Archaeologists Believe They Found Location Where Jesus Christ Taught EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 01-10-2016, 10:38 PM (This post was last modified: 01-10-2016, 11:26 PM by EA.) Update. [b]Talgam suspects the Magdala stone is quartzite[/b] ( for the in-situ rock-hounds of thm! :) "The Greek word is [i]Teckton[/i][i] which means builder. Now ... of stones and rocks,  Jesus likely worked as a stonemason rather than a carpenter."[/i] Quote:The stone block found in the sanctuary is one-of-a-kind. In none of the world’s other synagogues from this era—six of them in Israel, the other one in Greece—have archaeologists found a single Jewish symbol; yet the faces of this stone are a gallery of them. When I asked how this could be, Avshalom-Gorni told me to go to Hebrew University, in Jerusalem, and talk with an art historian named Rina Talgam. I visited Talgam in her small campus office a few days later. On her desk was a stack of plastic-wrapped copies of her new book, Mosaics of Faith, a phonebook-thick study that spans five religions and a thousand years of history.  The IAA has given Talgam exclusive access to the stone, and she is at work on an exhaustive interpretation. The paper isn’t likely to be published until later this year, but she agreed to speak with me about her preliminary conclusions. The stone, she says, is a schematic, 3-D model of Herod’s Temple in Jerusalem. Whoever carved it had likely seen the temple’s highly restricted innermost sanctums, or at least had heard about them directly from someone who had been there.  On one side of the stone is a menorah, or Jewish candelabrum, whose design matches other likenesses—on coins and graffiti—from before A.D. 70, when the Romans destroyed the temple. The menorah had stood behind golden doors in the temple’s Holy Place, a sanctuary off-limits to all but the priests. On the other faces of the stone—appearing in the order a person walking front to back would have encountered them—are other furnishings from the temple’s most sacrosanct areas: the Table of Showbread, where priests stacked 12 bread loaves representing the 12 tribes of Israel; and a rosette slung between two palm-shaped columns, which Talgam believes is the veil separating the Holy Place from the Holy of Holies, a small chamber only the high priest could enter and only once a year, on Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement. On the side opposite the menorah—past reliefs of columned arches, altars and oil lamps—was an engraving that left Talgam dumbstruck: a pair of fire-spitting wheels. Talgam believes they represent the bottom half of the chariot of God, an object seen as one of the Old Testament’s holiest—and most concrete—images of the divine. “This is really shocking,” Talgam told me. “One is not supposed to depict the chariot of God, even its lower portion.” She believes the stone’s designer etched it on the rear of the stone to symbolize the temple’s backmost room, the Holy of Holies. Most experts think the stone, which rests on four stubby legs, served in some fashion as a rest for Torah scrolls, but its precise function is still a matter of debate. Talgam’s study will dispute earlier reports that it is made of limestone, in widespread use at the time for decorative objects. Though scientific tests are pending, Talgam suspects the Magdala stone is quartzite, an extremely hard rock shunned by most artisans because of how difficult it is to carve. The choice of material, she believes, is another sign of its importance to the community. Did a Teckton Carve this stone and was it Joseph or Jesus??? Unearthing the World of Jesus Surprising archaeological finds are breaking new ground in our understanding of Jesus’s time—and the revolution he launched 2,000 years ago Overlooking the Sea of Galilee, Bethsaida was a day’s walk from Nazareth. When Jesus returned to his boyhood hometown to preach, the Gospels say he was rejected by a mob. (Yadid Levy) By Ariel Sabar Smithsonian Magazine | Subscribe  January 2016 As he paced the dusty shoreline of the Sea of Galilee, Father Juan Solana had a less-than-charitable thought about the archaeologists from the Israel Antiquities Authority: He wanted them to go away Quote:Everything else had fallen into place for the Christian retreat he planned to build here. Just up the road was the “evangelical triangle” of Capernaum, Chorazin and Bethsaida, the villages where, according to the Gospels, Jesus mesmerized crowds with his miraculous acts and teachings. Across the modern two-lane highway was a small town Israelis still call Migdal, because it was the presumed site of Magdala, the ancient fishing city that was home to Mary Magdalene, one of Jesus’s most loyal followers. Solana is an urbane, silver-haired priest with the Legionaries of Christ, a Catholic order founded in Mexico. By that summer of 2009, he’d already raised \$20 million for his retreat, which he was calling the “Magdala Center.” He’d bought four adjoining parcels of waterfront land. He’d gotten building permits for a chapel and a guesthouse with more than 100 rooms. Just three months earlier, Pope Benedict XVI had personally blessed the cornerstone. All that remained now was an irksome bit of red tape: a “salvage excavation,” a routine dig by the Israeli government to ensure that no important ruins lay beneath the proposed building site. The IAA archaeologists had mucked around on Solana’s 20 acres for a month and found little. “Almost done?” he’d ask, emerging in his clerical robes from a shipping container that served as a makeshift office. “I have a budget! I have a timetable!” In truth, the archaeologists didn’t want to be there either. Summer temperatures had ticked into the 100s, and the site prickled with bees and mosquitoes. They’d say shalom, they assured the priest, as soon as they checked a final, remote corner of his land.  It was there, beneath a wing of the proposed guesthouse, that their picks clinked against the top of a buried wall.  Dina Avshalom-Gorni, an IAA official who oversaw digs in northern Israel, ordered all hands to this square of the excavation grid. The workers squatted in the mealy soil and dusted carefully with brushes. Soon, a series of rough-cut stone benches emerged around what looked like a sanctuary.  It can’t be, Avshalom-Gorni thought. The Gospels say that Jesus taught and “proclaimed the good news” in synagogues “throughout all Galilee.” But despite decades of digging in the towns Jesus visited, no early first-century synagogue had ever been found.  ********** For historians, this was not a serious problem. Galilean Jews were a week’s walk from Jerusalem, close enough for regular pilgrimages to Herod the Great’s magnificent temple, Judaism’s central house of worship. Galileans, mostly poor peasants and fishermen, had neither the need nor the funds for some local spinoff. Synagogues, as we understand them today, did not appear anywhere in great numbers until several hundred years later. If there were any in Galilee in Jesus’s day, they were perhaps just ordinary houses that doubled as meeting places for local Jews. Some scholars argued that the “synagogues” in the New Testament were nothing more than anachronisms slipped in by the Gospels’ authors, who were writing outside Galilee decades after Jesus’s death. But as Avshalom-Gorni stood at the edge of the pit, studying the arrangement of benches along the walls, she could no longer deny it: They’d found a synagogue from the time of Jesus, in the hometown of Mary Magdalene. Though big enough for just 200 people, it was, for its time and place, opulent. It had a mosaic floor; frescoes in pleasing geometries of red, yellow and blue; separate chambers for public Torah readings, private study and storage of the scrolls; a bowl outside for the ritual washing of hands.  In the center of the sanctuary, the archaeologists unearthed a mysterious stone block, the size of a toy chest, unlike anything anyone had seen before. Carved onto its faces were a seven-branched menorah, a chariot of fire and a hoard of symbols associated with the most hallowed precincts of the Jerusalem temple. The stone is already seen as one of the most important discoveries in biblical archaeology in decades. Though its imagery and function remain in the earliest stages of analysis, scholars say it could lead to new understandings of the forces that made Galilee such fertile ground for a Jewish carpenter with a world-changing message. It could help explain, in other words, how a backwater of northern Israel became the launching pad for Christianity. But on that dusty afternoon, Solana had no way of knowing this. He was toweling off after a swim when an IAA archaeologist named Arfan Najar called his cellphone with what seemed like the worst possible news: They’d found something, and everything Solana had worked and prayed for these past five years was on hold. “Father,” Najar told him, “you have a big, big, big problem.”  ********** The 19th-century French theologian and explorer Ernest Renan called the Galilean landscape the “fifth Gospel,” a “torn, but still legible” tableau of grit and stone that gave “form” and “solidity” to the central texts about Jesus’s life—the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. Renan’s somewhat romantic views were not unlike those of the tourists whose gleaming buses I got stuck behind last summer on the road to places like Nazareth and Capernaum; pilgrims have long come to these biblical lands hoping to find what Renan called “the striking agreement of the texts with the places.” Modern archaeologists working here, however, are less interested in “proving” the Bible than in uncovering facts and context absent from the texts. What religion did ordinary people practice? How did Galileans respond to the arrival of Greek culture and Roman rule? How close did they feel to the priestly elites in Jerusalem? What did they do for work? What, for that matter, did they eat?  The Gospels themselves provide only glancing answers; their purpose is spiritual inspiration, not historical documentation. As for actual firsthand accounts of Galilean life in the first century, only one survives, written by a Jewish military commander named Josephus. This has made archaeology the most fruitful source of new information about Jesus’s world. Each layer of dirt, or stratum, is like a new page, and with much of Galilee still unexcavated, many chapters of this Fifth Gospel remain unread. The ground, in both Galilee and Jerusalem, has disgorged a few stunners. In 1968, a skeletal heel nailed to a board by an iron spike was found in an ossuary, or bone box, inside a first-century tomb near Jerusalem. The heel, which belonged to a man named Yehochanan, helped settle a long-simmering debate about the plausibility of Gospel accounts of Jesus’s tomb burial. Crucifixion was a punishment reserved for the dregs of society, and some experts had scoffed at the idea that Romans would accord anyone so dispatched the dignity of a proper interment. More likely, Jesus’s remains, like those of other common criminals, would have been left to rot on the cross or tossed into a ditch, a fate that might have complicated the resurrection narrative. But Yehochanan’s heel offered an example of a crucified man from Jesus’s day for whom the Romans permitted Jewish burial. In 1986, after a drought depleted water levels in the Sea of Galilee (which is actually a lake), two brothers walking alongshore found a submerged first-century fishing vessel with seats for 12 passengers and an oarsman. The wooden boat made headlines the world over as an example of the type Jesus and his disciples would have used to cross the lake—and from which, according to the Gospels, Jesus famously calmed a storm. Such discoveries were thrilling, but limited: one boat, one heel. And many blockbusters—notably an ossuary inscribed “James, son of Joseph, brother of Jesus”—have been so fraught with questions of provenance and authenticity that they have produced more controversy than insight. The ultimate find—physical proof of Jesus himself—has also been elusory. “The sorts of evidence other historical figures leave behind are not the sort we’d expect with Jesus,” says Mark Chancey, a religious studies professor at Southern Methodist University and a leading authority on Galilean history. “He wasn’t a political leader, so we don’t have coins, for example, that have his bust or name. He wasn’t a sufficiently high-profile social leader to leave behind inscriptions. In his own lifetime, he was a marginal figure and he was active in marginalized circles.” What archaeologists have begun to recover is Jesus’s world—the beat of everyday life in the fishing villages where he is said to have planted the seeds of a movement. The deepest insights have come from millions of “small finds” gathered over decades of painstaking excavation: pottery shards, coins, glassware, animal bones, fishing hooks, cobbled streets, courtyard houses and other simple structures. Before such discoveries, a long line of (mostly Christian) theologians had sought to reinterpret the New Testament in a way that stripped Jesus of his Judaism. Depending on the writer, Jesus was either a man who, though nominally Jewish, wandered freely among pagans; or he was a secular gadfly inspired less by the Hebrews than by the Greek Cynics, shaggy-haired loners who roamed the countryside irritating the powers that be with biting one-liners.  Archaeology showed once and for all that the people and places closest to Jesus were deeply Jewish. To judge by the bone finds, Galileans didn’t eat pig. To judge by the limestone jugs, they stored liquids in vessels that complied with the strictest Jewish purity laws. Their coins lacked likenesses of humans or animals, in keeping with the Second Commandment against graven images.  Craig A. Evans, an eminent New Testament scholar at Houston Baptist University, says that the “most important gain” of the last few decades of historical Jesus research is a “renewed appreciation of the Judaic character of Jesus, his mission and his world.”  The discoveries solidified the portrait of Jesus as a Jew preaching to other Jews. He was not out to convert gentiles; the movement he launched would take that turn after his death, as it became clear that most Jews didn’t accept him as the messiah. Nor was he a loner philosopher with an affinity for the Greek Cynics. Instead, his life drew on—or at least repurposed—bedrock Jewish traditions of prophecy, messianism and social justice critique as old as the Hebrew Bible. What archaeology is still untangling, as the professors John Dominic Crossan and Jonathan L. Reed put it in their book Excavating Jesus, is “Why did Jesus happen when and where he happened?” For many of the devout, the most meaningful answer is that God willed it so. But archaeologists and historians are searching for the man of history as much as the figure of faith, and in the Fifth Gospel they’re finding a clearer picture of how first-century Galilee may have set the stage for a messianic figure—and for a group of people who’d drop everything to follow him. ********** The ruins of Bethsaida lie atop an oval-shaped, 20-acre mound of volcanic earth. Flowing all around are the hills of the Golan, which plunge through stands of eucalyptus and across plains of mango and palm groves to the Sea of Galilee. Bethsaida was home to as many as five apostles—far more than any other New Testament town. It was where Jesus is said to have healed the blind man and multiplied the loaves and fishes. And it was the target of his notorious curse—the “Woe” saying—in which he lashes out at Bethsaida and two other towns for their failure to repent. And yet how could it be both the wellspring of devotion and the victim of curse? The Scriptures are silent. A more practical problem for centuries of pilgrims and explorers was that no one knew where Bethsaida was. The Gospels allude to it as a “lonely place,” “across the lake,” “to the other side.” Josephus said it was in the lower Golan, above where the Jordan River enters the Sea of Galilee. And after the third century, most likely because of a devastating earthquake, Bethsaida—Aramaic for “House of the Fisherman”—all but vanished from the historical record. Its strange disappearance was part of the allure for Rami Arav, a Galilee-born archaeologist now at the University of Nebraska Omaha. When he returned home after getting his PhD from New York University, he told me, “I looked at a map and I said, What can I do that has not been done so far? There was one site with a big question mark next to it, and that was Bethsaida.” In 1987, Arav conducted digs at three mounds near the lake’s northern shore. He concluded that only one, known as et-Tell, had ruins old enough to be biblical Bethsaida. (The State of Israel and many scholars accept his identification, though some controversy lingers.) Arav’s dig is now one of the longest ongoing excavations in all of Israel. Over 28 summers, he and his colleagues—including Carl Savage of Drew University and Richard Freund of the University of Hartford—have uncovered a fisherman’s house used in Jesus’s day, a winemaker’s quarters from a century earlier and a city gate from Old Testament times.  What I had come to see, however, was a discovery that made Bethsaida an outlier among the stops on Jesus’s Galilean ministry. At the apex of the mound, not long after he’d begun digging, Arav unearthed the basalt walls of a rectangular building. Was it a synagogue? To judge by other finds, Bethsaida was a majority Jewish town. But the rudimentary structure had no benches or other hallmarks of early synagogue architecture. Instead, the archaeologists discovered evidence of pagan worship: bronze incense shovels similar to those found in Roman temples; palm-size votive objects in the shape of boat anchors and grape clusters; terra-cotta figurines of a woman who resembled Livia (sometimes known as Julia), the wife of the Roman Emperor Augustus and mother of Tiberius, who succeeded Augustus in the year A.D. 14. At first, it didn’t make sense. Arav knew the Romans regarded their rulers as both human and divine, worshiping them as deities. But Herod the Great and his sons, who ruled the Land of Israel as Rome’s client kings, had been sensitive to the region’s Jews. They built no pagan structures in Galilee and kept the faces of rulers off local coins. But Bethsaida, Arav realized, lay a hair over the Galilee border, in the Golan, a region just to the northeast that was home to gentile villages and was ruled by Herod’s son Philip, the only Jew at the time to put his face on a coin. (Galilee was ruled by Philip’s brother Antipas.) In the year 30, according to Josephus, Philip dedicated Bethsaida to Livia, who had died the year before. In his eagerness to endear himself to his Roman masters, might Philip have built a pagan temple to the emperor’s mother? Might he have done so in precisely the period when Jesus was visiting Bethsaida? On a sweltering morning, amid the buzz of cicadas, Arav led me past the fisherman’s house to the temple site. It doesn’t look like much now. Its waist-high walls enclose a 20- by 65-foot area, with small porches on either end. Strewn among the weeds inside were fragments of a limestone column that may have graced the temple’s entrance. As some scholars see it, the pagan temple may be a key to why so many of the apostles hailed from here—and why, all the same, Jesus winds up cursing the place. The early first century brought new hardships to the Land of Israel, as Rome’s tightening grip fueled bitter debates about how best to be a Jew. But the Jews of Bethsaida—unlike those at other stops on Jesus’s ministry—faced an additional indignity: Their ruler Philip, himself a Jew, had erected a temple to a Roman goddess in their very midst. “It’s ultimate chutzpah,” Freund, a Judaic studies specialist who has co-edited four books with Arav about Bethsaida, said as we sat on a picnic bench beneath the temple ruins. “It cannot but affect your spiritual life to every day go out and do your fishing, come home and try to live as a Jew, eat your kosher food, pray inside your courtyard house and then at the same time you’re seeing these plumes of smoke rising from the temple of Julia, and you’re saying, ‘Who are we? Who are we?’” The city’s accommodation to its pagan overlords may explain why Jesus damns the place. He’d performed some of his greatest miracles here, according to the Gospels: He’d healed a blind man; he’d fed thousands; from the top of Bethsaida, the site of the Roman temple itself, people would have been able to see him walk on water. And yet in the end, the better part of them did not repent. “Woe unto thee, Bethsaida!” Jesus rails in Matthew 11:21. “For if the mighty works, which were done in you, had been done in Tyre and Sidon”—gentile cities on the Phoenician coast that Jesus perhaps invokes for shaming purposes—“they would have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes.” Still, some of Bethsaida’s fishermen—among them Peter, Andrew, Philip, James and John, soon to become apostles—may have gazed on that pagan temple and said, Enough. Perhaps, at just that time, a Jewish visionary came along, offering what looked like a clearer path back to the God they loved. The discovery of Jewish and pagan relics in so important a stop on Jesus’s ministry shows that “there was more diversity in Jewish life” than is sometimes acknowledged, says Savage, the author of Biblical Bethsaida, a 2011 book about the Jesus-era archaeological finds. The conventional view is that Jews had split into a small number of competing sects. “But it may be more complicated than just three or four poles.” On my last day at Bethsaida, Savage spent the morning grappling with a more practical question: how to hoist a quarter-ton boulder off the floor of an ancient villa so his team could start in on the stratum beneath. Dust-caked volunteers lassoed the rock in a canvas sling. When Savage yelled “Roll it!” they tugged on a tripod-mounted pulley, inching the boulder over the side of a low embankment. ********** If Bethsaida is the outer bound of Jesus’s Galilean world, Magdala, ten miles southwest, is in many ways its geographical center. A two-hour walk north of Magdala is Capernaum, where the Gospels say Jesus headquartered his ministry. It would have been nearly impossible for Jesus to travel between his boyhood home in Nazareth and the evangelical triangle without passing through Magdala. But the Gospels reveal almost nothing about it. Was it mere chance that Mary Magdalene lived there? Or might something have been afoot in Magdala that helped turn her into one of Jesus’s most devoted acolytes—a woman who funds his work out of her own wealth and follows him all the way to the cross, and the tomb, in Jerusalem, even as other disciples abandon him? On a blazing morning in late June, I turned off Galilee’s shoreline road into a dirt lot of wind-bent palms and tent-covered ruins. A small sign outside said, “Magdala. Open to Visitors.” I found Father Solana in the kitchen of a small rectory. As his assistant poured coffee, Solana told me that his interest in the site went back to 2004, when the Vatican sent him to the Holy Land to revive the Church’s majestic 19th-century guesthouse near Jerusalem’s Old City. On a road trip through Galilee soon after he arrived, he noticed that pilgrims there were badly underserved: There weren’t enough hotels or even enough bathrooms. Thus his dream of a Galilean sister site, a place he called the “Magdala Center.” (The name reflects both its location and one of its missions—women’s spirituality.) Solana told me he sees the showstopping archaeological finds now as “divine providence,” a sign that God had bigger plans for the project. In 2010, he brought in his own team of archaeologists from Mexico. He wanted to excavate even those parts of the church’s property that he wasn’t legally required to study—the 11 acres he had no plans to build on. Working with the Israel Antiquities Authority, the Mexican archaeologists, who have been back nearly every year since, found a first-century treasure trove: a full-blown residential district, a marketplace, a fishing harbor, four Jewish ritual baths, and unusual plastered basins where residents appear to have salt-cured fish for export. The site, it turned out, had been home not just to a synagogue but to a flourishing community, one that was a near match for ancient descriptions of the bustling fishing port of Magdala. The ruins were so well preserved that Marcela Zapata-Meza, the archaeologist now leading the dig, started calling Magdala “the Israeli Pompeii.” Josephus, the first-century historian, wrote that the people of Magdala eagerly joined the Jewish revolt against Rome in A.D. 66. But the Roman legions crushed them, turning the lake “all bloody, and full of dead bodies.” The city, it seems, was never rebuilt. (Three coins were found at the synagogue, from A.D. 29, 43 and 63, but no later.) Except for a mid-20th-century stint as a shabby Hawaiian-themed resort, Magdala appears to have lain undisturbed until IAA shovels hit the synagogue wall in 2009, less than a foot-and-a-half beneath the surface. “It looked like it was waiting for us for 2,000 years,” Avshalom-Gorni told me. On an ancient street beside the synagogue ruins, Zapata-Meza pointed to a barricade that appeared to have been hastily assembled from fragments of the synagogue’s interior columns. As the Romans descended on the city 2,000 years ago, the Magdalans seem to have scuttled parts of their own synagogue, piling the rubble into a chest-high roadblock. The purpose, Zapata-Meza says, was likely twofold: to impede the Roman troops and to protect the synagogue from defilement. (Magdala’s Jewish ritual baths, or mikvaot, also appear to have been deliberately hidden, beneath a layer of shattered pottery.) “In Mexico, it’s very common: The Aztecs and Mayans did it at their holy sites when they expected to be attacked,” says Zapata-Meza, who has excavated such areas in Mexico. “It’s called ‘killing’ the space.” Another oddity is that although ancient synagogues are normally at the center of town, the one in Magdala clings to the northernmost corner, the spot closest to Jesus’s headquarters in Capernaum. Measuring 36 by 36 feet, it is big enough for just 5 percent of the 4,000 people who might have lived in Magdala in Jesus’s day.  “We know from the sources that Jesus wasn’t in the mainstream of the Jewish community,” Avshalom-Gorni told me. “Maybe it was comfortable for him to have this gathering house at the edge of Magdala, not in the middle.” Her hunch is that no synagogue so small and so finely decorated would have been built without some kind of charismatic leader. “It tells us something about these 200 people,” she says. “It tells us this was a community for whom walking to the Temple in Jerusalem wasn’t enough. They wanted more. They needed more.” The stone block found in the sanctuary is one-of-a-kind. In none of the world’s other synagogues from this era—six of them in Israel, the other one in Greece—have archaeologists found a single Jewish symbol; yet the faces of this stone are a gallery of them. When I asked how this could be, Avshalom-Gorni told me to go to Hebrew University, in Jerusalem, and talk with an art historian named Rina Talgam. I visited Talgam in her small campus office a few days later. On her desk was a stack of plastic-wrapped copies of her new book, Mosaics of Faith, a phonebook-thick study that spans five religions and a thousand years of history.  The IAA has given Talgam exclusive access to the stone, and she is at work on an exhaustive interpretation. The paper isn’t likely to be published until later this year, but she agreed to speak with me about her preliminary conclusions. The stone, she says, is a schematic, 3-D model of Herod’s Temple in Jerusalem. Whoever carved it had likely seen the temple’s highly restricted innermost sanctums, or at least had heard about them directly from someone who had been there. On one side of the stone is a menorah, or Jewish candelabrum, whose design matches other likenesses—on coins and graffiti—from before A.D. 70, when the Romans destroyed the temple. The menorah had stood behind golden doors in the temple’s Holy Place, a sanctuary off-limits to all but the priests. On the other faces of the stone—appearing in the order a person walking front to back would have encountered them—are other furnishings from the temple’s most sacrosanct areas: the Table of Showbread, where priests stacked 12 bread loaves representing the 12 tribes of Israel; and a rosette slung between two palm-shaped columns, which Talgam believes is the veil separating the Holy Place from the Holy of Holies, a small chamber only the high priest could enter and only once a year, on Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement. On the side opposite the menorah—past reliefs of columned arches, altars and oil lamps—was an engraving that left Talgam dumbstruck: a pair of fire-spitting wheels. Talgam believes they represent the bottom half of the chariot of God, an object seen as one of the Old Testament’s holiest—and most concrete—images of the divine. “This is really shocking,” Talgam told me. “One is not supposed to depict the chariot of God, even its lower portion.” She believes the stone’s designer etched it on the rear of the stone to symbolize the temple’s backmost room, the Holy of Holies. Most experts think the stone, which rests on four stubby legs, served in some fashion as a rest for Torah scrolls, but its precise function is still a matter of debate. Talgam’s study will dispute earlier reports that it is made of limestone, in widespread use at the time for decorative objects. Though scientific tests are pending, Talgam suspects the Magdala stone is quartzite, an extremely hard rock shunned by most artisans because of how difficult it is to carve. The choice of material, she believes, is another sign of its importance to the community. For Talgam, the stone suggests another fault line in Jewish life at the time of Jesus. After the Assyrians conquered Israel seven centuries earlier, Jews lived under a succession of foreign rulers: Babylonians, Persians, Greeks. They tasted self-rule again only in the second century B.C., when the Maccabees vanquished the Greeks in one of history’s biggest military upsets. But autonomy was brief; in 63 B.C., Pompey the Great sacked Jerusalem, yoking the Land of Israel to Rome.  The Romans venerated idols, imposed heavy taxes and dealt ruthlessly with the meekest of Jewish rabble-rousers. (Antipas beheaded John the Baptist on the whim of his stepdaughter.) Even more galling, perhaps, was Rome’s meddling in what had always been a Jewish perquisite: the appointment of the temple’s high priests. Among those selected by Rome was Caiaphas, the high priest who would accuse Jesus of blasphemy and plot his execution. A sense of siege deepened the divisions among the Jews, who decades earlier had splintered into sects. The Sadducees became collaborators with the Roman elites. The Pharisees, who clashed with Jesus, according to the Gospels, believed in to-the-letter observance of Jewish law. The Essenes, dissident separatists, withdrew into caves above the Dead Sea, where their writings—the Dead Sea Scrolls—would be discovered 2,000 years later. Another group, whose slogan was “No king but God,” was known simply as “The Fourth Philosophy.” In Talgam’s view, the Magdala stone expresses yet another response to a Judaism in crisis: an emerging belief that God doesn’t reside in Jerusalem, that he is accessible to any Jew, anywhere, who commits to him. And that may explain why some of Magdala’s Jews felt free to do the once-unthinkable. They appropriated the great temple, including its Holy of Holies, and they miniaturized it, setting it within the walls of their own provincial synagogue.  This shift, Talgam says, is in many ways a forerunner to New Testament themes of God’s kingdom being not just in Heaven, but also on earth and inside the human heart. “We know that at that time people like Paul and the Jewish philosopher Philo started to say, God is not particularly in Jerusalem. He’s everywhere. He’s in Heaven, but he’s also within the community and he’s within each of us,” Talgam told me. “That’s also the basis for an approach that we see in the New Testament: That we should start to work God in a more spiritual way,” tied more closely to individual devotion and less to where the temple is, who the high priests are, and who the emperor happens to be. It’s not a rejection of Judaism or the temple, she says, but “a kind of democratization.” In the Old Testament, as in the temple in Jerusalem, the divine is visible only to the elect. In Magdala, the stone offers “a concrete depiction,” she says, “visible to the entire community.” Talgam believes that the leaders of the Magdala synagogue would have been predisposed to give a visitor like Jesus a sympathetic hearing—and maybe even, as Avshalom-Gorni suggests, a chance to preach to the congregation. They, too, were exploring new, more direct ways of relating to God.  But what of Mary Magdalene? The Gospels say that Jesus purged her of seven demons, an act of healing often interpreted as the spark for her intense devotion. But they leave out a key detail: how she and Jesus met. If Talgam is right about this synagogue’s reformist leanings, Jesus may have found his most steadfast disciple within its very walls. ********** The archaeological finds upended Solana’s plans—and raised his costs—but they have not deterred him. He opened the spirituality center—an oasis of mosaics, intimate chapels and picture windows overlooking the Sea of Galilee—in May 2014. The guesthouse, with a new design that skirts the ancient synagogue site, could welcome pilgrims as early as 2018. But Solana has decided to set aside the better part of his property as a working archaeological park, open to the public. He sees the Magdala Center now in a new light, as a crossroads of Jewish and Christian history meaningful to people of every faith.  “We didn’t find any evidence yet that says for sure Jesus was here,” Solana acknowledges, taking a break from the heat on a bench inside the synagogue. But the sight of archaeologists fills him with hope now, where once there was only dread. “To have scientific, archaeological evidence of Jesus’s presence is not a small thing for a Christian,” he tells me, looking up and thrusting his palms toward the sky. “We will keep digging.” http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/un...15/?no-ist Jesus likely worked as a stonemason rather than a carpenter It also clarified title and authority Mason not Woodworker Tektōn From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia [/url][url=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tekt%C5%8Dn#p-search] The Ancient Greek noun tektōn (τέκτων) is a common term for an artisan/craftsman, in particular a carpenter or wood-worker or builder. In the time of Christ (2000 BCE-400 AD), the term carpenter (Tektōn) was defined as a stoneworker or mason. The term is frequently contrasted with an iron-worker, or smith (χαλκεύς) and the stone-worker or mason (λιθTektōnολόγος),[1] Prefect From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Praefectus, often with a further qualification, was the formal title of many, fairly low to high-ranking, military or civil officials in the Roman Empire, whose authority was not embodied in their person (as it was with elected Magistrates) but conferred by delegation from a higher authority. They did have some authority in their prefecture such as controlling prisons and in civil administration. Pontius Pilate inscription Discovered 1961-62 Found in the ruins of a Roman public building,wich was commissioned by Pilate. This was the first discovery directly linked to a major New Testament figure. It also clarified Pilate's title and authority(Prefect not Procurator) Being a teckton gets Jesus and father Joseph inside views of the temple @ Jerusalem Eh? Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 01-14-2016, 12:43 AM (This post was last modified: 01-14-2016, 03:18 AM by EA.) "Ain't no rest for a mover." -C.S.Ireland.  Quote:No more hocus-pocus   if you were schooled to know your locus and can put the universe in focus. -EA Thus the heavens and the earth were completed, and all their hosts. 2By the seventh day God completed His work which He had done, and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had done. 3Then God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, because in it He rested from all His work which God had created and made. Quote:The motion is with respect to the average velocity of the stars near the Sun, known as the Local Standard of Rest (LSR). All D = 1 days in CC have a prognosis combination “GGG”, while all D = 20 days have “SSS”. ( free martitian snake-oil y'all!) Perhaps this regular separation of 19 days was also inspired by Algol. Success for cutting edge artefact imaging technique Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.ca/2016/01/success-for-cutting-edge-artefact.html#.VpcYzvkrKox Follow us: @ArchaeoNewsNet on Twitter | groups/thearchaeologynewsnetwork/ on Facebook  Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Europe, UK, Western Europe 7:00 PM  The EU TISCH project has demonstrated that terahertz imaging and spectroscopy can be a viable, non-destructive and non-invasive tool to aid the retrieval and analysis of images of obscured features of artwork. Through a Marie Curie Postdoctoral Research Fellowship, Dr Bianca Jackson from the University of Reading in the UK was able to apply this technique to inspect layers of paint, detect structural defects in ceramics and image the physical structure of paintings and manuscripts.  St. John the Baptist, mosaic. Hagia Sophia, Constantinople  [Credit: Columbia University]  'Institutions that carry out cultural heritage research don't have a lot of extra money for emerging technology, but they do have the hearts and minds of the people – folks love to talk about what is being done with technology to better understand the mysterious Mona Lisa, or whether or not a sarcophagus contains Queen Neferititi,' says Jackson. 'So one of best ways to reduce costs and increase the accessibility of terahertz technology to open up new and interesting areas of applied research.' In the last 15 years there has been exponential growth in terahertz technology and applied research, along with increasing interest from the pharmaceutical, biomedical, security and aerospace industries. 'In the US, 9/11 and the Columbia disaster lead to a large influx of research funding, which has helped to drive this growth,' explains Jackson. However, the cost of terahertz systems is still much higher than other well-established technologies, which is why further applied research is needed. Furthermore, terahertz spectroscopic imaging has only been used in the field of cultural heritage over the last five years or so, and as a result, its utility to conservation has not been extensively demonstrated. In order to address this, Jackson examined the walls of several European churches in England, France and Latvia, where centuries-old paintings were hidden behind many layers of plaster and plain paint.  'We use a time-domain terahertz system, which has a pulse that allowed us to separate out the signals from the top and sub-surface layers,' she explains. 'This enabled us to find some designs behind some perfectly plain white walls.' Jackson also scanned a Palaeolithic wall etching of a bird obscured by flow rock and investigated heritage conservation-friendly materials that can be safely applied to works in order to improve the signal to noise quality of the terahertz image.  'Most recently, we started working with the Tate Museum to use terahertz imaging to diagnose flawed areas of ceramic glaze on outdoor sculptures left out in the rain,' she adds. 'While the TISCH project is almost finished, I'm very excited about the implications of our work with the Tate.' Jackson is confident that the TISCH project represents a positive step forward, with similar cultural heritage projects also now coming on line.  'Horizon 2020 is funding a project called IPERION CH, through which there is a great programme called MOLAB (short for mobile laboratory) that is accepting proposals for research using various advanced diagnostic technologies for cultural heritage,' she says.  'Recently, they added terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging as an option.  I've been encouraging interested conservators to apply for MOLAB access, and I've been offering my aid." Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.ca/2016/01/success-for-cutting-edge-artefact.html#.VpcXy_krKow Follow us: @ArchaeoNewsNet on Twitter | groups/thearchaeologynewsnetwork/ on Facebook Tecktons,??? Does the Antikythera Mechanism raise the possibility that Tecktons had a rudimentary gnosis of titus/bodes type laws and LaGrange insights? I couldn't let this lesson to ZipMonster just ...fade to black. Quote:Zip Monster Wrote: Wrote:EA, I see the eye as it is, not as you see it to be. "What you see is what you get" The eye feature is not presented in profile, it is a frontal view of an eye, like you would see in Egyptian Art....(hint hint). Zip Monster Since Eye don't gamble this is your lucky day!!! My turn to teach you sum egyptian rite back atcha!!! Recall: nov.3-rite back-dec.10 In that amount of time QRW observations were made. Statistical parallax: If a population of stars has an isotropic velocity distribution, then the scatter in measured radial velocities can be compared to the observed scatter in proper motions to determine a distance for the set of stars.  Secular parallax: the Sun is moving at 19.5 km/sec toward right ascension α = 18h4 m and declination δ = 30◦ . This direction the Sun is moving is called the apex. The motion is with respect to the average velocity of the stars near the Sun, known as the Local Standard of Rest (LSR). This speed is 4.14 au/yr. Thus a star at rest with respect to the LSR, at a distance of D pc, will have a proper motion of 4.14′′/D per year if it is perpendicular to the motion of the Sun. We cannot know that any single star is at rest with respect to the LSR, but if we have a population of stars all at the same distance D pc from the Sun they will show an average proper motion toward the anti-apex of 4.14 sin θ/D ′′/yr where θ is the angle between the star and the apex.  http://www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/A140/A140.pdf Quote:Bringing you up to speed. Eye of Horus Chorus. @ ~19.5 km/sec Shifting Milestones of Natural Sciences: The Ancient Egyptian Discovery of Algol’s Period Confirmed Lauri Jetsu , Sebastian Porceddu Published: December 17, 2015 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144140 Ancient Egyptians described Algol's eclipses  Their analysis revealed that the periods of Algol (2.85 days) and the Moon (29.6 days) strongly regulate the actions of deities in this calendar.  Inside the superimposed rectangle is the hieratic writing  for the word 'Horus' [Credit Lauri Jetsu]  "Until now, there were only conjectures that many of the mythological texts of the Cairo Calendar describe astronomical phenomena. We can now unambiguously ascertain that throughout the whole year the actions of many deities in the Cairo Calendar are connected to the regular changes of Algol and the Moon," says Master of Science Sebastian Porceddu. This research confirms that the first variable star, as well as its period, were discovered much earlier than was previously thought. These two "classical" milestones in the history of natural sciences need to be shifted three millennia backwards in time to 1244 -- 1163 BC. This also confirms the two "modern" astrophysical results reported by the Helsinki group in the year 2013: The first direct observation ever of the expected increase of Algol's period and the accurate long--term estimate for the mass transfer in this binary system. "I would have serious doubts, if someone claimed, for example, that the Bible contains information about water in Mars. We claimed that Ancient Egyptian religious texts contain astrophysical information about Algol. It was no surprise to us that there were, and there still are, skeptics," says docent Lauri Jetsu. The research, published in PLOS ONE, also confirms that the brightest phases of Algol and the Moon had particularly positive meanings for the Ancient Egyptians. Source: University of Helsinki [December 18, 2015]  Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.ca/2015/12/ancient-egyptians-described-algols.html#.VnSZm0orKow Follow us: @ArchaeoNewsNet on Twitter | groups/thearchaeologynewsnetwork/ on Facebook The PA and PM signals were discovered in samples of series of time points SSTP = 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 in Jetsu et al.[11]. The size of each sample was n = 564. The period analysis results were the same for all these six samples, although their ai values were different for every NE. The time points ti of these six samples are given in Table 3. Download: Table 3. The time points ti of lucky prognoses in Jetsu et al.[11]. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0144140.t003 The mean of the decimal parts ai of all these n = 6 × 564 = 3384 values of ti is mt = 0.33. In this study, the time point for an SW at the day D of the month M in CC is therefore computed from (2) This accuracy is sufficient, Results Algol in lucky prognoses Of all 28 SWs, only the lucky prognoses of Horus, Re, Wedjat, Followers, Sakhmet andEnnead unambiguously strengthen the PA signal of Algol, because they have an impact of zx ≥ 1.0 and a significance of Qz ≤ 0.2 with the ephemeris of Eq (11). The lucky prognoses ofHeliopolis and Enemy are connected to Algol (Qz ≤ 0.2), but they are not connected to the PAsignal (zx < 1.0). In this section, we discuss these eight SWs in the order of their impact on the PA signal, i.e. in the order of decreasing zx with the ephemeris of Eq (11). Horus. This SW has the largest impact zx = +3.5 on the PA signal and the highest significance of the above eight SWs (Qz = 0.03, NG = 14). The unit vectors gi and si of lucky and unlucky prognoses with the ephemeris of Eq (11) are shown in Fig 1ab. Point Aa is at ϕ = 0 ≡ 0°. Points Ab, Ac and Ad are separated by Δϕ = 0.25 ≡ 90°. Only the gi pointing between Ad ≡ −90° and Ab ≡ +90° strengthen the PA signal. Twelve out of all fourteen gi are within this interval (Fig 1a). The four Θi closest to ΘR = 11° reach a high significance of QB = 0.006 (n1 = 4, n2 = 10, NG = 177). The gi pointing closest to Aa and giving the strongest impact on the PAsignal has the CC text [13] [quote='Quote:'] gi(14, 2) ≡ +6°: “It is the day of receiving the white crown by the Majesty of Horus; his Ennead is in great festivity.” The texts [12, 13] for the next best gi closest to Aa are Quote: Wrote:gi(19, 12) ≡ +13°: “Horus has returned complete, nothing is missing in it.” gi(27, 1) ≡ +19°: “Peace on the part of Horus with Seth.” gi(24, 3) ≡ +19°: “He has given his throne to his son, Horus, in front of Re.” gi(1, 7) ≡ +32°: “Feast of entering into heaven and the two banks. Horus is jubilating.” gi(15, 11) ≡ +38°: “Horus hears your words in the presence of every god and goddess on this day.” gi(27, 3) ≡ +38°: “Judging Horus and Seth; stopping the fighting.” gi(18, 1) ≡ −38°: “It is the day of magnifying the majesty of Horus more than his brother, …” gi(1, 9) ≡ +51°: “Feast of Horus son of Isis and … his followers … day” gi(23, 7) ≡ −69°: “Feast of Horus … on this day of his years in his very beautiful images.” gi(29, 3) ≡ −69°: “White crown to Horus, and the red one to Seth.” gi(7, 9) ≡ +88°: “The crew follow Horus in the foreign land, examining its list … therein when he smote him who rebelled against his master.” gi(1, 10) ≡ −120°: “Horus … Osiris … Chentechtai … land” gi(28, 3) ≡ +164°: “The gods are in jubilation and in joy when the will is written (lit. made) for Horus, …” These passages of lucky prognoses are suggestive of Algol at its brightest. The “white crown”,Horus having “returned complete” and “entering into heaven” (i.e. into the sky) are not easy to explain as symbols for the eclipse. Among the gi of all 28 SWs, the gi of Horus are the “best hit” on Aa (zx = +3.5). If these gi represent Algol at its brightest, then Aa is in the middle of this brightest phase and the thick line centered at Ac in Fig 1a outlines Algol’s eclipse. In this case, the gi(7, 9) ≡ +88° text may refer to an imminent eclipse and “the will is written” in gi(28, 3) ≡ +164° to the moment when the beginning of the eclipse is just becoming observable with naked eye. These passages could certainly describe naked eye observations of the regular changes of Algol. Three si of Horus in Fig 1b concentrate close to Ad and reach QB = 0.07 (n1 = 3, n2 = 25, NS = 105). The fourth vector si points close to Aa. Their CC texts [13] are Quote: Wrote:si(26, 1) ≡ −107°: “… It is the day of Horus fighting with Seth. …” si(11, 11) ≡ −107°: “Introducing the great ones by Re to the booth to see what he had observed through the eye of Horus the elder. They were with heads bent down when they saw the eye of Horus being angry in front of Re.” si(20, 9) ≡ −69°: “Mat judges in front of these gods who became angry in the island of the sanctuary of Letopolis. The Majesty of Horus revised it.” si(5, 8) ≡ 6°: “The Majesty of Horus is well when the red one sees his form. As for anybody who approaches it, anger will start on it.” If the gi that described feasts were connected to the brightest phase of Algol, these sidescribing anger would have occurred after Algol’s eclipse. “Horus is well” for the last si(5, 8) would seem natural for a lucky prognosis of Horus (as it should be close to Aa) but it is deemed unlucky for some other reasons. This type of “conflict of interest” prognoses may explain, why there are significant concentrations of directions accompanied by a few irregular directions (e.g. Fig 7c). The gi and si of Horus have Qz > 0.2 with the ephemeris of Eq (12), and are therefore not connected to the Moon, except for some gi texts mentioning both Horus and Seth. We argue that, as Leitz [12] also did, Mc ≡ 180° in Fig 1c coincides with the New Moon (see paragraphSeth). All the aforementioned lucky prognoses mentioning both Horus and Seth are close to Md ≡ −90° in Fig 1c, i.e. gi(27, 1) ≡ −82°, gi(27, 3) ≡ −73° and gi(29, 3) ≡ −48° with the ephemeris of Eq (12). The texts of these three days may describe the “luminosity competitions” between Horus and Seth which come to an end when more than half of the lunar disk becomes illuminated immediately after Md. The legend of the Contendings of Horus andSeth[14] (hereafter LE1) has inspired these descriptions. The text “White crown to Horus, and the red one to Seth” in gi(29, 3) would describe the brightening of Horus with Algol (Fig 1a: Θ = −69°) and the brightening of Seth (Fig 1c: Θ = −48°) with the approaching Full Moon at Ma. The most simple explanation for the context of these texts is that the lucky prognoses ofHorus are connected to Algol at its brightest. Re. The lucky prognoses reach Qz = 0.07 (NG = 32) with the ephemeris of Eq (11) and give the second largest impact zx = +2.5 on the PA signal (Fig 2a). Absence of small QB values, i.e. giconcentrations, may indicate that Re (the Sun) was casually following the undertakings ofHorus. The si of Re reach Qz = 0.2 (NS = 26) with the ephemeris of Eq (12), and explicitly avoid Ma, the proposed Full Moon phase (Fig 2d). Wedjat. The lucky prognoses show weak periodicity (Qz = 0.1, NG = 4) with the ephemeris of Eq (11). They give the third largest impact zx = +2.0 on the PA signal (Fig 3a). However, their impact on the PM signal is even larger, zx = +2.9 (Fig 3c). Wedjat may represent Algol observed at its brightest close to the Full Moon. The gi and si distributions of Horus and Wedjat are similar (Figs 1ab and 3ab) with the ephemeris of Eq (11). Wedjat is the Eye of Horus in Ancient Egyptian mythology. Followers. The lucky prognoses have an impact of zx = +1.4 on the PA signal (Fig 4a). This periodicity is weak (Qz = 0.2, NG = 15). Six si reach Qz = 0.01 (Fig 4b). The five si closest to ΘR reach a high significance of QB = 0.003 (n1 = 5, n2 = 18, NS = 105) and may refer to an approaching eclipse of Algol. These si also show a weak connection to the Moon (Fig 4d). It is tempting to suggest that Followers would be Pleiades following very close behind Algol in the revolving sky, e.g. in gi(7, 9) ≡ 88° “The crew follow Horus in the foreign land” (Figs 1a and 4a). Sakhmet. The gi and si reach Qz = 0.06 (NG = 4) and 0.05 (NS = 3) with the ephemeris of Eq (11). The impact of gi on the PA signal is zx = +1.3 (Fig 5a). The three si at Ad, after the proposed eclipse at Ac, are strongly connected to Algol, because they reach the most extreme significance in this study, QB = 0.0004 (n1 = 3, n2 = 6, NS = 105). The texts [13] are Quote: Wrote:si(27, 8) ≡ −95°: “Re sets because the Majesty of the goddess Sakhmet is angry in the land of Temhu.” si(13, 6) ≡ −82°: “It is the day of the proceeding of Sakhmet to Letopolis. Her great executioners passed by the offerings of Letopolis on this day.” si(7, 10) ≡ −82°: “It is the day of the executioners of Sakhmet.” These three unlucky prognoses (Fig 5b) are immediately followed by lucky ones (Fig 5a). Thegi and si distributions of Sakhmet (Fig 5ab) resemble those of Horus (Fig 1ab) with the ephemeris of Eq (11). The Eye of Horus (Wedjat) was transformed into the vengeful goddessSakhmet in the legend [14] of the Destruction of Mankind (hereafter LE2). The si vectors ofHorus, Wedjat and Sakhmet point close to Ad which is after Algol’s proposed eclipse at Ac (Figs 1b, 3b and 5b), and may refer to the abrupt pacification of enraged Sakhmet in LE2. Ennead. The lucky prognoses show weak periodicity (Fig 6a: Qz = 0.1, NG = 18) and an impact of zx = +1.1 on the PA signal with the ephemeris of Eq (11), as well as some concentration (QB = 0.02, n1 = 12, n2 = 63, NG = 177). Ennead was a group of nine deities in Ancient Egyptian mythology. We discussed earlier, why Followers may have represented Pleiades. Ennead may have been another name for Pleiades, having the modern name “Seven sisters”. However, the number of Pleiades members visible with naked eye depends on the observing conditions and the observer, the maximum number of such members being fourteen [15, 16]. The unlucky prognoses of Followers could be connected to Pleiades following the disappearing Algol before eclipse (Fig 4b), while the unlucky prognoses of Ennead could be connected to Algolreappearing in front Pleiades after eclipse (Fig 6b). Furthermore, the lucky prognosis distributions of Followers and Ennead are very similar (Figs 4a and 6a). Heliopolis. The lucky prognoses show weak periodicity with PA, but their impact on this signal is insignificant, zx = +0.2, with the ephemeris of Eq (11). Enemy. These lucky prognoses weaken the PA signal, because their impact is zx = −1.0 with the ephemeris of Eq (11). The Moon in lucky prognoses We discuss the remaining other 20 SWs in this section and in sections Algol in unlucky prognoses The Moon in unlucky prognoses No Algol or the Moon in lucky or unlucky prognoses These SWs are discussed only briefly, because they are not connected to the PA signal. The lucky prognoses of Earth, Heaven, Busiris, Rebel, Thoth and Onnophris are connected to the PM signal, because they have zx ≥ 1.0 and Qz ≤ 0.2 with the ephemeris of Eq (12). The lucky prognoses of Nut are weakly connected to the Moon. Earth. These lucky prognoses reach the highest impact parameter value of this study, zx = +5.3, on the PM signal. This periodicity also reaches the highest Rayleigh test significance of all, Qz = 0.001 (NG = 19). The good moments on Earth occurred before and during Ma, the proposed Full Moon phase (Fig 7c). The unlucky prognoses also show a weak connection to Algol (Fig 7b: Qz = 0.06, NS = 5) and an even weaker connection to the Moon (Fig 7d: Qz = 0.2, NS = 5). Heaven. The second largest impact zx = +3.4 on the PM signal comes from these lucky prognoses. Again, the good moments coincide with Ma, the proposed Full Moon phase (Fig 8c). This is significant periodicity (Qz = 0.03, NG = 19) combined with a very significant concentration (QB= 0.002, n1 = 12, n2 = 45, NG = 177). The unlucky prognoses also show a weak connection to the Moon (Fig 8d: Qz = 0.06, NS = 4). Busiris. The third largest impact on the PM signal, zx = +3.0, comes from the lucky prognoses ofBusiris. This periodicity reaches Qz = 0.05 (NG = 4) with the ephemeris of Eq (12). And again, the lucky prognoses are close to Ma, the proposed Full Moon phase (Fig 9c) Rebel. The lucky prognoses show weak periodicity (Qz = 0.2, NG = 3) with the ephemeris of Eq (12)and have an impact of zx = 1.6 on the PM signal. Thoth and Onnophris. The lucky prognoses of these SW have a weaker impact on the PM signal, i.e. 1.0 ≤ zx ≤ 1.3 with the ephemeris Eq (12). Nut. The lucky prognoses show a weak connection to the Moon. They have no impact on PM, because zx = −0.1 with the ephemeris of Eq (12). Algol in unlucky prognoses The PA and PM signals were detected from the lucky prognoses gi[10, 11]. It is therefore self–evident that the unlucky prognoses si had no impact on these two signals. However, this does not rule out the possibility that the si of some SW may be connected to Algol or the Moon. Most of these si vectors point away from Aa or Ma, i.e. zx < 0 with the ephemerides of Eqs (11) or (12). Man and Flame are the only exceptions to this general rule (zx ≥ 0). Heart. The unlucky prognoses have zx = −3.1 with the ephemeris of Eq (11). They point towards Ac, the proposed eclipse phase of Algol (Fig 10b). This periodicity reaches a significance of Qz = 0.04 (NS = 5) and QB = 0.04 (n1 = 5, n2 = 39, NS = 105). Nun. The three unlucky prognoses of this SW reach Qz = 0.06 and a high significance of QB = 0.003 (n1 = 3, n2 = 11, NS = 105) with the ephemeris of Eq (11). They also show a weaker connection to the Moon. The Moon in unlucky prognoses We will first discuss the unlucky prognoses of SWs having negative zx values with the ephemeris of Eq (12), and then the two exceptions of Man and Flame. Seth. “See you on the dark side of the Moon” sums up the unlucky prognoses of Seth (Fig 11d). The significance is Qz = 0.05 (NS = 9) with the ephemeris of Eq (12). Leitz [12] has argued that the following texts [13] at two consecutive days Quote: Wrote:si(16, 7) ≡ 173°: “Do not look, darkness being on this day (or, do not see darkness on this day).” si(17, 7) ≡ 185°: “Do not pronounce the name of Seth on this day.” take place during the New Moon. The si vectors of these two particular texts point at the opposite sides of Mc ≡ 180°, which supports both our “prediction” formula of Eq (12) and Leitz’ attribution [12] of the texts to the New Moon. We conclude that Seth is connected to the Moonand strongly suggest that Mc computed with Eq (12) is close to the New Moon. Hence, the FullMoon is close to Ma. Osiris. The four unlucky prognoses of this SW also point to the dark side of the Moon, assuming that Mc is close to the New Moon (Fig 12d). The significance estimates are Qz = 0.05 (NS = 4) andQB = 0.02 (n1 = 3, n2 = 15, NS = 105) with the ephemeris of Eq (12). Abydos and Lion. These unlucky prognoses show a weak connection to the Moon. Man. The significance estimates for the unlucky prognoses are Qz = 0.02 (NS = 6) and QB = 0.009 (n1 = 5, n2 = 23, NS = 105) with the ephemeris Eq (12). These unlucky moments of Manconcentrate on a few days after Ma, the proposed Full Moon phase (Fig 13d). Flame. The significance estimates for these unlucky prognoses are Qz = 0.03 (NS = 4) and QB = 0.003 (n1 = 4, n2 = 17, NS = 105) with the ephemeris of Eq (12). No Algol or the Moon in lucky or unlucky prognoses Eye, Fire, Majesty, Shu and Sobek. These SWs are not connected to Algol or the Moon, because their gi and si have Qz > 0.2 with the ephemerides of Eqs (11) and (12). Some general remarks This concludes our analysis of 28 SWs. Numerous other [7] SWs in CC need to be analysed in the future. Combining the inverse relations of Eqs (3) and (4) to the ephemerides of Eqs (11) and (12) will have countless applications. For example, the first eclipse of Algol would have occurred on t(2.6, 1) = 1.96 at D = 2.1 in M = 1 or the last New Moon on t(14.6, 12) = 343.9 atD = 14.6 in M = 12. Any question about CC can now be studied within this precise framework, e.g. was some meaning given to the nights when an eclipse of Algol (Eq (11): ϕ = 0.5) coincided with the New Moon (Eq (12): ϕ = 0.5)? Discussion Previously, we [11] applied four tests to the astrophysical hypothesis Quote: Wrote:H1: “Period PA = 2.d850 in CC was Porb of Algol.” This is a summary of those tests: test i: The mass transfer in this binary system should have increased the period in the past three millennia. The period value in CC is the first evidence for such an increase since Goodricke [17] discovered this periodicity over two centuries ago. test ii: The period change of 0.017 days from 2.850 to 2.867 days gives a reasonable estimate for the rate of this mass transfer. test iii: If eclipses were observed in Ancient Egypt, the orbital plane of the Algol A–B system must be nearly perpendicular to that of the Algol AB–C system [18, 19]. test iv: Algol and the Moon are the most probable objects, where naked eye observers could have discovered periodicity that we could then rediscover in CC. tests i and iv supported H1, while tests ii and iii indicated that it could be true. Algol’s observable night time mid eclipse epochs occur in groups of three separated with a period of 19 days and we also discovered this period in CC [11]. This phenomenon is displayed in Fig 14. First, a mid eclipse epoch occurs in the end of the night. After three days, the next one occurs close to midnight. After another three days, a mid eclipse epoch occurs in the beginning of the night. Then, the next observable night-time mid eclipse epoch occurs after 13 days. Naked eye observations could easily lead to the discovery of this 3 + 3 + 13 days regularity. One could speculate that this is one of the reasons, why the prime number 13 is still considered unlucky. This would be consistent with our result that, if the brightest phases ofAlgol were considered lucky then the eclipses (i.e. the dimmer phases) were considered unlucky. The 2.85 days period is exactly equal to 57/20 days. This means that after 57 = 3 × 19 days the eclipses returned exactly to the same moment of the night (see Fig 14). All D = 1 days in CC have a prognosis combination “GGG”, while all D = 20 days have “SSS”. Perhaps this regular separation of 19 days was also inspired by Algol. Download: Fig 14. Eclipses of Algol with PA = 2.85 days. The horizontal continuous lines show the beginnings and ends of 10 hours long nights. The filled and open circles denote mid eclipse epochs occurring inside and outside such nights. The TA1 = 10 hour time intervals of eclipses are denoted with thick continuous or thin dashed lines. The tilted open and closed triangles show the TA2 = 7 and TA3 = 3 hour limits. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0144140.g014 Only a skilled naked eye observer would have been able to discover the minor exceptions from the 3 + 3 + 13 days regularity. Algol’s eclipses last TA1 = 10 hours. Naked eye can detect brightness differences of 0.m1 in ideal observing conditions. Hence, an eclipse detection is theoretically possible for TA2 = 7 hours when Algol is more than 0.m1 dimmer than its brightest suitable comparison star γ And ([color=#3c63af]Fig 14: tilted open triangle limits). This detection could become certain for TA3 = 3 hours when Algol is also at least 0.m1 dimmer than all its other suitable comparison stars ζ Per, ϵ Per, γ Per, δ Per and β Tri (Fig 14: tilted closed triangle limits). During the 57 days eclipse repetition cycle, only two mid eclipse epochs outside the 10 hour night time limits would qualify as certain observable eclipses (Fig 14: open circles at 19th and 48th days). However, a certain detection of these two events would have been very difficult so close to dawn and dusk. The same argument is true for three additional possibleeclipse detections (Fig 14: open circles at 11th, 31st and 54th days). [size=x-small][font=arial]Here, our statistical analysis of SWs giving the largest impact on the PA signal reveals thatAlgol was represented as Horus. The lucky prognoses were most likely connected to Algol’s brightest phase. Sakhmet may have represented Algol after eclipses, and Wedjat during periods close to the Full Moon. To the Ancient Egyptians, Algol’s cycle may have symbolised the familiar events of LE1 and LE2. At Aa, Re sends the Eye of Horus (Wedjat) to destroy the rebels, as in LE2. At Ab, Horus enters the “foreign land” in gi(7, 9), where he “smote him who rebelled”, as in LE1 or LE2. The “will is written” for him in gi(28, 3 EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 01-14-2016, 11:18 PM (This post was last modified: 01-14-2016, 11:46 PM by EA.) How advanced,actually, were the early Israeli Tektons?   of 5,000 years ago... Nevermind Jesus' time. Compare notes. Half a world away Caral surprises the world for advanced knowledge and technology Photo: ANDINA/Difusión 09:33.  Lima, Jan. 12. The global scientific community is still surprised by the advanced knowledge ancient Peruvian civilization of Caral had gained of agronomy, climatology, engineering, medicine and other sciences 5,000 years ago, researcher Ruth Shady pointed out. Laboratories were set up to draw up agricultural schedules and forecast climate events —she said— which allowed them to determine the beginning and end of planting and harvesting seasons, as well as the changes in nature to adjust to them. “As for energy exploitation and fluid mechanics, Caral took advantage of the wind, now known as the Venturi Effect, by channeling it through underground ducts in order to achieve high temperatures through bonfires,” he noted. As U.S. physicians assessed the knowledge, they wondered how this civilization had come to know it 5,000 years ago, since such discovery was first made in 1740.  “As for pharmacology, we found that Caral inhabitants used willow —containing the active chemical ingredient of aspirin— to relieve pain such as headaches.  Another highlight was the civil engineering, which continues to amaze, since scientists applied the seismic resistance technology to the over-5000 year old constructions. (END) LZD/MAO/RMB/MVB Published: 12/01/2016 Quote:“As for energy exploitation and fluid mechanics, Caral took advantage of the wind, now known as the Venturi Effect, by channeling it through underground ducts in order to achieve high temperatures through bonfires,” he noted. As U.S. physicians assessed the knowledge, they wondered how this civilization had come to know it 5,000 years ago, since such discovery was first made in 1740.  Epic as Gilgamesh? Throats, Nozzles and Shock Diamonds [img=604x0]http://wordpress.mrreid.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/rocket-engine-shapes-604x339.jpg[/img] All rocket engines feature a “throat”, a narrowing of the exhaust nozzle. In the photographs above this throat is obvious at the top of the images. [img=604x0]http://wordpress.mrreid.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/de-laval-nozzle.png[/img] A de Laval nozzle (also known as a convergent-divergent nozzle) as used in rocket engines. The question of why rocket engines all feature throats might seem like it has an obvious answer: just try blowing air out of your mouth with your mouth wide open. But the physics behind rocket throats is a little bit more complicated than that. The nozzle of a rocket engine is designed to accelerate exhaust gases to Mach 1 at the throat, causing a process known as choking or choked flow. Normally the rate at which a gas can flow out of a pressurised container, such as the combustion chamber of a rocket engine, is limited by the difference between the pressure of the interior of the container and the pressure of the atmosphere surrounding the container: the container tries to push gas out, and the atmosphere tries to push the gas back in. In choked flow, this dependence disappears: the outside pressure has no effect on the rate at which gas is ejected, external pressure cannot force its way past thesupersonic shockwave that forms at the throat. Choked flow produces the greatest rate of flow of exhaust gases, and therefore the highest possible thrust: you cannot get the exhaust gas particles to move any faster, but you can push through more of them per second. As a gas passes through a narrowing in a pipe its pressure decreases and its speed increases; and as the pipe expands the pressure increases and the speed decreases.* This is known as the Venturi effect. $[Image: latex.php?latex=\frac{dv}{v}%3...fg=000&s=2]$ Where $[Image: latex.php?latex=\frac{dv}{v}&b...fg=000&s=0]$ is the rate of change of the velocity of the gas, $[Image: latex.php?latex=M&bg=ffffff&fg=000&s=0]$ is the speed of the gas as a fraction of the speed of sound (i.e. the gas’s Mach number) and $[Image: latex.php?latex=\frac+{dA}+{A}...fg=000&s=0]$ is the change in the area that the gas is flowing through. There is a limit to the Venturi effect, and that is when the fluid reaches the (local) speed of sound, as happens during choked flow. At this point, the Venturi effect is reversed: instead of the gas slowing as the nozzle expands, its velocity increases (because the $[Image: latex.php?latex=\frac{1}{M^2-1...fg=000&s=0]$ term becomes positive rather than negative). Thus the shape of a de Laval nozzle is designed to first accelerate the gas (by narrowing) to sonic speeds at the throat, and then because the Venturi effect has been reversed, to accelerate the gas further (by expanding) to supersonic speeds. The faster the exiting exhaust gas is, the more thrust that will be produced. Once the gas has exited the throat, the shape of the diverging (widening) part of the de Laval nozzle is such that the exhaust gases are directed backwards parallel to the body of the rocket (as shown in the middle diagram below), giving the maximum possible thrust in the direction that you want the rocket is to travel in. [img=604x0]http://wordpress.mrreid.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/nozzle-expansion.png[/img] An underexpanded nozzle (top) is inefficient because some of the exhaust gas is propelled backwards at an angle to the rocket’s direction of travel, i.e. pushing it right/left and back/forth rather than up. An overexpanded nozzle (bottom) is more efficient than either of the previous two, but the jet of exhaust that it produces is unstable, which could lead to your rocket veering off course. The degree of expansion of your nozzle depends on the ambient pressure, and so nozzles are often overexpanded at low altitudes and underexpanded at very high altitudes, giving a “sweet spot” during its journey where it operates at the best possible efficiency. When a nozzle is over- or underexpanded, a complex process can cause shock waves to form in the exhaust flow. Unburnt fuel passing through these shock waves is compressed and burnt, causing bright “shock diamonds” to form. [img=604x0]http://wordpress.mrreid.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/shock-diamonds-xcor-604x319.jpg[/img] Shock diamonds in the exhaust of the XCOR Liquid Oxygen-Methane engine. [img=604x0]http://wordpress.mrreid.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/shock-diamonds-f16-604x247.jpg[/img] Shock diamonds in the exhaust of an F-16 during takeoff. * This is an interesting example of the conservation of energy: the energy of the fluid is a combination of the fluid’s kinetic and potential energies, and as the speed (and therefore the kinetic energy) of the fluid increases, the potential energy (i.e. its pressure) must decrease. The Tektons were a lot smarter than they thought!!! Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... Vianova Posting Freak Posts: 9,445 Threads: 51 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 20 01-15-2016, 03:24 AM (This post was last modified: 01-15-2016, 03:48 AM by Vianova.) ... The Caral story is of high interest to me. This link provides a large and concise amount of info, and I selected sections to quote. http://www.philipcoppens.com/caral.html Caral: the oldest town in the New World Quote:The ancient pyramids of Caral predate the Inca civilisation by 4000 years,   but were flourishing a century before the pyramids of Gizeh. that is good, but the early age of pyramids in Egypt also flourished before Giza ... Quote:But Shady Solis did not make the same mistake Willey had made:  she felt that the “pyramids” were just that:  they were not natural hills,  as some of her predecessor had catalogued the structures of Caral.  Quote:the heart of the site covers 150 acres and contains six stone platform mounds – pyramids.  The largest mound measures 154 by 138 metres,  though it rises only to a height of twenty metres The discovery of Caral has therefore reintroduced a powerful enigma:  at the same time,  on two different continents,  agricultural advancements created a new style of life.  The available workforce that agriculture had created was reemployed in the construction of pyramids.  This “template” is visible in Peru, Sumer and Egypt,  all in the 3rd millennium BC.  Coincidence, or evidence of design?  Alternative researchers will certainly soon reopen this debate, but archaeologists steer well clear of it. ... found evidence of people living inland from the coast as early as 9210 BC,  with the oldest date associated with a city being 3500 BC.  Other urban sites in the region are now dated as being older than Caral:  Caballete at 3100 BC, Porvenir and Upaca at 2700 BC.  Charles Mann writes how  "individually, none of the twenty-five Norte Chico cities rivaled Sumer's cities in size,  but the totality was bigger than Sumer." and the icing on the cake Quote:Still, the fame of Caral as the oldest pyramid complex might be shortlived.   Archaeologists have found a 5,500-year-old ceremonial plaza at Sechin Bajo, in Casma,  229 miles north of Lima, the capital. The discovery occurred by a team of the Latin American Institute at the Freie University in Berlin,  under the auspices of Prof. Dr. Peter Fuchs.  It contained a platform pyramid that was originally possibly up to 100 metres tall.  Carbon dating shows it is one of the oldest structures ever found in the Americas.  Nearly 2,000 years later,  another structure measuring 180 by 120 metres was added onto it.  The discovery at Sechin Bajo means this pyramid complex is now even older than Caral. If they can confirm the platform pyramid to be 100 meters -- 300 feet high, that would be very significant. detail at Sechin Bajo caral pyramid ruins link http://beforeitsnews.com/science-and-tec...55356.html other link image at sechin bajo http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-Mb-BkJhV4-w/U5...4785_o.jpg ... the last image there is from this guy's blog Egnogra  Guillermo Alarcon he has a great set of images from sechin bajo and surroundings http://akashikrecords.blogspot.com/2014/...ldest.html Quote:The Ancient civilization that flourished in the valley of Sechin practiced ritualistic sacrifice,  severing heads from other tribes, check out the tattooed arm ... that looks polynesian ... or new zealand ... EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 01-15-2016, 09:12 PM (This post was last modified: 01-15-2016, 09:54 PM by EA.) Vic. That is an incredible history!!! It opens up many possibilities... I would hate that history to be annexed by con-men or marginalised as thus so: Quote:But Shady Solis did not make the same mistake Willey had made:  she felt that the “pyramids” were just that:  they were not natural hills,  as some of her predecessor had catalogued the structures of Caral.  We already have a headache trying to factualise Jesus,we don't need any gibberish and erractic anachronistic distractions. Now we have the DNA. The Genetic Evidence! This is a Nail.  This is a Hammer.  Eye drive it in with 3 strikes!!!   Quote:check out the tattooed arm ... that looks polynesian ... or new zealand I call Bullshit on The Church of Jesus Christ of Later Day Saints!!!  3 strikes and a whole religious sect  is gone  Smith reportedly told Orson Pratt that the Lord gave him the Urim and Thummim when he was an inexperienced translator but that as he grew in experience, he no longer needed such assistance Good-riddance phoney moroni...  Don't worry if you don't yet know what that means,trust me you'll figure it out.   Genetic data does not support ancient trans-Atlantic migration, professor says January 15, 2016 by George Diepenbrock This map of the Americas notes the genetics of ancient Native Americans and is meant to illustrate they all came from ancestors who traveled from Siberia – not Europe or the Middle East. A few recent publications and documentaries have hypothesized about an ancient trans-Atlantic migration that possibly could mean ancient Europeans or ancient Israelites contributed to the population of Native Americans, often called an "Ice Age Columbus." However, Jennifer Raff, a University of Kansas assistant professor of anthropology, said mitochondrial and genomic data that scientists have recovered don't support such an early wave of migrants. "That hypothesis is only held by a very tiny minority of the archaeological community, but nevertheless it gets a lot of attention from people who have a casual interest in American archaeology," said Raff, lead author of a recent article in the journal PaleoAmerica on the issue. "When we summarize the genetic results we have, we find nothing that's consistent with these hypothesized trans-Atlantic migrations." Raff and co-author Deborah Bolnick, associate professor of anthropology at the University of Texas at Austin, published the article that evaluated these hypotheses in light of current genetic evidence from ancient and present-day Native Americans. They concluded that genetic data scientists have recovered to date only supports a migration from Siberia into the Americas and does not show evidence of earlier migrations from ancient Israelites or inhabitants of what is now Europe. Within the next month, the journal article will available to the public via open access, Raff said. The genetic piece of one recent argument for a trans-Atlantic migration—known as the Solutrean hypothesis—contended that the presence of mitochondrial haplogroup X2a in Native American populations provided evidence for ancient gene flow from Europe or the Middle East into North America. The hypothesis suggested that the North American Clovis culture dated roughly 13,000 years ago was directly descended from the Solutrean culture of southwestern Europe dated roughly 23,000 years before present. However, Raff and Bolnick said in analyzing all recent genetic studies of the earliest Native Americans they didn't find anything consistent with a possible early trans-Atlantic migration. For example, the recent publication of the complete genome from the 8,500-year-old Kennewick Man, found in Washington state in 1996, showed that he belonged to haplogroup X2a but had no indication of recent European ancestry throughout the rest of his genome. Michael Crawford, head of KU's Laboratory of Biological Anthropology and a professor of anthropology, was a co-author on that genetic project. Raff said it was significant that Kennewick Man was on the West Coast, as it put the oldest and most ancestral lineage of X2a ever recovered in a geographic region more consistent with a migration from Siberia across the land bridge known as Beringia, which no longer exists between Alaska and Siberia, than a migration across the Atlantic. Prior to the sequencing of his genome, Kennewick Man had been used as an argument to support non-Siberian ancestry, because his skull looked different from those of later Native Americans. But his genome, and that of other ancient Americans with distinctive skull shapes, showed that was not true. "When you look at the complete genome of ancient Native Americans up until now, we see no evidence for ancient European ancestry," she said. Proponents of an early trans-Atlantic migration typically point to a similarity in the tools used by Clovis people—ancient Native Americans—with the early Solutrean hunter-gatherer people in Europe, Raff said. However, most anthropologists and archaeologists consider that a coincidence, especially because the genetic evidence thus far doesn't seem to support the early trans-Atlantic migration. Raff said it was important to accurately examine the populating of the Americas, especially because many times in American history those who favor the idea of a European influence upon Native Americans have used that to take away from their tribal sovereignty and cultural achievements. "That is really troubling not just because it's bad science, but also because it's trying to disassociate contemporary Native Americans from their history," Raff said. "Even though I don't believe authors of the Solutrean hypothesis intended it this way, it's just another facet of that move to separate Native Americans from their ancestors." More information: Responses to some questions about our recently published paper on haplogroup X and North American prehistory. violentmetaphors.com/2015/11/11/responses-to-some-questions-about-our-recently-published-paper-on-haplogroup-x-and-north-american-prehistory/  Provided by: University of Kansas Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-01-genetic-ancient-trans-atlantic-migration-professor.html#jCp I'm Sure The Mormons meant well... Quote:Urim and Thummim (Latter Day Saints) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article improperly uses one or more religious texts as primary sources without referring to secondary sources that critically analyze them. Please help improve this article by adding references to reliable secondary sources, with multiple points of view. (December 2010) [/url] A 21st-century artistic representation of the golden plates, Urim and Thummim, Sword of Laban, andLiahona In the Latter Day Saint movement, the Urim and Thummim (/ˈjuːr.ɪm/[1] and /ˈθʌm.ɪm/[2]) (also called Interpreters) usually refers to a set of seer stones bound by silver bows into a set of spectacles, that movement founder Joseph Smith said he found buried in the hill Cumorah with the golden plates. History In 1823, Smith said that an angel Moroni told him of the existence, with the plates, of "two stones in silver bows" fastened to a breastplate, which the angel called the Urim and Thummim and which he said God had prepared for translating the plates.[3] Smith's mother, Lucy Mack Smith, described them as crystal-like "two smooth three-cornered diamonds."[4] Oliver Cowdery said the stones were "transparent".[5] Smith and his early Mormon contemporaries seem to have used the terms "seer stone" and "Urim and Thummim" interchangeably.[6] Although Smith always referred to the Book of Mormon"interpreters" as the Urim and Thummim, he may or may not have intended to make a distinction between that device and the seer stones that he used in receiving revelations.[7] The LDS Church has suggested that Smith and his contemporaries "seem to have understood the term more as a descriptive category of instruments for obtaining divine revelations and less as the name of a specific instrument".[6] An 1893 engraving of Joseph Smith receiving the[url=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_Plates]Golden Plates and the Urim and Thummim from the angel Moroni. The sword of Laban is shown at the bottom. In 1827, Smith said that he had been visited again by the angel who had previously revealed the location of the golden plates, along with other items such as the Urim and Thummim, and that these objects were buried in a nearby hillside. Smith said that after translating the Book of Mormon, he returned the plates and the Urim and Thummim to the angel, whom he identified as the resurrected Moroni. Smith reportedly told Orson Pratt that the Lord gave him the Urim and Thummim when he was an inexperienced translator but that as he grew in experience, he no longer needed such assistance.[8] The LDS Bible Dictionary defines the Urim and Thummim as "an instrument prepared of God to assist man in obtaining revelationfrom the Lord and in translating languages."[9] In the Book of Mormon, the prophets the Brother of Jared and Mosiah both used devices called "interpreters" to receive revelation for their people, and the Doctrine and Covenants declares that these "interpreters" were the Urim and Thummim.[10] Beliefs Latter Day Saints believe that the Urim and Thummim of Joseph Smith and the Book of Mormon were the functional equivalent of the Urim and Thummim mentioned in the Old Testament.[11] It could be speculated that there were three different sets of Urim and Thummim: the one of the Old Testament (Exodus 28:30) and two mentioned in the Book of Mormon (one used by theJaredites and the other by King Mosiah).[12] Another speculation that has been made is that the one used by Smith is the one originally possessed by the Jaredites.[13][14] Who else is trying to steal the indiginous history? NEXT! EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 01-15-2016, 11:16 PM Quote:But Shady Solis did not make the same mistake Willey had made:  she felt that the “pyramids” were just that:  they were not natural hills,  as some of her predecessor had catalogued the structures of Caral.  she felt that the “pyramids” were just that:  they were not natural hills, what is that unnatural looking hill / mound  DOME with the big dirt patch of missing foilage  directly above Noah's Ark and  close to the sum it of The Mountaintop above. Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 01-29-2016, 06:39 PM (This post was last modified: 01-29-2016, 07:03 PM by EA.) Who was in Babylon? Quote:When Babylonian culture, and the cuneiform script it was recorded in, died out around the year 100, the technique was seemingly forgotten, Ossendrijver said, only to crop up again in the 14th century when scientists and mathematicians began to use graphs to calculate changes to a system over time. Other aspects of Babylonian astronomy, in contrast, made it through the ages: People still discuss signs of the Zodiac, for instance, and use the Babylonian system of degrees, minutes and seconds, in units of 60, to calculate distances across the sky. Babylonian observations and techniques, translated into Greek, offer evidence of that transfer of information, Ossendrijver said Babylonians used geometry to track Jupiter’s movements Advanced sky-watching calculations came long before Europeans did the same thing BY  BRUCE BOWER  2:00PM, JANUARY 28, 2016 [img=790x0]https://www.sciencenews.org/sites/default/files/2016/01/main/articles/012816_bb_babylonian-main_free.jpg[/img] ROSETTA TABLET  A cuneiform tablet, slightly smaller than a standard sticky note, housed in the British Museum provided an unexpected key to understanding how ancient Babylonians pioneered the use of abstract geometric spaces to understand planetary motion. M. OSSENDRIJVER/SCIENCE 2016 Ancient Babylonians charted Jupiter’s heavenly motion in a surprisingly modern, mathematically abstract way — a feat that until now was thought to have originated among European scholars who lived roughly 1,400 years later. Analyses of cuneiform writing on four largely intact clay tablets show that innovative geometric calculationsenabled ancient astronomers to track the giant planet’s movement across the sky, Mathieu Ossendrijver reports in the Jan. 29 Science. These tablets were excavated more than a century ago and are now housed at the British Museum in London. Researchers did not document exactly where these and thousands of other clay tablets were uncovered in 19th century excavations in Iraq. But most scholars today consider tablets from those digs that contain astronomical tables and calculations to have been found in Babylon, the ancient capital of Babylonia, says Ossendrijver, a historian of ancient science at Humboldt University of Berlin. Based on previous age estimates for other Babylonian tablets dealing with mathematical astronomy, the geometry-bearing tablets were probably written between 2,366 and 2,066 years ago, he says. “Babylonians applied geometric methods that had been used for 1,000 years to develop a very modern way of studying motion,” Ossendrijver says.  The new findings show that Babylonians made a mental leap from describing planetary motion in concrete, arithmetic terms to representing those movements in an abstract, geometric space, says University of Chicago historian of ancient science John Wee. More than 400 tablets recovered at Babylonian sites contain calculations about planets and the moon, mostly based on addition and other arithmetic operations, or instructions for carrying out those calculations. Four Babylonian tablets at the British Museum preserve portions of a different, poorly understood astronomical calculation system. Researchers call these calculations trapezoid procedures, because of references to four-sided shapes with two parallel sides of differing lengths. Ossendrijver deciphered those tablets with the aid of a fifth Babylonian tablet held by the British Museum that he identified as containing nearly complete instructions for carrying out trapezoid procedures. While studying photographs of the museum’s tablets in January 2015, Ossendrijver noticed mentions of Jupiter and trapezoid procedures on that crucial piece of impressed clay. Armed with this Babylonian “Rosetta stone,” Ossendrijver determined that Babylonian astronomers used trapezoid-shaped graphs to determine Jupiter’s movements. They calculated how the planet’s velocity changed from day to day and the distance covered by Jupiter over two consecutive 60-day intervals. Ancient Babylonians also divided trapezoidal graphs into two smaller trapezoids of equal area to determine the time when Jupiter traveled half the distance it would eventually cover over 60 days, Ossendrijver finds. British and French scholars in the 14th century developed similar methods for tracking planets’ movements in an abstract, geometric space. But Babylonians pioneered those astronomical calculations, Ossendrijver says. Geometry, defined broadly as any mathematical procedure concerning shapes, sizes, lines and angles, was widely used in the ancient world by the time of Babylonian astronomy, Wee says. Ancient Greek astronomers used geometry, although not the trapezoidal procedures developed by Babylonians to study planetary motion. Still, Greek astronomers applied geometry in inventive ways (SN: 8/30/08, p. 10). Aristarchus, for instance, estimated distances to the sun and moon using geometric calculations unknown to the Babylonians, Wee says. Citations M. Ossendrijver. Ancient Babylonian astronomers calculated Jupiter’s position from the area under a time-velocity graph.Science. Vol. 351, January 29, 2016, p. 482. doi: 10.1126/science.aad8085.   Further Reading R. Cowen. Greeks followed a celestial Olympics. Science News. Vol. 174, August 30, 2008, p. 10.  Ancient Astronomy: Babylonians Used Surprising Math Leap to Track Jupiter Ancient Babylonian tablets like this one show that calculating the distance Jupiter travels in the sky over time can be done by finding the area of a trapezoid, showing the creators understood a concept essential to modern calculus — 1500 years earlier than historians have ever seen. A set of ancient Babylonian tablets that describe how to track Jupiter across the sky have revealed an astronomical technique 1,500 years ahead of its time. Jupiter's erratic pace across the sky — appearing to slow down and speed up from day to day based on the combination of its orbit and Earth's — must have perplexed ancient astronomers and tested their best computational techniques. A newly discovered tablet written in Babylonia's cuneiform script discusses calculating the position of Jupiter. When combined with four other tablets, it suggests that ancient Babylonians used a surprisingly modern technique to calculate how far the bright dot traveled through the sky over the course of months. Their process requires a leap in understanding in how position and speed relate to time, one that wouldn't appear again until 1350 and that was a precursor to modern calculus. [Views of Jupiter, the Solar System's Largest Planet The new results were detailed in the journal Science today (Jan. 28). The connections between speed, position and time are known to most modern travelers — people easily understand speed as a measure of miles or kilometers per hour. Locations are often described in terms of time ("it's only an hour away") rather than distance. The insight that led to calculus demonstrated the connection between a graph of the traveler's changing speed and the total distance traveled. "This is familiar to any student of physics, or math or science," Mathieu Ossendrijver, an astroarchaeologist at Humboldt University of Berlin, told Space.com. But using time as a variable to calculate speed or distance has not been part of human culture forever. Using a graph to understand motion or speed over time is usually traced back to scholars in Oxford and Paris around 1350, and then to Isaac Newton, who developed integral calculus, Ossendrijver said. "What I now found is that this method was already invented in Babylonia more than 1,500 years earlier." Ossendrijver was an astrophysicist before he began studying the history of science and cuneiform in 2005. In 2012, he published a book of new translations for the known Babylonian tablets that featured astronomical calculations and tables. The procedure Ossendrijver translated from the Babylonian tablets appears to show how to calculate the distance that Jupiter has traveled over a long stretch of time, by using measurements of how fast it was moving across the sky on given days. This calculation might be particularly interesting to the ancient astronomers because of Jupiter's association with Babylon's patron god, Marduk. Under the Babylonians' earlier, arithmetic-based method, astronomers would measure the distance Jupiter traveled every day — then, by adding together the "distance per day" for each day from the first through the 60th, they would get the total distance traveled. The newly discovered method instead used a geometric shortcut, and only needed the "distance per day" for the first day and the 60th, not the ones in between, to get the distance overall. Today, that calculation might be done by drawing points on a graph for Jupiter's measured speed on the first day and on the 60th day. Each of those points shows Jupiter's speed across the sky and the day the speed was measured. Drawing lines to connect the points to each other and to the "ground" directly below them, at a speed of zero, creates a geometric shape — a trapezoid — and calculating that shape's area reveals how far the object traveled. The process of measuring that geometric shape was described on the Babylonian tablets. Although the tablets did not have any visible graphs, the calculations done matched this technique precisely, Ossendrijver said.  [img=790x0]http://www.space.com/images/i/000/052/921/i02/babylonian-tablet-trapezoid-jupiter.jpg?1454006869?interpolation=lanczos-none&downsize=640:*[/img] The distance travelled by Jupiter after 60 days, 10º45', is computed as the area of the trapezoid whose top left corner is Jupiter's velocity over the course of the first day, in distance per day, and its top right corner is Jupiter's velocity on the 60th day. In a second calculation, the trapezoid is divided into two smaller ones with equal area to find the time in which Jupiter covers half this distance. Credit: Trustees of the British Museum/Mathieu Ossendrijver When Ossendrijver first encountered the Babylonian tablets, he didn't understand why calculations on a trapezoid were included along with tables related to Jupiter's position, he said. Only after he saw a fifth, uncataloged tablet, which showed a different procedure for finding Jupiter's position using the same examples as the trapezoids, did he realize the connection between the figure and the tables, Ossendrijver said. Eventually, he understood a second trapezoid calculation on the tablets, too: dividing it into two trapezoids with equal area, which would correspond to finding when Jupiter had traveled half the distance, he said. The advanced technique has been found only on the four tablets so far, which all use slightly different wording but the same example, he said. There isn't any evidence yet of the process being more widespread, Ossendrijver said. "This would open up new ways of computing motion they could have applied to other planets, other parts of Jupiter's motion," Ossendrijver said. "We don't have [examples of that]. We only have these four tablets, and they all deal with Jupiter — and they all deal with the same segment of 60 days. That's quite strange." When Babylonian culture, and the cuneiform script it was recorded in, died out around the year 100, the technique was seemingly forgotten, Ossendrijver said, only to crop up again in the 14th century when scientists and mathematicians began to use graphs to calculate changes to a system over time. Other aspects of Babylonian astronomy, in contrast, made it through the ages: People still discuss signs of the Zodiac, for instance, and use the Babylonian system of degrees, minutes and seconds, in units of 60, to calculate distances across the sky. Babylonian observations and techniques, translated into Greek, offer evidence of that transfer of information, Ossendrijver said. Knowing that ancient Babylonians had access to this newfound technique provides a whole new context for examining previously discovered tablets, as many tablets that are already translated have sections that aren't yet understood, Ossendrijver said. And it also forces science historians to rethink the way astronomical techniques evolved, he said. "In the beginning, I felt insecure myself, because the implications of this, from a history of science point of view, are kind of — big," Ossendrijver said. The process shows "a more abstract and profound conception of a geometrical object in which one dimension represents time," Alexander Jones, a historian at New York University said in Science's news article accompanying the work. It's much earlier than these concepts have ever been found before, he said, and "their presence … testifies to the revolutionary brilliance of the unknown Mesopotamian scholars who constructed Babylonian mathematical astronomy." - See more at: http://www.space.com/31765-ancient-babyl...ciWoO.dpuf Now consider the trapezoid shape of the temple mount.(aka Fort Antonia) The "Trapezoid" Perimeter may or may not contain astronomical data related to itz cornerstone founding. Further Antikytheran Tektonics? Trapezoids and Cornerstones?  Now didn't we have quite the gnosis wayyyyyyyyyyyyyy ...back in the day? Eh? Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 01-30-2016, 12:35 AM (This post was last modified: 01-30-2016, 12:39 AM by EA.) Quote:Tekton: The Word used 33 times in the Old Testament Was the historical Jesus a carpenter? In the fictional mishmash of the gospel story, one supposedly biographical detail pointed to by bibliolaters and historicizers is the designation of Jesus and his stepfather Joseph as “carpenters.” This purported biographical detail is mentioned only twice, briefly at Matthew 13:55 and Mark 6:3, the former in which Jesus is named as the carpenter’s son, and the latter in which he himself is designated a carpenter. Here, assert proponents, appears evidence that there was a historical figure who was either the son of God or a Jewish rabbi evemeristically blown up into a divine figure. In the quest to create a Jesus biography, this purported “historical” detail of carpenter is rarely raised; instead, rabbinical status is conferred upon Jesus through the belief in the gospel tale that Christ was a great sage who stunned the Jewish elders and priests at a young age with his precocious wisdom. (Luke 2:39-52) Why such a child would then be allowed to grow up to be a simple carpenter seems to make little sense as biography but is comprehensible if understood mythologically. Is this “carpenter” designation truly a “biographical detail?” Or is it yet another part of the mythmaking process that cobbled together various popular motifs from around the known world in order to create the “King of kings” and “God of gods?” The evidence points to the latter situation to be the case. Tekton as ‘craftsman’ The Greek word used to describe Jesus and Joseph as a “carpenter” in the New Testament is τέκτων or tekton (Strong’s G5045), which is defined as: 1) a worker in wood, a carpenter, joiner, builder a) a ship’s carpenter or builder 2) any craftsman, or workman a) the art of poetry, maker of songs 3) a planner, contriver, plotter a) an author As we can see, the designation in English of this word as “carpenter” is arbitrary, and there is little reason to suspect that it is more accurate than these other renderings. Jesus, therefore, could have been any sort of craftsman, including one who works with stone, making of him a mason. In this same regard, the word tekton in modern Greek oddly means “Freemason.” This same word tekton also appears some two dozen times in the Greek Old Testament or Septuagint, as at 1 Samuel 13:19. In the Hebrew of that verse, the word translated as tekton is חרש or charash (H2796), used 33 times in the Old Testament and defined as “craftsman, artisan, engraver, graver, artificer; graver, artificer…” Itappears that Christ was made to be a tekton in order to represent the “carpenter” or “craftsman” guild, as the spiritual figurehead, a common occurrence with many other occupations, including smithcraft, fishing, sailing, masonry and funerary services. The notion of craftsmen guilds, the head of which would be a “carpenter god,” can be seen in 1 Chronicles (4:14), which speaks of the residents of the Valley of Charashim, the plural of charash or “craftsmen,” “artisans,” etc. Tekton is also translated as “carpenter,” as at 2 Samuel 5:11. Here the Greek is τέκτονας ξύλων or “craftsmen of wood,” followed by τέκτονας λίθων or “craftsmen of stone,” translated as “masons.” The role of carpenters, builders and masons was an important one in antiquity, as it was they who built the Temple of the Lord (2 Kings 22:6). At Isaiah 40:19-20, we read about the tekton who casts gold for an idol and sets up a graven image; likewise it is a tekton who creates the “calf of Samaria” (Hosea 8:6). The oddest passage, perhaps, in which the word tekton is used is Zechariah 1:20: “And the LORD showed me four tektons,” here translated variously as “carpenters” (KJV), “craftsmen” (NIV), “smiths” (RSV) or “blacksmiths” (NLT). This vision occurred after “the word of the Lord” “came unto” Zechariah, to whom it is explained that the four tektons are the “horns which scattered Judah, so that no man raised his head; and these have come to terrify them, to cast down the horns of the nations who lifted up their horns against the land of Judah to scatter it.” As we can see, the word tekton is used in the Bible allegorically and mythologically as well, an important precedent to note. God as demiurge In this regard, there exists another intriguing passage at Hebrews 11:10, which states: ἐξεδέχετο γὰρ τὴν τοὺς θεμελίους ἔχουσαν πόλιν ἡς τεχνίτης καὶ δημιουργὸς ὁ θεός. The RSV renders this scripture: “For he looked forward to the city which has foundations, whose builder and maker is God.” Of interest to us are the word τεχνίτης or technitēs, which, like tekton, means “artificer” or “craftsman,” and the phrase δημιουργὸς ὁ θεός or “demiurge [is] [the] God.” In other words, the builder or demiurge of the holy city (sought by Abraham) is God. Here God is the demiurge. Interestingly, δημιουργός or demiurge (Strong’s G1217) is defined as “workman for the public; author of any work, an artisan, framer, builder,” essentially the same as tekton. Demiurge also means “creator.” This term δημιουργός or demiurge is used dozens of times in pre-Christian literature, especially in Plato (Cratylus, Symposium, Protagoras, Gorgias, Republic, Timaeus, etc.). The craftsman god As we can see from these examples, the carpenter, artisan, mason or craftsman god or aspect of God in antiquity was important and prevalent. Craftsman-god examples can be found in numerous other cultures, such as the Indian, with the god Vishvakarma, the Divine Architect of the Universe, also known as the “Carpenter of the gods”: Viśvákarma (Sanskrit: विश्वकर्मा viśvá-karman “all-accomplishing; all-creator” is the Hindu presiding deity of all craftsmen and architects. He is believed by Hindus to be the “Principal Universal Architect”, the architect who fabricated and designed the divine architecture of the Universe, the Lord of Creation…. The Mahabharata describes him as “The Lord of the Arts, Executor of a thousand Handicrafts, the Carpenter of the Gods, the most eminent of Artisans, the Fashioner of all ornaments … and a great and immortal God…” In the Indian text the Rig Veda, dating to 3,000 years ago by conservative estimates, the “+by+the+name+of+yw%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=LBniT7_qF8LI2gXT9KGuCw&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%22divine%20craftsman%2C%20Tvashtr%22&f=false]divine craftsman” Tvashtr forges weapons, like his later Greco-Roman counterpart Hephaistos-Vulcan. Such artisan deities are thus known from remote antiquity, as can be found in the Ugaritic texts as well, as concerns the +by+the+name+of+yw%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=LBniT7_qF8LI2gXT9KGuCw&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=%22Kothar%2C%20the%20ugaritic%20craftsman-god%22&f=false]“craftsman god” Kothar wa-Hasis. Concerning Kothar, in The Ugaritic Baal Cycle, Dr. Mark S. Smith (171) comments: The craftsman-god’s names mean literally “Skilled and Wise” or a little less literally…, “Wise Craftsman.” Kothar’s Mesopotamian craftsman counterpart is +by+the+name+of+yw%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=LBniT7_qF8LI2gXT9KGuCw&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%22ea%2C%20the%20craftsman%22&f=false]Ea, also called “wise.” In the Ugaritic texts (Rahmouni, 178), Kothar is designed by the epithet ḫrš or charash, the same as the Hebrew חרש, previously discussed as at 1 Samuel 13:19. This fact means that this Canaanite god, Kothar, was designated by the same Semitic term rendered tekton in Greek, the precise epithet attached to Jesus in the New Testament. There are many other such examples of craftsman, artisan and carpenter gods in antiquity, as I discuss further in my book Suns of God: Krishna, Buddha and Christ Unveiled. Suffice it to say that we cannot hang a “historical” Jesus on this briefly mentioned and patently mythical detail from the gospels. On the contrary, this “biographical detail” adds to our logical conclusion that the “Jesus Christ” of the New Testament is a fictional composite of characters, based significantly on archetypical divine predecessors such as those explored here. Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 02-09-2016, 11:04 PM Herod’s Death, Jesus’ Birth and a Lunar Eclipse Letters to the Editor debate dates of Herod’s death and Jesus’ birth Biblical Archaeology Society Staff   •  11/29/2015 This Bible History Daily feature was originally published in January 2015. It has been updated.—Ed.   [img=200x0]http://cdn.biblicalarchaeology.org/wp-content/uploads/Giotto_adoration-of-the-magi-260x262.jpg[/img] Giotto, Adoration of the Magi, c. 1306. Both Luke and Matthew mention Jesus’ birth as occurring during Herod’s reign (Luke 1:5; Matthew 2:1). Josephus relates Herod’s death to a lunar eclipse. This is generally regarded as a reference to a lunar eclipse in 4 B.C. Therefore it is often said that Jesus was born in 4 B.C. But physics professor John A. Cramer, in a letter to BAR, has pointed out that there was another lunar eclipse visible in Judea—in fact, two—in 1 B.C., which would place Herod’s death—and Jesus’ birth—at the turn of the era. Below, read letters published in the Q&C section of BARdebating the dates of Herod’s death, Jesus’ birth and to which lunar eclipse Josephus was referring.   When Was Jesus Born? Q&C, BAR, July/August 2013 Let me add a footnote to Suzanne Singer’s report on the final journey of Herod the Great (Strata, BAR, March/April 2013): She gives the standard date of his death as 4 B.C. [Jesus’ birth is often dated to 4 B.C. based on the fact that both Luke and Matthew associate Jesus’ birth with Herod’s reign—Ed.] Readers may be interested to learn there is reason to reconsider the date of Herod’s death. This date is based on Josephus’s remark in Antiquities 17.6.4 that there was a lunar eclipse shortly before Herod died. This is traditionally ascribed to the eclipse of March 13, 4 B.C. Unfortunately, this eclipse was visible only very late that night in Judea and was additionally a minor and only partial eclipse. There were no lunar eclipses visible in Judea thereafter until two occurred in the year 1 B.C. Of these two, the one on December 29, just two days before the change of eras, gets my vote since it was the one most likely to be seen and remembered. That then dates the death of Herod the Great into the first year of the current era, four years after the usual date. Perhaps the much-maligned monk who calculated the change of era was not quite so far off as has been supposed. John A. Cramer Professor of Physics Oglethorpe University Atlanta, Georgia http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily...r-eclipse/ When Was Jesus Born? When Did Herod Die? Q&C, BAR, January/February 2014 Professor John A. Cramer argues that Herod the Great most likely died shortly after the lunar eclipse of December 29, 1 B.C., rather than that of March 13, 4 B.C., which, as Cramer points out, is the eclipse traditionally associated with Josephus’s description in Jewish Antiquities 17.6.4 (Queries & Comments, “When Was Jesus Born?” BAR, July/August 2013) and which is used as a basis to reckon Jesus’ birth shortly before 4 B.C. Professor Cramer’s argument was made in the 19th century by scholars such as Édouard Caspari and Florian Riess. There are three principal reasons why the 4 B.C. date has prevailed over 1 B.C. These reasons were articulated by Emil Schürer in A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ, also published in the 19th century. First, Josephus informs us that Herod died shortly before a Passover (Antiquities 17.9.3, The Jewish War 2.1.3), making a lunar eclipse in March (the time of the 4 B.C. eclipse) much more likely than one in December. Second, Josephus writes that Herod reigned for 37 years from the time of his appointment in 40 B.C. and 34 years from his conquest of Jerusalem in 37 B.C. (Antiquities 17.8.1, War1.33.8). Using so-called inclusive counting, this, too, places Herod’s death in 4 B.C. Third, we know that the reign over Samaria and Judea of Herod’s son and successor Archelaus began in 4 B.C., based on the fact that he was deposed by Caesar in A.U.C. (Anno Urbis Conditae [in the year the city was founded]) 759, or A.D. 6, in the tenth year of his reign (Dio Cassius, Roman History 55.27.6; Josephus, Antiquities 17.13.2). Counting backward his reign began in 4 B.C. In addition, from Herod the Great’s son and successor Herod Antipas, who ruled over Galilee until 39 B.C., who ordered the execution of John the Baptist (Mark 6:14–29) and who had a supporting role in Jesus’ trial (Luke 23:7–12), we have coins that make reference to the 43rd year of his rule, placing its beginning in 4 B.C. at the latest (see Morten Hørning Jensen, “Antipas—The Herod Jesus Knew,” BAR, September/October 2012). Thus, Schürer concluded that “Herod died at Jericho in B.C. 4, unwept by those of his own house, and hated by all the people.” Jeroen H.C. Tempelman New York, New York —————— John A. Cramer responds: Trying to date the death of Herod the Great is attended by considerable uncertainty, and I do not mean to claim I know the right answer. Mr. Tempelman does a good job of pointing out arguments in favor of a 4 B.C. date following the arguments advanced long ago by Emil Schürer. The difficulty is that we have a fair amount of information, but it is equivocal. The key information comes, of course, from Josephus who brackets the death by “a fast” and the Passover. He says that on the night of the fast there was a lunar eclipse—the only eclipse mentioned in the entire corpus of his work. Correlation of Josephus with the Talmud and Mishnah indicate the fast was probably Yom Kippur. Yom Kippur occurs on the tenth day of the seventh month (mid-September to mid-October) and Passover on the 15th day of the first month (March or April) of the religious calendar. Josephus does not indicate when within that time interval the death occurred. Only four lunar eclipses occurred in the likely time frame: September 15, 5 B.C., March 12–13, 4 B.C., January 10, 1 B.C. and December 29, 1 B.C. The first eclipse fits Yom Kippur, almost too early, but possible. It was a total eclipse that became noticeable several hours after sundown, but it is widely regarded as too early to fit other information on the date. The favorite 4 B.C. eclipse seems too far from Yom Kippur and much too close to Passover. This was a partial eclipse that commenced after midnight. It hardly seems a candidate for being remembered and noted by Josephus. The 1 B.C. dates require either that the fast was not Yom Kippur or that the calendar was rejiggered for some reason. The January 10 eclipse was total but commenced shortly before midnight on a winter night. Lastly, in the December 29 eclipse the moon rose at 53 percent eclipse and its most visible aspect was over by 6 p.m. It is the most likely of the four to have been noted and commented on. None of the four candidates fits perfectly to all the requirements. I like the earliest and the latest of them as the most likely. The most often preferred candidate, the 4 B.C. eclipse, is, in my view, far and away the least likely one. http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily...r-eclipse/ Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 02-22-2016, 01:25 AM (This post was last modified: 02-22-2016, 01:39 AM by EA.) Jesus roamed Jerusalem. Whenever he doubted his mission... He went on a Quantum Random Walk to talk to himselves/.333 On occasion Lucifer was in Jerusalem with him in spirit too. Disbelieve it or not, ancient history suggests that atheism is as natural to humans as religion February 16, 2016 The Chariot of Zeus, from “Stories from the Greek Tragedians” by Alfred Church. The study suggests that not all Greeks recognised the gods, and that atheism was fairly acceptable in ancient polytheistic societies. Credit: Wikimedia Commons People in the ancient world did not always believe in the gods, a new study suggests – casting doubt on the idea that religious belief is a "default setting" for humans. Despite being written out of large parts of history, atheists thrived in the polytheistic societies of the ancient world – raising considerable doubts about whether humans really are "wired" for religion – a new study suggests. The claim is the central proposition of a new book by Tim Whitmarsh, Professor of Greek Culture and a Fellow of St John's College, University of Cambridge. In it, he suggests that atheism – which is typically seen as a modern phenomenon – was not just common in ancient Greece and pre-Christian Rome, but probably flourished more in those societies than in most civilisations since. As a result, the study challenges two assumptions that prop up current debates between atheists and believers: Firstly, the idea that atheism is a modern point of view, and second, the idea of "religious universalism" – that humans are naturally predisposed, or "wired", to believe in gods. The book, titled Battling The Gods, is being launched in Cambridge on Tuesday (February 16). Gods never helped the wizards They suffered the same fate as Moses. I wonder where his bones are??? "We tend to see atheism as an idea that has only recently emerged in secular Western societies," Whitmarsh said. "The rhetoric used to describe it is hyper-modern. In fact, early societies were far more capable than many since of containing atheism within the spectrum of what they considered normal." "Rather than making judgements based on scientific reason, these early atheists were making what seem to be universal objections about the paradoxical nature of religion – the fact that it asks you to accept things that aren't intuitively there in your world. The fact that this was happening thousands of years ago suggests that forms of disbelief can exist in all cultures, and probably always have." The book argues that disbelief is actually "as old as the hills". Early examples, such as the atheistic writings of Xenophanes of Colophon (c.570-475 BCE) are contemporary with Second Temple-era Judaism, and significantly predate Christianity and Islam. Even Plato, writing in the 4th Century BCE, said that contemporary non-believers were "not the first to have had this view about the gods."   Because atheism's ancient history has largely gone unwritten, however, Whitmarsh suggests that it is also absent from both sides of the current monotheist/atheist debate. While atheists depict religion as something from an earlier, more primitive stage of human development, the idea of religious universalism is also built partly on the notion that early societies were religious by nature because to believe in god is an inherent, "default setting" for humans. Neither perspective is true, Whitmarsh suggests: "Believers talk about atheism as if it's a pathology of a particularly odd phase of modern Western culture that will pass, but if you ask someone to think hard, clearly people also thought this way in antiquity." His book surveys one thousand years of ancient history to prove the point, teasing out the various forms of disbelief expressed by philosophical movements, writers and public figures. These were made possible in particular by the fundamental diversity of polytheistic Greek societies. Between 650 and 323 BCE, Greece had an estimated 1,200 separate city states, each with its own customs, traditions and governance. Religion expressed this variety, as a matter of private cults, village rituals and city festivals dedicated to numerous divine entities. This meant that there was no such thing as religious orthodoxy. The closest the Greeks got to a unifying sacred text were Homer's epics, which offered no coherent moral vision of the gods, and indeed often portrayed them as immoral. Similarly, there was no specialised clergy telling people how to live: "The idea of a priest telling you what to do was alien to the Greek world," Whitmarsh said. As a result, while some people viewed atheism as mistaken, it was rarely seen as morally wrong. In fact, it was usually tolerated as one of a number of viewpoints that people could adopt on the subject of the gods. Only occasionally was it actively legislated against, such as in Athens during the 5th Century BCE, when Socrates was executed for "not recognising the gods of the city." While atheism came in various shapes and sizes, Whitmarsh also argues that there were strong continuities across the generations. Ancient atheists struggled with fundamentals that many people still question today – such as how to deal with the problem of evil, and how to explain aspects of religion which seem implausible. These themes extend from the work of early thinkers – like Anaximander and Anaximenes, who tried to explain why phenomena such as thunder and earthquakes actually had nothing to do with the gods – through to famous writers like Euripides, whose plays openly criticised divine causality. Perhaps the most famous group of atheists in the ancient world, the Epicureans, argued that there was no such thing as predestination and rejected the idea that the gods had any control over human life. The age of ancient atheism ended, Whitmarsh suggests, because the polytheistic societies that generally tolerated it were replaced by monotheistic imperial forces that demanded an acceptance of one, "true" God. Rome's adoption of Christianity in the 4th Century CE was, he says, "seismic", because it used religious absolutism to hold the Empire together. Most of the later Roman Empire's ideological energy was expended fighting supposedly heretical beliefs – often other forms of Christianity. In a decree of 380, Emperor Theodosius I even drew a distinction between Catholics, and everyone else – whom he classed as dementes vesanosque ("demented lunatics"). Such rulings left no room for disbelief. Whitmarsh stresses that his study is not designed to prove, or disprove, the truth of atheism itself. On the book's first page, however, he adds: "I do, however, have a strong conviction – that has hardened in the course of researching and writing this book – that cultural and religious pluralism, and free debate, are indispensable to the good life."  Explore further: Researchers study how humor matters in social movements Provided by: University of Cambridge -------------- Disbelieve it or not, ancient history suggests that it is older than the narrative. Posted By: Now 3/3/-333,333 bce 19:47 PM/3:33 AM Central Always Time. ~6000 years... 7,000-year-old settlement found in Jerusalem  Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Greater Middle East, Israel, Near East 6:00 PM  Finds uncovered during archaeological excavations by the Israel Antiquities Authority during work on a new road in the Shuʻfat neighborhood in northern Jerusalem, initiated by Moriah – the Jerusalem Development Company. Excavation director Ronit Lupo of the Israel Antiquities Authority next to the remains  of the ancient house [Credit:: Assaf Peretz/Israel Antiquities Authority]  An important discovery was recently unearthed in north Jerusalem when archaeological excavations on behalf of the Israel Antiquities Authority prior to the laying of a road in the Shuʻfat neighborhood – initiated and financed by Moriah, the Jerusalem Development Company – revealed the remains of an ancient settlement from the Chalcolithic period, approximately 7,000 years ago (fifth millennium BCE). During the Chalcolithic period, man started using tools made of copper (chalcos in Greek) for the first time while continuing to use tools made of stone (lithos), hence the name given to the period. According to Dr. Omri Barzilai, Head of the IAA’s Prehistory Branch, “The Chalcolithic period is known in the Negev, the coastal plain, the Galilee and the Golan, but is almost completely absent in the Judean Hills and Jerusalem. Although in recent years we have discovered a few traces of Chalcolithic settlements, such as those at Abu Gosh, Motza Junction, and the Holyland compound in Jerusalem, they have been extremely sparse. Now, for the first time, we have discovered significant remains from 7,000 years ago.”  7,000-year-old bead [Credit: Ronit Lupo/Israel Antiquities Authority]  The excavation exposed two dwelling houses with well-preserved remains and floors containing various installations as well as pottery vessels, flint tools, and a basalt bowl, all typical of the period. The construction phases and signs of their maintenance show that the buildings were used for a considerable time. According to Ronit Lupo, director of excavations for the Israel Antiquities Authority: “On completion of the excavations at Shuʻfat, it is quite evident that there was a thriving settlement in the Jerusalem area in ancient times. Thousands of years later, the buildings uncovered are of a standard that would not fall short of Jerusalem’s architecture. This discovery represents a highly significant addition to our research of the city and the vicinity." "Apart from the pottery, the fascinating flint finds attest to the livelihood of the local population in prehistoric times: Small sickle blades for harvesting cereal crops, chisels and polished axes for building, borers and awls, and even a bead made of carnelian (a gemstone),---Insert Tubal-Cain around here--- indicating that jewelry was either made or imported.  The grinding tools, mortars and pestles, like the basalt bowl, attest to technological skills as well as to the kinds of crafts practiced in the local community." "We also recovered a few bones of sheep/goat and possibly cattle; these will be analyzed further in the Israel Antiquities Authority laboratories, permitting us to recreate the dietary habits of the people who lived here 7,000 years ago and enhancing our understanding of the settlement’s economy.” Source: Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs [February 17, 2016] Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.c...sqFw_krKow Follow us: @ArchaeoNewsNet on Twitter | groups/thearchaeologynewsnetwork/ on Facebook Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 02-22-2016, 02:39 AM (This post was last modified: 02-22-2016, 02:40 AM by EA.) Modern Tektons. The Craft continuum... Quote:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7EzKvsxSv6k#t=15.918 Jesus was a tekton and so was Joseph. Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... Kalter Rauch Posting Freak Posts: 5,015 Threads: 12 Joined: Feb 2006 Reputation: 9 02-22-2016, 04:25 AM What is ironic about Jesus being a carpenter ...which "just occurred to me"... is that he probably found work making crosses. Vianova Posting Freak Posts: 9,445 Threads: 51 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 20 02-23-2016, 02:59 AM ... You see that bead there in that image a few posts back? In it's original condition, {imagine} what does it look like? If you dropped it ... it might bounce, tumble forward ... and roll on it's edge! That 7000 year old bead sure looks a lot like a wheel form,  predating the historic record of the wheel by 1500 years. If human imagination can make a bead form in that ancient time, it certainly had to understand a wheel potential. ... EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 02-24-2016, 12:28 AM Via The axle would be the lace. It was a necklace and essenesntially the stationary centeral pivot  and the revolving point an advanced Craftsman may have keyed in on. Kalter   Jesus never actually worked a day in his life because god rested his case on the seventh day wayyyyyyyyyyyyyy back when. He was crafty all rite. Otherwise Noah never sawed Ark Planks because after all...that made him a tekton too. Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... Fsbirdhouse Posting Freak Posts: 5,364 Threads: 539 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 28 02-24-2016, 03:28 AM (This post was last modified: 02-24-2016, 03:37 AM by Fsbirdhouse.) Don't expect to find Moses bones. Michael and Satan argued over the body of Moses as you may recall. Jude 1:9 But even the archangel Michael, when he was disputing with the devil about the body of Moses, did not himself dare to condemn him for slander but said, "The Lord rebuke you!" It is felt Moses and Elijah are the two prophets who will appear in Jerusalem in the last days, as they also appeared to Jesus and the Apostles in the Garden of Gethsemane. For those who believe I would say it would be fascinating to see those two men. What history! So, the words Autumn and Fall are not to be capitalized? They are in my world! What has been is what will be, and what has been done is what will be done; and there is nothing new under the sun. Is there a thing of which it is said, "See, this is new?"It has been already, in the ages before us. Ecc 1: 9-10 EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 02-24-2016, 05:04 PM (This post was last modified: 02-24-2016, 05:09 PM by EA.) Don't kid myself FSB, bones have a mysterious way of showing up...  even Moses' Team discovers fabric collection dating back to Kings David and Solomon February 24, 2016 A fine wool textile dyed red and blue, found at Timna. The textile used the various colors of natural animal hair to create black and orange-brown colors for decorative bands. Credit: Clara Amit, courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority The ancient copper mines in Timna are located deep in Israel's Arava Valley and are believed by some to be the site of King Solomon's mines. The arid conditions of the mines have seen the remarkable preservation of 3,000-year-old organic materials, including seeds, leather and fabric, and other extremely rare artifacts that provide a unique window into the culture and practices of this period. "The wide variety of fabrics also provides new and important information about the Edomites, who, according to the Bible, warred with the Kingdom of Israel. We found simply woven, elaborately decorated fabrics worn by the upper echelon of their stratified society.  Luxury grade fabric adorned the highly skilled, highly respected craftsmen managing the copper furnaces. They were responsible for smelting the copper, which was a very complicated process." A trove of the "Seven Species" The archaeologists also recently discovered thousands of seeds of the Biblical "Seven Species" at the site—the two grains and five fruits considered unique products of the Land of Israel. Some of the seeds were subjected to radiocarbon dating, providing robust confirmation for the age of the site. "This is the first time seeds from this period have been found uncharred and in such large quantities," said Dr. Ben-Yosef. "With the advancement of modern science, we now enjoy research options that were unthinkable a few decades ago. We can reconstruct wine typical of King David's era, for example, and understand the cultivation and domestication processes that have been preserved in the DNA of the seed." The power of copper Copper was used to produce tools and weapons and was the most valuable resource in ancient societies. Its production required many levels of expertise. Miners in ancient Timna may have been slaves or prisoners—theirs was a simple task performed under difficult conditions. But the act of smelting, of turning stone into metal, required an enormous amount of skill and organization. The smelter had to manage some 30 to 40 variables in order to produce the coveted copper ingots. Tektonic Nomadic Gnosis "The possession of copper was a source of great power, much as oil is today," Dr. Ben-Yosef said. "If a person had the exceptional knowledge to 'create copper,' he was considered well-versed in an extremely sophisticated technology.  He would have been considered magical or supernatural, and his social status would have reflected this." To support this "silicon valley" of copper production in the middle of the desert, food, water and textiles had to be transported long distances through the unforgiving desert climate and into the valley. The latest discovery of fabrics, many of which were made far from Timna in specialized textile workshops, provides a glimpse into the trade practices and regional economy of the day. "We found linen, which was not produced locally. It was most likely from the Jordan Valley or Northern Israel. The majority of the fabrics were made of sheep's wool, a cloth that is seldom found in this ancient period," said TAU masters student Vanessa Workman.  "This tells us how developed and sophisticated both their textile craft and trade networks must have been." "'Nomad' does not mean 'simple,'" said Dr. Ben-Yosef.  "This discovery strengthens our understanding of the Edomites as an important geopolitical presence. The fabrics are of a very high quality, with complex designs and beautiful dyes."  Explore further: Proof of Solomon's mines found in Israel Provided by: Tel Aviv University Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-02-team-fabric...d.html#jCp[/url] Proof of Solomon's mines found in Israel September 3, 2013 This is the stratigraphy of the Slaves' Hill, resulting from 150 years of copper production peaking in the 10th century BCE. Credit: American Friends of Tel Aviv University (AFTAU) New findings from an archaeological excavation led this winter by Dr. Erez Ben-Yosef of Tel Aviv University's Jacob M. Alkow Department of Archaeology and Near Eastern Cultures prove that copper mines in Israel thought to have been built by the ancient Egyptians in the 13th century BCE actually originated three centuries later, during the reign of the legendary King Solomon. Based on the radiocarbon dating of material unearthed at a new site in Timna Valley in Israel's Aravah Desert, the findings overturn the archaeological consensus of the last several decades. Scholarly work and materials found in the area suggest the mines were operated by the Edomites, a semi-nomadic tribal confederation that according to the Bible warred constantly with Israel. "The mines are definitely from the period of King Solomon," says Dr. Ben-Yosef. "They may help us understand the local society, which would have been invisible to us otherwise." Slaves to history Now a national park, Timna Valley was an ancient copper production district with thousands of mines and dozens of smelting sites. In February 2013, Dr. Ben-Yosef and a team of researchers and students excavated a previously untouched site in the valley, known as the Slaves' Hill. The area is a massive smelting camp containing the remains of hundreds of furnaces and layers of copper slag, the waste created during the smelting process. In addition to the furnaces, the researchers unearthed an impressive collection of clothing, fabrics, and ropes made using advanced weaving technology; foods, like dates, grapes, and pistachios; ceramics; and various types of metallurgical installations. The world-renowned Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit at the University of Oxford in England dated 11 of the items to the 10th century BCE, when according to the Bible King Solomon ruled the Kingdom of Israel. The archaeological record shows the mines in Timna Valley were built and operated by a local society, likely the early Edomites, who are known to have occupied the land and formed a kingdom that rivaled Judah. The unearthed materials and the lack of architectural remains at the Slaves' Hill support the idea that the locals were a semi-nomadic people who lived in tents. The findings from the Slaves' Hill confirm those of a 2009 dig Ben-Yosef helped to conduct at "Site 30," another of the largest ancient smelting camps in Timna Valley. Then a graduate student of Prof. Thomas E. Levy at the University of California, San Diego, he helped demonstrate that the copper mines in the valley dated from the 11th to 9th centuries BCE—the era of Kings David and Solomon—and were probably Edomite in origin. The findings were reported in the journal The American Schools of Oriental Research in 2012, but the publication did little to shake the notion that the mines were Egyptian, based primarily on the discovery of an Egyptian Temple in the center of the valley in 1969. Power without stone The Slaves' Hill dig also demonstrates that the society in Timna Valley was surprisingly complex. The smelting technology was relatively advanced and the layout of the camp reflects a high level of social organization. Impressive cooperation would have been required for thousands of people to operate the mines in the middle of the desert. "In Timna Valley, we unearthed a society with undoubtedly significant development, organization, and power," says Ben-Yosef. "And yet because the people were living in tents, they would have been transparent to us as archaeologists if they had been engaged in an industry other than mining and smelting, which is very visible archaeologically." Although the society likely possessed a degree of political and military power, archaeologists would probably never have found evidence of its existence if it were not for the mining operation.  Ben-Yosef says this calls into question archaeology's traditional assumption that advanced societies usually leave behind architectural ruins. He also says that the findings at the Slaves' Hill undermine criticisms of the Bible's historicity based on a lack of archaeological evidence. It's entirely possible that David and Solomon existed and even that they exerted some control over the mines in the Timna Valley at times, he says. Dr. Ben-Yosef is leading another dig at the Slaves' Hill in the winter and is looking for volunteers.   Explore further: Most ancient Hebrew biblical inscription deciphered Provided by: Tel Aviv University [url=http://phys.org/news/2013-09-proof-solomon-israel.html#jCp] Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... Fsbirdhouse Posting Freak Posts: 5,364 Threads: 539 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 28 02-24-2016, 06:38 PM (This post was last modified: 02-24-2016, 06:41 PM by Fsbirdhouse.) SO'K, You've heard this one before. Pascal's Wager. It's me challenging you to accept that wager about the Jesus of Judeo Christian belief. He is Risen! If I believe and I'm wrong, I'm in for an eternal sleep. Same as you. But if I've made the right choice, I win everything! If you refuse to believe and you are right, you're in for an eternal sleep. Same as me. But if you are wrong, you lose everything! Such a philosophy may not be very fashionable these days, but it still rings true. By the By, I've come to really appreciate Clay's contributions, as well as others on these issues. Keep on digging guys...the truth is out there! So, the words Autumn and Fall are not to be capitalized? They are in my world! What has been is what will be, and what has been done is what will be done; and there is nothing new under the sun. Is there a thing of which it is said, "See, this is new?"It has been already, in the ages before us. Ecc 1: 9-10 EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 02-24-2016, 07:59 PM Don't kid myself FSB, bones have a mysterious way of showing up...  even Moses'  Casting Lots   Quote:And FSB  to his fellow, Come, and let us cast lots, that we may know for whose cause this evil is on us. So they cast lots, and the lot fell on... Don't cast Lots with Quantum Random Walking. King Richard III's remains found in parking lot to be interred at cathedral  In fact there is a possibility Moses' will be unearthed. Jesus Joseph and All the Mary's too,two,three??? Evidence of early medieval Muslim graves found in France February 24, 2016 In situ photographs of the Nimes burials, with a synthesis of age and sex of individuals, radiocarbon dates, maternal and paternal lineages.Note that the number near the funerary pit is the recording number of the picture. The stones around the burial SP7089 correspond to a roman wall and some stones were reused to close the funerary pit. Credit: Gleize et al. Archaeological and genetic analysis may indicate that three skeletons buried in medieval graves in France may have been Muslim, according to a study published February 24, 2016 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Yves Gleize from the French National Institute for Preventive Archaeological Research (Inrap) and University of Bordeaux, France, Fanny Mendisco from University of Bordeaux, France, and colleagues. Don't kid yourself. Quote:By the By, I've come to really appreciate Clay's contributions, as well as others on these issues. Keep on digging guys...the truth is out there! For your part ,I thank you, may this give you a comforted soul, less pained What Eye'll show. As it provides me with a gnosis of a Drake's = confirming solace gained as explained below. I don't equate well with wager because Improv rebukes chancing personal gain. Enjoy a model of a possible reality. New model shows Earth may be more unique than thought February 24, 2016 by Bob Yirka re port This is the "South Pillar" region of the star-forming region called the Carina Nebula. Like cracking open a watermelon and finding its seeds, the infrared telescope "busted open" this murky cloud to reveal star embryos tucked inside finger-like pillars of thick dust. Credit: NASA (Phys.org)—A small team of researchers, three with Swedish Institutions and one from the U.S. has created a computer model of the known universe and in using it to estimate the number of likely other exoplanets able to hold life, has found that there might be fewer Earth-like planets than has been thought. In their paper they have uploaded to the preprint server,arXiv (soon to be published in The Astrophysical Journal), the team describes how they went about creating their model and what it showed. Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... Fsbirdhouse Posting Freak Posts: 5,364 Threads: 539 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 28 02-25-2016, 01:51 AM Ah yes EA, but I'm looking to see those of Moses show up with skin wrapped around them! So, the words Autumn and Fall are not to be capitalized? They are in my world! What has been is what will be, and what has been done is what will be done; and there is nothing new under the sun. Is there a thing of which it is said, "See, this is new?"It has been already, in the ages before us. Ecc 1: 9-10 EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 02-25-2016, 10:17 PM (This post was last modified: 02-25-2016, 10:25 PM by EA.) SO'K, You've heard this one before. Jesus was the son of man.  As was Moses. Both with tektonic skill-sets above and beyond their peers and their respective eras. Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 02-26-2016, 05:33 PM (This post was last modified: 02-26-2016, 06:08 PM by EA.) Star Carr ??? "...the earliest evidence of carpentry that we have in Europe." Posted by Vianova - Tuesday, February 23rd, 2016, 05:59 am Quote:... You see that bead there in that image a few posts back? In it's original condition, {imagine} what does it look like? If you dropped it ... it might bounce, tumble forward ... and roll on it's edge! That 7000 year old bead sure looks a lot like a wheel form,  predating the historic record of the wheel by 1500 years. If human imagination can make a bead form in that ancient time, it certainly had to understand a wheel potential. ... 4,000 years earlier than the supposition we demonstrate with awe the Awl skills but what was it for and what did it underscore? While waiting for moses ~5000 years since he was corporeal let us go ~5000 years before Moses. Quote:Star Carr is one of a number of archaeological sites around what was the location of a huge lake which covered much of the Vale of Pickering in the Mesolithic era. Researchers discovered the pendant in lake edge deposits. Initially they thought it was natural stone – the perforation was blocked by sediment and the engravings were invisible. It is the first perforated artefact with engraved design discovered at Star Carr though shale beads, a piece of perforated amber and two perforated animal teeth have been recovered from the site previously. Professor Nicky Milner, of the Department of Archaeology at York, led the research. She said: “It was incredibly exciting to discover such a rare object. It is unlike anything we have found in Britain from this period. We can only imagine who owned it, how they wore it and what the engravings actually meant to them. “One possibility is that the pendant belonged to a shaman -- headdresses made out of red deer antlers found nearby in earlier excavations are thought to have been worn by shamans. We can only guess what the engravings mean but engraved amber pendants found in Denmark have been interpreted as amulets used for spiritual personal protection.” 11,000 year old pendant is earliest known Mesolithic art in Britain Posted on 25 February 2016 An 11,000 year old engraved shale pendant discovered by archaeologists during excavations at the Early Mesolithic site at Star Carr in North Yorkshire is unique in the UK, according to new research. The Star Carr Pendant, credit: Harry Robson Putting a Hole in the arguement of tektonics? The artwork on the tiny fragile pendant, uncovered by a research team from the Universities of York, Manchester and Chester, is the earliest known Mesolithic art in Britain. Crafted from a single piece of shale, the subtriangular three-millimetre thick artefact measuring 31mm by 35mm contains a series of lines which archaeologists believe may represent a tree, a map, a leaf or even tally marks. Engraved motifs on Mesolithic pendants are extremely rare and no other engraved pendants made of shale are known in Europe. When archaeologists uncovered the pendant last year, the lines on the surface were barely visible. The research team used a range of digital microscopy techniques to generate high resolution images to help determine the style and order of engraving. They also carried out scientific analysis to try to establish if the pendant had been strung or worn and whether pigments had been used to make the lines more prominent. The research, which is part of a five-year project supported by the European Research Council, is published in Internet Archaeology http://dx.doi.org/10.11141/ia.40.8. The research is also supported by Historic England and the Vale of Pickering Research Trust. The pendant is to be showcased to the public for the first time in a display at the Yorkshire Museum in York on 27 February until 5 May. Star Carr is one of a number of archaeological sites around what was the location of a huge lake which covered much of the Vale of Pickering in the Mesolithic era. Researchers discovered the pendant in lake edge deposits. Initially they thought it was natural stone – the perforation was blocked by sediment and the engravings were invisible. It is the first perforated artefact with engraved design discovered at Star Carr though shale beads, a piece of perforated amber and two perforated animal teeth have been recovered from the site previously. Professor Nicky Milner, of the Department of Archaeology at York, led the research. She said: “It was incredibly exciting to discover such a rare object. It is unlike anything we have found in Britain from this period. We can only imagine who owned it, how they wore it and what the engravings actually meant to them. “One possibility is that the pendant belonged to a shaman -- headdresses made out of red deer antlers found nearby in earlier excavations are thought to have been worn by shamans. We can only guess what the engravings mean but engraved amber pendants found in Denmark have been interpreted as amulets used for spiritual personal protection.” Dr Chantal Conneller, from The University of Manchester and co-director of the excavations, said: “This exciting find tells us about the art of the first permanent settlers of Britain after the last Ice Age. This was a time when sea-level was much lower than today. Groups roamed across Doggerland (land now under the North Sea) and into Britain. The designs on our pendant are similar to those found in southern Scandinavia and other areas bordering the North Sea, showing a close cultural connection between northern European groups at this time.” Dr Barry Taylor, from the University of Chester and co-director of the excavations, said: "I love these sorts of finds because they are a real connection to people in the past. When we study prehistory we deal with very long periods of time and often focus on very broad issues. But this is something that a person wore, that had significance to them and to the people around them. These sorts of artefacts tell us about people and, after all, that’s what archaeology is all about." Duncan Wilson, Chief Executive of Historic England which contributed to and part-funded the excavation and research publication said: “The discovery of the pendant is a sensational find. Star Carr is an internationally important 'at risk' site, which is why we have provided substantial financial support for the excavation and assistance through the input of our specialist archaeological and archaeological science teams. The results have exceeded our expectations and will help rewrite the story of this long and complex, but little understood early prehistoric period.” Natalie McCaul, curator of archaeology at the Yorkshire Museum, said: “We are thrilled to be able to showcase such a nationally significant object for the first time. Its remarkable discovery changes the way we think about our ancestors who lived in Yorkshire 11,000 years ago and the rituals, beliefs and cultural values that were part of their lives. We are excited that the rest of the collection from the excavations will come to the museum in time and we’re looking forward to preserving and displaying it for the public to enjoy.” Researchers from the University of York’s Department of Physics and Centre for Digital Heritage, and Hull York Medical School were also involved in the analysis of the pendant. The display at the Yorkshire Museum will also feature other Star Carr finds including flints, a rare barbed point used for hunting or fishing and 11,000 year old fire lighters – amazingly preserved birch bark rolls. These will feature alongside digital interpretation and high resolution imagery of the pendant. Star Carr is a Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age) archaeological site, dating to around 9000 BC, just centuries after the end of the last Ice Age. It has become world famous in the archaeological world due to the preservation of artefacts found buried deep in the peat. These incredibly rare finds include headdresses made from red deer skulls, thought to be used by shamans in ritual practices, barbed points (harpoons) used in hunting and fishing, the "oldest house in Britain", and the earliest evidence of carpentry that we have in Europe. To find out more about the site and it's history,visit the History of Research page. Wow...moses is barely scratching a triangle beads surface on the history of the mystery. I think itza    Sundial  As far as I am concerned A Shaman with advanced Gnosis in a society that includes tekton/carpenters at the edge deposites of a large lacustrene edge of a lake is identical in circumstance to a similar Shaman skirting around the edges of the sea of Gallilee. The Sea of Galilee is actually just a large lake. Sea of Galilee From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia [/url][url=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sea_of_Galilee#p-search] Sea of Galilee The town of Tiberias and the Sea of Galilee Coordinates 32°50′N 35°35′E Lake type Monomictic Primary inflows Upper Jordan River and local runoff[1] Primary outflows Lower Jordan River, evaporation Catchment area 2,730 km2 (1,050 sq mi)[2] Basin countries Israel, Syria, Lebanon Max. length 21 km (13 mi) Max. width 13 km (8.1 mi) Surface area 166 km2 (64 sq mi) Average depth 25.6 m (84 ft) Max. depth 43 m (141 ft) Water volume 4 km3 (0.96 cu mi) Residence time 5 years Shore length1 53 km (33 mi) Surface elevation -212.07 m (695.8 ft) Islands 2 References [1][2] 1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure. The Sea of Galilee, also Kinneret, Lake of Gennesaret, or Lake Tiberias (Hebrew: יָם כִּנֶּרֶת, Judeo-Aramaic: יַמּא דטבריא, Arabic: بحيرة طبريا‎), is the largest freshwater lake in Israel, and it is approximately 53 km (33 mi) in circumference, about 21 km (13 mi) long, and 13 km (8.1 mi) wide. The lake has a total area of 166.7 km2 (64.4 sq mi) at its fullest, and a maximum depth of approximately 43 m (141 feet).[3] At levels between 215 metres (705 ft) and 209 metres (686 ft) below sea level,[4] it is the lowest freshwater lake on Earth and the second-lowest lake overall (after the Dead Sea, a saltwater lake).[5] The lake is fed partly by underground springs although its main source is the Jordan Riverwhich flows through it from north to south. EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 03-10-2016, 12:16 PM Canaanite necropolis found near Bethlehem  Posted by TANNArchaeoHeritage, Archaeology, Breakingnews, Greater Middle East, Israel, Near East 9:00 PM  A team of Italian and Palestinian archaeologists have discovered an ancient necropolis with more than 100 tombs near Bethlehem. Though many of the tombs have been looted the findings provide proof for the first time that there was a nearby city that thrived in Caananite times.  The opening to two of the tombs at the Khalet al-Jam'a necropolis  near the town of Bethlehem [Credit: Sapienza University Rome]  The site was discovered in 2013, during works for the construction of an industrial park. Some of the tombs were excavated in 2014, and in 2015 the joint team found that more than 100 tombs were part of the necropolis between 2200 and 650 BC. The place, which today is called Khalet al-Jam’a, was probably the cemetery of a nearby settlement, of unknown precise location. Among the findings at the site there are artefacts typical of burials, such as carinated bowls, small shouldered bowls, lamps, Cannanite jars, bronze daggers and spearheads. The tombs include chambers cut on the rocky hillside, taking advantage of natural cavities. One of the daggers is a Mycenaean type of the late Bronze Age.  Bronze Age blade found at the Bethlehem necropolis  [Credit: Sapienza University Rome]  Human remains have also been found along with grave goods. A 3,000-year-old tomb, included the remains of a man, woman and child, buried with two bronze daggers and a variety of ceramic pots. Another tomb contained a nearly complete male skeleton buried with a ceramic lamp probably dating to more than 4,000 years ago. Another intriguing tomb contained two “Hyksos-like” signet amulets, known as scarabs. It’s possible that, rather than being imported from Egypt, the scarabs were made locally. They show the direct interconnection and contiguity between the ruling class in southern Palestinian cities and the Pharaonic court reigning in Tell el-Dab’a, ancient Avaris, the Hyksos capital of Egypt between 1750BC-1650BC, said Lorenzo Nigro, head of the excavation and professor at Sapienza University of Rome.  In the tomb labeled A2, archaeologists found two Egyptian-like amulets,  known as scarabs [Credit: Sapienza University Rome]  The necropolis stopped being used around 650 B.C. while the name Bethlehem stopped appearing in ancient documents for several centuries until reappearing around the time of Christ.  Source: Archaiologia Online [March 07, 2016]  Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.ca/2016/03/canaanite-necropolis-found-near.html#.VuDdNkIrKow Follow us: @ArchaeoNewsNet on Twitter | groups/thearchaeologynewsnetwork/ on Facebook Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... Vianova Posting Freak Posts: 9,445 Threads: 51 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 20 03-11-2016, 01:35 AM ... Perhaps an insignia of some sort, rank, or family, or village on the lake or all of that. Everybody would have one then. In that regard it also may be a map of some sort. There are light faded incised lines that appear as well in higher magnification. EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 03-13-2016, 12:34 AM (This post was last modified: 03-13-2016, 12:51 AM by EA.) The degradations of the gradations are noted but I still feel that that artifact is a Sundial of sorts...  Kinda like a pocket watch in your stoned-age survival tool-kit,next to the flint and over the Maganese tinder and under the painkillers and mushrooms.(if you were like Otzi) Speaking of Canaanite's Canaanite necropolis found near Bethlehem  http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.c...uDdNkIrKow And the wine-press of the wrath of God... For the first time in excavations of ancient Near Eastern sites: Winery found in Canaanite palace Date: 3/3/2016 Source: University of Haifa Summary: The Canaanite palace at Tel Kabri keeps on yielding surprises. The discovery two years ago of 40 jugs of wine was considered a massive find. This year, no fewer than four more rooms full of jugs have been found. Jars. Credit: Assaf Yasur-Landau & Eric Klein For the first time in excavations of ancient Near Eastern sites, a winery has been discovered within a Canaanite palace. The winery produced high-quality wine that helped the Canaanite ruling family to impress their visitors -- heads of important families, out-of-town guests, and envoys from neighboring states. "All the residents of the Canaanite city could produce simple wine from their own vineyards. But just before it was served, the wine we found was enriched with oil from the cedars of Lebanon, tree resin from Western Anatolia, and other flavorings, such as resin from the terebinth tree and honey. That kind of wine could only be found in a palace," says Prof. Assaf Yasur-Landau of the Maritime Civilizations Department at the University of Haifa, one of the directors of the excavation. The full findings of the 2015 excavation season was presented at the conference "Excavations and Studies in Northern Israel," which took place at the University of Haifa, and in May 16 at the Oriental Institute in Chicago. The excavations at the Canaanite palace at tel Kabri, which was established around 3,850 years ago during the Middle Bronze Age (around 1950-1550 BCE), are continuing to yield surprises and to provide evidence of a connection between wine, banquets, and power in the Canaanite cities. Two years ago, around 40 almost-complete large jars were found in one of the rooms, and chemical analysis proved that they were filled with wine with special flavorings, such as terebinth resin, cedar oil, honey, and other plant extracts. "This was already a huge quantity of jars to find in a palace from the Bronze Age, and we were really surprised to find such a treasure," says Prof. Yasur-Landau, who is directing the excavation together with Prof. Eric Cline of George Washington University, and Prof. Andrew Koh of Brandeis University. In this early excavation the researchers already found openings leading into additional rooms. They devoted 2014 to analyzing the findings from the excavation, particularly the chemical analysis of the wine residues. During the 2015 excavation season, conducted in the summer, the researchers returned to the ancient rooms, not knowing what awaited them. The northern opening led to a passage to another building. Both sides of the passage were lined with "closets" containing additional jars. The southern opening led to a room that was also full of jars buried under the collapsed walls and roof. This was clearly an additional storeroom. "We would have happily called it a day with this discovery, but then we found that this storeroom also had an opening at its southern end leading to a third room that was also full of shattered jars. And then we found a fourth storeroom" relates Prof. Yasur-Landau. But the surprises kept on coming. As in the previous seasons, each of the new jars was sampled in order to examine its contents. The initial results showed that while all the jars in the first storeroom were filled with wine, in the other storerooms some of the jars contained wine, others appear to have been rinsed clean, while others still contained only resin, without wine. "It seems that some of the new storerooms were used for mixing wines with various flavorings and for storing empty jars for filling with the mixed wine. We are starting to think that the palace did not just have storerooms for finished produce, but also had a winery where wine was prepared for consumption." Prof. Yasur-Landau added that this is the first time that a winery has been found in a palace from the Middle Bronze Age. He adds that the new findings, together with the evidence from previous years of select parts of sheep and goats, have strengthened our understanding of the way rulers used splendid banquets to strengthen their control. "In this period it was not normal practice to mix wine beforehand. Accordingly, in order to provide guests with high-quality wines, the palace itself must have had a winery where they made prestigious wine and served it immediately to guests. These splendid banquets, which in addition to wine also included choice joints of sheep and goat, were the way rulers stayed in touch with their 'electorate' at the time -- not only the heads of important extended families, but also guests from other cities and foreign envoys." On the basis of ancient Ugaritic documents, the value of the wine in the storeroom can be estimated at a minimum of 1,900 silver shekels -- an enormous sum that would have been sufficient, for example, to purchase three merchant ships. By way of comparison,  an ordinary laborer in the same period would have to work for 150 years to earn this sum. Story Source:The above post is reprinted from materials provided by University of Haifa. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length. University of Haifa. "For the first time in excavations of ancient Near Eastern sites: Winery found in Canaanite palace." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 3 March 2016. . ------ That Kind of reverberated with sum-thing EYE heard before... "In this period it was not normal practice to mix wine beforehand... ------ The initial results showed that while all the jars in the first storeroom were filled with wine,  in the other storerooms some of the jars contained wine,  others appear to have been rinsed clean,  while others still contained only resin, without wine.  --- "It seems that some of the new storerooms were used for mixing wines with various flavorings and for storing empty jars for filling with the mixed wine.  We are starting to think that the palace did not just have storerooms for finished produce, but also had a winery where wine was prepared for consumption."  Prof. Yasur-Landau added that this is the first time that a winery has been found in a palace from the Middle Bronze Age. He adds that the new findings, together with the evidence from previous years of select parts of sheep and goats,  have strengthened our understanding of the way rulers used splendid banquets to strengthen their control.  "In this period it was not normal practice to mix wine beforehand.  Accordingly, in order to provide guests with high-quality wines,  the palace itself must have had a winery where they made prestigious wine and served it immediately to guests.  These splendid banquets, which in addition to wine also included choice joints of sheep and goat,  were the way rulers stayed in touch with their 'electorate' at the time  -- not only the heads of important extended families, but also guests from other cities and foreign envoys."  On the basis of ancient Ugaritic documents, the value of the wine in the storeroom can be estimated at a minimum of 1,900 silver shekels  -- an enormous sum that would have been sufficient, for example, to purchase three merchant ships.  By way of comparison, an ordinary laborer---poor carpenter--- in the same period would have to work for 150 years to earn this sum. recall it read: "In this period it was not normal practice to mix wine beforehand... ------ The transformation of water into wine at the Marriage at Cana  or Wedding at Cana is the first miracle attributed to Jesus in the Gospel of John.[1][2] In the Gospel account, Jesus, his mother and his disciples are invited to a wedding, and when the wine runs out, Jesus delivers a sign of his glory by turning water into wine. The location of Cana has been subject to debate among biblical scholars and archeologists; several villages in Galilee are possible candidates. Biblical account John 2:1-11 states that while Jesus was attending a wedding in Cana with his disciples, the party ran out of wine. Jesus' mother (unnamed in John's Gospel) told Jesus, "They have no wine," and Jesus replied, "O Woman, what has this to do with me? My hour has not yet come." His mother then said to the servants, "Do whatever he tells you" (John 2:3-5). Jesus ordered the servants to fill containers with water and to draw out some and take it to the chief steward waiter. After tasting it, without knowing where it came from, the steward remarked to the bridegroom that he had departed from the custom of serving the best wine first by serving it last (John 2:6-10). John adds that: "Jesus did this, the first of his signs, in Cana of Galilee and it revealed his glory and his disciples believed in him (John 2:11)". Interpretation Although none of the Synoptic Gospels mention the marriage at Cana, Christian tradition based on John 2:11 holds that this is the first public miracle of Jesus.[3] It is considered to have symbolic importance as the first of the seven signs in the Gospel of John by which Jesus' divine status is attested, and around which the gospel is structured. It is still a matter of discussion among theologians whether the story is to be understood as an actual transformation of water into wine, or as a spiritual allegory. Interpreted allegorically, the good news and hope implied by the story is in the words of the steward of the Feast when he tasted the good wine, "Everyone serves the good wine first, and then the inferior wine after the guests have become drunk. But you have kept the good wine until now" (John 2:10, NRSV). This could be interpreted by saying simply that it is always darkest before the dawn, but good things are on the way. The more usual interpretation, however, is that this is a reference to the appearance of Jesus, whom the author of the Fourth Gospel regards as being himself "the good wine".[4] The story has had considerable importance in the development of Christian pastoral theology. Fulton J. Sheen thought that it is very likely that it was one of Mary's relatives who was being married.[5] The gospel account of Jesus being invited to a marriage, attending, and using his divine power to save the celebrations from disaster are taken as evidence of his approval for marriage and earthly celebrations, in contrast to the more austere views of Paul the Apostle as found, for example, in 1 Corinthians 7.[6] It has also been used as an argument against Christian teetotalism.[7] The miracle may also be interpreted as the antitype of Moses' first public miracle of changing water (the Nile river) into blood. This would establish a symbolic link between Moses as the first savior of the Jews through their escape from Egypt and Jesus as the spiritual savior of all people.[8] Some commentators have speculated about the identity of the unnamed bridegroom. Bishop John Spong suggests in his book Born of a Woman that the event was actually the wedding of Jesus himself to Mary Magdalene.[9] In 1854, at a time when polygamy was an element of mainstream Mormon belief, the Mormon elder Orson Hyde made a similar suggestion, arguing that Jesus was a polygamist and that the event at Cana was his wedding to Mary Magdalene, Martha and Mary of Bethany.[10][11][12] Geography and archaeology The exact location of Cana has been subject to debate among scholars.[13] Modern scholars maintain that since the Gospel of John was addressed to Jewish Christians of the time, it isn’t likely that the evangelist would mention a place that did not exist. Villages in Galilee which are candidates for historical Cana are: Kafr Kanna, Kenet-l-Jalil (also called Khirbet Kana) and Ain Qana and Qana in southern Lebanon.[14] According to the Catholic Encyclopedia of 1914, a tradition dating back to the 8th century identifies Cana with the modern Arab town of Kafr Kanna, about 7 km northeast of Nazareth, Israel.[15] Other suggested alternatives include the ruined village of Kenet-el-Jalil (also known as Khirbet Kana), about 9 km further north, and Ain Qana, which is closer to Nazareth and considered to be a better candidate on etymological grounds. Some Christians, especially Lebanese Christians, believe the southern Lebanese village of Qana to have been the actual location of this event.[16] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marriage_at_Cana --- In the journal Biblical Archaeological Review, Michael Homan argues that many biblical scholars have misinterpreted early texts, translating to 'wine' when the more sensible translation is 'beer'.[17] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marriage_at_Cana ------- okay that is rather #Canaan / @Cana in spirit. Jesus may have been high-cultured enough to to make good ole' SWISH!!! Recall:-Mayito called a select few of us rednexs--- I forgot him.    "His mother then said to the servants, "Do whatever he tells you" (John 2:3-5)-wiki Quote:Wine Barrels For Wine Lovers June 7, 2012 ·  Swish Barrel Bootleg Kit How does it work? Start by curing your barrel. (see instructions). Pour most of a 750ml bottle of 40% alc./vol. grain alcohol, neutral vodka or swish alcohol into the barrel. Add 1 bottle of Essence (per liter) and (see instruction card included as some spirits require sugar to be added) fill the barrel with the remaining alcohol. SHAKE WELL to mix thoroughly. Spirits taste best when aged for 2 or more weeks but if you can’t wait… DRINK NOW! https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?s...8802625153 --- Nothing miraculous about swish... "...the event at Cana was Jesus's wedding to Mary Magdalene, Martha and Mary of Bethany???[10][11][12]" Women were not really treated like dirt back then,They could have had power.  2,500-year-old seal belonging to a woman unearthed in Jerusalem By Henry Hanks, CNN Updated 0305 GMT (1105 HKT) March 8, 2016 The Israel Antiquities Authority says finding ancient seals belonging to women is very rare. Ancient seal found in Jerusalem, and it goes back at least 2,500 years It's rare find because it belonged to a woman, indicating her high social status (CNN)An ancient seal from Israel's "First Temple era" was recently uncovered, according to the Israel Antiquities Authority. The "First Temple," also known as Solomon's Temple, goes back to Biblical times. It's believed this seal is more than 2,500 years old and belonged to a woman described as "exceptional" or quite well-off in society at the time. "Finding seals that bear names from the time of the First Temple is hardly a commonplace occurrence, and finding a seal that belonged to a woman is an even rarer phenomenon," the Antiquities Authority said in a news release. "She had legal status which allowed her to conduct business and possess property," it went on. It was one of a pair of seals that were located bearing the Hebrew names Elihana bat Gael and Sa'aryahu ben Shabenyahu. "Personal seals, such as those of Elihana and Sa'aryahu, were used for signing documents, and were frequently inlaid as part of a ring that was worn by the owner," said archaeologist and excavation directors Dr. Doron Ben-Ami, Yana Tchekhanovets and Salome Cohen. "In antiquity, they designated the identity, genealogy and status of the owner of the seal." Dr. Hagai Misgav of Hebrew University in Jerusalem added, "Seals that belonged to women represent just a very small proportion of all the seals that have been discovered to date. This is because of the generally inferior economic status of women, apart from extraordinary instances such as this. "Indeed, the name Elihana does not appear in the Bible, and there is no other information regarding the identity of the woman, but the fact that she possessed a seal demonstrates her high social status." --- A personal seal is Mary Mother of...,Mary Magdalene, Martha and Mary of Bethany? Any one of them could be powerful enough to have the means to fund the ministry of Jesus. "His mother then said to the servants, "Do whatever he tells you" (John 2:3-5)-wiki Magdalene could be a rich chick with a stash of cash and antique cache' like joseph of aramethia. How else could her and Mother Mary stick with Jesus till the end...being favored and special access to the corpse from Roman executioners with the untraditional Un-Broken Legs... to stand on. With that said letz recall: -------------- Jesus was rather a con-noisseur and seamed to be @ a lot of banquets??? WTF??? Swish-wine  ain't enough to fool the palate of Pilate or prelates or most-refind wedding guests so another technique is needed. Possibly His mother then said to the other servants(table waiters,waitresses)only fill the chalice half way. This equally satisfies the optimists and pessimists of the Guests. An inception of depth perception @ a reception via the power of post hypnotic-like-suggestion. the steward remarked to the bridegroom that he had departed from the custom of serving the best wine first by serving it last (John 2:6-10). The guests judging the wine they were poured first on \$ight in chalice. They "be\$t" filled in the blank\$\$\$ "the \$teward remarked  "Mene, mene, tekel, upharsin" The ancient Egyptian 1 royal cubit½ hekat relation in a sphere, detected in pottery vessels, sheds light on the practice of daily measurements of volume of liquids in the Ancient Near East. We have discovered this relation based on the analysis of the form and volume of a large number of Egyptian and Phoenician jars. Phoenician globular jars best express this relation: their circumference concentrates around the value of 1 cubit, while their volume is around ½ hekat. What is missing in order to confirm our discovery is textual evidence which would discuss the relation between circumference and volume in ovoid-shaped jars. To conclude, the ancient Egyptian 1 royal cubit½ hekat relation in a sphere is no less sophisticated than the modern 10 cm31 liter relation expressed in a cube. This wisdom of sphere-based relationship, which was inherent and possibly unique to Egypt and its cultural sphere of influence, was lost over the ages. Ancient jugs hold the secret to practical mathematics in Biblical times Date: June 4, 2012 Source: American Friends of Tel Aviv University Summary: Archaeologists and mathematicians alike have been puzzled for centuries by the use of spherical jugs in trade in the ancient world, and how merchants measured the volume of the commodities they held. Now researchers have revealed that these ancient cultures had their own unique means of measurement, accurate enough for business and other uses. Share: FULL STORY Archaeologists in the eastern Mediterranean region have been unearthing spherical jugs, used by the ancients for storing and trading oil, wine, and other valuable commodities. Because we're used to the metric system, which defines units of volume based on the cube, modern archaeologists believed that the merchants of antiquity could only approximately assess the capacity of these round jugs. Credit: Image courtesy of American Friends of Tel Aviv University Archaeologists in the eastern Mediterranean region have been unearthing spherical jugs, used by the ancients for storing and trading oil, wine, and other valuable commodities. Because we're used to the metric system, which defines units of volume based on the cube, modern archaeologists believed that the merchants of antiquity could only approximately assess the capacity of these round jugs, says Prof. Itzhak Benenson of Tel Aviv University's Department of Geography. Now an interdisciplinary collaboration between Prof. Benensonand Prof. Israel Finkelstein of TAU's Department of Archaeology and Ancient Near Eastern Cultures has revealed that, far from relying on approximations, merchants would have had precise measurements of their wares -- and therefore known exactly what to charge their clients. The researchers discovered that the ancients devised convenient mathematical systems in order to determine the volume of each jug. They theorize that the original owners and users of the jugs measured their contents through a system that linked units of length to units of volume, possibly by using a string to measure the circumference of the spherical container to determine the precise quantity of liquid within. The system, which the researchers believe was developed by the ancient Egyptians and used in the Eastern Mediterranean from about 1,500 to 700 BCE, was recently reported in the journal PLoS ONE. Its discovery was part of the Reconstruction of Ancient Israel project supported by the European Union. 3D models unveil volume measurement system The system of measurement was revealed when mathematician Elena Zapassky constructed 3D models of jugs from Tel Megiddo -- an important Canaanite city-state and Israelite administration center -- for a computer database. The jugs are associated with the Phoenicians, ancient seafaring merchants who had trading hubs along the coast of Lebanon. Using a statistical methodology, the team measured hundreds of vessels from the excavation, and discovered something surprising -- large groups of these spherical or elliptic jugs had a similar circumference. This prompted the researchers to look more deeply into how the ancients measured volume. The Egyptian unit of volume is called the hekat, and it equals 4.8 liters in today's measurements, explains Dr. Yuval Gadot, a researcher on the project. A spherical jug that is 52 centimeters in circumference, which equals one Egyptian royal cubit, contains exactly half a hekat. "In a large percentage of the vessels we measured, the circumference is close to one cubit, and the merchant could know that the vessel's volume is half a cubit by just measuring its circumference," he says. When the researchers adopted the Egyptian system of measurement themselves instead of thinking in metrical units, many things became clear. For example, the tall round "torpedo" jugs packed into Phoenician ships in the 8th century BCE were found to contain whole units of hekats. Dr. Gadot believes that the Egyptian system of measurement gradually disappeared when the Assyrians took over the region, bringing their own methods of measurement with them. A measure of political power According to Prof. Finkelstein, elements of standardization in the ancient world hold interest because they are indicative of bureaucratic systems and reflect political and cultural influences. "The use of the Egyptian method is a strong indicator of Egyptian power in this region during a specific period of time," he explains. "Working together with experts in mathematics and statistics, we have been able to provide new solutions for longstanding archaeological problems and debates." Story Source: The above post is reprinted from materials provided by American Friends of Tel Aviv University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length. Journal Reference: Elena Zapassky, Yuval Gadot, Israel Finkelstein, Itzhak Benenson. An Ancient Relation between Units of Length and Volume Based on a Sphere. PLoS ONE, 2012; 7 (3): e33895 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033895 American Friends of Tel Aviv University. "Ancient jugs hold the secret to practical mathematics in Biblical times." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 4 June 2012. Abstract The modern metric system defines units of volume based on the cube. We propose that the ancient Egyptian system of measuring capacity employed a similar concept, but used the sphere instead. When considered in ancient Egyptian units, the volume of a sphere, whose circumference is one royal cubit, equals half a hekat. Using the measurements of large sets of ancient containers as a database, the article demonstrates that this formula was characteristic of Egyptian and Egyptian-related pottery vessels but not of the ceramics of Mesopotamia, which had a different system of measuring length and volume units. Introduction Knowledge of the connection between linear dimensions and volume of containers is important, for instance, in order to achieve quick estimates of trade commodities. However, in many measuring systems, both ancient and modern, the length and volume units seem to have emerged independently, without a simple, intrinsic relation between them [1]. One of the advantages of the metric system, initiated at the time of the French Revolution, is the introduction of such a relationship: 10 cm3 make 1 liter [2], meaning that the unit of volume is based on the unit of length, employing a cube as an elementary body. For the sake of simplicity, we do not distinguish in this paper between the notions of volume and capacity and use “volume” throughout. This conceptually convenient definition, however, does not help in practical measurements, as most containers are not cube-shaped. The use of the cube of a length-unit edge can be traced in antiquity in ancient Egypt. The Egyptian unit of length and volume were the royal cubit and hekat. Various pieces of evidence – papyri, inscribed vessels and monumental texts – attest to the hekat as the dominant unit in practical activities, e.g., in measuring stored grain and liquids [3], [4]. According to the evidence of ancient rods and marked vessels, the royal cubit is estimated as ~52.3 cm, and consists of 28 smaller units called fingers. The hekat is estimated as ~4.8 liters [3], [4]. Ceremonial stone cubit rods were kept in temples and were considered as possessing spiritual meaning: the inscription on the rods described in [5] says “The cubit is life, prosperity, and health, the repeller of the rebel …”. A similar statement can be found on the wooden cubit rod in [6]: “… [Gods]… may give life, prosperity, and health, and good lifespan …” The cube of one cubit edge was used in ancient Egypt for estimating soil volumes in earthworks, see [7] for construction account in Papyrus Reisner I, Section I, and the Egyptians knew how to convert cubits into hekats. Translating Problems 41 and 44 in the Rhind Papyrus [3], [7], [8], [9] to modern mathematical formulae, one learns that the volume of a cube of 1 cubit-edge equals 30 hekats, i.e., (1 royal cubit)3/30?=?1 hekat. Using the value of 1 royal cubit?=?52.3 cm, one indeed obtains, according to the above-mentioned Rhind Papyrus problem, an estimate of one hekat?=?4.77 liters. This cube-based relation was of little use in the typically ovoid-shaped Egyptian ceramic jars [10]–[12]. Surprisingly, our measuring of the circumference of hundreds of Egyptian ovoid-shaped jars according to their drawings demonstrates preference for vessels whose maximal external horizontal circumference varies between 26–32 fingers, i.e., 1 cubit±2 fingers (see Fig. 1). Can the knowledge that the circumference of an ovoid-shaped container is 1 cubit assist in estimating its volume? Below we present evidence that the inherent relationship between ancient Egyptian units of length and volume measurements can be based on another elementary body – the sphere – and test our hypothesis based on the available archaeological information. We also demonstrate that the revealed relation was not relevant in Mesopotamia, where a different system of measuring length and volume units was in use. Results and Discussion In Egyptian units of length and volume, the volume of a spherical container of 1 cubit circumference would be 0.5 hekat. Indeed, the volume v of a sphere of a circumference c equals: Substituting 1 royal cubit for c and employing the above-mentioned solution to Problems 41 and 44 in the Rhind Papyrus, one obtains We checked the 1 royal cubit circumference½ hekat relation in several available sets of Egyptian and Egyptian-related ceramic containers. First, we opted for a large set of New Kingdom Egyptian ovoid-shaped beer jars [10]–[14] (Fig. 2). Despite variation in size, the most frequent maximal external circumference of these vessels (measured by us according to their drawings) indeed varies between 27 and 31 fingers (i.e., slightly above 1 royal cubit) and their modal volume, accounting for a wall width of 0.5–1.5 cm, varies between 0.45–0.65 hekat (Fig. 3). Similar modal circumference and volume values were revealed by Barta [15], who studied 39 beer jars from the Old Kingdom site of Abusir. According to his data, one can estimate that the jars from the temple of Raneferef and the tomb of Fetekta fit our hypothesis; their volume vary between 1.9 and 2.6 liters (0.39–0.54 hekat), with the mode at 2.4 liters (0.50 hekat), while their circumferences vary between 47 and 57 cm (25.2–30.2 fingers). The beer jars found in the tomb of Kaaper are smaller though they have almost identical volume – ca 1.5–1.6 liters (0.31–0.33 hekat) – and their modal circumferences vary between 43.9 and 47.1 cm (23.5–25.2 fingers). Barta [15] argued that the jars were used as a unit for daily rations of food/beer. Beer jars were produced in the coiling technique [15], [16] and the method of production can be related to the maximal circumference of 1 cubit: the potter started building the jar from its base, but could have prepared the longest coil of 1 cubit in advance, to be used in the middle of the vessel. Globular pottery vessels – the best to demonstrate the 1 royal cubit circumference?½ hekat relation – are not common in Egypt proper. We therefore turned to perfect sphere-shaped ceramic jugs produced in late Iron Age I (ca. 1000 BCE) Phoenicia. We think that it is legitimate to do so because of the long-lasting tradition of cultural connections between Phoenicia and Egypt [16], which commenced as early as the third millennium BCE and continued until at least the 8th century BCE [17]–[21]. This influence can be observed in different realms such as pictorial representations on seals and seal impressions [22], art representations [23], [24] and pottery production [25]. We examined 89 Iron Age I-IIA Phoenicia-made globular jugs. Three of them we measured manually: one jug from Megiddo in the Jezreel Valley (Fig. 4) and two jugs from Tel Masos in the Beer-Sheba Valley. The other 86 jugs were measured according to their drawings; 55 come from Cyprus [26], [27], seven from Tyre [28] and 25 from various locations in Israel: Megiddo, Tel Dor, Tel Keisan, Hazor, Tell Qasile, etc. [29]–[36]. In this case, too, the distribution of the jugs' external maximal circumference has a clear mode at 25–30 fingers (Fig. 5a). Taking into consideration a wall width of 0.5–0.7 cm, they provide a modal volume of 0.5 hekat (Fig. 5b). It is possible that the Phoenician globular jugs were used in trade of valuable liquids [34]. The inherent relationship between the royal cubit and the hekat could have made a quick estimate of their capacity possible. In order to establish whether the sphere-based relation of 1 royal cubit circumference½ hekat was not just a coincidental expression of ovoid-shaped containers of that size being convenient for daily use, we turned to ovoid-shaped vessels in Mesopotamia. We analyzed the circumference and volume of 58 Late Bronze jars from Tell Sabi Abyad [37] in north Syria. Here too the analysis was performed according to their published drawings. It revealed three size groups, none featuring 52–53 cm circumference (proxy of a royal cubit), or 2.4 liters volume (proxy of 0.5 hekat) characteristic of the Egypt-related jars. To the contrary, there is a clear gap in these values in the jars' volume distribution (Fig. 6). This means that despite certain similarities in the use of volume units in Egypt and Mesopotamia, the different units in the latter did not result in a similar, straightforward relationship between units of length and volume that is based on a sphere. One could have expected that the use of such formulae would have started in the Late Bronze Age, when the Levant, including Phoenicia, fell under direct Egyptian sway [19]. However, our study of ovoid-shaped Late Bronze jugs and jars from Megiddo [38] (Fig. 7) provides the modal interval of the circumference as 22–42 fingers, that is essentially wider than the modal interval of the circumference of the Egyptian jars, 26–32 fingers (Fig. 1). Although most of the complete vessels chosen for the comparison were found in tombs, they well-represent the daily, domestic repertoire at Megiddo. Looking at the modal interval of the distribution of the Megiddo jugs and jars' circumference at higher a resolution (inner histogram in Fig. 7) makes it possible to assume that it has more than one mode; one of the modal intervals is 25–32 fingers, the same as that of the Egyptian jars. However, the dip statistical test (p?=?0.11) does not allow for definite conclusion. From a broader perspective, it is questionable whether at that time the Phoenician cities had achieved a commercial status similar to what they had in the later Iron Age. Moreover, the very fact that globular vessels are not frequent in Phoenicia in the Late Bronze Age seems to indicate that the idea of connection between the circumference of the globular jar and its volume developed later. The ancient Egyptian 1 royal cubit½ hekat relation in a sphere, detected in pottery vessels, sheds light on the practice of daily measurements of volume of liquids in the Ancient Near East. We have discovered this relation based on the analysis of the form and volume of a large number of Egyptian and Phoenician jars. Phoenician globular jars best express this relation: their circumference concentrates around the value of 1 cubit, while their volume is around ½ hekat. What is missing in order to confirm our discovery is textual evidence which would discuss the relation between circumference and volume in ovoid-shaped jars. To conclude, the ancient Egyptian 1 royal cubit½ hekat relation in a sphere is no less sophisticated than the modern 10 cm31 liter relation expressed in a cube. This wisdom of sphere-based relationship, which was inherent and possibly unique to Egypt and its cultural sphere of influence, was lost over the ages. Materials and Methods The external circumference of a jar was estimated by direct measurement or by multiplying the length of the widest horizontal cross-section of a drawing by p. In order to estimate the volume of a jar we scan the drawing, digitize its external and internal contours, and construct a 3D model by rotating its internal and external contours with Rhinoceros™ software. We can then estimate the volume of the jar, up to the neck, according to the internal contour. We estimate the wall width according to the drawings as well as by manually measuring the volume of three of the jugs and compared the result to the estimates obtained according to the digitized external profile. As we have demonstrated elsewhere [39], in the case of a symmetrical jar, this procedure provides an adequate estimate of its volume. The unimodality of the distribution was tested according to the dip test [40]. We employed the MATLAB software provided by [41], which implements the doink-headof [42] and applies bootstrapping for significance estimation. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article...ne.0033895 Holy cow. To conclude, the ancient Egyptian 1 royal cubit½ hekat relation in a sphere is no less sophisticated than the modern 10 cm31 liter relation expressed in a cube. and only  ~333.3 years later the Romans could still make swish after turning Jerusalem to rubble...  "...Unexpected finds more than 1,600 years old were uncovered during archaeological excavations financed by the Merom Yerushalayim Company, which the Israel Antiquities Authority is carrying out in Schneller Compound prior to the construction of residential buildings for Jerusalem's ultra-orthodox population. The buildings and pottery found at the site are some 1,600 years old and have  been dated to the Roman or Byzantine period. This image shows some  of the mosaic tiles that were on the wine press [Credit: IAA] The complex installation includes a pressing surface paved with a white mosaic. In the center of it is a pit in which a press screw was anchored that aided in extracting the maximum amount of must from the grapes. Eight cells were installed around the pressing surface. These were used for storing the grapes, and possibly also for blending the must with other ingredients thereby producing different flavors of wine. A picture of some of the pottery recovered at the site  [Credit: IAA] Read more at: http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.c...uG1GkIrKox Follow us: @ArchaeoNewsNet on Twitter | groups/thearchaeologynewsnetwork/ on Facebook The modern metric system defines units of volume based on the cube.  We propose that the ancient Egyptian system of measuring capacity employed a similar concept, but used the sphere instead. What unit of measure did an aramaic speaking Jewish carpenter rabbi use when he needs to saw a beam? Is Fort Antonia  really the Temple Mount?...in hekats? ----------------- New Wine into Old Wineskins is, according to the New Testament, one of a pair of parables told by Jesus. It is found at Matthew 9:14-17, Mark 2:21-22 and Luke 5:33-39. A version of the parable also appears in the Gnostic Gospel of Thomas The parables follow the recruitment of Matthew as a disciple of Jesus, and appear to be part of a discussion at a banquet held by him (Luke 5:29).[2] The parables are told in response to a question about fasting: "And they said unto him, Why do the disciples of John fast often, and make prayers, and likewise the disciples of the Pharisees; but thine eat and drink? And he said unto them, Can ye make the children of the bridechamber fast, while the bridegroom is with them? But the days will come, when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them, and then shall they fast in those days." —?Luke 5:33-35, KJV Jesus' response continues with the two short parables. Luke has the more detailed version: "And he spake also a parable unto them; No man putteth a piece of a new garment upon an old; if otherwise, then both the new maketh a rent, and the piece that was taken out of the new agreeth not with the old. And no man putteth new wine into old bottles; else the new wine will burst the bottles, and be spilled, and the bottles shall perish. But new wine must be put into new bottles; and both are preserved. No man also having drunk old wine straightway desireth new: for he saith, The old is better." -------------- It would speak volumes on mount zion in royal cubits? Where exactly was the True Temple Mount??? Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 03-13-2016, 02:45 AM (This post was last modified: 03-13-2016, 03:24 AM by EA.) This is the dirt on what it was like before the internet. Prosaic as a mosaic irregardless of the productivity... Each wedding guest only has one vessel alloted to drink from. (They ain't greeks smashin' stuff and dancin' ITZA all GR33K to M3) Counter-intuit. Quote:Do whatever he tells you" (John 2:3-5) Counter Into it. Smash Plates like techtonics but not really reason rhyme. My tektonic theoretical model has: Nice Jugs. How would The "Creator" measure a chalice of a wedding guest? Rednex He seek y'all Ezekial Culture Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... Vianova Posting Freak Posts: 9,445 Threads: 51 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 20 03-13-2016, 04:10 AM ... Quote:A spherical jug that is 52 centimeters in circumference, which equals one Egyptian royal cubit nonsense, and they are quite convoluted in that whole affair. later they clarify in small print Quote:According to the evidence of ancient rods and marked vessels,  the royal cubit is estimated as ~52.3 cm, and consists of 28 smaller units called fingers. They are getting closer. ... and that sets their royal cubit at 20.59 inches with modern conversion factor. This amazes me, that such crap comes out of a university. anybody who has ever done any research on Egyptian cubits, KNOWS, that the Flinder Petrie values from King's Chamber measurements is the defining factor, for the Royal Cubit. Between 20.615 and 20.625 inches. Standard knowledge. At 20.625 inches ... that is 52.38747171 centimeters ... modern conversion 0.393701 I think that they are way off in left field with their numbers. First of all any researcher knows that ancient man used calculations for volume. So these clowns discovered nothing. The ancient layman probably used the simple fraction 355 / 113 for pi calculations. Looking at the evidence they offer,  one could possibly construe a likely centimeter count at 52.36 or 52.36 36 36 36 cm  per royal cubit, with a conversion factor of 0.39375 {ancient}, in order to work back to a fundamental cubit. ... EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 03-30-2016, 09:48 PM Jesus’ Last Supper Menu Revealed in Archaeology Study by Rossella Lorenzi, Discovery News   |   March 24, 2016 11:32am ET Artist Giacomo Raffaelli's mosaic copy of Leonardo da Vinci's "Last Supper," from 1816.  Credit: Renata Sedmakova View full size image A bean stew, lamb, olives, bitter herbs, a fish sauce, unleavened bread, dates and aromatized wine likely were on the menu[img=0x0]http://images.intellitxt.com/ast/adTypes/icon1.png[/img] at the Last Supper, says recent research into Palestinian cuisine during Jesus's time. The food[img=0x0]http://images.intellitxt.com/ast/adTypes/icon1.png[/img] wasn't eaten during a formal seated gathering at a rectangular table, as shown in many religious art paintings, but with Jesus and his apostles reclining on floor cushions, as the Romans did at that time. The study by two Italian archaeologists relied on Bible verses, Jewish writings, ancient Roman works and archaeological data[img=0x0]http://images.intellitxt.com/ast/adTypes/icon1.png[/img] to investigate the eating habits in Jerusalem at the beginning of the 1st century A.D. "The Bible discusses what happened during that dinner, but it doesn't detail what Jesus and his 12 dining companions ate," Generoso Urciuoli, archaeologist at Italy's Petrie center and author of the Archeoricette blog on ancient food, told Discovery News. Urciuoli, who specializes on the history of early Christianity, and co-author Marta Berogno, archaeologist and Egyptologist at Turin Egypt's museum, will publish their findings next month in the book "Gerusalemme: l'Ultima Cena" (Jerusalem: the Last Supper). "The starting point is the assumption that Jesus was a Jew. He and his disciples observed the traditions transmitted by the Torah and its food related bans," Urciuoli said. Commemorated today by Christians, the Last Supper is the final meal that, according to the Gospel, Jesus shared with his closest disciples in Jerusalem hours before he was turned over by Judas to Roman soldiers and crucified. Was Last Supper a Day Earlier? The scene was immortalized by Leonardo Da Vinci, but the masterpiece, one of the world's most famous and powerful paintings, isn't historically accurate, according to Urciuoli. "Leonardo's mural derives from centuries of iconographic codes. Embodying the sacrament of the eucharist, the Last Supper has a very strong symbolic meaning and this does not help the historicalreconstruction," Urciuoli said. Putting together historical data and clues from artworks such as third century A.D. catacombs paintings, the researchers were able to reconstruct food and eating habits in Palestine 2,000 years ago. The picture that emerges is completely different from traditional renderings of the Last Supper. The dinner, which happened on the upper room of a house in Jerusalem, wasn't a seated gathering at a rectangular table. "At that time in Palestine, food was placed on low tables and guests ate in reclining position on floor cushions and carpets," Urciuoli said. Improbable Resurrections: 5 Real Cases Plates, bowls and jars were likely made of stone. Evidence for 1st century A.D. stone vessels has been found at numerous sites near Jerusalem and Galilee. "Jews that observed the rules of purity used stone vessels because they were not susceptible to transmitting impurity," Urciuoli said. "Another possibility is the use of fine red terra sigillata pottery, an international trend at that time," he added. The position of the guests around the table followed a precise rule, and the the most important were those at the right and left of the main guest. "Verses from the gospels of John indicate Judas was very close to Jesus, probably to his immediate left. Indeed, we are told that Judas dipped bread into Jesus's dish, following the practice of sharing food from a common bowl," Urciuoli said. Fact-Checking the Bible Urciuoli and Berogno narrowed the search for the food present at the Last Supper by reconstructing two other important meals mentioned in the New Testament, the wedding at Cana, which records the water to wine miracle, and Herod's banquet, famous for the beheading of John the Baptist. "The wedding at Cana allowed us to understand the Jewish religious dietary laws, known as kashrut, which established what foods can and cannot be eaten and how they must be prepared. On the other side, Herod's Banquet allowed us to analyze Roman culinary influences in Jerusalem," Urciuoli said. Apart from wine and bread, tzir, a variant of the Roman fish sauce garum, was likely present both at the wedding of Cana and Herod’s banquet, as well as at the Last Supper, the authors said. Detailing their research in the book, Urciuoli and Berogno also hypothesize the Last Supper might have occurred during the Feast of Booths or Tabernacles, an autumn feast commemorating the years the Israelites spent in the desert in fragile dwellings after the exodus. But according to the Gospel of Mark, Jesus prepared for the Last Supper on the "first day of Unleavened Bread, when they sacrificed the Passover lamb." Jesus' House? Structure May Be Where He Grew Up If the Last Supper was a Passover dinner, held by Jews then as now to commemorate the exodus from Egypt, the meal would have likely included lamb. Scripture provides us with another clue: unleavened bread and wine were also on the menu. Jesus broke bread and blessed wine, telling his Apostles that the bread was his body and the wine was his blood — thus laying the basis for the communion. According to Urciuoli and Berogno, other food on the table would have included cholent, a stewed dish of beans cooked very low and slow, olives with hyssop, a herb with a mint-like taste, bitter herbs with pistachios and a date charoset, a chunky fruit and nut paste. "Bitter herbs and charoset are typical of Passover, cholent is eaten during festivities, while hyssop was also consumed on a daily basis," Urciuoli said. Originally published on Discovery News. Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... Fsbirdhouse Posting Freak Posts: 5,364 Threads: 539 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 28 03-31-2016, 02:03 AM When Jesus said "This is my body given for you" he was giving them Matzah, a traditional Passover bread. There was more than chance the Jews had been eating Matzah for 1400 years, the bread is 'Striped and pierced' as His body was soon to be when sacrificed on the Cross. Matzo/Matzah So, the words Autumn and Fall are not to be capitalized? They are in my world! What has been is what will be, and what has been done is what will be done; and there is nothing new under the sun. Is there a thing of which it is said, "See, this is new?"It has been already, in the ages before us. Ecc 1: 9-10 EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 04-02-2016, 01:58 AM (This post was last modified: 04-02-2016, 02:08 AM by EA.) Looks more multi- perforated as opposed to a single-lancing. And speaking of pierced...  thatza morea likea COHORT of piercings eh? And  speaking of Longinus... if you use the dots as lines of longitude.. Quote:sheep before its shearers is silent, so He did not open His mouth.”  (Isaiah 53:6–7) [img=544x0]http://assets.messianicbible.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Matzah.jpg?a4b6d9[/img] Although machine-made matzah is square, handmade matzah is round.  The matzah that Yeshua broke at His final Seder with His talmidim (disciples) was likely similar in appearance. Yeshua and the Middle M Then the stripes as his attitude markedly in latitude you would note. With that many piercings itza Whip-CRACKER.       Jesus would be better served symbolically by a bagel with a SINGLE Piercing. Maybe the last supper had both. Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... Fsbirdhouse Posting Freak Posts: 5,364 Threads: 539 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 28 04-02-2016, 02:07 AM How about the piercings in his feet, hands/wrists, forehead, and lance thru his side as...multi piercings? Yes, I think the bread was very representative! So, the words Autumn and Fall are not to be capitalized? They are in my world! What has been is what will be, and what has been done is what will be done; and there is nothing new under the sun. Is there a thing of which it is said, "See, this is new?"It has been already, in the ages before us. Ecc 1: 9-10 EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 04-02-2016, 02:23 AM (This post was last modified: 04-02-2016, 02:48 AM by EA.) Quote:How about the piercings in his feet, hands/wrists, forehead, and lance thru his side as io9.com1440) The Holy Lance (German: Heilige Lanze), also known as the Holy Spear, theSpear of Destiny, or the Lance of Longinus, is the name given to the lance that pierced the side of Jesus as he hung on the cross, according to the Gospel of John.Holy Lance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_Lance   bagel ...multi piercings? Yes, I think the bread was very representative! you forgot the scourge tips. flatbed-flat-bread Crackers!!! I think it represents Tecktonic principles sub-rosa just as well....................... .................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................... Striped/Pierced/Raised...built upon by others kind of like it. Code Crackers were @ the last supper too to cleanse the pilate palate' and enjoy the wines. Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... Fsbirdhouse Posting Freak Posts: 5,364 Threads: 539 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 28 04-02-2016, 11:35 AM No, I was kinda counting the scourge tip marks in the stripes category.....semantics. Millions of us will always look on them all as beauty marks. So, the words Autumn and Fall are not to be capitalized? They are in my world! What has been is what will be, and what has been done is what will be done; and there is nothing new under the sun. Is there a thing of which it is said, "See, this is new?"It has been already, in the ages before us. Ecc 1: 9-10 Kalter Rauch Posting Freak Posts: 5,015 Threads: 12 Joined: Feb 2006 Reputation: 9 04-03-2016, 03:00 AM « Next Oldest | Next Newest »