even establish a truly universal basis for morality.

Smith, a Philosopher and Evolutionary Biologist, applies recent theoretical developments in Biology and Complex Systems Theory to attempt new answers to the kind of enduring questions about human purpose and obligation that have long been considered the sole province of the humanities.

He points out that scientists are increasingly beginning to discuss how the basic structure of the universe seems to favor the creation of complexity. The large scale history of the universe strongly suggests a trend of increasing complexity: disordered energy states produce atoms and molecules, which combine to form suns and associated planets, on which life evolves. Life then seems to exhibit its own pattern of increasing complexity, with simple organisms getting more complex over evolutionary time until they eventually develop rationality and complex culture.

And recent theoretical developments in Biology and complex systems theory suggest this trend may be real, arising from the basic structure of the universe in a predictable fashion.

"If this is right," says Smith, "you can look at the universe as a kind of 'complexity machine', which raises all sorts of questions about what this means in a broader sense. For example, does believing the universe is structured to produce complexity in general, and rational creatures in particular, constitute a religious belief? It need not imply that the universe was created by a God, but on the other hand, it does suggest that the kind of rationality we hold dear is not an accident."
And Smith feels another similarity to religion are the potential moral implications of this idea. If evolution tends to favor the development of sociality, reason, and culture as a kind of "package deal", then it's a good bet that any smart extraterrestrials we encounter will have similar evolved attitudes about their basic moral commitments.

In particular, they will likely agree with us that there is something morally special about rational, social creatures. And such universal agreement, argues Smith, could be the foundation for a truly universal system of ethics.

Smith will soon take sabbatical to lay the groundwork for a book exploring these issues in more detail.


Explore further: Physicists propose identification of a gravitational arrow of time

More information: Manifest Complexity: A Foundational Ethic for Astrobiology? www.sciencedirect.com/science/… ii/S026596461400085X

http://phys.org/news/2015-01-explores-un...ality.html

Mayito will realise aover time he is not my friend and he is not my enemy and because I Am luke-warm the data is spit out for you to read with your own eyes.

I'm the nicest dude you've never met.The council of Nice EA is be nice no matter how virulent your thoughts be toward me.

F-bombs notwithstanding, all languages skew toward happiness: Universal human bias for positive words

February 9, 2015 Source:University of Vermont

Summary:

Arabic movie subtitles, Korean tweets, Russian novels, Chinese websites, English lyrics, and even the war-torn pages of the New York Times -- research examining billions of words, shows that these sources -- and all human language -- skews toward the use of happy words. This Big Data study confirms the 1969 Pollyanna Hypothesis that there is a universal human tendency to "look on and talk about the bright side of life."


[Image: 150209161143.jpg]
Whether it's Arabic movie subtitles, books in Chinese, Spanish Twitter, German websites, or music lyrics in English--a study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, by scientists at the University of Vermont and The MITRE Corporation, found a clear positive bias in human language. In other words, we--humanity-- "use more happy words than sad words," says mathematician Chris Danforth who co-led the new research. This graph shows distributions of perceived average word happiness from 24 sources in ten languages. Spanish is most skewed toward the positive and Chinese books the least--but all sources showed the same trend: humans tend to look on, and talk about, the bright side of life. The yellow and blue graphs, called histograms, each represent the 5000 most commonly used words from each source; yellow indicates positivity; blue indicates negativity.
Credit: Dodds et al., PNAS


Quote:In 1969, two psychologists at the University of Illinois proposed what they called the Pollyanna Hypothesis -- the idea that there is a universal human tendency to use positive words more frequently than negative ones. "Put even more simply," they wrote, "humans tend to look on (and talk about) the bright side of life." It was a speculation that has provoked debate ever since.


Now a team of scientists at the University of Vermont and The MITRE Corporation have applied a Big Data approach -- using a massive data set of many billions of words, based on actual usage, rather than "expert" opinion -- to confirm the 1960s guess.

Movie subtitles in Arabic, Twitter feeds in Korean, the famously dark literature of Russia, websites in Chinese, music lyrics in English, and even the war-torn pages of the New York Times -- the researchers found that these, and probably all human language¬, skews toward the use of happy words.

"We looked at ten languages," says UVM mathematician Peter Dodds who co-led the study, "and in every source we looked at, people use more positive words than negative ones."

But doesn't our global torrent of cursing on Twitter, horror movies, and endless media stories on the disaster du jour mean this can't be true? No. This huge study of the "atoms of language -- individual words," Dodds says, indicates that language itself -- perhaps humanity's greatest technology -- has a positive outlook. And, therefore, "it seems that positive social interaction," Dodds says, is built into its fundamental structure.

The new study, "Human Language Reveals a Universal Positivity Bias," appeared in the February 9 online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Above average happiness


To deeply explore this Pollyanna possibility, the team of scientists at UVM's Computational Story Lab -- with support from the National Science Foundation and The MITRE Corporation -- gathered billions of words from around the world using twenty-four types of sources including books, news outlets, social media, websites, television and movie subtitles, and music lyrics. For example, "we collected roughly one hundred billion words written in tweets," says UVM mathematician Chris Danforth who co-led the new research.

From these sources, the team then identified about ten thousand of the most frequently used words in each of ten languages including English, Spanish, French, German, Brazilian Portuguese, Korean, Chinese (simplified), Russian, Indonesian and Arabic. Next, they paid native speakers to rate all these frequently-used words on a nine-point scale from a deeply frowning face to a broadly smiling one. From these native speakers, they gathered five million individual human scores of the words. Averaging these, in English for example, "laughter" rated 8.50, "food" 7.44, "truck" 5.48, "the" 4.98, "greed" 3.06 and "terrorist" 1.30.

A Google web crawl of Spanish-language sites had the highest average word happiness, and a search of Chinese books had the lowest, but -- and here's the point -- all twenty-four sources of words that they analyzed skewed above the neutral score of five on their one-to-nine scale -- regardless of the language. In every language, neutral words like "the" scored just where you would expect: in the middle, near five. And when the team translated words between languages and then back again they found that "the estimated emotional content of words is consistent between languages."

In all cases, the scientists found "a usage-invariant positivity bias," as they write in the study. In other words, by looking at the words people actually use most often they found that, on average, we -- humanity -- "use more happy words than sad words," Danforth says.

Moby Dick vs. the Count of Monte Cristo

This new research study also describes a larger project that the team of fourteen scientists has developed to create "physical-like instruments" for both real-time and offline measurements of the happiness in large-scale texts -- "basically, huge bags of words," Danforth explains.

They call this instrument a "hedonometer" -- a happiness meter. It can now trace the global happiness signal from English-language Twitter posts on a near-real-time basis, and show differing happiness signals between days. For example, a big drop was noted on the day of the terrorist attack on Charlie Hebdo in Paris, but rebounded over the following three days. The hedonometer can also discern different happiness signals in US states and cities: Vermont currently has the happiest signal, while Louisiana has the saddest. And the latest data puts Boulder, CO, in the number one spot for happiness, while Racine, WI, is at the bottom.

But, as the new paper describes, the team is working to apply the hedonometer to explore happiness signals in many other languages and from many sources beyond Twitter. For example, the team has applied their technique to over ten thousand books, inspired by Kurt Vonnegut's "shapes of stories" idea. Visualizations of the emotional ups and downs of these books can been seen on the hedonometer website; they rise and a fall like a stock-market ticker. The new study shows that Moby Dick's 170,914 words has four or five major valleys that correspond to low points in the story and the hedonometer signal drops off dramatically at the end, revealing this classic novel's darkly enigmatic conclusion. In contrast, Dumas's Count of Monte Cristo -- 100,081 words in French -- ends on a jubilant note, shown by a strong upward spike on the meter.

The new research "in no way asserts that all natural texts will skew positive," the researchers write, as these various books reveal. But at a more elemental level, the study brings evidence from Big Data to a long-standing debate about human evolution: our social nature appears to be encoded in the building blocks of language.

Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Vermont. The original article was written by Joshua E. Brown. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

Journal Reference:
1.Peter Sheridan Dodds et al. Human language reveals a universal positivity bias. PNAS, 2015 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1411678112

University of Vermont. "F-bombs notwithstanding, all languages skew toward happiness: Universal human bias for positive words." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 9 February 2015.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/201...161143.htm 

Nice to know you stuck around,we need your wisdom 7777. :angel2:
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
Yes you have a total grasp on the dichotomy.
Deo,you dare to provoke more thought!!! Whip Whip Whip

How Dare YOU!!! Dance2

Excellent points made deo.Thanx.

[Image: herodsinnertemple.jpg]

(02-17-2015, 04:40 AM)deo link Wrote:
Quote: Dunno Deo... You tell me?

I thought the basic question was: What was the "technology" that He would have known of? 

If educated as recorded in the accepted traditional canon, He would have known the significance of the Temple alignments, at least.

A search of:  architectural cosmic alignment history Jerusalem

and more generally, the area of Archeo-Astronomy indicates that the general education of elite rabbis, scholars, builders and architects used systematized information with cosmological significance.  I don't know if we call that science, witchcraft, or divine inspiration but it was the coin of the day among the most powerful and the mystical.  Systematized information with cosmological significance is of course global and cross-cultural.

Since the Antikythera mechanism was around for at least two hundred years before His time, it seems curious there is no known historical reference to the technology, period. Perhaps the real question should be: What has been left out of the standard canon?

Dunno

Thank you deo.
I find it mysterious as you do.
In my previous post It can be noted that the Hebrews enslaved in babylon after the first temples destruction  shows the Judeans were  Damned "integrated almost immediately,"

What did the judeans borrow from babylon? Hmm2 Hmm2 Hmm2

not based on Greek trigonometry (which was nonexistent in 205 B.C.)—but on Babylonian arithmetical methods, borrowed by the Greeks


Quote:
Quote:After several years of studying the mechanism and Babylonian records of eclipses, the collaborators have pinpointed the date when the mechanism was timed to begin—205 B.C. This suggests the mechanism is 50–100 years older than most researchers in the field have thought.

The new work fills a gap in ancient scientific history by indicating that the Greeks were able to predict eclipses and engineer a highly complex machine—sometimes called the world's first computer—at an earlier stage than believed. It also supports the idea that the eclipse prediction scheme was .not based on Greek trigonometry (which was nonexistent in 205 B.C.)—but on Babylonian arithmetical methods, borrowed by the Greeks
Far more conjecturally, this timing also makes an old story told by Cicero more plausible—that a similar mechanism was created by Archimedes and carried back to Rome by the Roman general Marcellus, after the sack of Syracuse and the death of Archimedes in 212 B.C. If the Antikythera mechanism did indeed use an eclipse predictor that worked best for a cycle starting in 205 BC, the likely origin of this machine is tantalizingly close to the lifetime of Archimedes.

Evans and Carman arrived at the 205 B.C. date using a method of elimination that they devised. Beginning with the hundreds of ways that the Antikythera's eclipse patterns could fit Babylonian records (as reconstructed by John Steele, Brown University) the team used their system to eliminate dates successively, until they had a single possibility.

The calculations take into account lunar and solar anomalies (which result in faster or slower velocity), missing solar eclipses, lunar and solar eclipses cycles, and other astronomical phenomena. The work was particularly difficult because only about a third of the Antikythera's eclipse predictor is preserved.

Evans and Carman first presented their ongoing research at a Netherlands conference in June 2013, stimulating debate among their peers. The new online paper will appear in the journal's January 2015 hard copy edition.


Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2014-11-antikythera...k.html#jCp

[flash=555,333]https://www.youtube.com/v/UtWC2lVghtI[/flash]

That temple was nearly brand new when jesus entered his ministry as far as millenial time is concerned.
Nice timing of events...almost like it could be calculated before hand and played out in the future.
Timing,timing,timing...
Location,location,location...
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
By the Way mayito.

My wife and I know a set of identical twins as well as their wives.
They both have been  members in the union shown below.

One of them left the trade but the other twin still is at work daily.

I have never heard them call themselves: scaffolders. Naughty

Thatz all they friggen do,thatz it thatz all,scaffolding for major projects.

I repeat Scaffolding. Bricks

They always refer to themselves literally as "Journeymen Carpenters"

[Image: logobanner_011.jpg]

The one twin is not active in the union and he couldn't nail jesus to the cross if he tried with you holding the nail steady for him. Rofl The other brother...  Dunno well,  Damned hide the saw.

Scaffolding would definately be handy when building say, a stone temple.

These two Scaffolders "Carpenters" are local yokels around this town.

I am totally aware of how the word seems a misnomer but its true.
We ain't talking ancient greek but somebody I talked to just last week.

I wouldn't bring a nail-gun around the either of the two... Reefer
They'd both probably try to look right into it.  Rofl 

True Story.

Scaffolders call themselves Carpenters.





Tektonics.
And a Shiny new Temple. Hmm2

[Image: Second_Temple.jpg]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
Scream A tale of Two TRAILS/Trials???  Pennywise
Caveat/Venerate/Emptor

When Deo speaks of:
Quote:If educated as recorded in the accepted traditional canon, He would have known the significance of the Temple alignments, at least.

Quote:A search of:  architectural cosmic alignment history Jerusalem

and more generally, the area of Archeo-Astronomy indicates that the general education of elite rabbis, scholars, builders and architects used systematized information with cosmological significance.

[Image: geocaching.gif]

Why do eye think...Hmmm  Hmm2  Geo-Caching?  Dunno GPS

[sup]For Christian pilgrims, [b]the identification of the praetorium with Herod’s palace might throw off the route taken for centuries to [glow=red,2,300]trial[/glow] retrace Jesus’ steps from his [shadow=red,left]trial[/shadow] to his crucifixion. Called the Via Dolorosa, or “Way of Sorrows,” the road begins at the Antonia Fortress and ends at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, punctuated in between with seven other stations commemorating events that occurred on Jesus’ way to his crucifixion at Golgotha.

Although the path of the Via Dolorosa has long been venerated, Tower of David Museum director Eilat Lieber told The Washington Post that she hopes Christians will eventually make Herod’s palace complex near Jaffa Gate [i]a standard destination
.[/sup][/i][/b]


[move]If [b]evidence of Herod’s Jerusalem palace has long been known, why is it in the news now01/08/2015?[/b]
[/move]


Damned




Tour Showcases Remains of Herod’s Jerusalem Palace—Possible Site of the Trial of Jesus

Bible and archaeology news Robin Ngo 01/08/2015

[Image: herod-jerusalem-palace.jpg]
Visitors can now see remains of King Herod’s palace in Jerusalem, where the trial of Jesus may have occurred. Photo: Courtesy Tower of David Museum.

Quote:Visitors to Jerusalem’s Old City can now explore remains of King Herod’s palace, which may be where Roman governor Pontius Pilate tried and condemned Jesus of Nazareth to death. Excavating from 1999–2000 underneath an abandoned Ottoman-period prison known as the Kishle—which is part of the so-called Tower of David complex—Israel Antiquities Authority archaeologist Amit Re’em uncovered the foundation walls and sewage system of Herod’s Jerusalem palace. Tours offered through the Tower of David Museum will showcase these finds.

Although the discovery of the remains of Herod’s Jerusalem palace has recently made headlines, the finds are not surprising, according to University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill archaeologist Jodi Magness.

“We have other remains of the substructure of Herod’s palace, and its identification as the praetorium [the Roman governor’s residence and headquarters] is not new, either,” Magness told Bible History Daily.

Herod’s Palace in Jerusalem

Jewish historian Josephus tells us that Herod’s Jerusalem palace complex, begun in the last quarter of the first century B.C.E., comprised a palace with two wings divided by pools and gardens and was protected by three large towers on the northwestern corner of the precinct. Excavations undertaken by different archaeological teams since the 1960s uncovered various remains of the palace substructure, but almost none of the superstructure has survived. In The World of Jesus and the Early Church, edited by Craig A. Evans (Hendrickson Publishers, 2011), archaeologist Shimon Gibson, Senior Associate Fellow at the Albright Institute, summarizes the archaeological evidence of Herod’s palace complex in Jerusalem.1

If evidence of Herod’s Jerusalem palace has long been known, why is it in the news now? Media attention, which has focused on Herod’s palace as the possible location of the trial of Jesus, has coincided with the Tower of David Museum’s opening of the site for tours. The preparation of the site, The Washington Post reports, was delayed by wars and a lack of funding.

Where Was the Trial of Jesus?

[Image: tower-of-david-jerusalem.jpg]
Excavations conducted under and in the vicinity of the Tower of David complex have uncovered evidence of Herod’s palace. Photo: Wayne McLean/CC BY 2.0.

Tradition dating back to the medieval period places the praetorium—where the trial of Jesus was held, according to the Gospels2—in the Antonia Fortress in the northeastern part of the Old City. The Antonia Fortress, however, would have been too small to be the residence and headquarters of the governor; its main purpose, furthermore, was to serve as a military observation tower. Scholarly consensus today associates the praetorium with Herod’s palace on the western side of the city.3

“Herod’s palace was not a building—it was a compound,” Shimon Gibson told Bible History Daily. “The compound was ideal for Roman governors.”

In The World of Jesus, Gibson explains why it’s likely the praetorium was located in Herod’s palace complex:


[T]here can be no doubt that on the occasions when [Pilate] stayed in Jerusalem, particularly during the Jewish festivities, he took up residence at Herod’s old palace situated on the west side of the city, also known as the praetorium. The word praetorium might refer to a palace or a judicial military seat, but it is likely that in Jerusalem it referred to the entire palace compound, which on the north included palatial buildings used for residential purposes and on the south, military barracks.4

For Christian pilgrims, the identification of the praetorium with Herod’s palace might throw off the route taken for centuries to retrace Jesus’ steps from his trial to his crucifixion. Called the Via Dolorosa, or “Way of Sorrows,” the road begins at the Antonia Fortress and ends at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, punctuated in between with seven other stations commemorating events that occurred on Jesus’ way to his crucifixion at Golgotha.

Although the path of the Via Dolorosa has long been venerated, Tower of David Museum director Eilat Lieber told The Washington Post that she hopes Christians will eventually make Herod’s palace complex near Jaffa Gate a standard destination.
 




Notes:

1. Shimon Gibson, “The Trial of Jesus at the Jerusalem Praetorium: New Archaeological Evidence,” in Craig A. Evans, ed., The World of Jesus and the Early Church (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2011), pp. 97–118. See also Shimon Gibson, The Final Days of Jesus: The Archaeological Evidence (New York: HarperOne, 2009).

2. Mark 15:16; Matthew 27:27; John 18:28.

3. Jodi Magness, The Archaeology of the Holy Land (New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2012), pp. 158–159.

4. Gibson, “The Trial of Jesus,” p. 104.
http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily...-of-jesus/ 

[move]Trial Hi Here
For Christian pilgrims, the identification of the praetorium with Herod’s palace might throw off the route Koolaid  taken for centuries to retrace Jesus’ steps from his trial to his crucifixion.
Trial Hi There [/move]

Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
Via Dolorosa, or  :thwack:  “Way of Sorrows,” Whip

Trial [glow=red,2,300]“Way of Sorrows,”[/glow] Trail

Quote:Tradition dating back to the medieval period places the praetorium—where the trial of Jesus was held, according to the Gospels2—in the Antonia Fortress in the northeastern part of the Old City. The Antonia FortressNaughty however, would have been too small to be the residence and headquarters of the governor; its main purpose, furthermore, was to serve as a military observation tower. Scholarly consensus today associates the praetorium with  Dance2 Herod’s palace on the western side of the city.3



[move] Teetertotter Does that put the old venerated Trail on TrialDunno [/move]

http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily...-of-jesus/

Here  Dunno  [Image: jesuspilate1.jpg]  Dunno There

You can't return to the scene of the crimes if you don't even know where the hell they held the trial!  Bricks
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
A prepublished predetermined proof positive progressive pickled [glow=red,2,300]red-herring[/glow] pepper Working Script. Hmm2
from ~150 years before Luke when yoda was just a young dude. :Yoda:  Duel

[sub]That temple was nearly brand new when jesus entered his ministry as far as millenial time is concerned.
Nice timing of events...almost like it could be calculated before hand and played out in the future.
Timing,timing,timing...
Location,location,location...[/sub]



[move]
Quote:In Luke 7, Jesus gives these miracles to the disciples of John the Baptist as proof that he is the messiah. In the Messianic Apocalypse, which was written approximately 150 years before Luke’s Gospel, the Lord is the one who will perform these miracles. The source for both of these lists is Isaiah chapters 35 and 61.
[/move]

Holy TRAILS on Trial!!!  Reefer

The Dead Sea Scrolls and the New Testament

What do the Dead Sea Scrolls say about Jesus?


Megan Sauter   •  02/16/2015

[Image: DSS-Caves.jpg]
The Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered in the caves by Qumran, a site in the Judean Wilderness on the west side of the Dead Sea. James C. VanderKam explores similarities between the Dead Sea Scrolls and the New Testament in the March/April 2015 issue of BAR. Photo: “Caves@Dead Sea Scrolls (8246948498)” by Lux Moundi is licensed under CC-BY-SA-2.0.

Quote:What do the Dead Sea Scrolls say about Jesus?  Dunno  Nothing.

What do they say about the world in which Jesus lived?  Dance2 Lots.

The Dead Sea Scrolls are comprised primarily of two types of texts: parts of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) and sectarian works written by the small group (or groups) of Jews who lived at Qumran. The scrolls date from the mid-third century B.C.E. until the mid-first century C.E.

While the Dead Sea Scrolls do not shed light on the person or ministry of Jesus, they do illuminate practices and beliefs of ancient Judaism. Since Christianity began as a sect of Judaism, the scrolls are very important for understanding the earliest Christians and their writings—the New Testament.

In the March/April 2015 issue of BAR, James C. VanderKam, the John A. O’Brien Professor of Hebrew Scriptures in the theology department at the University of Notre Dame, examines the overlap between these two bodies of texts in his article “The Dead Sea Scrolls and the New Testament.” Dr. VanderKam was a member of the committee that prepared the scrolls for publication.

In his BAR article, James C. VanderKam explains, “The earliest followers of Jesus and the literature they produced were thoroughly Jewish in nature. As a result, the more one knows about Judaism during the time of Christian origins, the stronger basis we have for understanding the New Testament. And the scrolls are the most significant body of Hebrew/Aramaic literature related to a Jewish group or groups from roughly this time and thus are potentially invaluable for shedding light on the meaning of New Testament texts.”

[Image: messianic-apocalypse-scroll-260x146.jpg]
What do the Dead Sea Scrolls say about Jesus? Nothing. However, they shed some light on the world in which Jesus lived. This scroll, the Messianic Apocalypse (4Q521), has a list of miracles very similar to Luke 7:21–22, even though it was written approximately 150 years before Luke’s Gospel.Photo: Israel Antiquities Authority, Jerusalem.


There is no reason to suggest that the New Testament authors knew any of the sectarian works discovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls. Further, it is quite possible that the two groups never interacted with each other. VanderKam points out that there is no overlap between the cast of characters in the scrolls and the New Testament (except for figures from the Hebrew Bible). He notes that “not even John the Baptist, who for a time lived in the wilderness and around the Jordan, not too far from the Dead Sea Scroll caves (see Luke 1:80; 3:3)” appears in the scrolls—let alone Jesus, much of whose ministry happened in Galilee.


messianic-apocalypse-scroll

What do the Dead Sea Scrolls say about Jesus? Nothing. However, they shed some light on the world in which Jesus lived. This scroll, the Messianic Apocalypse (4Q521), has a list of miracles very similar to Luke 7:21–22, even though it was written approximately 150 years before Luke’s Gospel.Photo: Israel Antiquities Authority, Jerusalem.
The worldviews of early Christians and the writers of the Dead Sea Scrolls were also starkly different. VanderKam explains, “A group that set a goal of spreading its religious message to all peoples to the ends of the earth had a very different understanding of God’s plan than ones who seem to have done no proselytizing and had no interest in bringing the nations into the fold.”

Nevertheless, there are some similarities between the two groups and their writings, which make for interesting comparisons. For example, a list of miracles appears in both Luke 7:21–22 of the New Testament and the Dead Sea Scroll known as the Messianic Apocalypse (4Q521). In Luke 7, Jesus gives these miracles to the disciples of John the Baptist as proof that he is the messiah. In the Messianic Apocalypse, which was written approximately 150 years before Luke’s Gospel, the Lord is the one who will perform these miracles. The source for both of these lists is Isaiah chapters 35 and 61. While not all of the same miracles appear in Luke 7 and the Messianic Apocalypse, the miracles that do appear in both are listed in the same order (see chart).



[Image: dss-chart.jpg]
dss-chart
Parallels between Luke 7:21–22 and 4Q521 and the parts of Isaiah from which they come.


The curious thing is that not all of these miracles, such as “raising the dead,” appear in the passages from Isaiah, which were the source material for the lists—the prophecies being fulfilled. Yet the miracle of “raising the dead” appears in both Luke 7 and the Messianic Apocalypse right before bringing “good news to the poor.” Rather than suggesting that the writer of Luke 7 copied from—or was even aware of—the Messianic Apocalypse, this similarity suggests that both groups shared certain “interpretive and theological traditions on which writers in both communities drew.”

For VanderKam’s full analysis of this text and to learn more about the similarities and differences between the scrolls uncovered at Qumran and the New Testament, read his full article “The Dead Sea Scrolls and the New Testament” in the March/April 2015 issue of BAR.
“The Dead Sea Scrolls and the New Testament,” by James C. VanderKam
March/April 2015 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review.
http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily...testament/
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
Deo says
Quote:....the area of Archeo-Astronomy indicates that the general education
of elite rabbis, scholars, builders and architects used systematized information
with cosmological significance.
I don't know if we call that science,
witchcraft, or divine inspiration
but it was the coin of the day among the most powerful and the mystical. 
Systematized information with cosmological significance is of course global and cross-cultural.

Since the Antikythera mechanism was around for at least two hundred years before His time, it seems curious there is no known historical reference to the technology, period.


EA
Quote:...Greeks ... borrowed from the Babylonian arithmetical methods ...


All the architecture built in ancient times
was definitely attached to 'cultural cosmological sciences'.
What modern history does not reveal is that cross cultural ancient science sharing,
evolved over tens of thousands of years and was shared globally.

For instance type in google "Babylonian pi"
and you will get a lot of reference and evidence for the value ... 3.125.
This is nonsense.

Modern history gives credit to the pi value  {355 / 113}
to some Chinese guy in the 5th century AD.
This is nonsense as well.
Ancient Egyptians had both pi and phi progressions.

Long story short,
ancient mathematicians knew how to create fractions in mathematical progressions
for pi, phi and the square root two. ... etc.
It was not that difficult, and actually quite simple.

Pi was no problem. Square root 2 and square root 5 were a piece of cake,
to isolate fractions for, to exceedingly convergent values.

quote Deo again
Quote:Since the Antikythera mechanism was around
for at least two hundred years before His time,
it seems curious there is no known historical reference to the technology,

I think this is because the knowledge and application of
"cultural cosmologies"
refined exceedingly well into science and architecture
in ancient times was far more common than history gives credit for,
and as such,
it was taken for granted by the educated demographics within those ancient time frames,
that any "civilized society"
used the best common science and math of those times to express their cultural intensity,
that science and math which was quite sophisticated after all.


I won't belabor the issue,
but this fellow in Switzerland clearly shows how Babylonians
could attain pi easily
from the Egyptian progressions
near the top, about 3 paragraphs down:
quote
Quote:This value is even better than 355 / 113. {pi}
Could the Babylonians possibly have found such a fine value?
Yes, they could easily have done so
by using the number sequences of their Egyptian colleagues:


he shows how the progression continues to : 84823 / 27000 = pi convergent


then in the link,
go to tenth triangle Whip
http://www.seshat.ch/home/babylon.htm

the progression is clear,
and displays that any ancient culture worth it's salt ... had it's "cultural cosmology"
entrenched in scientific exactitudes  ....
ie, they knew pi and knew how to find it ,
and strangle the goddam cat,
{put it in a variety of fractions and use the one best suited for the work at hand}

He does it this way:
use the pi value 355 / 113 ... add numerator to numerator ... denominator to denominator

84823 ----- plus {108 x 355} ... =  123163
27000------- > plus {108 x 113}.... =  39204

thus a pi value of 3.141592695
is achieved using the ancient progressions.
Some of his stuff is approximations,  but the pi progression material is on the money.

Point being that the science of mathematics,
was the science of all global "cultural cosmology",
and it was tied directly to the planetary and lunar movements. {Antikythera}

No doubt, the architectures anywhere had the same overall implications,
and it was common knowledge to a large extent,
but it is the modern historical perspective that slants the true story.

 
 
Reply
Deo:
Quote:If educated as recorded in the accepted traditional canon, He would have known the significance of the Temple alignments, at least.

Quote: [Image: FileItem-41531-HaciendaChichenYaxkinSpaT...nItza.jpeg]

Isaiah 38:8

"Behold, I will cause the shadow on the stairway, which has gone down with the sun on the stairway of Ahaz, to go back ten steps " So the sun's shadow went back ten steps on the stairway on which it had gone down.



a..."slightly inclined plane"

(02-18-2015, 04:06 AM)Vianova link Wrote:No doubt, the architectures anywhere had the same overall implications,
and it was common knowledge to a large extent,
but it is the modern historical perspective that slants the true story.



The Hardknott Fort and sunrises and sunsets directions on solstices. The Roman fort had the sun passing through the four gates on solstices. Moreover, the four towers of its wall seem aligned to cardinal directions. Some differences exist; probably the fort is on a slightly inclined plane


Hardknott gets the 333

[Image: GordianKnot.jpg]

[sub]Gordian knot,  knot that gave its name to a proverbial term for a problem solvable only by bold action. In 333 bc, Alexander the Great, on his march through Anatolia, reached Gordium, the capital of Phrygia. There he was shown the chariot of the ancient founder of the city, Gordius, with its yoke lashed to the pole by means of an intricate knot with its end hidden. According to tradition, this knot was to be untied only by the future conqueror of Asia. In the popular account, probably invented as appropriate to an impetuous warrior, Alexander sliced through the knot with his sword, but, in earlier versions, he found the ends either by cutting into the knot or by drawing out the pole. The phrase “cutting the Gordian knot” has thus come to denote a bold solution to a complicated problem.[/sub]





Solstices at the Hardknott Roman Fort



Amelia Carolina Sparavignaun confirmed user (Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino)
Published in enviro.philica.com

Abstract
From the most ancient times, the Roman military camps were planned according to a certain ideal pattern that was also applied to the coloniae, the outposts established in the territories conquered by Rome. The planning of castra and colonies was based on a chessboard of parallel streets, the main of them being the Decumanus. Probably, some Decumani were oriented to confer a symbolic meaning to the place too. Here we discuss the distinctive layout of a castrum in the Roman Britannia, the Hardknott Fort, and its orientation to the solstices.
Title: Solstices at the Hardknott Roman Fort; Author: A.C. Sparavigna, DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Italy; Keywords: Archeoastronomy, Solar Orientation, Solstices, Urban Planning, Satellite Images, Google Earth.

Article body
Introduction

Quote:From the most ancient times, the Roman military camps, the castra, were planned according to an ideal pattern that was also applied to the coloniae, the outposts established in territories conquered by Rome. The Romans created the castra with a precise regular scheme, based on two main streets, which crossed at right angles near the center of the settlement. These streets are usually known as Decumanus and Kardo. When the castrum evolved in a colonia, this crossing, around which the military command was encamped, became the central forum of the town [1]. It is easy to see an example of the urban planning of a Roman colonia: it is enough to look at a satellite map of the center of Torino, a town that was born as a Julius Caesar’s castrum. Its main street, the Decumanus, coincides with Via Garibaldi. The Kardo (Via di Porta Palatina) crosses the Decumanus at the center of the town, which was the umbilicus soli (Figure 1).

As told by F. Haverfield in his book on ancient town-planning [2], it seems that the Decumanus could had been determined to have its direction aligned with the azimuth of the rising sun. The Decumanus points, "where the sun rises above the horizon on the dawn of some day important in the history of the town" [2], or, let us add, important for symbolic reasons. Since the sunrise azimuth changes during the year, the Decumani have different orientations. Using satellite maps and sunrise azimuths, it is possible to check if a Roman town or castrum had a possible solar orientation [3,4]. Of course, this analysis is not limited to Roman locations; it is easy to find several examples of places around the world, which have a solar orientation in their planning [5-8], in a layout symbolically linking Earth and Heavens.

Here we discuss an example of a castrum, the Hardknott Roman Fort (Mediobogdum), at Eskdale in Cumbria, United Kingdom, which has a quite distinctive layout. We will see that it appears having an orientation of its axes to solstices, so that, through its four gates, we could imagine to see sunrise and sunset on those days. Let us note that some examples of Roman towns having the Decumanus oriented to sunrise or sunset on solstices exist. In particular, we find Como (Comum) [9], Verona, Vicenza (Vicentia), Bene Vagienna (Augusta Bagiennorum) [10], and probably Milano (Mediolanum) too [11]. In the case of Bene Vagienna and Milano, the southeast gate of the town could had been the perfect frame for the rising sun on winter solstice [10].

[Image: torino.jpg]
Figure 1 – The Romans planned the castra with a precise regular scheme, based on two main streets, which crossed at right angles at center of the settlement. These streets are usually known as Decumanus and Kardo. Sometimes, the castrum evolved in a colonia and then in a town, which is the core of a modern city. An example is Torino, a town that was born as a Julius Caesar’s castrum. The main street, the Decumanus, coincides to Via Garibaldi. The Decumanus is crossed by Kardo, which is Via di Porta Palatina, at the central point of the town, the umbilicus soli. In this Google Earth map, we can easily see the rectangle of the Roman town, composed of several insulae. Note that the orientation of the Decumanus is not coincident to East-West cardinal direction. At the ends of Kardo and Decumanus, four gates existed, but only two remain.

Castra and Coloniae

Before the analysis of the orientation of Mediobogdum castrum, a few words on the planning of Roman coloniae are useful. Let us also consider that castra and coloniae were strongly linked, because several military towns evolved into coloniae, as it happened for Torino.

As Francis Haverfield observed in his book [2,12], during the later Republic and the earlier Empire, Romans used to send bodies of emigrants to form the coloniae, which were new towns already full-grown from their birth, to constitute new centers of Roman rule. In particular, Haverfield pointed out another important reason for the foundation of new towns: at the end of the civil wars of Sulla, Caesar and Octavian, who used for their wars quite huge armies, large masses of soldiery had to be discharged. For the sake of future peace, these men were quickly settled in the civil life by creating some coloniae. These soldiers were "planted out in large bodies, sometimes in existing towns which needed population or at least a loyal population, sometimes in new towns established full-grown for the purpose" [2]. Therefore, it is not surprising that we find in many towns, of the later Republic or Empire, a definite type of town planning, which was the same of castra. "The town areas … are small squares or oblongs; they are divided by two main streets into four parts and by other and parallel streets into square or oblong house-blocks ('insulae'), and the rectangular scheme is carried through with some geometrical precision. … The two main streets appear to follow some method of orientation connected with augural science. As a rule, one of them runs north and south, the other east and west, and now and again the latter street seems to point to the spot where the sun rises above the horizon on the dawn of some day important in the history of the town" [2]. For instance, the town of Timgad in Africa was oriented to the sunrise on September 18, the birthday of Trajan. On Timgad, Haverfield is referring to a discussion he found in the works of Walter Barthel (1880-1915), a German archaeologist, who studied towns and land limitation (subdivision) of Roman Africa [13].

Concerning the founding of a town, Haverfield remarks that evidences from augural lore exist. “We know that the Decumanus and the Kardo, the two main lines of the Roman land-survey and probably also the two main streets of the Roman town-plan, were laid out under definite augural and semi-religious provision” [2]. However, Haverfield observes, for the town-planning that was “so distinctive and so widely used”, the Roman had not created a “series of building-laws sanctioning” it. Roman lawyers and land-surveyors, the so-called Gromatici, do not tell that legal rules relative to town-planning existed, different from those generally used for surveying. In fact, it seems that surveyors are much more concerned with the soil of the province and with its ‘limitation' and 'centuriation'. Let us remember that the centuriation was a subdivision of the land, characterized by the regular layout of a square grid traced using surveyor's instruments.

The name Gromatici, used for the Roman surveyors, is coming from an instrument they used, the Groma. The Greeks of the 4th century BC knew this surveying instrument, which was brought to Rome by the Etruscans [14]. It was made of a vertical staff with horizontal crosspieces mounted at right angles. Each crosspiece had a plumb line hanging vertically at each end. It was used to survey straight lines and right angles, and so the squares or rectangles of centuriation. From the center of any new military camp or town or of any land limitation or centuriation, using the Groma, the Gromaticus began to lay out the grid of the streets, with a plough and a pair of oxen.



Augurs and Gromatici

In ancient times, before the Gromaticus started his surveying, an augur, an official who was practicing augury, able of interpreting the will of gods by studying signs and omens such as the flight of birds, found the best place for land limitation. The augur, with its lituus, a curved augural staff, was determining a ritual space in the sky, known as the ‘templum’. The passage of birds through the templum indicated divine favor or disfavor of gods for the chosen place.

As previously told, Haverfield is referring to the discussion written by Walter Barthel concerning the orientation of the Decumanus. In [13], Barthel tells that the orientation of Roman planning was based on the ‘Disciplina Etrusca’. The Etruscan Doctrine was mainly a set of rules for conducing all sorts of divination, a religious and political constitution for Etruscans [15]. However, it was not a set of laws, but rather a collection of rules for asking the gods questions and receiving answers. In [16], we find more information on the Etruscan Doctrine. Heavens and Earth, supernatural and natural world, or, if we prefer, macrocosm and microcosm, appear echoing each other in a doctrine based on the orientation and division of space.

We can find information on the Etruscan Doctrine, on how it partitioned the sky and its divine inhabitants, in the works by Pliny the Elder and Martianus Capella [16]. Therefore, we know that Etruscans had a ‘sacred space’, oriented and subdivided, the concept of which is well described by the Latin word ‘templum’. It refers to the sky or to a sacred area, such as the enclosure of a sanctuary or a town, or a much smaller area, such as the liver of an animal used in divination, as long as orientations and partitions are agreeing to the celestial model [16].

The orientation seems given by the four cardinal points, joined by two intersecting straight lines, Kardo and Decumanus. Kardo is the word used to indicate the pivot about which something turns, and then it is used for the pole of the sky too, the pole about which the world is turning. In the Etruscan Doctrine, if an observer is at the cross-point of the two lines, with his shoulders to the North, he will have behind him the half-space delimited by the Decumanus. This half-space is called ‘pars postica’, 'the posterior part'. The half-space he has due South is the ‘pars antica’, 'the anterior part'. “A similar partition of space also occurs along the Kardo line: to the left of the observer, the eastern sector, of good omen, (he has the) pars sinistra or familiaris; to the right, the western sector, of ill omen, pars dextra or hostilis” [16]. The sky is further subdivided in sixteen sectors, each having its divinity.

From [15,16], it seems that the Disciplina Etrusca is considering orientations to the cardinal directions; however, we find many examples of land centuriation and planning of towns and castra that have a different orientation. Probably, the Roman augurs and Gromatici, applied a Disciplina, which was including orientations to sunrise and sunset too. Moreover, the Roman Gromatici preferred a centuriation where the direction of its main street, the Decumanus, was dictated by practical and local opportunities, such as, for instance, the direction of main roads passing across the land. An example is the planning of the several Roman towns of Val Padana, which are crossed by the Roman Via Emilia.

As told in the introduction, an orientation to solstices is observed in the planning of Como. In the Figure 2 we can see the Roman Como, and in the Figure 3 the solar direction on the winter solstice, given by Sollumis.com. Haverfield [2] is telling that the Decumanus is oriented to the sunrise, but the Decumanus of Como had been oriented to the sunset of the winter solstice. In [9], it is explained that, according to Adriano Gaspani (Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera), augurs and surveyors decided the planning of Como according a solstitial orientation to the sunset, a practice that is more pertaining to Celtic culture than to Etruscan Discipline.

[Image: como-a.jpg] 
Figure 2 - The Roman Como.

[Image: como-b.jpg]
Figure 3 - The direction of the sun on the winter solstice, given by Sollumis.com. Haverfield [2] is telling that the Decumanus is oriented to sunrise, but the decumani of Como had been oriented to sunset. In [9], it is explained that, according to Adriano Gaspani (Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera), augurs and surveyors decided a planning of Como towards the sunset of winter solstice, according to a solstitial orientation proper of Celtic cultures.

The castrum at the Hardknott Pass

The Latin word castrum, plural castra, was used by the ancient Romans to mean a place reserved for use as a military defensive position. In classical Latin the word ‘castrum’ means a great legionary encampment, including both temporary and fortified permanent ones. The diminutive form ‘castellum’ was used for the smaller forts. A generic term is ‘praesidium’, garrison. The word castrum is coming from the Proto-Italic kastro- which means ‘part, share’, cognate with Old Irish ‘cather’, Welsh ‘caer’, that is ‘town’ (and perhaps related to castrare via notion of ‘cut off’) [16]. A castrum then was a reservation of land ‘cut off’, that is, limited, for military use [17]. It was a plough, pulled by a pair of oxen, which was cutting and dividing the land.

As explained by [17], the best-known type of castra is the camp, a military town designed to house and protect soldiers, equipment and supplies, when they were not fighting or marching. Roman Army regulations required a major unit to have a properly constructed camp to retire every night. Camps were the responsibility of engineering units to which specialists of many types belonged, officered by ‘architecti’, that is, chief engineers, who had the required manual labor from the soldiers [17]. Permanent camps were ‘castra stativa’, that is, the standing camps.

Even from the most ancient times, Roman camps were constructed according to the pattern discussed in the Section 2, the orientation of which was not fixed, but changing according to location, environmental opportunity, and probably, symbolic reasons too. In fact, we find ‘location’, ‘opportunity’ and ‘symbolic reason’ in a Roman castrum of the Roman Britannia. It is the Hardknott Roman Fort, located on the western side of the Hardknott Pass in the English county of Cumbria. The fort was built on a rocky spur near the River Esk, and it is protecting the Hardknott Pass (Figure 4). These ruins have been identified in the Ravenna Cosmography as Mediobogdum [19,20]). Built between about 120 and 138 AD, the fort was abandoned during the Antonine advance into Scotland. The fort was occupied again around 200 AD and continued its life until the last years of the 4th century [19].

The fort is square with rounded corners. The wall has four gates, at the center of each side, and lookout towers at each corner. Within the walls are the remaining outlines of three buildings: a granary, a garrison headquarters building and a house for the garrison commander [19].

[Image: forte-a.jpg]
Figure 4 - Located on the western side of the Hardknott Pass, the Roman fort was built on a rocky spur for protecting the pass (Google Earth Courtesy)

As we can easily see form the Figure 4, ‘location’ and ‘opportunity’ are clear. We need to illustrate the existence of a possible symbolic meaning of its orientation. To help us in finding it, let us search with Sollumis.com the azimuths of sunrise and sunset on solstices. At the coordinates of this place, we have for the sunrise on December 21, 132 degrees, and for sunrise on June 21, 46 degrees. For the sunset on December 21, we have 229 degrees, and for that on June 21, a value of 315 degrees.

Let us draw these directions on a satellite map of the Roman Fort. The result is shown in the Figure 5. This image is very interesting, because we can easily imagine the sun passing through the four gates on solstices. Moreover, the four towers of the garrison seem aligned to cardinal directions. Some differences could be caused by the fort being on a slightly inclined plane.

[Image: forte-b.jpg]
Figure 5 – The Hardknott Fort and sunrises and sunsets directions on solstices. The Roman fort had the sun passing through the four gates on solstices. Moreover, the four towers of its wall seem aligned to cardinal directions. Some differences exist; probably the fort is on a slightly inclined plane.

The Gromaticus, or engineer of the Roman army, decided the best strategic place for this castrum, and adapted its layout perfectly to the location. Moreover, at the latitude of this fort, with a perfect squared figure, he had the opportunity of paying homage to gods ruling the sky and the sun, may be, to Sol Invictus, or to Mithra, whose Mysteries were a religion popular in the Roman army. In any case, in my opinion, the planning of this fort was not made by chance.

References
[sub][1] M.D. Pollak (1991). Turin 1564-1680: Urban Design, Military Culture, and the Creation of the Absolutist Capital, Chicago. University of Chicago Press.
[2] F. Haverfield (1913). Ancient Town-Planning, Oxford, Clarendon.
[3] A.C. Sparavigna (2012). The Orientation of Julia Augusta Taurinorum (Torino), arXiv:1206.6062 [physics.pop-ph].
[4] A.C. Sparavigna (2012). The Orientation of Trajan's Town of Timgad, arXiv:1208.0454 [physics.hist-ph].
[5] A.C. Sparavigna (2013). Sunrise and Sunset Azimuths in the Planning of Ancient Chinese Towns, International Journal of Sciences, vol. 2 n. 11, pp. 52-59.
[6] A.C. Sparavigna (2013). The Gardens of Taj Mahal and the Sun, International Journal of Sciences, vol. 2 n. 11, pp. 104-107.
[7] A.C. Sparavigna (2013). The Solar Orientation of the Lion Rock Complex in Sri Lanka, International Journal of Sciences, vol. 2 n. 11, pp. 60-62.
[8] A.C. Sparavigna (2014). The Solar Orientation of the Gothic Cathedrals of France, International Journal of Sciences, vol. 3 n.4, pp. 6-11.
[9] L. Morandotti (2011). Quel Solstizio che Disegnò il Volto di Como, Corriere di Como, 19 Maggio 2011.
[10] P. Barale, M. Codebò and H. De Santis (2001). Augusta Bagiennorum (Regio IX), Una Città Astronomicamente Orientata, Studi Piemontesi, vol. XXX n.2, pp. 489-502.
[11] An article on Milano, the Roman Mediolanum, is in preparation.
[12] Francis John Haverfield (1860–1919) was a British historian and archaeologist, who was the first to undertake a scientific study of Roman Britain. He is considered by some scholars to be the first theorist to tackle the issue of the Romanization of the Roman Empire.
[13] W. Barthel (1911). Römische Limitation in der Provinz Africa, Bonn, Carl Georgi Verlag.
[14] Enciclopedia Italiana (1929). Agrimensura, available at www.treccani.it/ enciclopedia/ agrimensura_(Enciclopedia-Italiana)/
[15] M. Pallottino (1975). The Etruscans, Bloomington & London, Indiana University Press.
[16] M. Pallotino (1955). The Etruscans, Harmondsworth, pp. 154-177; reported in The Religion of the Etruscans, according to Massimo Pallottino (2005), www.ancientworlds.net/ aw/Article/643090
[17] D. Harper (2014). Online Etymology Dictionary, www.etymonline.com/
[18] Vv. Aa. (2014). Wikipedia, Castra, en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/ Castra
[19] Vv. Aa. (2014). Wikipedia, Hardknott Roman Fort, en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/ Hardknott_Roman_Fort
[20] A.L.F. Rivet and C. Smith (1979). The Place-Names of Roman Britain, London, B.T. Batsford.[/sub]


The School of Hardknott cuts through the disambiguity and demonstrates at that central time men had the ingenuity.
Deo It is sufficient to say it was within the means of subrosa tektons to delineate gnosis that was literally way over the heads of the general populace,even the literate.

Reading a scroll is not the same as reading the sky.




Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
A good point and excellent research EA. Having established the relative (high) level of practical information available 2,000 years ago to the literrate and educated, and considering the importance of cosmological knowledge for agrarian, military, and Priestley functions, it would seem the Antikythera device would be extraordinarily valuable to the powers that be.  Would the creator of such a device make only one?    Hmm2
Reply
Thanx Deo.
This thread is the big re-think.
Excuse my improv before we continue. Mellow

[Image: 220px-Boulier1.JPG]

As an abacus brain can't log on to a computer.
now let us explain logically as the new tutors.
From Magdalene bride,Tekton Priest her suitor.
As a past whore vilified ill begot refute her.
Holy grail sang real in - vitro they mute her.
Son of Tekton,beam in eye,they try and neuter.


[Image: 5-thishandouti.jpg]

Imagine an Antikythera Machine and an abacus in your toolkit.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
I missed this one but better late than never,All things considered we can recall the abacus as we view the latest in physics and cosmology applied to darwin.

[flash=555,333]https://www.youtube.com/v/SvRtOYGMWV8[/flash]



A New Physics Theory of Life

A physicist has proposed the provocative idea that life exists because the law of increasing entropy drives matter to acquire life-like physical properties

January 28, 2014 |By Natalie Wolchover and Quanta Magazine


Quote:Why does life exist?

[Image: 8774F4AF-A8B9-4ED1-8A268EA82FA3F216_article.jpg?ACDF2]
A computer simulation by Jeremy England and colleagues shows a system of particles confined inside a viscous fluid in which the turquoise particles are driven by an oscillating force. Over time, the force triggers the formation of more bonds among the particles.
Courtesy of Jeremy England


Popular hypotheses credit a primordial soup, a bolt of lightning and a colossal stroke of luck. But if a provocative new theory is correct, luck may have little to do with it. Instead, according to the physicist proposing the idea, the origin and subsequent evolution of life follow from the fundamental laws of nature and “should be as unsurprising as rocks rolling downhill.”

From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. Jeremy England, a 31-year-old assistant professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has derived a mathematical formula that he believes explains this capacity. The formula, based on established physics, indicates that when a group of atoms is driven by an external source of energy (like the sun or chemical fuel) and surrounded by a heat bath (like the ocean or atmosphere), it will often gradually restructure itself in order to dissipate increasingly more energy. This could mean that under certain conditions, matter inexorably acquires the key physical attribute associated with life.

“You start with a random clump of atoms, and if you shine light on it for long enough, it should not be so surprising that you get a plant,” England said.

England’s theory is meant to underlie, rather than replace, Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection, which provides a powerful description of life at the level of genes and populations. “I am certainly not saying that Darwinian ideas are wrong,” he explained. “On the contrary, I am just saying that from the perspective of the physics, you might call Darwinian evolution a special case of a more general phenomenon.”

His idea, detailed in a recent paper and further elaborated in a talk he is delivering at universities around the world, has sparked controversy among his colleagues, who see it as either tenuous or a potential breakthrough, or both.

England has taken “a very brave and very important step,” said Alexander Grosberg, a professor of physics at New York University who has followed England’s work since its early stages. The “big hope” is that he has identified the underlying physical principle driving the origin and evolution of life, Grosberg said.

“Jeremy is just about the brightest young scientist I ever came across,” said Attila Szabo, a biophysicist in the Laboratory of Chemical Physics at the National Institutes of Health who corresponded with England about his theory after meeting him at a conference. “I was struck by the originality of the ideas.”

Others, such as Eugene Shakhnovich, a professor of chemistry, chemical biology and biophysics at Harvard University, are not convinced. “Jeremy’s ideas are interesting and potentially promising, but at this point are extremely speculative, especially as applied to life phenomena,” Shakhnovich said.

England’s theoretical results are generally considered valid. It is his interpretation — that his formula represents the driving force behind a class of phenomena in nature that includes life — that remains unproven. But already, there are ideas about how to test that interpretation in the lab.

“He’s trying something radically different,” said Mara Prentiss, a professor of physics at Harvard who is contemplating such an experiment after learning about England’s work. “As an organizing lens, I think he has a fabulous idea. Right or wrong, it’s going to be very much worth the investigation.”

At the heart of England’s idea is the second law of thermodynamics, also known as the law of increasing entropy or the “arrow of time.” Hot things cool down, gas diffuses through air, eggs scramble but never spontaneously unscramble; in short, energy tends to disperse or spread out as time progresses. Entropy is a measure of this tendency, quantifying how dispersed the energy is among the particles in a system, and how diffuse those particles are throughout space. It increases as a simple matter of probability: There are more ways for energy to be spread out than for it to be concentrated. Thus, as particles in a system move around and interact, they will, through sheer chance, tend to adopt configurations in which the energy is spread out. Eventually, the system arrives at a state of maximum entropy called “thermodynamic equilibrium,” in which energy is uniformly distributed. A cup of coffee and the room it sits in become the same temperature, for example. As long as the cup and the room are left alone, this process is irreversible. The coffee never spontaneously heats up again because the odds are overwhelmingly stacked against so much of the room’s energy randomly concentrating in its atoms.

Although entropy must increase over time in an isolated or “closed” system, an “open” system can keep its entropy low — that is, divide energy unevenly among its atoms — by greatly increasing the entropy of its surroundings. In his influential 1944 monograph “What Is Life?” the eminent quantum physicist Erwin Schrödinger argued that this is what living things must do. A plant, for example, absorbs extremely energetic sunlight, uses it to build sugars, and ejects infrared light, a much less concentrated form of energy. The overall entropy of the universe increases during photosynthesis as the sunlight dissipates, even as the plant prevents itself from decaying by maintaining an orderly internal structure.

Life does not violate the second law of thermodynamics, but until recently, physicists were unable to use thermodynamics to explain why it should arise in the first place. In Schrödinger’s day, they could solve the equations of thermodynamics only for closed systems in equilibrium. In the 1960s, the Belgian physicist Ilya Prigogine made progress on predicting the behavior of open systems weakly driven by external energy sources (for which he won the 1977 Nobel Prize in chemistry). But the behavior of systems that are far from equilibrium, which are connected to the outside environment and strongly driven by external sources of energy, could not be predicted.

This situation changed in the late 1990s, due primarily to the work of Chris Jarzynski, now at the University of Maryland, and Gavin Crooks, now at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Jarzynski and Crooks showed that the entropy produced by a thermodynamic process, such as the cooling of a cup of coffee, corresponds to a simple ratio: the probability that the atoms will undergo that process divided by their probability of undergoing the reverse process (that is, spontaneously interacting in such a way that the coffee warms up). As entropy production increases, so does this ratio: A system’s behavior becomes more and more “irreversible.” The simple yet rigorous formula could in principle be applied to any thermodynamic process, no matter how fast or far from equilibrium. “Our understanding of far-from-equilibrium statistical mechanics greatly improved,” Grosberg said. England, who is trained in both biochemistry and physics, started his own lab at MIT two years ago and decided to apply the new knowledge of statistical physics to biology.

Using Jarzynski and Crooks’ formulation, he derived a generalization of the second law of thermodynamics that holds for systems of particles with certain characteristics: The systems are strongly driven by an external energy source such as an electromagnetic wave, and they can dump heat into a surrounding bath. This class of systems includes all living things. England then determined how such systems tend to evolve over time as they increase their irreversibility. “We can show very simply from the formula that the more likely evolutionary outcomes are going to be the ones that absorbed and dissipated more energy from the environment’s external drives on the way to getting there,” he said. The finding makes intuitive sense: Particles tend to dissipate more energy when they resonate with a driving force, or move in the direction it is pushing them, and they are more likely to move in that direction than any other at any given moment.

“This means clumps of atoms surrounded by a bath at some temperature, like the atmosphere or the ocean, should tend over time to arrange themselves to resonate better and better with the sources of mechanical, electromagnetic or chemical work in their environments,” England explained.

Self-replication (or reproduction, in biological terms), the process that drives the evolution of life on Earth, is one such mechanism by which a system might dissipate an increasing amount of energy over time. As England put it, “A great way of dissipating more is to make more copies of yourself.” In a September paper in the Journal of Chemical Physics, he reported the theoretical minimum amount of dissipation that can occur during the self-replication of RNA molecules and bacterial cells, and showed that it is very close to the actual amounts these systems dissipate when replicating. He also showed that RNA, the nucleic acid that many scientists believe served as the precursor to DNA-based life, is a particularly cheap building material. Once RNA arose, he argues, its “Darwinian takeover” was perhaps not surprising.

The chemistry of the primordial soup, random mutations, geography, catastrophic events and countless other factors have contributed to the fine details of Earth’s diverse flora and fauna. But according to England’s theory, the underlying principle driving the whole process is dissipation-driven adaptation of matter.

This principle would apply to inanimate matter as well. “It is very tempting to speculate about what phenomena in nature we can now fit under this big tent of dissipation-driven adaptive organization,” England said. “Many examples could just be right under our nose, but because we haven’t been looking for them we haven’t noticed them.”

Scientists have already observed self-replication in nonliving systems. According to new research led by Philip Marcus of the University of California, Berkeley, and reported in Physical Review Letters in August, vortices in turbulent fluids spontaneously replicate themselves by drawing energy from shear in the surrounding fluid. And in a paper appearing online this week in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Michael Brenner, a professor of applied mathematics and physics at Harvard, and his collaborators present theoretical models and simulations of microstructures that self-replicate. These clusters of specially coated microspheres dissipate energy by roping nearby spheres into forming identical clusters. “This connects very much to what Jeremy is saying,” Brenner said.

Besides self-replication, greater structural organization is another means by which strongly driven systems ramp up their ability to dissipate energy. A plant, for example, is much better at capturing and routing solar energy through itself than an unstructured heap of carbon atoms. Thus, England argues that under certain conditions, matter will spontaneously self-organize. This tendency could account for the internal order of living things and of many inanimate structures as well. “Snowflakes, sand dunes and turbulent vortices all have in common that they are strikingly patterned structures that emerge in many-particle systems driven by some dissipative process,” he said. Condensation, wind and viscous drag are the relevant processes in these particular cases.

“He is making me think that the distinction between living and nonliving matter is not sharp,” said Carl Franck, a biological physicist at Cornell University, in an email. “I’m particularly impressed by this notion when one considers systems as small as chemical circuits involving a few biomolecules.”

England’s bold idea will likely face close scrutiny in the coming years. He is currently running computer simulations to test his theory that systems of particles adapt their structures to become better at dissipating energy. The next step will be to run experiments on living systems.

Prentiss, who runs an experimental biophysics lab at Harvard, says England’s theory could be tested by comparing cells with different mutations and looking for a correlation between the amount of energy the cells dissipate and their replication rates. “One has to be careful because any mutation might do many things,” she said. “But if one kept doing many of these experiments on different systems and if [dissipation and replication success] are indeed correlated, that would suggest this is the correct organizing principle.”

Brenner said he hopes to connect England’s theory to his own microsphere constructions and determine whether the theory correctly predicts which self-replication and self-assembly processes can occur — “a fundamental question in science,” he said.

Having an overarching principle of life and evolution would give researchers a broader perspective on the emergence of structure and function in living things, many of the researchers said. “Natural selection doesn’t explain certain characteristics,” said Ard Louis, a biophysicist at Oxford University, in an email. These characteristics include a heritable change to gene expression called methylation, increases in complexity in the absence of natural selection, and certain molecular changes Louis has recently studied.

If England’s approach stands up to more testing, it could further liberate biologists from seeking a Darwinian explanation for every adaptation and allow them to think more generally in terms of dissipation-driven organization. They might find, for example, that “the reason that an organism shows characteristic X rather than Y may not be because X is more fit than Y, but because physical constraints make it easier for X to evolve than for Y to evolve,” Louis said.

“People often get stuck in thinking about individual problems,” Prentiss said.  Whether or not England’s ideas turn out to be exactly right, she said, “thinking more broadly is where many scientific breakthroughs are made.”

http://www.scientificamerican.com/articl...y-of-life/

Dunno What was the state of the knowledge of "Physics" in Yeshua's days? Hmm2

[flash=555,333]https://www.youtube.com/v/GXoGo5_IB5s[/flash]

This ought to SPARK some inquiry.





Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
Dunno Why would jesus not perform the miraculous walk on water when he was baptised in spirit???  Dunno


[Image: christ-baptised-by-john-the-baptist-will...y-hole.jpg]

That would have been STUNNING!!!

Hmm2 Hmm2 Hmm2

[flash=555,333]https://www.youtube.com/v/jiRGQVyWFPk#t=40[/flash]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply


Note as well on the Pyramid of Kukulkan,
there are 4 sets of 91 steps = 364
plus
the top platform step = 365 .... days in a year

It also provides coincidentally the denominator in a dynamic pi value
ie
364 x 365 = 132860 --- 417392 / 132860 = pi
coincidence?

[Image: FileItem-41531-HaciendaChichenYaxkinSpaT...nItza.jpeg]


Reply
(02-21-2015, 07:47 PM)EA link Wrote:I missed this one but better late than never,All things considered we can recall the abacus as we view the latest in physics and cosmology applied to darwin.

[flash=555,333]https://www.youtube.com/v/SvRtOYGMWV8[/flash]



A New Physics Theory of Life

A physicist has proposed the provocative idea that life exists because the law of increasing entropy drives matter to acquire life-like physical properties

January 28, 2014 |By Natalie Wolchover and Quanta Magazine


Quote:Why does life exist?

[Image: 8774F4AF-A8B9-4ED1-8A268EA82FA3F216_article.jpg?ACDF2]
A computer simulation by Jeremy England and colleagues shows a system of particles confined inside a viscous fluid in which the turquoise particles are driven by an oscillating force. Over time, the force triggers the formation of more bonds among the particles.
Courtesy of Jeremy England


Popular hypotheses credit a primordial soup, a bolt of lightning and a colossal stroke of luck. But if a provocative new theory is correct, luck may have little to do with it. Instead, according to the physicist proposing the idea, the origin and subsequent evolution of life follow from the fundamental laws of nature and “should be as unsurprising as rocks rolling downhill.”

From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. Jeremy England, a 31-year-old assistant professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has derived a mathematical formula that he believes explains this capacity. The formula, based on established physics, indicates that when a group of atoms is driven by an external source of energy (like the sun or chemical fuel) and surrounded by a heat bath (like the ocean or atmosphere), it will often gradually restructure itself in order to dissipate increasingly more energy. This could mean that under certain conditions, matter inexorably acquires the key physical attribute associated with life.

“You start with a random clump of atoms, and if you shine light on it for long enough, it should not be so surprising that you get a plant,” England said.

England’s theory is meant to underlie, rather than replace, Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection, which provides a powerful description of life at the level of genes and populations. “I am certainly not saying that Darwinian ideas are wrong,” he explained. “On the contrary, I am just saying that from the perspective of the physics, you might call Darwinian evolution a special case of a more general phenomenon.”

His idea, detailed in a recent paper and further elaborated in a talk he is delivering at universities around the world, has sparked controversy among his colleagues, who see it as either tenuous or a potential breakthrough, or both.

England has taken “a very brave and very important step,” said Alexander Grosberg, a professor of physics at New York University who has followed England’s work since its early stages. The “big hope” is that he has identified the underlying physical principle driving the origin and evolution of life, Grosberg said.

“Jeremy is just about the brightest young scientist I ever came across,” said Attila Szabo, a biophysicist in the Laboratory of Chemical Physics at the National Institutes of Health who corresponded with England about his theory after meeting him at a conference. “I was struck by the originality of the ideas.”

Others, such as Eugene Shakhnovich, a professor of chemistry, chemical biology and biophysics at Harvard University, are not convinced. “Jeremy’s ideas are interesting and potentially promising, but at this point are extremely speculative, especially as applied to life phenomena,” Shakhnovich said.

England’s theoretical results are generally considered valid. It is his interpretation — that his formula represents the driving force behind a class of phenomena in nature that includes life — that remains unproven. But already, there are ideas about how to test that interpretation in the lab.

“He’s trying something radically different,” said Mara Prentiss, a professor of physics at Harvard who is contemplating such an experiment after learning about England’s work. “As an organizing lens, I think he has a fabulous idea. Right or wrong, it’s going to be very much worth the investigation.”

At the heart of England’s idea is the second law of thermodynamics, also known as the law of increasing entropy or the “arrow of time.” Hot things cool down, gas diffuses through air, eggs scramble but never spontaneously unscramble; in short, energy tends to disperse or spread out as time progresses. Entropy is a measure of this tendency, quantifying how dispersed the energy is among the particles in a system, and how diffuse those particles are throughout space. It increases as a simple matter of probability: There are more ways for energy to be spread out than for it to be concentrated. Thus, as particles in a system move around and interact, they will, through sheer chance, tend to adopt configurations in which the energy is spread out. Eventually, the system arrives at a state of maximum entropy called “thermodynamic equilibrium,” in which energy is uniformly distributed. A cup of coffee and the room it sits in become the same temperature, for example. As long as the cup and the room are left alone, this process is irreversible. The coffee never spontaneously heats up again because the odds are overwhelmingly stacked against so much of the room’s energy randomly concentrating in its atoms.

Although entropy must increase over time in an isolated or “closed” system, an “open” system can keep its entropy low — that is, divide energy unevenly among its atoms — by greatly increasing the entropy of its surroundings. In his influential 1944 monograph “What Is Life?” the eminent quantum physicist Erwin Schrödinger argued that this is what living things must do. A plant, for example, absorbs extremely energetic sunlight, uses it to build sugars, and ejects infrared light, a much less concentrated form of energy. The overall entropy of the universe increases during photosynthesis as the sunlight dissipates, even as the plant prevents itself from decaying by maintaining an orderly internal structure.

Life does not violate the second law of thermodynamics, but until recently, physicists were unable to use thermodynamics to explain why it should arise in the first place. In Schrödinger’s day, they could solve the equations of thermodynamics only for closed systems in equilibrium. In the 1960s, the Belgian physicist Ilya Prigogine made progress on predicting the behavior of open systems weakly driven by external energy sources (for which he won the 1977 Nobel Prize in chemistry). But the behavior of systems that are far from equilibrium, which are connected to the outside environment and strongly driven by external sources of energy, could not be predicted.

This situation changed in the late 1990s, due primarily to the work of Chris Jarzynski, now at the University of Maryland, and Gavin Crooks, now at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Jarzynski and Crooks showed that the entropy produced by a thermodynamic process, such as the cooling of a cup of coffee, corresponds to a simple ratio: the probability that the atoms will undergo that process divided by their probability of undergoing the reverse process (that is, spontaneously interacting in such a way that the coffee warms up). As entropy production increases, so does this ratio: A system’s behavior becomes more and more “irreversible.” The simple yet rigorous formula could in principle be applied to any thermodynamic process, no matter how fast or far from equilibrium. “Our understanding of far-from-equilibrium statistical mechanics greatly improved,” Grosberg said. England, who is trained in both biochemistry and physics, started his own lab at MIT two years ago and decided to apply the new knowledge of statistical physics to biology.

Using Jarzynski and Crooks’ formulation, he derived a generalization of the second law of thermodynamics that holds for systems of particles with certain characteristics: The systems are strongly driven by an external energy source such as an electromagnetic wave, and they can dump heat into a surrounding bath. This class of systems includes all living things. England then determined how such systems tend to evolve over time as they increase their irreversibility. “We can show very simply from the formula that the more likely evolutionary outcomes are going to be the ones that absorbed and dissipated more energy from the environment’s external drives on the way to getting there,” he said. The finding makes intuitive sense: Particles tend to dissipate more energy when they resonate with a driving force, or move in the direction it is pushing them, and they are more likely to move in that direction than any other at any given moment.

“This means clumps of atoms surrounded by a bath at some temperature, like the atmosphere or the ocean, should tend over time to arrange themselves to resonate better and better with the sources of mechanical, electromagnetic or chemical work in their environments,” England explained.

Self-replication (or reproduction, in biological terms), the process that drives the evolution of life on Earth, is one such mechanism by which a system might dissipate an increasing amount of energy over time. As England put it, “A great way of dissipating more is to make more copies of yourself.” In a September paper in the Journal of Chemical Physics, he reported the theoretical minimum amount of dissipation that can occur during the self-replication of RNA molecules and bacterial cells, and showed that it is very close to the actual amounts these systems dissipate when replicating. He also showed that RNA, the nucleic acid that many scientists believe served as the precursor to DNA-based life, is a particularly cheap building material. Once RNA arose, he argues, its “Darwinian takeover” was perhaps not surprising.

The chemistry of the primordial soup, random mutations, geography, catastrophic events and countless other factors have contributed to the fine details of Earth’s diverse flora and fauna. But according to England’s theory, the underlying principle driving the whole process is dissipation-driven adaptation of matter.

This principle would apply to inanimate matter as well. “It is very tempting to speculate about what phenomena in nature we can now fit under this big tent of dissipation-driven adaptive organization,” England said. “Many examples could just be right under our nose, but because we haven’t been looking for them we haven’t noticed them.”

Scientists have already observed self-replication in nonliving systems. According to new research led by Philip Marcus of the University of California, Berkeley, and reported in Physical Review Letters in August, vortices in turbulent fluids spontaneously replicate themselves by drawing energy from shear in the surrounding fluid. And in a paper appearing online this week in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Michael Brenner, a professor of applied mathematics and physics at Harvard, and his collaborators present theoretical models and simulations of microstructures that self-replicate. These clusters of specially coated microspheres dissipate energy by roping nearby spheres into forming identical clusters. “This connects very much to what Jeremy is saying,” Brenner said.

Besides self-replication, greater structural organization is another means by which strongly driven systems ramp up their ability to dissipate energy. A plant, for example, is much better at capturing and routing solar energy through itself than an unstructured heap of carbon atoms. Thus, England argues that under certain conditions, matter will spontaneously self-organize. This tendency could account for the internal order of living things and of many inanimate structures as well. “Snowflakes, sand dunes and turbulent vortices all have in common that they are strikingly patterned structures that emerge in many-particle systems driven by some dissipative process,” he said. Condensation, wind and viscous drag are the relevant processes in these particular cases.

“He is making me think that the distinction between living and nonliving matter is not sharp,” said Carl Franck, a biological physicist at Cornell University, in an email. “I’m particularly impressed by this notion when one considers systems as small as chemical circuits involving a few biomolecules.”

England’s bold idea will likely face close scrutiny in the coming years. He is currently running computer simulations to test his theory that systems of particles adapt their structures to become better at dissipating energy. The next step will be to run experiments on living systems.

Prentiss, who runs an experimental biophysics lab at Harvard, says England’s theory could be tested by comparing cells with different mutations and looking for a correlation between the amount of energy the cells dissipate and their replication rates. “One has to be careful because any mutation might do many things,” she said. “But if one kept doing many of these experiments on different systems and if [dissipation and replication success] are indeed correlated, that would suggest this is the correct organizing principle.”

Brenner said he hopes to connect England’s theory to his own microsphere constructions and determine whether the theory correctly predicts which self-replication and self-assembly processes can occur — “a fundamental question in science,” he said.

Having an overarching principle of life and evolution would give researchers a broader perspective on the emergence of structure and function in living things, many of the researchers said. “Natural selection doesn’t explain certain characteristics,” said Ard Louis, a biophysicist at Oxford University, in an email. These characteristics include a heritable change to gene expression called methylation, increases in complexity in the absence of natural selection, and certain molecular changes Louis has recently studied.

If England’s approach stands up to more testing, it could further liberate biologists from seeking a Darwinian explanation for every adaptation and allow them to think more generally in terms of dissipation-driven organization. They might find, for example, that “the reason that an organism shows characteristic X rather than Y may not be because X is more fit than Y, but because physical constraints make it easier for X to evolve than for Y to evolve,” Louis said.

“People often get stuck in thinking about individual problems,” Prentiss said.  Whether or not England’s ideas turn out to be exactly right, she said, “thinking more broadly is where many scientific breakthroughs are made.”

http://www.scientificamerican.com/articl...y-of-life/

Dunno What was the state of the knowledge of "Physics" in Yeshua's days? Hmm2

[flash=555,333]https://www.youtube.com/v/GXoGo5_IB5s[/flash]

This ought to SPARK some inquiry.


Not only do they walk,
They jump,
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MIL3vwk-HP0
They fly
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8nEwte-x-iw
And fortunately for me, they fry rather nicely.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gluRaUv88sk

What an adaptable creature!
So, the words Autumn and Fall are not to be capitalized?
They are in my world!

What has been is what will be, and what has been done is what will be done; and there is nothing new under the sun.
Is there a thing of which it is said, "See, this is new?"It has been already, in the ages before us. Ecc 1: 9-10
Reply
Close quarters in a quarry query.

[Image: 16429279109_45ea921bf1_o.gif]

Imagine a guy like this wayyyyyyyyyyyyy back in the day.
Even if there were cameras rolling and reporters were on the scene it would make little difference after the story went viral.

[flash=555,333]https://www.youtube.com/v/YFyEMrTGIfE[/flash]

The Infancy Gospel of Thomas

Greek Text A


From "The Apocryphal New Testament"
M.R. James-Translation and Notes
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1924



Introduction

The older testimonies about this book have been given already. I now present the three principal forms of it, as given by Tischendorf: two Greek texts, A and B, and one Latin.

The few Greek manuscripts are all late. The earliest authorities are a much abbreviated Syriac version of which the manuscript is of the sixth century, and a Latin palimpsest at Vienna of the fifth or sixth century, which has never been deciphered in full.

The Latin version translated here is found in more manuscripts than the Greek; none of them, I think, is earlier than the thirteenth century.



The stories of Thomas the Israelite, the Philosopher, concerning the works of the Childhood of the Lord.

I. I, Thomas the Israelite, tell unto you, even all the brethren that are of the Gentiles, to make known unto you the works of the childhood of our Lord Jesus Christ and his mighty deeds, even all that he did when he was born in our land: whereof the beginning is thus:

II. 1 This little child Jesus when he was five years old was playing at the ford of a brook: and he gathered together the waters that flowed there into pools, and made them straightway clean, and commanded them by his word alone. 2 And having made soft clay, he fashioned thereof twelve sparrows. And it was the Sabbath when he did these things (or made them). And there were also many other little children playing with him.

3 And a certain Jew when he saw what Jesus did, playing upon the Sabbath day, departed straightway and told his father Joseph: Lo, thy child is at the brook, and he hath taken clay and fashioned twelve little birds, and hath polluted the Sabbath day. 4 And Joseph came to the place and saw: and cried out to him, saying: Wherefore doest thou these things on the Sabbath, which it is not lawful to do? But Jesus clapped his hands together and cried out to the sparrows and said to them: Go! and the sparrows took their flight and went away chirping. 5 And when the Jews saw it they were amazed, and departed and told their chief men that which they had seen Jesus do.

III. 1 But the son of Annas the scribe was standing there with Joseph; and he took a branch of a willow and dispersed the waters which Jesus had gathered together. 2 And when Jesus saw what was done, he was wroth and said unto him: O evil, ungodly, and foolish one, what hurt did the pools and the waters do thee? behold, now also thou shalt be withered like a tree, and shalt not bear leaves, neither root, nor fruit. 3 And straightway that lad withered up wholly, but Jesus departed and went unto Joseph's house. But the parents of him that was withered took him up, bewailing his youth, and brought him to Joseph, and accused him 'for that thou hast such a child which doeth such deeds.'

IV. 1 After that again he went through the village, and a child ran and dashed against his shoulder. And Jesus was provoked and said unto him: Thou shalt not finish thy course (lit. go all thy way). And immediately he fell down and died. But certain when they saw what was done said: Whence was this young child born, for that every word of his is an accomplished work? And the parents of him that was dead came unto Joseph, and blamed him, saying: Thou that hast such a child canst not dwell with us in the village: or do thou teach him to bless and not to curse: for he slayeth our children.

V. 1 And Joseph called the young child apart and admonished him, saying: Wherefore doest thou such things, that these suffer and hate us and persecute us? But Jesus said: I know that these thy words are not thine: nevertheless for thy sake I will hold my peace: but they shall bear their punishment. And straightway they that accused him were smitten with blindness. 2 And they that saw it were sore afraid and perplexed, and said concerning him that every word which he spake whether it were good or bad, was a deed, and became a marvel. And when they (he ?) saw that Jesus had so done, Joseph arose and took hold upon his ear and wrung it sore. 3 And the young child was wroth and said unto him: It sufficeth thee (or them) to seek and not to find, and verily thou hast done unwisely: knowest thou not that I am thine? vex me not.

VI. 1 Now a certain teacher, Zacchaeus by name, stood there and he heard in part when Jesus said these things to his father and he marvelled greatly that being a young child he spake such matters. 2 And after a few days he came near unto Joseph and said unto him: Thou hast a wise child, and he hath understanding. Come, deliver him to me that he may learn letters. And I will teach him with the letters all knowledge and that he salute all the elders and honour them as grandfathers and fathers, and love them of his own years. 3 And he told him all the letters from Alpha even to Omega clearly, with much questioning. But Jesus looked upon Zacchaeus the teacher and saith unto him: Thou that knowest not the Alpha according to its nature, how canst thou teach others the Beta? thou hypocrite, first, if thou knowest it, teach the Alpha, and then will we believe thee concerning the Beta. Then began he to confound the mouth of the teacher concerning the first letter, and he could not prevail to answer him. 4 And in the hearing of many the young child saith to Zacchaeus: Hear, O teacher, the ordinance of the first letter and pay heed to this, how that it hath [what follows is really unintelligible in this and in all the parallel texts: a literal version would run something like this: how that it hath lines, and a middle mark, which thou seest, common to both, going apart; coming together, raised up on high, dancing (a corrupt word), of three signs, like in kind (a corrupt word), balanced, equal in measure]: thou hast the rules of the Alpha.



VII. 1 Now when Zacchaeus the teacher heard such and so many allegories of the first letter spoken by the young child, he was perplexed at his answer and his instruction being so great, and said to them that were there: Woe is me, wretch that I am, I am confounded: I have brought shame to myself by drawing to me this young child. 2 Take him away, therefore I beseech thee, my brother Joseph: I cannot endure the severity of his look, I cannot once make clear my (or his) word. This young child is not earthly born: this is one that can tame even fire: be like this is one begotten before the making of the world. What belly bare this, what womb nurtured it? I know not. Woe is me, O my friend, he putteth me from my sense, I cannot follow his understanding. [i][b]I have deceived myself, thrice wretched man that I am: I strove to get me a disciple and I am found to have a master.
3 I think, O my friends, upon my shame, for that being old I have been overcome by a young child;- and I am even ready to faint and to die because of the boy, for I am not able at this present hour to look him in the face.

[flash=555,333]https://www.youtube.com/v/Lf2db4hD6zI[/flash]

And when all men say that I have been overcome by a little child, what have I to say? and what can I tell concerning the lines of the first letter whereof he spake to me? I am ignorant, O my friends, for neither beginning nor end of it (or him) do I know. 4 Wherefore I beseech thee, my brother Joseph, take him away unto thine house: for he is somewhat great, whether god or angel or what I should call him, I know not.

VIII. 1 And as the Jews were counselling Zacchaeus, the young child laughed greatly and said: Now let those bear fruit that were barren (Gr. that are thine) and let them see that were blind in heart. I am come from above that I may curse them, and call them to the things that are above, even as he commanded which hath sent me for your sakes. 2 And when the young child ceased speaking, immediately all they were made whole which had come under his curse. And no man after that durst provoke him, lest he should curse him, and he should be maimed.
[/i][/b]


Quote:III. 1 But the son of Annas the scribe was standing there with Joseph; and he took a branch of a willow and dispersed the waters which Jesus had gathered together. 2 And when Jesus saw what was done, he was wroth and said unto him: O evil, ungodly, and foolish one, what hurt did the pools and the waters do thee? behold, now also thou shalt be withered like a tree, and shalt not bear leaves, neither root, nor fruit. 3 And straightway that lad withered up wholly, but Jesus departed and went unto Joseph's house. But the parents of him that was withered took him up, bewailing his youth, and brought him to Joseph, and accused him 'for that thou hast such a child which doeth such deeds.'

Skip directly to the 35:30 minute mark on this video shown and watch the withered made whole and fresh right before your eyes on camera. Damned

[flash=555,333]https://www.youtube.com/v/jiRGQVyWFPk#t=40[/flash]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
Jeeze! he was a slippery li'l devil eh? Devil
Chase  Herethere  Bump

[Image: 16245650715_85491e05e4_o.jpg]

…12They asked him, "Who is the man who said to you, 'Pick up your pallet and walk '?" 13But the man who was healed did not know who it was, for Jesus had slipped away while there was a crowd in that place.

And he that was healed knew not who it was: for Jesus had conveyed himself away, a multitude being in that place.

he that.

John 14:9 Jesus said to him, Have I been so long time with you, and yet have …

had.

John 8:59 Then took they up stones to cast at him: but Jesus hid himself, and …

Luke 4:30 But he passing through the middle of them went his way,

Luke 24:31 And their eyes were opened, and they knew him; and he vanished out

29and they got up and drove Him out of the city, and led Him to the brow of the hill on which their city had been built, in order to throw Him down the cliff. 30But passing through their midst, He went His way.

But he passing through the middle of them went his way,

John 8:59 Then took they up stones to cast at him: but Jesus hid himself, and …

John 18:6,7 As soon then as he had said to them, I am he, they went backward, …

Acts 12:18 Now as soon as it was day, there was no small stir among the soldiers, …

John 10:39 Therefore they sought again to take him: but he escaped out of their hand,
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
"The Infancy Gospel of Thomas" is interesting but it doesn't ring true.  It shows Jesus as a young bully, and I just don't buy that.  I have to say that just because it's an old apocryphal book, it does not mean it is true or even close to being true.  What cowboy was it that shot 6 Indians with one shot?  This gospel is like fingernails on a chalkboard wrong, and I'm not a particularly staunch defender of the Bible, far from it.  This one is bogus.

This thread has gotten bogus too.  It's one thing to discuss a subject, but another to purposely antagonize another poster.  That feels like bullying to me.  We are better than that.
"Facts do not cease to exist because they are ignored." --Aldous Huxley
Reply
(02-22-2015, 07:05 PM)ArniK link Wrote:"The Infancy Gospel of Thomas" is interesting but it doesn't ring true.  It shows Jesus as a young bully, and I just don't buy that.  I have to say that just because it's an old apocryphal book, it does not mean it is true or even close to being true.  What cowboy was it that shot 6 Indians with one shot?  This gospel is like fingernails on a chalkboard wrong, and I'm not a particularly staunch defender of the Bible, far from it.  This one is bogus.

This thread has gotten bogus too.  It's one thing to discuss a subject, but another to purposely antagonize another poster.  That feels like bullying to me.  We are better than that.

I don't see a bully in the infancy gospel at all.  Naughty

In fact I see a child prodigy magician practicing his act at an innoportune moment in the elders lives.
I see a son of a priestly archae-tekton schooled well beyond his years by his father's and other's teachings.

Now a certain teacher, Zacchaeus by name, stood there and he heard in part when Jesus said these things to his father and he marvelled greatly that being a young child he spake such matters. 2 And after a few days he came near unto Joseph and said unto him: Thou hast a wise child, and he hath understanding. Come, deliver him to me that he may learn letters. And I will teach him with the letters all knowledge and that he salute all the elders and honour them as grandfathers and fathers, and love them of his own years. 3 And he told him all the letters from Alpha even to Omega clearly, with much questioning. But Jesus looked upon Zacchaeus the teacher and saith unto him: Thou that knowest not the Alpha according to its nature, how canst thou teach others the Beta? thou hypocrite, first, if thou knowest it, teach the Alpha, and then will we believe thee concerning the Beta. Then began he to confound the mouth of the teacher concerning the first letter, and he could not prevail to answer him. 4 And in the hearing of many the young child saith to Zacchaeus: Hear, O teacher, the ordinance of the first letter and pay heed to this, how that it hath [what follows is really unintelligible in this and in all the parallel texts: a literal version would run something like this: how that it hath lines, and a middle mark, which thou seest, common to both, going apart; coming together, raised up on high, dancing (a corrupt word), of three signs, like in kind (a corrupt word), balanced, equal in measure]: thou hast the rules of the Alpha.



VII. 1 Now when Zacchaeus the teacher heard such and so many allegories of the first letter spoken by the young child, he was perplexed at his answer and his instruction being so great, and said to them that were there: Woe is me, wretch that I am, I am confounded: I have brought shame to myself by drawing to me this young child. 2 Take him away, therefore I beseech thee, my brother Joseph: I cannot endure the severity of his look, I cannot once make clear my (or his) word. This young child is not earthly born: this is one that can tame even fire: be like this is one begotten before the making of the world. What belly bare this, what womb nurtured it? I know not. Woe is me, O my friend, he putteth me from my sense, I cannot follow his understanding. I have deceived myself, thrice wretched man that I am: I strove to get me a disciple and I am found to have a master.


I could even hear him laugh saying "nah-nah-nah-nah-nah you can't see us Zacchaeus".  Rofl

I see a man practiced in the arts of illusion.




Why don't you ask Keith to lock the thread.
Wook?
Anybody?
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
What I find BOGUS Arnik is that people just dissapear and escape in full view of those pursuant.

No more 'hocus-pocus'. Naughty

Archaeologists Uncover Possible Royal Escape Tunnel at Biblical Site

Sat, Jan 10, 2015

[Image: archaeologists-uncover-possible-royal-es...=1000&q=70]
Tunnel may have been used by royal inhabitants of ancient city of Geshur near Sea of Galilee.

Quote:A team of archaeologists excavating at the ancient site best known as Bethsaida not far from the northeastern shore of the Sea of Galilee have encountered what they suggest may be what is left of an escape tunnel that was used by the city’s royal elite during the times of ancient Israel and Judah.

Though it is still very early in the investigation process, one entrance of the tunnel has been located, and collapsed structural debris and ground penetrating radar images have indicated possible evidence of the suspected tunnel area extending from an ancient palace structure out to an outer city wall. Similar features have been found at other ancient sites, and the biblical account, for example, documents such an escape route used by King Zedekiah and others when Jerusalem was being besieged by the Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar.

[Image: 16238405031_b41f2751ac_o.jpg]
The entrance to the tunnel as uncovered during recent excavation.

[Image: 16245650715_85491e05e4_o.jpg]
Overhead view of location of tunnel, indicated by red arrow, showing its trajectory from the palace remains to the outer wall of the Iron Age city.

[Image: 16243862431_039e1a57e3_o.jpg]
GPR diagram showing underground anomally or pattern that indicates the possible location of the tunnel.

The site, which was identified as the likely location of the city of Bethsaida by Dr. Rami Arav of the University of Nebraska, Omaha, in 1987, has been the focus of extensive excavations under Arav’s directorship since 1990. It has yielded structural and artifact remains of two cities: Bethsaida, a town that, according to the biblical account, was visited by Jesus in the 1st century CE and was the hometown of several of his apostles;[b][i]Jeeze! he was a slippery li'l devil eh? Devil
and a much older city whose remains lie beneath it, thought to be the likely capital city of the 9th –10th century BCE (Iron Age) kingdom of Geshur, an ally of the Kingdom of Israel as mentioned in the Bible.[/b][/i]
Extensive finds have been uncovered from the site representing both time periods and cultures, with some of the most ‘sensational’ findings coming from the Iron Age period city, where archaeologists have uncovered one of the largest and most complete city gate complexes in the Levant, in addition to a palace and massive defensive works with an inner and outer city wall. The suspected tunnel is thought to be associated with the Iron Age (Geshurite) period city. But excavations of the remains of the later city, that of Bethsaida, have yielded numerous finds confirming the site’s occupation during the time of Jesus and his disciples and after their deaths, such as a Roman temple and associated artifacts dated to the early 1st century CE, other structures, fishing and cooking implements, and coins. Most recently, in 2014, a rare Judaea capta coin was discovered, a coin minted by Emperor Domitian between 81 and 96 CE to commemorate the conquest of Judaea and destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE by emperors Vespasian and Titus.

[Image: 16219860566_5468b429dd_o.jpg]
View of the famous city gate complex, from outside plaza area looking toward sacred entrance "high place" flanked by stela (ancient carved standing stones erected for religious or special purposes)

Although the remains are now located approximately 1.5 - 2 km from the lake's northeastern shore and just east of the Jordan river, scholars still maintain that it was a place with a fishing economy, a key identifier as the location of the Bethsaida of Jesus’ time. Geological studies have shown that the lake was actually significantly closer to the site 2,000 years ago. Tectonic rifting, sedimentation of the Jordan Delta, and greater usage of the lake water over time through land irrigation and increased population are all cited as possible explanations for the difference.

Archaeologists plan to return to the site with their teams during the summer of 2015, when they will continue their exploration and excavation related to the possible tunnel as well as other areas of the site. More information about the Bethsaida Excavations Project and how one can participate can be found at the project website.

[flash=555,333]https://www.youtube.com/v/2I0E4oQwXPg[/flash]

I also find Mayito's numerous attacks on me as bogus too...
he just needs a hug.

Grouphug  Hugs

I forgive you Mayito for me being me.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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