Archaeologists Believe They Found Location Where Jesus Christ Taught EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 04-03-2016, 02:13 PM (This post was last modified: 04-03-2016, 08:06 PM by EA.) It all sounds so epic in Genesis. Like a MGM movie... with Charlton Heston. Rather mundane but somehow symbolic like a cracker. The Habitable Zone is witnessed in formation. Planet formation in Earth-like orbit around a young star ALMA image of the planet-forming disk around the young, Sun-like star TW Hydrae. The inset image (upper right) zooms in on the gap nearest to the star, which is at the same distance as the Earth is from the Sun, suggesting an infant version of our home planet could be emerging from the dust and gas. The additional concentric light and dark features represent other planet-forming regions farther out in the disk. [i]Credit: S. Andrews (Harvard-Smithsonian CfA), ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)[/i] The disks of dust and gas that surround young stars are the formation sites of planets. New images from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) reveal never-before-seen details in the planet-forming disk around a nearby Sun-like star, including a tantalizing gap at the same distance from the star as the Earth is from the Sun. This structure may mean that an infant version of our home planet, or possibly a more massive "super-Earth," is beginning to form there. The star, TW Hydrae, is a popular target of study for astronomers because of its proximity to Earth (approximately 175 light-years away) and its status as a veritable newborn (about 10 million years old). It also has a face-on orientation as seen from Earth. This affords astronomers a rare, undistorted view of the complete disk. "Previous studies with optical and radio telescopes confirm that this star hosts a prominent disk with features that strongly suggest planets are beginning to coalesce," said Sean Andrews with the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., and lead author on a paper published today in Astrophysical Journal Letters. "The new ALMA images show the disk in unprecedented detail, revealing a series of concentric dusty bright rings and dark gaps, including intriguing features that suggest a planet with an Earth-like orbit is forming there." Other pronounced gap features are located 3 billion and 6 billion kilometers from the central star, similar to the distances from the Sun to Uranus and Pluto in our own Solar System. They too are likely the result of particles that came together to form planets, which then swept their orbits clear of dust and gas and shepherded the remaining material into well-defined bands. For the new TW Hydrae observations, astronomers imaged the faint radio emission from millimeter-size dust grains in the disk, revealing details on the order of one astronomical unit (about 150 million kilometers, or the distance between the Earth and the Sun). These detailed observations were made possible with ALMA's high-resolution, long-baseline configuration. When ALMA's dishes are at their maximum separation, up to nearly 15 kilometers apart, the telescope is able to resolve finer details. "This is the highest spatial resolution image ever of a protoplanetary disk from ALMA, and that won't be easily beaten going forward," said Andrews. "TW Hydrae is quite special. It is the nearest known protoplanetary disk to Earth and it may closely resemble our Solar System when it was only 10 million years old," said co-author David Wilner, also with the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Earlier ALMA observations of another system, HL Tau, show that even younger protoplanetary disks -- a mere one million years old -- can display similar signatures of planet formation. By studying the older TW Hydrae disk, astronomers hope to better understand the evolution of our own planet and the prospects for similar systems throughout the Galaxy. The astronomers' next phase of research is to investigate how common these kinds of features are in disks around other young stars and how they might change with time or environment. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. Story Source: The above post is reprinted from materials provided by National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length. Journal Reference: S.M. Andrews et al. Ringed Substructure and a Gap at 1 AU in the Nearest Protoplanetary Disk.Astrophysical Journal Letters, 2016 God rest himself. Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 04-05-2016, 10:40 PM Bronze Incense Shovel Unearthed Near Sea of Galilee Tuesday, April 05, 2016 (Eyad Bisharat, Israel Antiquities Authority) MIGDAL, ISRAEL—A bronze incense shovel and a bronze jug were unearthed next to each other in a storehouse near a dock at the site of Magdala, a Jewish settlement located on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee. The site is known for its ritual baths and a first-century synagogue decorated with mosaic floors.  Carvings on the Magdala Stone, found in the synagogue’s main hall, depict the Second Temple of Jerusalem and a seven-branched menorah.  The shovel also dates to the Second Temple period, and may have been used to rake or gather embers from incense burned in rituals or as a tool for daily tasks. “A similar incense shovel and a jug as those found here in Migdal were discovered by Yigael Yadin in a cache dating to the time of the Bar Kokhba uprising which was revealed in the Cave of the Letters in the Judean Desert. Incense shovels have also been found in the Galilee at Bethsaida, Taiyaba and in Wadi Hammam, and across the country, but all-in-all this is a very rare find,” archaeologist Arfan Najar said in a press release from the Israel Antiquities Authority. For more on archaeology in Israel, go to "Autumn of the Master Builder." http://www.archaeology.org/news/4316-160...ala-bronze Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... Vianova Posting Freak Posts: 9,445 Threads: 51 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 20 04-06-2016, 12:57 AM (This post was last modified: 04-06-2016, 12:59 AM by Vianova.) ... That ancient incense shovel reminded me of how much I have always loved ancient bronzes. Once, about 25 years ago, I saw a rare Chinese bronze from the warring States period in a friends shop. It was called a chariot jingle, and looked like an art deco microphone all encrusted with age and antiquity of 3000 years. I had a chance to buy it for 1200$then. shang-dang-a-lang missed It has a little bronze ball inside the sphere that bounces around jingling when the chariot is in motion, and they were no doubt removeable. But back to Israel. Ancient bronzes. The Emperor Hadrian get these images in your files while they are available, huge images at links Quote:In any event, the three statues on show reveal the different sides of Hadrian. The locally found bust depicts the emperor as a military commander, wearing armor and sporting a thick beard. The beard was considered a novelty in the realm of Roman rulers' fashion, and had a major influence on men’s grooming throughout the entire empire. The third bust {acquired}, the most complete and impressive of the three, was discovered in 1975 in what turned out to be the camp of the Sixth Roman Legion at Tel Shalem near Beit She’an in northern Israel. It portrays Hadrian in a typical pose, as supreme military commander greeting his troops. It was discovered by an American tourist who was searching for ancient coins with a metal detector and constitutes one of the most important discoveries from the classical period ever found in the country. The discovery came before the passage of the Israel Antiquities Law, which banned such private and amateur archaeological exploration, as well as exportation of antiquities from Israel without a permit. Nonetheless, what was then the antiquities division of the Education Ministry, wisely decided to purchase the bust, from the tourist in return for a handful of ancient coins. “They made a good deal,” says Mevorah. The statue is now part of the Israel Museum’s permanent collection. http://www.haaretz.com/polopoly_fs/1.693...239741.jpg The bust of Hadrian discovered in Israel, at the new Israel Museum show http://i1.wp.com/etc.ancient.eu/wp-conte...usalem.jpg EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 04-06-2016, 09:32 PM (This post was last modified: 04-06-2016, 10:01 PM by EA.) Quote:Bronze Incense Shovel Unearthed Near Sea of Galilee Tuesday, April 05, 2016 (Eyad Bisharat, Israel Antiquities Authority) MIGDAL, ISRAEL—A bronze incense shovel and a bronze jug were unearthed next to each other in a storehouse near a dock at the site of Magdala, a Jewish settlement located on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee. The site is known for its ritual baths and a first-century synagogue decorated with mosaic floors. recall: 6 months ago. If it looks like a duck, quacks like a duck, is it a clue to the rise of Jewish Galilee? An elegant 2,200-year-old Hellenistic bronze incense shovel found this summer could help determine how and when Judeans settled the hills near the Kinneret BY ILAN BEN ZION November 13, 2015, 12:54 pm The tapered head, flattened bill and graceful curve of the neck are unquestionably that of a duck. The bird’s head decorates a small, 2,200-year-old bronze incense shovel found during this summer’s dig at a Hellenistic-era site near the Sea of Galilee, and its ancient owners may be the key to an investigation into how and when ancient Judeans populated the Galilee. A Hebrew University team led by Dr. Uzi Leibner discovered the shovel amid the ruins of Khirbet el-Eika, a site just west of the Sea of Galilee near the Horns of Hattin, during August’s excavations. Leibner sought to elucidate who the inhabitants of the Galilee were in the early Second Temple period. The hills of the Galilee were densely populated with Jewish villages during the late Second Temple period and thereafter. The historical Jesus was born in the small Galilean town of Nazareth a little more than 2,000 years ago. The gospels and contemporary historical texts describe a region populated by Jews who rose up against the Roman Empire en masse in 66 CE. In the centuries thereafter it was the heartland of rabbinic scholarship, literature and Jewish life in Roman Palestine. But the Galilee apparently wasn’t always that way. Current research indicates the area was settled by non-Jewish peoples when the region was ruled by the Persian and Greek empires between the fifth and third centuries. Only at the very end of the Hellenistic period, with the rise of the Hasmonean dynasty of Maccabee fame, did it come under Jewish rule. Except for later historical accounts and limited archaeological surveys at sites skirting the Galilee, little is known about the region during the Hellenistic period. How and when the Galilee became a Jewish stronghold in the late Second Temple period has been the topic of scholarly debate for centuries. Khirbet el-Eika appears to have been a short-lived community. It was a fortified town sitting on a hilltop above the verdant Arbel valley and Hittin spring. Excavations indicate it was built during the third century BCE and existed for a few generations. Then, around 140 BCE, it was violently destroyed. Whether or not this was the result of a Hasmonean military campaign remains unclear. Around the same time Khirbet el-Eika was destroyed, Jewish communities began popping up around the Galilee. Leibner’s earlier excavations at Khirbet Wadi Hamam, a couple miles northeast as the crow flies, yielded a large Jewish village from the Roman period, replete with a massive synagogue adorned with brilliant mosaics. The duck-headed handle of a Hellenistic-era incense shovel found at Khirbet el-Eika in the eastern Galilee in 2015. Courtesy: Uzi Leibner, The Hebrew University; Photo: Tal Rogovski) “We can’t say for sure, but the hints seem to point to a pagan population [at Khirbet el-Eika],” Leibner told The Times of Israel by phone. The duck-headed incense shovel is a key clue. “It may be some sort of a cultic object,” he said, but couldn’t say with absolute certainty without further evidence. The incense shovel is clearly of Greco-Roman design, and duck’s heads appear on an assortment of objects from the ancient Levant. The remains of an ancient shipwreck found off the coast of Ashkelon in 1998, and which dates from around the same period as Khirbet el-Eika, yielded two bronze ladles adorned with duck’s heads. Ehud Galili of Haifa University suggested in a 2009 article about the discovery that they may have had “ritual, ceremonial and apotropaic” significance. [img=565x0]http://cdn.timesofisrael.com/uploads/2015/11/11879161_422789571246749_1102030350268365829_o-635x357.jpg[/img] A duck-headed incense shovel found at Khirbet el-Eika in the eastern Galilee in 2015. (The duck-headed handle of a Hellenistic-era incense shovel found at Khirbet el-Eika in the eastern Galilee in 2015. (Courtesy: Uzi Leibner, The Hebrew University; Photo: Tal Rogovski) In the ruins of a structure Leibner described as “of a public nature,” his team found the incense shovel along with an assortment of other intriguing finds. In a nearby structure, a trove of Aegean wine amphorae — large ceramic storage vessels used for long-distance trade. The clay jugs served as the preferred shipping containers of the ancient world. “Most [amphorae] known from Israel come from Rhodes” and a handful of other major production sites in the Aegean Sea, which are also found across the Mediterranean, he said. The nearly intact ones found at Khirbet el-Eika bear stamps from Rhodes and Kos. How, and why, these huge vessels — each weighing about 65 pounds (30 kilograms) or more — were imported 25 miles inland to Khirbet el-Eika, “is a big debate,” Leibner said. [img=565x0]http://cdn.timesofisrael.com/uploads/2015/11/11884695_428642320661474_7166542084486566983_o-635x357.jpg[/img] Some of the Greek amphorae found at Khirbet el-Eika in the eastern Galilee in 2015. (Courtesy: Uzi Leibner, The Hebrew University; Photo: Roi Sabar) Overland transport in the ancient world was 25-30 times as expensive as maritime shipping, and moving goods 75 miles inland cost as much as crossing the Mediterranean, Rachel Laudan writes in “Cuisine and Empire.” Consequently, imported amphorae are ordinarily found in coastal cities such as Acre, Dor and Ashkelon or rich inland cities or army posts such as Samaria or Jerusalem. Finding them at a village in the Galilean hills, with no evidence of a military presence, is unusual. Whoever imported these Greek amphorae were likely wealthy, and went to considerable lengths to obtain luxury goods. Quote:‘Archaeologically, it’s very hard to tell who’s a Jew in the third or second century BCE.’ But does Greek wine in Greek jars suggest Greek people living at Khirbet el-Eika? Today’s Orthodox Judaism forbids the consumption of wine produced by gentiles, but it’s not clear whether pre-Hasmonean Jews adhered to the same tradition. The first known mention of Jews eschewing wine produced by gentiles appears in the Second Temple period, but scholars are “not sure exactly when this became widespread,” Leibner pointed out. Whether or not the Greek wine vessels found at the site point to a gentile population remains unclear. “I personally think Jews generally avoided using this wine at least as early as the first century BCE,” he said. “Archaeologically, it’s very hard to tell who’s a Jew in the third or second century BCE.” Characteristic markers such as mikvaot and common ritual objects don’t appear in those periods. While evidence points to a gentile community, Leibner said he needs more hard evidence to support that hypothesis. Khirbet el-Eika’s destruction in the mid-second century, however, points to the possibility that, if it were a community of gentiles, it may have been destroyed during a Hasmonean campaign. August 2015 was just the first season of excavations at Khirbet el-Eika, and he plans a second dig in the in June and July of 2016. “Hopefully here in this excavation we’ll find other finds which will give a more clear picture,” Leibner said. http://www.timesofisrael.com/if-it-looks...h-galilee/ Quote:It all sounds so epic in Ezekiel Like a MGM movie... with Charlton Heston. Rather mundane but somehow symbolic like a cracker. The Landable Zone is witnessed 3rdEye information. Doesn't sound Quite as Epic but a mankind can actually make their own rockets and ascend towards celestial heights. And even Re-Land/Re-Launch them too. Epic Ezekiel is as internet Soundbyte was... ANU Shepard Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 04-12-2016, 09:27 PM (This post was last modified: 04-12-2016, 09:34 PM by EA.) Archaeologists Believe They Found Location Where Jesus Christ Taught Archaeologists Believe They Found Location Where Jesus Christ Taught New Testament Classroom. But When was the Bible Written and by Whom? Handwriting Dating to the Seventh Century B.C. Analyzed Tuesday, April 12, 2016 (Michael Cordonsky, Tel Aviv University and the IAA) TEL AVIV, ISRAEL—Israel Finkelstein, Arie Shaus, and Shira Faigenbaum-Golovin of Tel Aviv University used computer programs to scan and analyze the handwriting on 16 ostracons dating to the seventh century B.C. All of the inscriptions were unearthed at the site of Arad, a frontier fort, and had been made within a span of a few months. The analysis suggests that at least six different people, ranging in rank from the commander of the fort down to the deputy quartermaster, had written these texts. All of the writers used proper spelling and syntax. Similar ostracons have been found at other border forts, suggesting that writing was widespread, at least within the Judahite army. Finkelstein thinks the ancient kingdom of Judah may have had an educational system, since literacy was not limited to the elite. “This is really quite amazing, that in a remote place like this, there was more than one person, several people, who could write,” he told Live Science. Finkelstein also claims that if literacy were widespread at the time, it would support the idea that portions of the Bible could have been compiled before the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians. For more on archaeology in Israel, go to "The Gates of Gath." The Babylonians can answer whether there was there widespread literacy, Eh? No? A 3,800-year journey from classroom to classroom April 12, 2016 by Patrick Lynch This tablet, once the schoolwork of a student in ancient Babylonia, is one of the most-reproduced cultural objects in Yale's collections. Thirty-eight hundred years ago, on the hot river plains of what is now southern Iraq, a Babylonian student did a bit of schoolwork that changed our understanding of ancient mathematics. The student scooped up a palm-sized clump of wet clay, formed a disc about the size and shape of a hamburger, and let it dry down a bit in the sun. On the surface of the moist clay the student drew a diagram that showed the people of the Old Babylonian Period (1,900–1,700 B.C.E.) fully understood the principles of the "Pythagorean Theorem" 1300 years before Greek geometer Pythagoras was born, and were also capable of calculating the square root of two to six decimal places. Today, thanks to the Internet and new digital scanning methods being employed at Yale, this ancient geometry lesson continues to be used in modern classrooms around the world. "This geometry tablet is one of the most-reproduced cultural objects that Yale owns—it's published in mathematics textbooks the world over," says Professor Benjamin Foster, curator of the Babylonian Collection, which includes the tablet. It's also a popular teaching tool in Yale classes. "At the Babylonian Collection we have a very active teaching and learning function, and we regard education as one of the core parts of our mission," says Foster. "We have graduate and undergraduate groups in our collection classroom every week." The tablet, formally known as YBC 7289, "Old Babylonian Period Mathematical Text," came to Yale in 1909 as part of a much larger collection of cuneiform tablets assembled by J. Pierpont Morgan and donated to Yale. In the ancient Mideast cuneiform writing was created by using a sharp stylus pressed into the surface of a soft clay tablet to produce wedge-like impressions representing pictographic words and numbers. Morgan's donation of tablets and other artifacts formed the nucleus of the Yale Babylonian Collection, which now incorporates 45,000 items from the ancient Mesopotamian kingdoms. [b]Discoverying the tablet's mathematical significance [/b] The importance of the geometry tablet was first recognized by science historians Otto Neugebauer and Abraham Sachs in their 1945 book "Mathematical Cuneiform Texts." "Ironically, mathematicians today are much more fascinated with the Babylonians' ability to accurately calculate irrational numbers like the square root of two than they are with the geometry demonstrations," notes associate Babylonian Collection curator Agnete Lassen. "The Old Babylonian Period produced many tablets that show complex mathematics, but it also produced things you might not expect from a culture this old, such as grammars, dictionaries, and word lists," says Lassen "One of the two main languages spoken in early Babylonia was dying out, and people were careful to document and save what they could on cuneiform tablets. It's ironic that almost 4,000 years ago people were thinking about cultural preservation, and actively preserving their learning for future generations.". Today, however, the tablet is a fragile lump of clay that would not survive routine handling in a classroom. In looking for alternatives that might bring the highlights of the Babylonian Collection to a wider audience, the collection's curators partnered with Yale's Institute for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage (IPCH) to bring the objects into the digital world. Scanning at the IPCH The IPCH Digitization Lab's first step was to do reflectance transformation imaging (RTI) on each of fourteen Babylonian Collection objects. RTI is a photographic technique that enables a student or researcher to look at a subject with many different lighting angles. That's particularly important for something like a cuneiform tablet, where there are complex 3D marks incised into the surface. With RTI you can freely manipulate the lighting, and see subtle surface variations that no ordinary photograph would reveal. Chelsea Graham of the IPCH Digitization Lab and her colleague Yang Ying Yang of the Yale Computer Graphics Group then did laser scanning of the tablet to create a three-dimensional geometric model that can be freely rotated onscreen. The resulting 3D models can be combined with many other types of digital imaging to give researchers and students a virtual tablet onscreen, and the same data can be use to create a 3D printed facsimile that can be freely used in the classroom without risk to the delicate original. 3D printing digital materials While virtual models on the computer screen have proved to be a valuable teaching and research resource, even the most accurate 3D model on a computer screen doesn't convey the tactile impact, and physicality of the real object. Yale's Center for Engineering Innovation and Design has collaborated with the IPCH on a number of cultural heritage projects, and the center's assistant director, Joseph Zinter, has used its 3D printing expertise on a wide range of engineering, basic science, and cultural heritage projects. "Whether it's a sculpture, a rare skull, or a microscopic neuron or molecule highly magnified, you can pick up a 3D printed model and hold it, and it's a very different and important way to understand the data. Holding something in your hand is a distinctive learning experience," notes Zinter. Sharing cultural heritage projects in the digital world Once a cultural artifact has entered the digital world there are practical problems with how to share the information with students and scholars. IPCH postdoctoral fellows Goze Akoglu and Eleni Kotoula are working with Yale computer science faculty member Holly Rushmeier to create an integrated collaborative software platform to support the research and sharing of cultural heritage artifacts like the Babylonian tablet. "Right now cultural heritage professionals must juggle many kinds of software, running several types of specialized 2D and 3D media viewers as well as conventional word processing and graphics programs. Our vision is to create a single virtual environment that accommodates many kinds of media, as well as supporting communication and annotation within the project," says Kotoula. The wide sharing and disseminating of cultural artifacts is one advantage of digitizing objects, notes professor Rushmeier, "but the key thing about digital is the power to study large virtual collections. It's not about scanning and modeling the individual object. When the scanned object becomes part of a large collection of digital data, then machine learning and search analysis tools can be run over the collection, allowing scholars to ask questions and make comparisons that aren't possible by other means," says Rushmeier. Reflecting on the process that brings state-of-the-art digital tools to one of humanity's oldest forms of writing, Graham said "It strikes me that this tablet has made a very long journey from classroom to classroom. People sometimes think the digital or 3D-printed models are just a novelty, or just for exhibitions, but you can engage and interact much more with the 3D printed object, or 3D model on the screen. I think the creators of this tablet would have appreciated the efforts to bring this fragile object back to the classroom." Explore further: 3-D printers make replicas of cuneiform tablets Provided by: Yale University [/url][url=http://phys.org/news/2016-04-year-journey-classroom.html#jCp] Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... Vianova Posting Freak Posts: 9,445 Threads: 51 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 20 04-18-2016, 04:26 PM ... Thanks for posting that article on the clay thing with the square. the Yale people are on to something but still way off in left field. here is why: this is the progression they arrive at from their clay tablet values: 1 + {24 / 60} + {51 / 3600} + {10 / 216000} = square root two. OK, since the assumption is that the Babylonians were able to perform this mathematic construct in such fashion, in an attempt, to isolate square root two, then, they had also the capability to do this right at the end: just add at the end ----> {6 / 1 billion} or 0.0000006 1 + {24 / 60} + {51 / 3600} + {10 / 216000} + {6 / 1 billion} = 1.414213563 <----> 1.414213562 = sqrt 2 but that is not how they did it. {or the egyptians} it was very simple. They used CONVERGENCE DYNAMICS in fractional simplicities. you look to ancient cosmological number 231 = composed with primes: 3 x 7 x 11 = 231, then x 120 231 x 120 = 27720 -----> divided by modern square root 2 = 19600.99997----> recognizably ----> 19601 this is the convergence dynamic our simple fraction derived in highly simplistic steps is now: 27720 divided by 19601 = 1.414213561 <------> and modern = 1.414213562 ancient cultures understood primes and how to extrapolate them ---------------- that was the simple ancient method to square root two, and the Egyptians refined that further {when necessary} to this: go back to ancient number 231: {231 x 3000} divided by 490025 equals: square root two ----> accomplishes 10 digit accuracy modern hand calculator. I sent them an email with this and a lot more. ... EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 04-19-2016, 02:26 AM Thatz why this was then... ...You teach now. Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... Fsbirdhouse Posting Freak Posts: 5,364 Threads: 539 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 28 04-20-2016, 02:52 PM (This post was last modified: 04-20-2016, 02:53 PM by Fsbirdhouse.) As long as we are on the subject of Jesus.... Just for the sake of speculative musings. Taken as a given, He was the Son of God crucified on Golgotha. Would it be possible to crowd enough spirit beings into such close proximity to one another as to darken the Sun? Were any missing that day do we imagine, Holy or Fallen? Considering what was at stake, the interest would have been of the highest magnitude...one would imagine. If men's eyes had been opened to what was about them at that moment, we'd be discussing it still. Of course, we have yet to answer that age old question "How many Angels can dance on the head of a pin?" So, the words Autumn and Fall are not to be capitalized? They are in my world! What has been is what will be, and what has been done is what will be done; and there is nothing new under the sun. Is there a thing of which it is said, "See, this is new?"It has been already, in the ages before us. Ecc 1: 9-10 EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 04-20-2016, 07:51 PM (This post was last modified: 04-20-2016, 07:52 PM by EA.) While the locus was your focus and angels ain't folks/us http://www.womeninthebible.net/plagues.htm Quote:Would it be possible to crowd enough spirit beings into such close proximity to one another as to darken the Sun? http://www.flabber.nl/linkdump/plaatjes/...t-12-13475 no 'hocus-pocus' if you invoke thus locusts. Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 04-20-2016, 08:53 PM Maybe we are all in a simulation and your 'god' is "THE USER". The society 'within the simulation' are gaurdians with a code. The Newest Testament wise and non newtonian even. The Gaurdian Code. Itz in the Script. Out with the old. In with ANU. Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... deo Posting Freak Posts: 853 Threads: 9 Joined: Jul 2007 Reputation: 5 04-21-2016, 02:31 PM Thanks for the Intro! EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 04-22-2016, 12:14 AM (This post was last modified: 04-22-2016, 12:23 AM by EA.) http://www.wnd.com/2015/02/are-jews-pray...rong-spot/ PRAYERS TO GOD IN WRONG SPOT? Temple Mount 'misplaced': 'We're sitting on kryptonite' Published: 02/22/2015 at 5:44 PM http://www.wnd.com/2015/02/are-jews-pray...rong-spot/ If it looks like a duck, quacks like a duck, is it a clue to the rise of Jewish Galilee? Turkey??? An elegant 2,200-year-old Hellenistic bronze incense shovel found this summer could help determine how and when Judeans settled the hills near the Kinneret BY ILAN BEN ZION November 13, 2015, 12:54 pm The tapered head, flattened bill and graceful curve of the neck are unquestionably that of a duck. The bird’s head decorates a small, 2,200-year-old bronze incense shovel found during this summer’s dig at a Hellenistic-era site near the Sea of Galilee, and its ancient owners may be the key to an investigation into how and when ancient Judeans populated the Galilee. A Hebrew University team led by Dr. Uzi Leibner discovered the shovel amid the ruins of Khirbet el-Eika, a site just west of the Sea of Galilee near the Horns of Hattin, during August’s excavations. Leibner sought to elucidate who the inhabitants of the Galilee were in the early Second Temple period. Young Turks Preying/ praying @ the Wrong Western Wall!!! Scientists reveal Jewish history's forgotten Turkish roots Israeli-born geneticist believes the Turkish villages of Iskenaz, Eskenaz and Ashanaz were part of the original homeland for Ashkenazic JewsDavid Keys Archaeology Correspondent @davidmkeys Tuesday 19 April 2016 A group of Ashkenazic Jews in Jerusalem, circa 1885 Getty Images New research suggests that the majority of the world’s modern Jewish population is descended mainly from people from ancient Turkey, rather than predominantly from elsewhere in the Middle East. The new research suggests that most of the Jewish population of northern and eastern Europe – normally known as Ashkenazic Jews – are the descendants of Greeks, Iranians and others who colonized what is now northern Turkey more than 2000 years ago and were then converted to Judaism, probably in the first few centuries AD by Jews from Persia. At that stage, the Persian Empire was home to the world’s largest Jewish communities. According to research carried out by the geneticist, Dr Eran Elhaik of the University of Sheffield, over 90 per cent of Ashkenazic ancestors come from that converted partially Greek-originating ancient community in north-east Turkey. His research is based on genetic, historical and place-name evidence. For his geographic genetic research, Dr Elhaik used a Geographic Population Structure computer modelling system to convert Ashkenazic Jewish DNA data into geographical information. Dr Elhaik, an Israeli-born geneticist who gained his doctorate in molecular evolution from the University of Houston, believes that three still-surviving Turkish villages – Iskenaz, Eskenaz and Ashanaz – on the western part of an ancient Silk Road route were part of the original Ashkenazic homeland. He believes that the word Ashkenaz originally comes from Ashguza - the ancient Assyrian and Babylonian name for the Iron Age Eurasian steppeland people, the Scythians. Referring to the names of the three Turkish villages, Dr Elhaik points out that “north-east Turkey is the only place in the world where these place-names exist”. Ulta-orthodox Ashkenazic Jews during a protest in Jerusalem last year (Getty Images) From the 690s AD onwards, anti-Jewish persecution by the Christian Byzantine Empire seems to have played a part in forcing large numbers of Jews to flee across the Black Sea to a more friendly state – the Turkic-ruled Khazar Empire with its large Slav and other populations. Some analyses of Yiddish suggests that it was originally a Slavic language, and Dr Elhaik and others believe that it was developed, probably in the 8th and 9th centuries AD, by Jewish merchants trading along some of the more northerly Silk Roads linking China and Europe. By the 730s, the Khazar Empire had begun to convert to Judaism – and more people converted to the faith. But when the Khazar Empire declined in or around the 11th century, some of the Jewish population almost certainly migrated west into Central Europe. There, as Yiddish-speaking Jewish merchants came into contact with central European, often German-speaking, peoples, they began to replace the Slav words in Yiddish with large numbers of German and German-derived words, while retaining some of its Slav-originating grammar. Many Hebrew words also appear to have been added by that stage. Ten hours walking in Paris as a Jew The genetic modelling used in the research was based on DNA data from 367 Jews of northern and eastern European origin and more than 600 non-Jewish people mainly from Europe and western Asia. Dr Elhaik says it is the largest genomic study ever carried out on Ashkenazic Jews. His research will be published in the UK-based scientific journal, Genome Biology and Evolution. Quote: Wrote:So much new information has arisen that itz time for a total update for 2016. What we learned in school can for the most part either be used as a general frame-work and set of loose guidelines or just go ahead and toss all that bull-shit in the trash and just start fresh here. Not only just the origin of species but the Truth about who was who and who wasn't when using DNA as the standard. To start off,I post two examples of the furthest reaches of island/nations and the TRUE STORY that DNA unveils. Further research is planned to try to measure the precise size of the Semitic genetic input into Jewish and non-Jewish genomes. DNA will unviel. Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 04-23-2016, 08:58 PM (This post was last modified: 04-23-2016, 09:18 PM by EA.) Was Jesus a Quasi-neo Nephilim. Did God "Do it" with Mary? How long a virgin? It's written in your genes: study April 18, 2016 A depiction of the double helical structure of DNA. Its four coding units (A, T, C, G) are color-coded in pink, orange, purple and yellow. Credit: NHGRI A DNA study of more than 380,000 people has uncovered a rather surprising role for human genes: helping to determine the age at which you first have sex. Factors such as family stability, peer pressure and personality type are all known to influence whether teenagers choose to engage in sex young, or abstain until adulthood. Now a huge gene trawl has revealed that "genes have a substantial influence" too, according to study co-author Ken Ong of the Institute of Metabolic Science at the University of Cambridge. Genetic factors, he told AFP, "explain around 25 percent of the differences in the age when people start to have sex". The genes likely influence such factors as the age at which puberty hits, and whether or not you posses a risk-taking personality. The average age of sexual maturity for both genders has decreased from about 18 years in 1880, to 12.5 in 1980, according to the study authors. Scientists have blamed changes in nutrition and the larger physical size of children today, as well as exposure to hormone-disrupting chemicals. Ong and a team analysed the genes of more than 125,000 participants in a British health study, and noted an association between 38 gene variants and the age at which they first had intercourse. They cross-checked this with gene datasets for 241,000 people in Iceland and 20,000 in the United States, for a total sample size of over 380,000 people. "We found that the size of the influence of genetic factors remained constant across decades of growing up, from the 1950s to the 1980s—this shows that genetic factors are relevant across a wide range of cultures and social attitudes," Ong said. Beyond socio-cultural factors Many of the gene variants were also linked to other reproductive traits, such as age at birth of one's first child, and the number of children borne, they found. The research was published in the journal Nature Genetics. Previous research had shown that people who start having sex at a young age are more likely to underperform at school and have poorer physical and mental health. Early onset puberty has been linked to a higher risk for diabetes, heart disease and some cancers. But most research so far has focused on the socio-cultural causes for teenage sex. The team said it hoped the findings will help identify and help children more prone, genetically and otherwise, to engage in risky behaviour. Explore further: Girls' perceptions drive sexual behavior More information: Physical and neurobehavioral determinants of reproductive onset and success, Nature Genetics, nature.com/articles/doi:10.1038/ng.3551 Journal reference: Nature Genetics The nature of the nephilim is complicated by the ambiguity of Genesis 6:4, which leaves it unclear whether they are the "sons of God" or their offspring who are the "mighty men of old, men of renown". Richard Hess in The Anchor Bible Dictionary takes it to mean that the nephilim are the offspring, as does P. W.Nephilim - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nephilim Eye could believe Jesus was a Quasi-neo Nephilim before I need to revert to Virgin Hocus-Pocus. 33 ibi vidimus monstra quaedam filiorum Enach de genere giganteo quibus conparati quasi lucustae videbamur Sun / Earth MASS ratio: 333,000 / 1 33 And there we saw the giants, the sons of Anak, [which come] of the giants: and we were in our own sight as grasshoppers, and so we were in their sight. The nature of the nephilim is complicated by the ambiguity of Genesis 6:4, which leaves it unclear whether they are the "sons of God" or their offspring who are the "mighty men of old, men of renown". Richard Hess in The Anchor Bible Dictionary takes it to mean that the nephilim are the offspring,[13] as does P. W. Coxon inDictionary of deities and demons in the Bible.[14] Nephilim From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia [/url] For other uses, see Nephilim (disambiguation). The Fall of the Rebel Angels by[url=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hieronymus_Bosch]Hieronymus Bosch is based on Genesis 6:1–4 The Nephilim /ˈnɛfᵻˌlɪm/ (Hebrew: נְפִילִים‎, sing. נָפִיל, Naphíl or Naphil) were offspring of the "sons of God" and the "daughters of men" before the Deluge according to Genesis 6:4; the name is also used in reference to giants who were said by unreliable witnesses to inhabit Canaan at the time of the Israelite conquest of Canaan according to Numbers 13:33. A similar biblical Hebrew word with different vowel-sounds is used in Ezekiel 32:27 to refer to dead Philistine warriors. Contents [hide] Etymology The Brown-Driver-Briggs Lexicon gives the meaning of Nephilim as "giants".[1] Many suggested interpretations are based on the assumption that the word is a derivative of Hebrew verbal root n-ph-l "fall". Robert Baker Girdlestone[2] argued the word comes from the Hiphil causative stem, implying that the Nephilim are to be perceived as "those that cause others to fall down". Adam Clarke took it as a perfect participle, "fallen", "apostates". Ronald Hendel states that it is a passive form "ones who have fallen", equivalent grammatically to paqid "one who is appointed" (i.e., overseer), asir, "one who is bound", (i.e., prisoner) etc.[3][4] According to theBrown-Driver-Briggs Lexicon, the basic etymology of the word Nephilim is "dub[ious]", and various suggested interpretations are "all very precarious".[5] The majority of ancient biblical versions, including the Septuagint, Theodotion, Latin Vulgate, Samaritan Targum, Targum Onkelos and Targum Neofiti, interpret the word to mean "giants".[6] Symmachus translates it as "the violent ones"[7][8][9] and Aquila's translation has been interpreted to mean either "the fallen ones"[7] or "the ones falling [upon their enemies]".[9][10] In the Hebrew Bible The term "Nephilim" occurs just twice in the Hebrew Bible, both in the Torah. The first is Genesis 6:1–4, immediately before the story of Noah's ark. Genesis 6:4[11] Hebrew (MT) English (JPS) ד הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ, בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם, וְגַם אַחֲרֵי-כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל-בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם, וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם: הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם, אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם. 4 The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown. Latin (Vulgate) English (KJV) 4 gigantes autem erant super terram in diebus illis postquam enim ingressi sunt filii Dei ad filias hominum illaeque genuerunt isti sunt potentes a saeculo viri famosi 4 There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare [children] to them, the same [became] mighty men which [were] of old, men of renown. The second is Numbers 13:32–33, where ten of the Twelve Spies report that they have seen fearsome giants in Canaan. Numbers 13:33[12] Hebrew (MT) English (JPS) לג וְשָׁם רָאִינוּ, אֶת-הַנְּפִלִים בְּנֵי עֲנָק--מִן-הַנְּפִלִים; וַנְּהִי בְעֵינֵינוּ כַּחֲגָבִים, וְכֵן הָיִינוּ בְּעֵינֵיהֶם. 33 And there we saw the Nephilim, the sons of Anak, who come of the Nephilim; and we were in our own sight as grasshoppers, and so we were in their sight.' Latin (Vulgate) English (KJV) 33 ibi vidimus monstra quaedam filiorum Enach de genere giganteo quibus conparati quasi lucustae videbamur 33 And there we saw the giants, the sons of Anak, [which come] of the giants: and we were in our own sight as grasshoppers, and so we were in their sight. The nature of the nephilim is complicated by the ambiguity of Genesis 6:4, which leaves it unclear whether they are the "sons of God" or their offspring who are the "mighty men of old, men of renown". Richard Hess in The Anchor Bible Dictionary takes it to mean that the nephilim are the offspring,[13] as does P. W. Coxon inDictionary of deities and demons in the Bible.[14] Interpretations There are effectively two views[15] regarding the identity of the nephilim, which follow on from alternative views about the identity of the sons of God (Bənê hāʼĕlōhîm):Offspring of Seth: The Qumran (Dead Sea Scroll) fragment 4Q417 (4QInstruction) contains the earliest known reference to the phrase "children of Seth", stating that God has condemned them for their rebellion. Other early references to the offspring of Seth rebelling from God and mingling with the daughters of Cain, are found in rabbi Shimon bar Yochai, Augustine of Hippo, Julius Africanus, and the Letters attributed to St. Clement. It is also the view expressed in the modern canonical Amharic Ethiopian Orthodox Bible. Offspring of angels: A number of early sources refer to the "sons of heaven" as angels. The earliest such references[16] seem to be in the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Greek, and Aramaic Enochic literature, and in certain Ge'ez manuscripts of 1 Enoch (mss A–Q) and Jubilees[17] used by western scholars in modern editions of the Old Testament Pseudepigrapha.[18] Some Christian apologists, such as Tertullian and especially Lactantius, shared this opinion. The earliest statement in a secondary commentary explicitly interpreting this to mean that angelic beings mated with humans can be traced to the rabbinical Targum Pseudo-Jonathan and it has since become especially commonplace in modern-day Christian commentaries. Fallen angels Main article: Fallen angel The New American Bible commentary draws a parallel to the Epistle of Jude and the statements set forth in Genesis, suggesting that the Epistle refers implicitly to the paternity of nephilim as heavenly beings who came to earth and had sexual intercourse with women.[19] The footnotes of the Jerusalem Bible suggest that the biblical author intended the nephilim to be an "anecdote of a superhuman race".[20] Some Christian commentators have argued against this view,[21][22] citing Jesus's statement that angels do not marry.[23] Others believe that Jesus was only referring to angels in heaven.[24] Evidence cited in favor of the "fallen angels" interpretation includes the fact that the phrase "the sons of God" (Hebrew, בְּנֵי הָֽאֱלֹהִים; literally "sons of the gods") is used twice outside of Genesis chapter 6, in the Book of Job (1:6 and 2:1) where the phrase explicitly references angels. The Septuagint manuscript Codex Alexandrinusreading of Genesis 6:2 renders this phrase as "the angels of God" while Codex Vaticanus reads "sons".[25] Quote:"... Taken as a given, He was the Son of God..." Did Jesus ever claim his Mom was A Virgin before she...ummm uhhh Got to "Know" God Real Good? Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 04-23-2016, 10:46 PM (This post was last modified: 04-23-2016, 11:16 PM by EA.) Bigger Brains Led to Bigger Bodies?: The Correlated Evolution of Human Brain and (Hobbit)Body Size(Nephilim) Quote:Was Jesus a Quasi-neo Nephilim. Mark Grabowski is a James Arthur Postdoctoral Fellow at the American Museum of Natural History (Central Park West/79th Street, New York, New York 10024, USA) and a Guest Researcher at the Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis in the Department of Biosciences at the University of Oslo (PO Box 1066 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo, Norway SUBMITTED: Nov 20, 2014 ACCEPTED: June 16, 2015 ONLINE: Mar 29, 2016 Abstract Most investigations of hominin brain and body size evolution assume that different selection pressures acted on each trait or that brain and body size are linked physiologically via the energetic demands of large brains. However, evidence from model organisms suggests that some genes cause variation in both brain and body size, with the result that selection on either trait can lead to a correlated response in the unselected trait. If brain and body size covariation exists in our lineage, correlated evolution could mean that changes observed in the fossil record are poor predictors of past selection pressures that produced those changes. This study shows that modern humans, chimpanzees, and all primates included here have significant and roughly similar levels of evolutionary constraints from brain and body size covariance, arguing that similar levels were present in earlier hominins. Building on these findings, results suggest that strong selection to increase brain size alone played a large role in both brain and body size increases throughout human evolution and may have been solely responsible for the major increase in both traits that occurred during the transition toHomo erectus. This switch in emphasis has major implications for adaptive hypotheses on the origins of our genus. Mark Grabowski, "Bigger Brains Led to Bigger Bodies?: The Correlated Evolution of Human Brain and Body Size," Current Anthropology 57, no. 2 (April 2016): 174-196. DOI: 10.1086/685655 Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... Fsbirdhouse Posting Freak Posts: 5,364 Threads: 539 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 28 04-24-2016, 01:18 AM (This post was last modified: 04-24-2016, 01:23 AM by Fsbirdhouse.) The comment about ambiguity concerning 'The Sons of God'. If they were the mighty "MEN" of old, they were men, not Fallen Angels. The only other references to "The Sons Of God' in the old testament is in Job....but you have already sited this 38 Then the Lord spoke to Job out of the storm. He said: 4 “Where were you when I laid the earth’s foundation? Tell me, if you understand. 5 Who marked off its dimensions? Surely you know! Who stretched a measuring line across it? 6 On what were its footings set, or who laid its cornerstone— 7 while the morning stars sang together and all the angels[a] shouted for joy? (Or…6"On what were its bases sunk? Or who laid its cornerstone, 7When the morning stars sang together And all the 'sons of God' shouted for joy? So, the words Autumn and Fall are not to be capitalized? They are in my world! What has been is what will be, and what has been done is what will be done; and there is nothing new under the sun. Is there a thing of which it is said, "See, this is new?"It has been already, in the ages before us. Ecc 1: 9-10 EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 04-24-2016, 01:53 PM Did Jesus ever claim his Mom was A Virgin? Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... Vianova Posting Freak Posts: 9,445 Threads: 51 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 20 05-16-2016, 05:18 PM (04-12-2016, 09:27 PM)EA Wrote: Archaeologists Believe They Found Location Where Jesus Christ Taught A 3,800-year journey from classroom to classroom April 12, 2016 by Patrick Lynch This tablet, once the schoolwork of a student in ancient Babylonia, is one of the most-reproduced cultural objects in Yale's collections. Thirty-eight hundred years ago, on the hot river plains of what is now southern Iraq, a Babylonian student did a bit of schoolwork that changed our understanding of ancient mathematics. The student scooped up a palm-sized clump of wet clay, formed a disc about the size and shape of a hamburger, and let it dry down a bit in the sun. On the surface of the moist clay the student drew a diagram that showed the people of the Old Babylonian Period (1,900–1,700 B.C.E.) fully understood the principles of the "Pythagorean Theorem" 1300 years before Greek geometer Pythagoras was born, and were also capable of calculating the square root of two to six decimal places. Today, thanks to the Internet and new digital scanning methods being employed at Yale, this ancient geometry lesson continues to be used in modern classrooms around the world. "This geometry tablet is one of the most-reproduced cultural objects that Yale owns—it's published in mathematics textbooks the world over," says Professor Benjamin Foster, curator of the Babylonian Collection, which includes the tablet. It's also a popular teaching tool in Yale classes. "At the Babylonian Collection we have a very active teaching and learning function, and we regard education as one of the core parts of our mission," says Foster. "We have graduate and undergraduate groups in our collection classroom every week." The tablet, formally known as YBC 7289, "Old Babylonian Period Mathematical Text," came to Yale in 1909 as part of a much larger collection of cuneiform tablets assembled by J. Pierpont Morgan and donated to Yale. In the ancient Mideast cuneiform writing was created by using a sharp stylus pressed into the surface of a soft clay tablet to produce wedge-like impressions representing pictographic words and numbers. Morgan's donation of tablets and other artifacts formed the nucleus of the Yale Babylonian Collection, which now incorporates 45,000 items from the ancient Mesopotamian kingdoms. [b]Discoverying the tablet's mathematical significance [/b] The importance of the geometry tablet was first recognized by science historians Otto Neugebauer and Abraham Sachs in their 1945 book "Mathematical Cuneiform Texts." "Ironically, mathematicians today are much more fascinated with the Babylonians' ability to accurately calculate irrational numbers like the square root of two than they are with the geometry demonstrations," notes associate Babylonian Collection curator Agnete Lassen. "The Old Babylonian Period produced many tablets that show complex mathematics, but it also produced things you might not expect from a culture this old, such as grammars, dictionaries, and word lists," says Lassen "One of the two main languages spoken in early Babylonia was dying out, and people were careful to document and save what they could on cuneiform tablets. It's ironic that almost 4,000 years ago people were thinking about cultural preservation, and actively preserving their learning for future generations.". Today, however, the tablet is a fragile lump of clay that would not survive routine handling in a classroom. In looking for alternatives that might bring the highlights of the Babylonian Collection to a wider audience, the collection's curators partnered with Yale's Institute for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage (IPCH) to bring the objects into the digital world. Scanning at the IPCH The IPCH Digitization Lab's first step was to do reflectance transformation imaging (RTI) on each of fourteen Babylonian Collection objects. RTI is a photographic technique that enables a student or researcher to look at a subject with many different lighting angles. That's particularly important for something like a cuneiform tablet, where there are complex 3D marks incised into the surface. With RTI you can freely manipulate the lighting, and see subtle surface variations that no ordinary photograph would reveal. Chelsea Graham of the IPCH Digitization Lab and her colleague Yang Ying Yang of the Yale Computer Graphics Group then did laser scanning of the tablet to create a three-dimensional geometric model that can be freely rotated onscreen. The resulting 3D models can be combined with many other types of digital imaging to give researchers and students a virtual tablet onscreen, and the same data can be use to create a 3D printed facsimile that can be freely used in the classroom without risk to the delicate original. 3D printing digital materials While virtual models on the computer screen have proved to be a valuable teaching and research resource, even the most accurate 3D model on a computer screen doesn't convey the tactile impact, and physicality of the real object. Yale's Center for Engineering Innovation and Design has collaborated with the IPCH on a number of cultural heritage projects, and the center's assistant director, Joseph Zinter, has used its 3D printing expertise on a wide range of engineering, basic science, and cultural heritage projects. "Whether it's a sculpture, a rare skull, or a microscopic neuron or molecule highly magnified, you can pick up a 3D printed model and hold it, and it's a very different and important way to understand the data. Holding something in your hand is a distinctive learning experience," notes Zinter. Sharing cultural heritage projects in the digital world Once a cultural artifact has entered the digital world there are practical problems with how to share the information with students and scholars. IPCH postdoctoral fellows Goze Akoglu and Eleni Kotoula are working with Yale computer science faculty member Holly Rushmeier to create an integrated collaborative software platform to support the research and sharing of cultural heritage artifacts like the Babylonian tablet. "Right now cultural heritage professionals must juggle many kinds of software, running several types of specialized 2D and 3D media viewers as well as conventional word processing and graphics programs. Our vision is to create a single virtual environment that accommodates many kinds of media, as well as supporting communication and annotation within the project," says Kotoula. The wide sharing and disseminating of cultural artifacts is one advantage of digitizing objects, notes professor Rushmeier, "but the key thing about digital is the power to study large virtual collections. It's not about scanning and modeling the individual object. When the scanned object becomes part of a large collection of digital data, then machine learning and search analysis tools can be run over the collection, allowing scholars to ask questions and make comparisons that aren't possible by other means," says Rushmeier. Reflecting on the process that brings state-of-the-art digital tools to one of humanity's oldest forms of writing, Graham said "It strikes me that this tablet has made a very long journey from classroom to classroom. People sometimes think the digital or 3D-printed models are just a novelty, or just for exhibitions, but you can engage and interact much more with the 3D printed object, or 3D model on the screen. I think the creators of this tablet would have appreciated the efforts to bring this fragile object back to the classroom." Explore further: 3-D printers make replicas of cuneiform tablets Provided by: Yale University OK, I have thought a lot about this Babylonian square root two in the Yale video. I contacted a couple of the Faces and Figureheads behind the video and the analysis. One responded, one didn't. They don't like being told that they are ... not necessarily wrong ... but their analysis is lacking in vision. The problem with hands on "evidence" -- the clay tablet, is that one is prone to assumtions in science that deals only with the physical evidence. They are right about this: It is a student's model on square root two. But they assume it is complete. They lack 3D vision that is simple. Though there is no quick visual evidence of additional numbers, they cannot assume that the ---> student <--- was actually completed in his lesson model. ie there is a very good chance that the student simply didn't finish the progression out complete. The Yale video and math study of the clay tablet, states that the Babylonians were sophisticated enough to design square root Two, with the sexigesimal progression: 1; 24 51 10 this is true, but it makes no sense that they didn't take the exact progression one very simple step further: 1; 24 51 10 8 This increases efficiency for square root two by a factor of 30 times. At the very least, the Babylonians HAD to know this next simple step in the progression. That is why the clay tablet number data is just simply incomplete, or was not finished at the time the student made it in his lesson. One then can streamline efficiency dramatically further with a variation in the progression, from additions, to a single subtraction ... in the next very simple step. see image for sqrt 2 math progression http://i.imgur.com/Bui3b8v.jpg in the future I will show how this clay tablet goes 3D ... EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 05-16-2016, 10:05 PM (This post was last modified: 05-16-2016, 10:19 PM by EA.) And there is your proof that this forum is a school. Vic! babylon 3-D instruct us. Thirty-eight hundred years ago, on the hot river plains of what is now southern Iraq, a Babylonian student did a bit of schoolwork that changed our understanding of ancient mathematics. The student scooped up a palm-sized clump of wet clay, formed a disc about the size and shape of a hamburger, and let it dry down a bit in the sun. On the surface of the moist clay the student drew a diagram that showed the people of the Old Babylonian Period (1,900–1,700 B.C.E.) fully understood the principles of the "Pythagorean Theorem" 1300 years before Greek geometer Pythagoras was born, and were also capable of calculating the square root of two to six decimal places. 1800 years before Jesus! That means Jesus had ~1776-1812 years of update to revolutionise the worldview of his day. Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 05-19-2016, 06:54 PM (This post was last modified: 05-19-2016, 07:07 PM by EA.) Coming Soon: In Search of the Historical Jesus Wed, May 11, 2016 The recent controversial discoveries, and a renowned scholar’s quest to uncover the historical truth about Jesus of Nazareth. We are pleased to announce the forthcoming special feature article, In Search of the Historical Jesus, to be released in the upcoming issue of Popular Archaeology Magazine. This special feature article will focus on the decades-long research and findings of a world-renowned scholar on Second Temple period Judaism and early Christianity, as it bears on the life and times of Jesus of Nazareth. The article will also discuss some of the recent controversial discoveries, as brought to light through archaeology and analysis of ancient writings, related to Jesus and his family and some of his early followers, including John the Baptist. Richly illustrated with dozens of images, you will surely find this article fascinating if you have an interest in the archaeology and historical research of Second Temple Herodian period Judaea, the Galilee, and Jerusalem at the very beginning of the movement that eventually became world Christianity. Look for it in the issue planned for release in the summer of 2016. Quote:A Tekton of Nazareth When Jesus? parents returned from Egypt, they abandoned their plans to settle in Bethlehem because it was located in Herod Archelaus? region. Instead, they settled in Nazareth, a Galilean town just one or two miles from Sepphoris. Nazareth was a rural Jewish community of about three hundred people, probably all from the same extended family. But it was not a sheltered retreat. As he grew up, Jesus could see the construction of nearby Sepphoris. And a bustling trade route—the Via Maris—passed nearby. Jesus likely attended the synagogue school during his childhood. But as he grew older, he also learned a trade from his father, who was a tekton (Mark 6:3). The Greek word tekton has been translated as ?carpenter? in many English Bibles, but the word actually means ?a craftsman who builds.? Given that Israel?s buildings were constructed of stones and rocks, Jesus likely worked as a stonemason rather than a carpenter. He probably spent hours helping his father shape and cut stones. Jesus may have even helped with the construction in Sepphoris, which occurred at the very same time he was living in Nazareth. Jerusalem Dig Calls for Support Sun, May 15, 2016 Summer 2016 Jerusalem dig to explore residential area of the rich and famous of the time of Herod and Jesus of Nazareth. Just below the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem, a team of archaeologists, scholars and students will soon be busy at work excavating one of Jerusalem’s most important archaeological sites — one that features the 2,000-year-old remains of a wealthy residential area that saw its heyday during the time of Herod and Jesus. Directing the operation is Shimon Gibson, a British-born Israeli archaeologist and adjunct professor at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. He is also a Senior Associate Fellow at the W. F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research. He, along with co-director James Tabor, a well-known scholar of Second Temple period Judaism and early Christianity and Professor with the Department of Religious Studies at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, is excavating an area adjacent to and below the southern Old City wall of Jerusalem. Referred to as the Mount Zion excavation because of its location in the sacred elevated area at the center of ancient Jerusalem near the historical Temple Mount, the work here is important because it is unearthing evidence of people who played out history in this place for thousands of years. It is set near a number of significant places in the history of this ancient city, such as the Praetorium where Jesus was tried before Pontius Pilate; the presumed location of the Last Supper of Jesus; the House of Caiaphas and those of other priestly families who lived during the time of Jesus; the large Nea Ekklesia of the Theotokos Church that Emperor Justinian commissioned in the 6th century and that was situated just above the site; and fortifications of the Crusaders and the Ayyubids. _________________________________________ Aerial overview of the Mount Zion dig site. Courtesy Mount Zion Archaeological Project _____________________________________________________ The team has completed its 2015 season of excavations, building on the large collection of finds and records they have already amassed from previous seasons—findings that are helping them to gradually piece together what life was like for the people who lived here centuries before in the shadow of Jerusalem's ancient walls. "We're uncovering ancient Jerusalem in all of its periods," says Tabor in a news documentary about the dig. "This is actually the center of the city" he says about the location of the dig. That's because the historic 15th-16th century Old City wall that overlooks the site did not exist for most of the time periods represented by the finds his team are uncovering. "So you have to imagine markets and houses and streets, and those are not visible now. It's like a city arising out of the soil."* Says Gibson: "The early remains that we thought were badly preserved turned out to be extremely well preserved, with houses, palatial houses dating back 2,000 years, with the ceilings of the lower basement levels intact, vaulted ceilings, and doorways leading into different chambers."* Some of the finds made in previous seasons include a plastered cistern, a stepped and plastered ritual bathing pool ('mikveh') with a well preserved barrel-vaulted ceiling, a chamber containing three bread ovens ('tabuns'), Early Roman pottery, lamps, stone vessels, murex shells, coins, Roman Tenth Legion stamped roof tiles, and what appeared to be a relatively rare and well-preserved, plastered bathtub. Gibson and Tabor suggest that what they are finding could be a wealthy neighborhood and, given the site's proximity to the location of the Herodian-built Second Temple known from the time of Jesus, possibly a community that included priests who served at the Temple. _______________________________________ Above, a remarkably well preserved 'bathtub' uncovered within the excavated home of a wealthy resident of ancient Jerusalem. Photo by Lori Woodall _________________________________________________ Gibson hopes that, beyond the scientific and scholarly gain that will be generated by the excavations and research, the work here will set the stage for an archaeological park open to the public. "With time," he adds, "when we have completed the excavation work, we will be getting down to preserving the archaeological remains and then opening it up as a park so that one day these people that are now passing by in bewilderment looking at our tents and seeing all this fuss being made in these excavation trenches will be able to come down and pass through and see all of these amazing remains in a way which together combine into a kind of theatre of history.”* _____________________________________ Above and below: The Mount Zion dig site as it looks today, before excavators return to the site in the summer of 2016. Above photo by Victoria Brogdon __________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ “This season promises to be spectacular as we come down on the well preserved 2nd Temple period remains,” says Tabor. The dig directors now look forward to the next excavation season, only one month away with a record number of participants. However, funding is still needed for general operational costs. “Each year we have the challenge of raising$80,000 in operational funds,” says Tabor. “UNC Charlote covers faculty and staff costs, and our diggers pay a modest fee, but the actual expenses of the dig we have to obtain through fundraising.”  Tabor and colleagues are calling for help from the general public — those who may be interested in “adopting” the site as their own and making a generous donation to help the researchers make more important discoveries for the next season. You can make a tax deductible donation either by check or on-line, to UNC Charlotte—see How to Support the Dig.  More information about the Mount Zion dig can be found at https://digmountzion.uncc.edu/ , http://popular-archaeology.com/issue/summer-2015/article/jerusalem-dig-hits-pay-dirt , and http://popular-archaeology.com/issue/12012013/article/digging-into-first-century-jerusalem-s-rich-and-famous.  ________________________________________  *News video documentary: UNC Charlotte in Jerusalem/NC Now/UNC-TV  Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 05-20-2016, 09:24 PM (This post was last modified: 05-20-2016, 11:30 PM by EA.) Works launched to restore Jesus' tomb in Jerusalem May 20, 2016 Christian pilgrims wait in line to visit the tomb of Jesus Christ in the Church of Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem Friday, May 20, 2016. Christian officials have launched historic restoration work at the Tomb of Jesus inside the Church of Holy Sepulcher, site where tradition holds Jesus was crucified, buried and resurrected. The works are the first in almost two centuries that will focus on repairing, reinforcing and conserving the structure. (AP Photo/Mahmoud Illean) Christian officials have launched historic restoration work at the Tomb of Jesus inside the Church of Holy Sepulchre, site where tradition holds Jesus was crucified, buried and resurrected. The works are the first in almost two centuries that will focus on repairing, reinforcing and conserving the structure. Pilgrims will be able to continue visiting the site while the work is underway. It's expected to last up to a year. Clerics from the three denominations that oversee the church—Greek Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Armenian—shook hands in a show of unity next to scaffolding erected on Friday. Work is set to begin in about a week. Greek-Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, Theophilos III says the ceremony was a message "that we are delivering what we promised."  Explore further: Archeologist says Holy Grail is in Rome Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-05-jesus-tomb-...m.html#jCp[/url] Sign of the times... Project To Clear Mines From The Site Of Jesus' Baptism Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to FacebookShare to Pinterest After reaching an agreement with all the Christian denominations, the British charity, the Halo Trust, has embarked on a project to clear mines and unexploded ordinance from one of the most sacred Christian sites in the world, where Jesus was baptized in the River Jordan. [url=https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-KL3Y59-rGaE/Vz8ndCMzuBI/AAAAAAABpp0/0oADKnBejvEVFbRbwd8CJ0fhxxrsb65RgCLcB/s1600/Jordan_01.jpg] View of Franciscan church in mined area of Jesus' baptism site by River Jordan [Credit: Halo Trust] The one square kilometer site that contains 7 churches and monasteries has been a no-go area for almost 50 years after thousands of mines and booby traps were laid during the 1967 war. The Chief Executive of the Halo Trust, Major General James Cowan, spoke to Susy Hodges about this landmark project. Huge Symbolism Cowan says the Halo Trust is “very excited” about this important and hugely symbolic project to clear thousands of mines and unexploded ordinance from Jesus’ baptism site along the western bank of the River Jordan. He explained how access to this sacred site, known as Qasr Al-Yahud, with its 7 churches and monasteries, “has been denied to Christians” ever since the 6-day war Arab-Israeli war when the area was heavily mined and booby traps were planted around the churches. Cowan explained that the Trust has been working “very hard” with both the Israeli and the Palestinian authorities and all the Christian denominations that have churches on the sacred site to acquire permission for the de-mining operation to go-ahead.  Among the 7 churches and monasteries on the mined site is a Franciscan Catholic church. He  pointed out that in 2000 ahead of Pope Saint John Paul’s visit to the River Jordan, a very small area of the mined site was cleared to allow a narrow access to the river enabling pilgrims to come and visit but said “the vast majority (of the site) remains mined.” Sensitive Politics Describing the project as an example of a “great ecumenical cooperative spirit”, Cowan said it’s “very uplifting” that this sacred site (where churches were first constructed in 400 AD)  is being “returned to its proper use.” He acknowledged that the negotiations with the various parties were a delicate operation as they are “all aware of how sensitive politics are on the West Bank.” One problem that still remains, said Cowan, is raising the 3 million dollars needed to complete the de-mining operations and he is appealing to all Christians to help fund this project. Source: Vatican Radio [May 19, 2016] Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 06-27-2016, 02:54 AM (This post was last modified: 06-27-2016, 03:01 AM by EA.) I would suggest this as pertinent for the penitent. Some would wager otherwise. Gospel of Jesus's Wife Likely a Fake, Bizarre Backstory Suggests By Owen Jarus, Live Science Contributor | June 17, 2016 02:58pm ET [img=553x0]http://www.livescience.com/images/i/000/084/191/original/gospel-jesus-wife-papyrus.jpg?interpolation=lanczos-none&fit=inside|660:*[/img] This business card-sized papyrus contains a line that says, "Jesus said to them, 'My wife..." Written in Coptic, an Egyptian language, the papyrus is now considered to be a modern-day forgery. Credit: Photo courtesy of Harvard Divinity School   A papyrus holding text that suggests Jesus Christ was married and whose authenticity has been a matter of intense debate since it was unveiled in 2012 is almost certainly a fake. Karen King, the Harvard professor who discovered the Gospel of Jesus's Wife and has defended its authenticity, has now conceded that the papyrus is likely a forgery and that its owner lied to her about the provenance and his own background. The concession comes after Walter Fritz, a resident of North Port, Florida, revealed that he is the owner of the papyrus that claims Jesus had a wife. Fritz said this to Ariel Sabar, a journalist for The Atlantic who wrote an exposé published June 15. Less than a day after that article was published, more documents came out revealing a fake Greek manuscript the owner had posted on his website and a blog in which the owner’s wife talks of restoring a second century Christian gospel, a project that apparently left part of the manuscript in fragments. Then on the evening of June 16, King conceded that the papyrus is likely a forgery. The new evidence "tips the balance toward forgery," King told Sabar. [6 Archaeological Forgeries That Could Have Changed History] The Gospel of Jesus's Wife contains the words "Jesus said to them, 'My wife...,'" suggesting that some people, in ancient times, believed that Jesus had a wife. King announced its discovery in September 2012. A number of scholars suspected that Fritz was the owner; Live Science's prior investigations also revealed that he might have been the owner. With Fritz's ownership confirmed, new documents related to the Gospel of Jesus's Wife were published on the blog of Christian Askeland, a research associate with the Institute for Septuagint and Biblical Research in Wuppertal, Germany. Additionally, Live Science had obtained several documents that were being withheld until Fritz was confirmed as the owner of the papyrus. These documents can now be published. Authenticity debate  The papyrus received extensive media coverage after it was first revealed in 2012. Scientific tests published in April 2014 in the journal Harvard Theological Review supported the authenticity of the papyrus. However, another series of studies published in the journal New Testament Studies in July 2015 suggested it was a forgery, having been copied, in part, from an online translation of the Gospel of Thomas published in 2002. Fritz claims to have purchased the Gospel of Jesus's Wife, along with other papyri, in 1999 from a man named Hans-Ulrich Laukamp, the owner of ACMB-American Corporation for Milling and Boreworks in Venice, Florida. The two men worked together at the company, with Fritz becoming president of its U.S. operations. In 2014, Live Science interviewed Laukamp's stepson, René Ernest, who said that Laukamp did not own the papyrus and had no interest in antiquities. Axel Herzsprung, a friend and business partner of Laukamp, also told Live Science that Laukamp did not collect papyri. Sabar, of The Atlantic, also interviewed Ernest and Herzsprung for his article. Again, the two denied Fritz's claims, saying that Laukamp did not own the papyrus. Ernest told Sabar that Laukamp was a kind-hearted individual with minimal education who drank a lot and had no interest in antiquities. Herzsprung described Fritz as a smooth talker who suckered Laukamp into giving him an executive position at ACMB. Fritz "was very eloquent," Herzsprung told Sabar, adding that "Laukamp was easily influenced — he didn't have a very high IQ — and Fritz was successful in talking his way in." "Herzsprung made no effort to hide his hatred of Fritz," Sabar wrote. "I was so angry at him that I thought it was better we never meet in the dark somewhere," Herzsprung told Sabar. Nefer Art In 1995, Fritz founded a company called Nefer Art. (The word nefer is an Egyptian word for beauty; the company offered an array of services to art collectors.) "Our customer database is substantial, and our discreet and confidential services are perfect for the distinguished collector and seller who likes to avoid the pushy atmosphere of the big auctions [sic] houses," an old page of the company's website read. Another page (which can still be seen) from the company website shows an array of artifacts, including a Greek text that multiple scholars identified as a fake when asked by Live Science.  There is also an Arabic manuscript that is shown horizontally inverted. The Arabic manuscript has reddish spots on it; what they are is unknown, however, "orange spots" were found on the back of the Gospel of Jesus's Wife during an examination, King wrote in an article published in 2014 in the journal Harvard Theological Review. Whether the spots on the Arabic text have any relation to the spots on the Gospel of Jesus's Wife is unknown. The Arabic text has been unpublished until now. The Greek text (seen here) is a terrible forgery, Askeland wrote on his blog. The text is written in a script "appropriate to a modern printed edition," he wrote, noting that "the cut along the left-hand side resembles one on the GJW [Gospel of Jesus's Wife]." Anitra Williams-Fritz Fritz is married to Anitra Williams-Fritz, an author who recently publisheda book of "automatic writing," which, as described in the book's summary, "involves allowing the spirit or higher self to simply flow through, to create, or guide the words that she writes. These writings are a very effective way for her to channel, as the message comes directly to her hand from her higher being and others." [img=553x0]http://www.livescience.com/images/i/000/084/190/i02/walter-fritz.jpg?1466179789?interpolation=lanczos-none&downsize=640:*[/img] Walter Fritz, the owner of the Gospel of Jesus's Wife. Credit: Lisette Poole/The Atlantic Askeland found a web page suggesting that Williams-Fritz was also involved with papyri. She ran a business called Cute Art World, which, on Aug. 31, 2009 — just a few months before her husband Fritz contacted King (of Harvard) for the first time — advertised pendants showing illustrations of the Virgin Mary holding baby Jesus. Images on the pendants contained a tiny scrap of papyri. Williams-Fritz said the fragments are from a restoration project that involved a Coptic Christian gospel. [Religious Mysteries: 8 Alleged Relics of Jesus] "These fragments are really old and come from a larger Christian papyrus, dating back to the 2nd Century A.D," Williams-Fritz wrote in the descriptions of the pendants. "The larger papyrus was probably part of a gospel or an early Christian text, written in the Sahidic Coptic language. The fragments were left over and couldn't be incorporated into the big papyrus any more because they were so small." A fake letter Fritz provided King with a contract he signed with Laukamp, as well as a typed letter, supposedly from 1982, saying that Peter Munro, a professor at the Free University of Berlin, and colleagues had examined Laukamp's papyrus. Sabar got a copy of this letter from Fritz and obtained copies of Munro's archived correspondence comparing the two. Sabar concluded that the letter was a fake. "The problems were endemic. A word that should have been typed with a special German character — a so-called sharp S, which Munro used in typewritten correspondence throughout the '80s and early '90s — was instead rendered with two ordinary S's, a sign that the letter may have been composed on a non-German typewriter or after Germany's 1996 spelling reform, or both," Sabar wrote. "In fact, all the available evidence suggests that the 1982 letter isn't from the 1980s," Sabar continued. "Its Courier typeface does not appear in the other Munro correspondence I gathered until the early '90s — Fritz's final years at the [Free University of Berlin]. The same is true of the letterhead. The school's Egyptology institute began using it only around April 1990." Egyptology background Sabar found that Fritz started studying for a master's degree in 1988 at the Free University of Berlin, before dropping out a few years later. Before he dropped out, Fritz published an article in German in 1991 in the journal Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur. The paper detailed a study of the Amarna tablets, diplomatic correspondence between the pharaohAkhenaten and other ancient leaders. Fritz also has a technical degree in architecture, Sabar found. While Fritz denied forging the Gospel of Jesus's Wife, he admitted that he had the capability to do so. "Well, to a certain degree, probably," Fritz told Sabar. "But to a degree that it is absolutely undetectable to the newest scientific methods, I don't know." Although Fritz was willing to talk to Sabar and disclose his ownership, he was unwilling to talk to Live Science. When we called him in April 2014, Fritz denied being the owner of the papyrus or knowing Laukamp. Fritz and his wife refused to communicate further with Live Science. Porn business Sabar also revealed that Fritz had started a pornography business in 2003. "Beginning in 2003, Fritz had launched a series of pornographic sites that showcased his wife having sex with other men — often more than one at a time," Sabar wrote. Apparently, according to Sabar, the couple would advertise free "gangbangs," asking interested men to email "Walt" so they could be cleared to attend. Though these sites seem to have been taken down between 2014 and 2015, archived images and video still exist online, Sabar found. "He lied to me" King has conceded that Fritz lied to her about the provenance of the papyrus but said she cannot be certain yet that the papyrus itself is a fraud. "King said she would need scientific proof — or a confession — to make a definitive finding of forgery," Sabar wrote. However, King added that the evidence now "presses in the direction of forgery." "I had no idea about this guy [Walter Fritz], obviously," King told Sabar. "He lied to me." Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 08-15-2016, 08:41 PM Quote:Walk while you have the light, before darkness overtakes you. -Yeshua the Tekton Researchers discover that DNA naturally fluoresces August 15, 2016 A depiction of the double helical structure of DNA.  Its four coding units (A, T, C, G) are color-coded  A Northwestern University team recently caught DNA doing something that has never been seen before: it blinked. For decades, textbooks have stated that macromolecules within living cells, such as DNA, RNA, and proteins, do not fluoresce on their own. Technology instead relies on special fluorescence dyes to enhance contrast when macromolecules are imaged. But now Professors Vadim Backman, Hao Zhang, and Cheng Sun have discovered that macromolecule structures in living cells do, in fact, naturally fluoresce. This finding could open the next frontier of biological discovery by paving a new way for label-free, super-resolution nanoscopic imaging and expanding the understanding of biological processes. "Everybody has overlooked this effect because nobody asked the right question," said Backman, Walter Dill Scott Professor of Biomedical Engineering in Northwestern's McCormick School of Engineering. "It sounds cliché, but you get the answer to the question you ask. When we actually asked the right question, we got a very different answer than expected." This research is described in the August 15 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Backman and Zhang served as the study's co-senior authors. Biqin Dong, a postdoctoral fellow in Zhang's laboratory, and Luay Almassalha, a graduate student in Backman's laboratory, are co-first authors of the paper. "There are textbooks that say biological molecules don't absorb light and don't fluoresce," said Zhang, associate professor of biological engineering. "It's what everyone learns; it's a part of training, so nobody questions it." The reason why no one spotted the fluorescence before? The molecules were in the "dark state," a condition in which they do not absorb or emit light. But just because they spend so much time in the dark state does not mean they never emit light. Backman likens the situation to athletic interval training. "Sprinters alternate running very, very fast and resting," Backman explained. "You might catch them when they are resting and assume they aren't doing anything. That's what DNA and proteins do. They fluoresce for a very short time and then rest for a very long time." Backman, Zhang, and Sun discovered that when illuminated with visible light, the molecules get excited and light up well enough to be imaged without fluorescent stains. When excited with the right wavelength, they even light up better than they would with the best, most powerful fluorescent labels. "This is ideal because staining is toxic," Zhang said, "and it makes imaging less precise." This toxicity makes it tricky to get an accurate image of the active processes in living cells because they die immediately after the application of fluorescent stains. There are special dyes used to image living cells, but those just cause the cells to die slower. "The cell might die in two hours, so you can still do imaging in the first half hour," Backman said. "But what exactly are you measuring? What are you actually seeing? Are you looking at real processes of the cell? Or are you looking at processes in a cell that is about to die?  Nobody knows." Thanks to Backman, Zhang, and Sun, the world soon might know.  Explore further: Detecting lysosomal pH with fluorescent probes More information: Superresolution intrinsic fluorescence imaging of chromatin utilizing native, unmodified nucleic acids for contrast, www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1602202113  Journal reference: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences  Provided by: Northwestern University Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-08-dna-natural...s.html#jCp Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 08-18-2016, 09:26 PM (This post was last modified: 08-18-2016, 10:49 PM by EA.) I often wonder if Yeshua ever saw a fossil. Raptor Rapture? T-Rex Golgotha http://phys.org/news/2016-08-rare-tyrann...attle.html The Place of the Skull. Paleontologists prepare to remove a Tyrannosaurus rex skull from a fossil dig site in northern Montana and transport it to...  the Burke Museum at the University of Washington. --->(Migdal) Credit: Darwin? Dave DeMar/Burke Museum/University of Washington Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-08-rare-tyrann...e.html#jCp Hey Zeus...  Long-Arm Lightning Spear Dude. Don't Worry Olympus forgot about T-Rex too. Darwin is very cruel to the Tyrannosaurs.  @Clay What would Jesus think of T-Rex?  Palm Sunday New techniques boost understanding of how fish fins became fingers August 17, 2016   Markers of the wrists and digits in the limb of a mouse (left) are present in fish and demarcate the fin rays (right). The wrist and digits of tetrapods are the cellular and genetic equivalents of the fin rays of fish. Credit: Shubin laboratory Hammered Rite Through His Wrist/Palm/Fin. One of the great transformations required for the descendants of fish to become creatures that could walk on water land was the replacement of long, elegant fin rays by fingers and toes.  In the Aug. 17, 2016 issue of Nature, scientists from the University of Chicago show that the same cells that make fin rays in fish play a central role in forming the fingers and toes of four-legged creatures. After three years of painstaking experiments using novel gene-editing techniques and sensitive fate mapping to label and track developing cells in fish, the researchers describe how the small flexible bones found at the ends of fins are related to fingers and toes, which are more suitable for life on land. fingers and toes. "When I first saw these results you could have knocked me over with a feather," said the study's senior author, Neil Shubin, PhD, the Robert R. Bensley Distinguished Service Professor of Organismal Biology and Anatomy at the University of Chicago. Shubin is an authority on the transition from fins to limbs. "For years," he said, "scientists have thought that fin rays were completely unrelated to fingers and toes, utterly dissimilar because one kind of bone is initially formed out of cartilage and the other is formed in simple connective tissue. Our results change that whole idea. We now have a lot of things to rethink." To unravel how fins might have transformed into wrists and fingers, the researchers worked mostly with a standard fish model: the zebrafish. Tetsuya Nakamura, PhD, a postdoctoral scholar in Shubin's lab, used a gene-editing technique, CRISPR/Cas, in zebrafish to delete important genes linked to limb-building, and then selectively bred zebrafish with multiple targeted deletions. He spent more than two years building and cross breeding the fish mutants, a project that began at the Marine Biological Laboratories in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. At the same time, Andrew Gehrke, PhD, a former graduate student in Shubin's lab, refined cell-labelling techniques to map out when and where specific embryonic cells migrated as the animals grew and developed. "It was one of those eureka moments," Gehrke said. "We found that the cells that mark the wrists and fingers of mice and people were exclusively in the fin rays of fish." The team focused on Hox genes, which control the body plan of a growing embryo along the head-to-tail, or shoulder-to-fingertip, axis. Many of these genes are crucial for limb development. They studied the development of cells, beginning, in some experiments, soon after fertilization, and followed them as they became part of an adult fin. Previous work has shown that when Hox genes, specifically those related to the wrists and digits of mice (HoxD and HoxA), were deleted, the mice did not develop those structures. When Nakamura deleted those same genes in zebrafish, the long fins rays were greatly reduced. "What matters is not what happens when you knock out a single gene but when you do it in combination," Nakamura explained. "That's where the magic happens." The researchers also used a high-energy CT scanner to see the minute structures within the adult zebrafish fin. These can be invisible, even to most traditional microscopes. The scans revealed that fish lacking certain genes lost fin rays, but the small bones made of cartilage fin increased in number. The authors suspect that the mutants that Nakamura made caused cells to stop migrating from the base of the fin to their usual position near the tip. This inability to migrate meant that there were fewer cells to make fin rays, leaving more cells at the fin base to produce cartilage elements. "It really took the combination of labeling and knockouts to convince us that this cellular relationship between fins and limbs was real," Gehrke said. Future research includes new expeditions to find more fossil intermediates - such as Tiktaalik, a link between primitive fish and the first four-legged animals, discovered by Shubin and colleagues in 2006 - in the transition from fins to limbs. They are also planning experiments with Hox genes to learn how a common population of cells can form such different structures in fish and people.  Explore further: Before animals first walked on land, fish carried gene program for limbs More information: Tetsuya Nakamura et al, Digits and fin rays share common developmental histories, Nature (2016). DOI: 10.1038/nature19322  Journal reference: Nature   Provided by: University of Chicago Medical Center Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-08-techniques-...s.html#jCp [/url] [url=http://phys.org/news/2016-08-techniques-boost-fish-fins-fingers.html#jCp] EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 10-28-2016, 12:49 AM (This post was last modified: 10-28-2016, 12:51 AM by EA.) If the document turns out to be authentic, it will be notable for a line that translates from Hebrew as "from the king's maidservant, from Na'arat, (which was near Jericho)—jars of wine, to Jerusalem." Experts uncover hidden layers of Jesus' tomb site October 27, 2016 by Daniel Estrin This Wednesday Oct. 26, 2016 photo, shows the moment workers remove the top marble layer of the tomb said to be of Jesus Christ, in the Church of Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem. A restoration team has peeled away a marble layer for the first time in centuries in an effort to reach what it believes is the original rock surface where Jesus' body was laid. (Dusan Vranic/National Geographic via AP) In the innermost chamber of the site said to be the tomb of Jesus, a restoration team has peeled away a marble layer for the first time in centuries in an effort to reach what it believes is the original rock surface where Jesus' body was laid. Many historians have long believed that the original cave, identified a few centuries after Jesus' death as his tomb, was obliterated ages ago. But an archaeologist accompanying the restoration team said ground penetrating radar tests determined that cave walls are in fact standing—at a height of six feet and connected to bedrock—behind the marbled panels of the chamber at the center of Jerusalem's Church of the Holy Sepulchre. "What was found," said National Geographic archaeologist Fredrik Hiebert, "is astonishing." The work is part of a historic renovation project to reinforce and preserve the Edicule, the chamber housing the cave where Jesus is said to have been entombed and resurrected. It is the centerpiece of one of Christianity's oldest churches and one of its most important shrines. "I usually spend my time in Tut's tomb," said Hiebert about the Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun's burial site, "but this is more important." National Geographic is partnering with Greek restoration experts to document the work. A 12th-century building sitting on 4th-century remains, the Church of the Holy Sepluchre is the only place where six Christian denominations practice their faith at the same site. The Edicule was last restored in 1810 following a fire, and is in need of reinforcement after years of exposure to humidity and candle smoke. A hulking iron cage built around the Edicule by British authorities in 1947 for support still stands, but is not enough. Renovations at this holiest of spots require mutual agreement by the church's various custodians, and that is notoriously hard to secure. The denominations jealously guard different parts of the site and often object to even the slightest of changes. Last year, Israeli police briefly shut down the building after Israel's Antiquities Authority deemed it unsafe. It prompted the Christian denominations to green light the repairs, which began in June. Pilgrims line up throughout the day for the chance to crouch in the Edicule's tiny room. They kneel before a white marble encasing, said to cover a surface hewn from the side of the limestone cave where Jesus' body was laid before his resurrection. Church officials closed the Edicule to pilgrims beginning Wednesday evening, and workers used a pulley to slide open the marble slab, in hopes of reaching the burial surface. Hiebert said the slab hadn't been removed since the year 1550. Underneath the marble was a layer of debris. By Thursday afternoon, workers had finished removing the debris, revealing something unexpected: another marble slab. Hiebert said he thinks the second slab, which is grey and features a small etching of a cross, dates to the 12th century. It is cracked down the middle, and underneath it is a whitish layer. "I don't believe ... that is the original rock," Hiebert said. "We still have more to go." The main Christian communities that govern the church have allowed the work crew only 60 hours to excavate the inner sanctum, Hiebert said. Experts are working day and night to reach the tomb's core and to analyze it. "We will close the tomb after we document it," said Antonia Moropoulou, an architect at the National Technical University of Athens, which is supervising the renovation. The restoration team wants to tightly seal the core of the tomb before injecting parts of the shrine with mortar for reinforcement, so the material doesn't seep inside what is considered to be the holy rock. One part of the tomb will remain exposed. Experts on Thursday cut a rectangular window in one of the Edicule's marble walls, so pilgrims will be able to glimpse, for the first time, a part of the limestone wall thought to be the tomb of Jesus. David Grenier, secretary of a group that oversees Roman Catholic church properties in the Holy Land, stood with a few other Franciscan friars, watching the work crew in awe. "What happened here 2,000 years ago completely changed the history of the world," he said. "To be able to dig, let's say, to the rock where the body of Jesus was laid ... it's overwhelming joy." At one point, a National Geographic film crew documented the site as clergy burned incense around them in a daily church rite. After the film crew cleared out, a pair of clergymen in brown frocks, and an Israeli policeman stationed at the church to help keep the peace, clambered over a pile of work tools, electrical wires and a yellow hard hat on the Edicule floor to lean into the inner chamber and snap cell phone photos of the exposed tomb. "It's a historic moment, huh?" the policeman said.  Explore further: Works launched to restore Jesus' tomb in Jerusalem Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-10-experts-unc...s.html#jCp port Important ancient papyrus seized from looters in Israel October 27, 2016 by Bob Yirka Credit: Shai Halevi, Israel Antiquities Authority (Phys.org)—Eitan Klein, a representative of the Israel Antiquities Authority, has announced that an important papyrus document dated to 2,700 years ago has been seized from a group of Palestinian looters who reportedly dug it up in a cave in the Judean Desert approximately three years ago. The claim of its authenticity has been challenged, however, by Christopher Rollston (as reported by Live Science) a professor with George Washington University in the U.S.—he contends that the wording on the document suggests it might be a forgery. If the document turns out to be authentic, it will be notable for a line that translates from Hebrew as "from the king's maidservant, from Na'arat, (which was near Jericho)—jars of wine, to Jerusalem." This sentence would mark the second-oldest reference to Jerusalem—the Bible is the oldest. It would also be important because it suggests the lines were written by a woman from the time of the First Temple (which King Solomon had built in 957BC—but it was destroyed by soldiers working for King Nebuchadnezzar, the Babylonian king, approximately 400 years later), who held an important position in society. Klein outlined the means by which he and his team tracked the looters and eventually caught them in the act of looting a cave. He did not give specifics as to how the scroll was found, but hinted that it might have been purchased after being tracked to an antiquities market somewhere in Jerusalem. The scroll has already been carbon dated, but as Rollston noted, if it were a fake, the forger would have simply obtained a blank scroll from that time period and written on it using the same type of ink used thousands of years ago. In response, Klein has offered to listen to evidence by Rollston, but suggests that he and his team are very nearly certain the papyrus is an authentic document because they have proof that it was dug up by looters from a cave in the Nahal Hever valley—they are not revealing its exact location for fear that other looters will descend on the scene. The papyrus and the lines written on it will no doubt be studied in more detail by other researchers who may or may not come to a consensus on the authenticity of the scroll.  Explore further: 11 ancient burial boxes recovered in Israel (Update) Quote:Snakes lost their legs due to a [b]trio of mutations in a genetic switch[/b] known as an enhancer— that controls the activity of a gene required for limb development King James Bible And the LORD God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thouart cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life: Read more at: [url=http://phys.org/news/2016-10-genetic-snakes-legs.html#jCp]http://phys.org/news/2016-10-genetic-snakes-legs.html#jCp Researchers find genetic change that caused snakes to lose legs October 20, 2016 Credit: Western Pacific Tropical Research Center About 150 million years ago, snakes roamed about on well-developed legs. Now, two University of Florida researchers have discovered how snakes' legs eventually disappeared. How snakes lost a blueprint for making limbs October 20, 2016 This image depicts mouse embryos with the ZRS from cobra or python inserted into their genomes, replacing the normal gene regulator. Their truncated limb development is visible in the comparative bone scans. Credit: Kvon et al./Cell 2016 Snakes lost their limbs over 100 million years ago, but scientists have struggled to identify the genetic changes involved. ACell paper publishing October 20 sheds some light on the process, describing a stretch of DNA involved in limb formation that is mutated in snakes. When researchers inserted the snake DNA into mice, the animals developed truncated limbs, ===>>> suggesting that a critical stretch of DNA lost its ability to support limb growth during snake evolution. The kids are all right: Children with 3-way DNA are healthy October 26, 2016 by Marilynn Marchione And Malcolm Ritter Emma Foster, 17, of Red Bank, N.J., speaks during an interview at St. Barnabas Hospital, in Livingston, N.J., Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016. More than 15 years ago, 17 babies, including Emma, were born after an experimental infertility treatment …more More than 15 years ago, 17 babies were born after an experimental infertility treatment that gave them DNA from three people: Mom, Dad and an egg donor. Now researchers have checked up on how the babies are doing as teenagers. The preliminary verdict: The kids are all right. With no sign of unusual health problems and excellent grades in school at ages 13 to 18, these children are "doing well," said embryologist Jacques Cohen of the Institute for Reproductive Medicine & Science at Saint Barnabas in Livingston, New Jersey, where the treatment was done. That includes Emma Foster, 17, of Red Bank, New Jersey. "I turned out normal," Foster said in an interview Tuesday. A cheerleader since age 10, she is now looking at colleges and thinking of majoring in engineering. The infertility procedure is no longer performed. But the study of the children is timely because just last month, the first baby was born from a different procedure that also mixed genetic material from three people. That technique is aimed not at infertility but at preventing the child from inheriting harmful genes from the mother. Critics are concerned about its long-term safety. So finding no problem so far from the infertility treatment is helpful and "a good message" for people considering the disease-prevention procedure, Cohen said. But he emphasized that his findings cannot be taken as proof that the newer procedure is safe and should be performed. From left, Peter Foster, daughters, Emma and Kerry; wife, Susan Foster, and embryologist Dr. Jacques Cohen pose for a photograph at St. Barnabas Hospital, in Livingston, N.J., Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016. More than 15 years ago, 17 babies, …more Cells carry DNA in two places: the nucleus, where the chromosomes are, and to a much smaller degree the mitochondria. Mitochondria are the little powerhouses in the cytoplasm, the liquid part of the egg cell outside the nucleus. Both DNA-mixing procedures involve the mitochondria; the one that recently produced the baby was aimed at replacing a mother's defective mitochondria. Cohen's procedure injected a bit of mitochondria-containing cytoplasm into the mother's egg. Genes in the mitochondrial DNA don't affect traits like eye and hair color but are important for keeping cells healthy throughout the body. Cohen's hospital performed the infertility treatment between 1996 and 2001 on 33 couples who failed to conceive after roughly five tries at in vitro fertilization. "We felt that there was something wrong with the cytoplasm" and that injecting a small amount of it from a healthy egg donor might aid embryo development, Cohen said. Fourteen of the 33 patients became pregnant, and 13 ultimately gave birth to 18 babies, including two sets of twins and one of quadruplets. (One of the 18 babies was a twin from a standard egg donation; doctors also included data on that child in the follow-up study.) Peter and Susan Foster, of Red Bank, N.J., parents of 17-year-old Emma, speak during an interview at St. Barnabas Hospital, in Livingston, N.J., Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016. They had been trying for about seven years to have a baby, and when …more Cohen and colleagues presented their findings Wednesday in the journal Reproductive BioMedicine Online. The parents of the quadruplets refused multiple requests for follow-up information; doctors know only that all four are alive and in high school. In detailed surveys, parents of the 14 other children all reported their kids in good health. One has chronic migraines, two have mild asthma, one is obese, seven have allergies, and one has attention deficit disorder. None of those rates are unusual for that number of children, doctors said. One boy was diagnosed with a borderline developmental disorder at 18 months but not when he was older, and he has an A average in school. "These children have done well," Cohen said. "It's what we expected or at least had hoped." At least two other clinics in the U.S. and several in other countries tried the technique after Cohen started it, but the U.S. work stopped after the Food and Drug Administration stepped in to regulate it. Cohen said his group tried to comply with the FDA's requirements for a permit to continue the work but lost funding before it could meet them. It's not clear why the treatment worked for the 13 couples, Cohen said. One possibility is the infusion of mitochondria, but cytoplasm contains other molecules and structures too, he said. Embryologist Jacques Cohen speaks during an interview at St. Barnabas Hospital, in Livingston, N.J., Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016. Cohen's hospital performed the three-person infertility treatments between 1996 and 2001 on 33 couples who failed …more In any case, it was a success for Emma's parents, Susan and Peter Foster, who had been trying for about seven years to have a baby. When Cohen's experimental procedure was described to them and they were asked if they were interested, they had no doubts, Peter said. Susan gave birth at 33. Emma was healthy and has continued that way, her parents say. Emma is the only child in the survey to have been told about the procedure. She said she has long known her origins were unusual—her mom keeps a book that shows her as an embryo—but she didn't know the specifics until recently. "I think it's really cool," she said. "It makes me different." She may no longer carry any trace of the donor. Only two of eight babies tested after birth showed any sign of donor mitochondria, and Emma was one who showed none. Cohen said the tests, which were not as sensitive then as now, might have overlooked some traces. The follow-up study has some limitations. It's based on a survey of parents, and the accuracy of such second-hand information can be shaky. And it includes just 13 teens, with no comparison group. Still, Dr. James Grifo, director of infertility treatment at New York University, said the results suggest that criticism of research that mixes DNA from three people appears unfounded. "The outcomes looked uniformly good ... suggesting that no harm was done," said Grifo, who did not participate in the new study. The donor cytoplasm "certainly may have played a role in allowing their embryo to develop to a stage that allowed a pregnancy." In 1999, after years of experiments in mice, Grifo and colleagues made embryos with DNA from three people and transferred them to several patients' wombs, but no pregnancy resulted. Then the FDA stepped in and stopped the work. "I think it should be allowed," Grifo said. But Dr. Alan Copperman, director of infertility at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York, said the jury is still out on whether using a third party's genetic material is safe. From left, Peter Foster; adopted daughter; Kerry, 12; his wife, Susan, and their biological daughter, Emma, 17, walk on the grounds outside St. Barnabas Hospital, in Livingston, N.J., Tuesday, Oct. 25, 2016. More than 15 years ago, 17 …more "I don't think that we're yet able to declare victory and that we've figured out how to fix an unhealthy egg or embryo," Copperman said. Most eggs that fail to develop normally, especially with older patients, are because of abnormal chromosomes, so tinkering with the cytoplasm is not likely to be a solution for many people, he said. But it apparently worked for the Fosters. Emma "is a blessing and a miracle," Susan Foster said, "and medical science made that possible."  Explore further: World's first baby born from 3-parent technique: report More information: Serena H. Chen et al. A limited survey-based uncontrolled follow-up study of children born after ooplasmic transplantation in a single centre, Reproductive BioMedicine Online (2016). Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 12-01-2016, 02:37 AM (This post was last modified: 12-01-2016, 02:56 AM by EA.) How to climb the social ladder in ancient Rome November 23, 2016 by Jerry Toner, The Conversation Being adopted by Julius Caesar didn’t do Augustus any harm.  Being adopted by Joseph/Carpenter didn't do Jesus no good? It is easy to imagine ancient Rome as a society where the emperors, senators and other nobles sat on top of an undifferentiated, static mass of ordinary Romans (who in turn sat above the mass of slaves). But Roman society was, in fact, highly stratified throughout and people of all social levels went to great lengths to better their lot in life and climb the social ladder. Some even succeeded in joining the empire's richest ranks. The traditional view of the Roman people lounging around at the games ignores just how much they had to work. As Pliny the Younger noted when recommending a young man to a friend: "He loves hard work as much as poor people usually do". Most free men in the country were peasants and in the towns and cities were unskilled labourers, doing such jobs as carrying the goods imported to the docks of Rome at Ostia and working on building the great imperial buildings, such as the Colosseum. Manual work was never going to pay well and probably provided little more than a subsistence income.  The main way for people to improve their quality of life was to acquire a skill. If a worker could learn a craft then his income as an artisan could comfortably rise to double or treble that of an unskilled worker. Get a trade(Become a Tekton!!!) The variety of skilled jobs we find in the sources is extraordinary. More than 225 trades are listed on tombstones and other inscriptions. A letter attributed to the emperor Hadrian, for example, gives us an idea of the competitive industry that the urban population of Alexandria showed in their pursuit of making a living: No one is idle. Some are blowers of glass, others makers of paper, all at least are weavers of linen or seem to belong to one craft or another … Their only god is money, which everyone adores. Women also played an important economic role. That women are listed in only 35 different occupations, however, shows that their opportunities were far more limited. They worked mainly in the service sector, spinning wool, making jewellery, serving in taverns, hairdressing and making and mending clothes. Average wages, in denarii, in AD301. Banking and commerce If a Roman had some capital, lending money could be very profitable.  One source describes commercial moneylenders "rejoicing in the accrual of money which increases day by day".  Their joy was understandable as 12% interest was typically charged for unsecured loans. Interest on short-term loans in crisis periods could reach 50%. And if the borrower failed to make payments on time, creditors held considerable legal powers and could sell all the debtor's possessions – including his children – into slavery. Trade was anther profitable business – and the empire's shipping routes were busy with vessels transporting all manner of goods, such as wine, pottery, olive oil, spices and slaves. The aristocracy looked down on trade as being beneath them but that did not stop them from using front-men to carry out business on their behalf. It seems that former slaves were often used in this role, presumably because they could be more trusted to do what they were told and hand over the bulk of the profits at the end of the deal. Coins of the Bible: Shekel of Tyre. official temple sanctuary tax ... Bible.ca1772 × 1054Search by image The bribery price of Jesus was most certainly paid in official Tyrian silver shekels. So 30 pieces are about 5 weeks money (based on a 6 day working week.) In terms of purchasing power, each silver piece was probably worth about $20. The standards of living being much, much lower than in modern (Western) societies. So the thirty pieces are worth about$600. How much were the 30 pieces of silver Judas received to betray Jesus ... https://www.quora.com/How-much-were-the-30-pieces-of-silver-Judas-received-to-betra... These freedmen frequently proudly asserted their prosperous – free – status on inscriptions on their tombs. Some former slaves of emperors became extremely influential and rich, such as Narcissus – a former slave of Emperor Claudius in the first century AD who went on to amass considerable wealth and influence as a freedman. The status of freedman as former slaves, however, meant they were never fully accepted among the social elite. Big league If a Roman wanted to make it really big then he needed to become a celebrity. Successful gladiators were adored by the crowds. Mosaics featuring them were widespread. They were a common topic of conversation and even a clay baby's bottle at Pompeii was stamped with a figure of a gladiator – presumably so that the infant could drink in strength and courage along with its milk. The fighters were handsomely paid for their work but, of course, few survived to enjoy a prosperous old age. Charioteers actually seem to have earned the most, reflecting the great popularity of the regular chariot racing – the Circus Maximus held 250,000 spectators. The most successful charioteer known was the second-century AD champion Gaius Appeleius Diocles, from Lusitania, now Portugal. In a 24-year career, he competed in 4,257 races, winning 1,462 of them. His career earnings reached 35,863,120 sesterces – estimated at US\$15 billion. Given it took only one million sesterces to qualify as a senator, the size of his fortune is clear. So it took hard work, patience – and sometimes a great deal of risk – but if it all came good, any Roman could hope to rise up to a position where they owned a villa and amassed a fortune. Those who achieved it, though, were the lucky few. Provided by: The Conversation Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-11-climb-socia...e.html#jCp[/url][url=http://phys.org/news/2016-11-climb-social-ladder-ancient-rome.html#jCp] Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 12-02-2016, 06:24 PM Bethlehem star may not be a star after all December 2, 2016 Grant Mathews believes the event that led the Magi — Zoroastrian priests of ancient Babylon and Mesopotamia — was an extremely rare planetary alignment occurring in 6 B.C., and the likes of which may never be seen again. Credit: University of Notre Dame It is the nature of astronomers and astrophysicists to look up at the stars with wonder, searching for answers to the still-unsolved mysteries of the universe. The Star of Bethlehem, and its origin, has been one of those mysteries, pondered by scientists for centuries – and something Grant Mathews, professor of theoretical astrophysics and cosmology in the Department of Physics in the University of Notre Dame's College of Science, has studied for more than a decade. "Astronomers, historians and theologians have pondered the question of the 'Christmas Star' for many years," said Mathews. "Where and when did it appear? What did it look like? Of the billions of stars out there, which among them shone bright on that day so long ago? Modern astrophysics is how we attempt to explain one of history's greatest astronomical events." Spoiler alert: It may not have been a star at all. Studying historical, astronomical and biblical records, Mathews believes the event that led the Magi—Zoroastrian priests of ancient Babylon and Mesopotamia—was an extremely rare planetary alignment occurring in 6 B.C., and the likes of which may never be seen again. During this alignment, the sun, Jupiter, the moon and Saturn were all in Aries, while Venus was next door in Pisces, and Mercury and Mars were on the other side in Taurus. At the time, Aries was also the location of the vernal equinox. The presence of Jupiter and the moon signified the birth of a ruler with a special destiny. Saturn was a symbol of the giving of life, as was the presence of Aries in the vernal equinox – also marking the start of spring. That the alignment occurred in Aries, Mathews said, signified a newborn ruler in Judea. "The Magi would have seen this in the east and recognized that it symbolized a regal birth in Judea," ultimately leading them in search of the newborn ruler, Mathews said. Based on his calculations, it will be 16,000 years before a similar alignment is seen again—and even then, the vernal equinox would not be in Aries. Running calculations forward, Mathews couldn't find an alignment like the one known as the Bethlehem Star going out as far as 500,000 years. "I feel a kindred connection to these ancient Magi," said Mathews, "who earnestly scanned the heavens for insight into the truth about the nature and evolution of the universe, just as we do today." Mathews is at work on a book about his findings and gives an annual public lecture at the University of Notre Dame's Digital Visualization Theater, where he maps the history of the sky dating back to 6 B.C. Provided by: University of Notre Dame Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-12-bethlehem-star.html#jCp Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... Fsbirdhouse Posting Freak Posts: 5,364 Threads: 539 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 28 12-02-2016, 08:18 PM The Jesus of bread and fish. A Divine multiplier? Do not discount miracles. Until you pray for one with every ounce of sincerity you can muster, and then have it done that very instant, and in an almost blinding flash of light....conviction takes quite a turn. Pascal's Wager seems a pristine bit of logic ever after! So, the words Autumn and Fall are not to be capitalized? They are in my world! What has been is what will be, and what has been done is what will be done; and there is nothing new under the sun. Is there a thing of which it is said, "See, this is new?"It has been already, in the ages before us. Ecc 1: 9-10 EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 12-03-2016, 10:25 PM You mean: Just like this Researchers demonstrate 'ghost imaging' with atoms December 1, 2016 by James Grubel Credit: Australian National University A team of physicists at ANU have used a technique known as 'ghost imaging' to create an image of an object from atoms that never interact with it. This is the first time that ghost imaging has been achieved using atoms, although it has previously been demonstrated with light, leading to applications being developed for imaging and remote sensing through turbulent environments. The atom-based result may lead to a new method for quality control of nanoscale manufacturing, including atomic scale 3-D printing. Lead researcher Associate Professor Andrew Truscott from the ANU Research School of Physics and Engineering (RSPE) said the experiment relied on correlated pairs of atoms. The pairs were separated by around six centimetres and used to generate an image of the ANU logo. "One atom in each pair was directed towards a mask with the letters 'ANU' cut-out," Associate Professor Truscott said. "Only atoms that pass through the mask reach a 'bucket' detector placed behind the mask, which records a 'ping' each time an atom hits it. The second atom in the pair records a 'ping' along with the atom's location on a second spatial detector. "By matching the times of the 'pings' from pairs of atoms we were able to discard all atoms hitting the spatial detector whose partner had not passed through the mask. "This allowed an image of 'ANU' to be recreated, even though - remarkably - the atoms forming the image on the spatial detector had never interacted with the mask. That's why the image is termed a 'ghost'." Professor Ken Baldwin, also from the RSPE team, said the research may eventually be used for quality control in manufacturing microchips or nano devices. "We might one day be able to detect in real time when a problem occurs in the manufacturing of a microchip or a nano device," Professor Baldwin said. Co-author Dr Sean Hodgman said on a fundamental level, the research could also be a precursor to investigating entanglement between massive particles, which could help the development of quantum computation. "This research could open up techniques to probe quantum entanglement, otherwise known as Einstein's spooky action at a distance," Dr Hodgman said.  Explore further: Image: Commercially available atom interferometer More information: R. I. Khakimov et al. Ghost imaging with atoms, Nature (2016). DOI: 10.1038/nature20154 R. I. Khakimov et al. Ghost imaging with atoms, Nature (2016). DOI: 10.1038/nature20154  Journal reference: Nature   Provided by: Australian National University Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-12-ghost-imagi...s.html#jCp[url=http://phys.org/news/2016-12-ghost-imaging-atoms.html#jCp][/url] Eye do this everyday no hocus-pocus. Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 12-03-2016, 11:29 PM (This post was last modified: 12-03-2016, 11:44 PM by EA.) Quote:Pascal's Wager seems a pristine bit of logic ever after! I was unaware of your post fsb and indeed did not gamble. I don't quite yet understand how you made the word: ANU manifest. Your words not mine. This is your brain on God: Spiritual experiences activate brain reward circuits Date: November 29, 2016 An fMRI scan shows regions of the brain that become active when devoutly religious study participants have a spiritual experience, including a reward center in the brain, the nucleus accumbens. [i]Credit: Jeffrey Anderson[/i] Religious and spiritual experiences activate the brain reward circuits in much the same way as love, sex, gambling, drugs and music, report researchers at the University of Utah School of Medicine. The findings will be published Nov. 29 in the journalSocial Neuroscience. "We're just beginning to understand how the brain participates in experiences that believers interpret as spiritual, divine or transcendent," says senior author and neuroradiologist Jeff Anderson. "In the last few years, brain imaging technologies have matured in ways that are letting us approach questions that have been around for millennia." Specifically, the investigators set out to determine which brain networks are involved in representing spiritual feelings in one group, devout Mormons, by creating an environment that triggered participants to "feel the Spirit." Identifying this feeling of peace and closeness with God in oneself and others is a critically important part of Mormons' lives -- they make decisions based on these feelings; treat them as confirmation of doctrinal principles; and view them as a primary means of communication with the divine. During fMRI scans, 19 young-adult church members -- including seven females and 12 males -- performed four tasks in response to content meant to evoke spiritual feelings. The hour-long exam included six minutes of rest; six minutes of audiovisual control (a video detailing their church's membership statistics); eight minutes of quotations by Mormon and world religious leaders; eight minutes of reading familiar passages from the Book of Mormon; 12 minutes of audiovisual stimuli (church-produced video of family and Biblical scenes, and other religiously evocative content); and another eight minutes of quotations. During the initial quotations portion of the exam, participants -- each a former full-time missionary -- were shown a series of quotes, each followed by the question "Are you feeling the spirit?" Participants responded with answers ranging from "not feeling" to "very strongly feeling." Researchers collected detailed assessments of the feelings of participants, who, almost universally, reported experiencing the kinds of feelings typical of an intense worship service. They described feelings of peace and physical sensations of warmth. Many were in tears by the end of the scan. In one experiment, participants pushed a button when they felt a peak spiritual feeling while watching church-produced stimuli. "When our study participants were instructed to think about a savior, about being with their families for eternity, about their heavenly rewards, their brains and bodies physically responded," says lead author Michael Ferguson, who carried out the study as a bioengineering graduate student at the University of Utah. Based on fMRI scans, the researchers found that powerful spiritual feelings were reproducibly associated with activation in the nucleus accumbens, a critical brain region for processing reward. Peak activity occurred about 1-3 seconds before participants pushed the button and was replicated in each of the four tasks. As participants were experiencing peak feelings, their hearts beat faster and their breathing deepened. In addition to the brain's reward circuits, the researchers found that spiritual feelings were associated with the medial prefrontal cortex, which is a complex brain region that is activated by tasks involving valuation, judgment and moral reasoning. Spiritual feelings also activated brain regions associated with focused attention. "Religious experience is perhaps the most influential part of how people make decisions that affect all of us, for good and for ill. Understanding what happens in the brain to contribute to those decisions is really important," says Anderson, noting that we don't yet know if believers of other religions would respond the same way. Work by others suggests that the brain responds quite differently to meditative and contemplative practices characteristic of some eastern religions, but so far little is known about the neuroscience of western spiritual practices. The study is the first initiative of the Religious Brain Project, launched by a group of University of Utah researchers in 2014, which aims to understand how the brain operates in people with deep spiritual and religious beliefs. University of Utah Health Sciences. "This is your brain on God: Spiritual experiences activate brain reward circuits." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 29 November 2016. . Look-I seek no Reward / Re-Word works for you. Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 12-04-2016, 03:27 PM Roman Ruler of Judea Named in 1,900-Year-Old Inscription Friday, December 02, 2016 (Courtesy University of Haifa) HAIFA, ISRAEL—The Times of Israel reports that the name of a Roman ruler of Judea has been found in a 1,900-year-old inscription by scholars from the University of Haifa. Gargilius Antiques is now thought to have ruled over Judea in the years prior to the Bar Kochba revolt against Rome, which was fought between 132 and 136 A.D. The seven-line inscription, carved on a 1,300-pound rock, was found underwater at the site of Tel Dor, an ancient port city on the Mediterranean Sea. The rock may have been a statue base. “This is ... just the second time that the mention of Judea has been discovered in inscriptions traced back to the Roman era,” noted Assaf Yasur-Landau of Haifa University. To read more about underwater archaeology in Israel, go to “Sun and Moon.” Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 12-05-2016, 12:04 AM (This post was last modified: 12-05-2016, 10:06 PM by EA.) Holy Alive/Dead !!! Exotic insulator may hold clue to key mystery of modern physics December 4, 2016 by Arthur Hirsch Credit: Petr Kratochvil/Public Domain Experiments using laser light and pieces of gray material the size of fingernail clippings may offer clues to a fundamental scientific riddle: what is the relationship between the everyday world of classical physics and the hidden quantum realm that obeys entirely different rules? "We found a particular material that is straddling these   two regimes," said N. Peter Armitage, an associate professor of physics at Johns Hopkins University who led the research for the paper just published in the journal Science. Six scientists from Johns Hopkins and Rutgers University were involved in the work on materials called topological insulators, which can conduct electricity on their atoms-thin surface, but not in their insides. A cylinder (left) is a trivial bundle (with no twist), whereas a Möbius strip (right) is a nontrivial bundle (with twist). Here, we have used the typical fiber F=[−1,1]F=[−1,1] instead of \RealField\RealField to get a compact manifold which is easier to draw. Topological insulators were predicted in the 1980s, first observed in 2007 and have been studied intensively since. Made from any number of hundreds of elements, these materials have the capacity to show quantum properties that usually appear only at the microscopic level, but here appear in a material visible to the naked eye. The experiments reported in Science establish these materials as a distinct state of matter "that exhibits macroscopic quantum mechanical effects," Armitage said. "Usually we think of quantum mechanics as a theory of small things, but in this system quantum mechanics is appearing on macroscopic length scales. The experiments are made possible by unique instrumentation developed in my laboratory." In the experiments reported in Science, dark gray material samples made of the elements bismuth and selenium – each a few millimeters long and of different thicknesses—were hit with "THz" light beams that are invisible to the unaided eye.  The UVES instrument shows the light from quasar HE0940-1050 after it has traveled through the intergalactic medium. Researchers measured the reflected light as it moved through the material samples, and found fingerprints of a quantum state of matter. UVES Instrument Views Fingerprint of the Early Universe December 5, 2016 Space The UVES instrument shows the light from quasar HE0940-1050 after it has traveled through the intergalactic medium. http://scitechdaily.com/uves-instrument-...-universe/ Specifically, they found that as the light was transmitted through the material, the wave rotated a specific amount, which is related to physical constants that are usually only measureable in atomic scale experiments. The amount fit the predictions of what would be possible in this quantum state. The results add to scientists' understanding of topological insulators, but also may contribute to the larger subject that Armitage calls "the central question of modern physics": what is the relationship between the macroscopic classical world, and the microscopic quantum world from which it arises? Scientists since the early 20th century have struggled with the question of how one set of physical laws governing objects above a certain size can co-exist alongside a different set of laws governing the atomic and subatomic scale. How does classical mechanics emerge from quantum mechanics, and where is the threshold that divides these realms? Those questions remain to be answered, but topological insulators could be part of the solution. "It's a piece of the puzzle," said Armitage, who worked on the experiments along with Liang Wu, who was a graduate student at Johns Hopkins when the work was done, Maryam Salehi of the Rutgers University Department of Material Science and Engineering, and Nikesh Koirala, Jisoo Moon and Sean Oh of the Rutgers University Department of Physics and Astronomy. More information: L. Wu et al. Quantized Faraday and Kerr rotation and axion electrodynamics of a 3D topological insulator, Science (2016). DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf5541  Journal reference: Science   Provided by: Johns Hopkins University Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-12-exotic-insulator-clue-key-mystery.html#jCp[url=http://phys.org/news/2016-12-exotic-insulator-clue-key-mystery.html#jCp][/url] EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 12-12-2016, 11:21 PM (This post was last modified: 12-13-2016, 12:18 AM by EA.) Minister Regev Presents 67 CE ‘Great Rebellion’ Coin at Cabinet Meeting By: JNi.Media Published: December 12th, 2016 Both sides of the Freedom of Zion coin  Photo Credit: Courtesy Ministry of Culture and Sports Culture and Sports Minister Miri Regev on Sunday presented at the start of the cabinet meeting a coin discovered by a team of her office about a month ago, as part of the preparation for the public revelation of the Pilgrims’ Road which was recently unearthed at the City of David. The presentation and the planned public event mark the coming jubilee of the liberation and unification of Jerusalem. The coin bears on one side a vine leaf and the statement “Freedom of Zion.” On the opposite side it bears a standing cup and the statement “Second year of the great rebellion” – the year 67 CE. “Precisely 1,900 years later, in 1967, the paratroopers entered the Old City of Jerusalem and renewed her and our freedom, returning Jewish sovereignty to Jerusalem,” Minister Regev said. “We dumped in history’s trash bin the coins minted by [General and later Roman emperor ] Titus following his victory over the rebels [with the statement] ‘Judaea Capta’ (Captive Judea),” she added, “and we returned to liberated Judea, to free and unified Jerusalem, and this is how it will remain for eternity.” Quote:November 29, 1947: Day of the Week November 29, 1947 was the 333rd day of the year 1947 in the Gregorian calendar. There were 32 days  technichally 33 days  remaining until the end of the year. The day of the week was Saturday. November 29, 1947 Historical Event 1947 The Partition Plan: the United Nations General Assembly votes to partition Israel. Regev mocked the infamous UNESCO resolution this fall that the Jewish people have no historic connection to the Temple Mount and even the Western Wall, saying Israel’s return to the Biblical sites of Judea and Samaria, which are drenched in Jewish history, repudiate that grotesque resolution. During Hanukkah, the Ministry of Culture and the Israel Antiquities Authority will hold an event revealing the streets of ancient Jerusalem, where the Maccabees once strolled, and celebrating 50 years since the liberation of the city. The event will open to the public ancient Jerusalem’s main street and its commercial hub, which was used by the pilgrims on the holidays to come up from the Pool of Siloam on the southern slope of the City of David, up to the courtyard of the Temple Mount. http://www.jewishpress.com/news/breaking...016/12/12/ I Am probably incorrect but to what degree? @11:59:59pm now Midnight @ 12:00:00am there is a twilight zone between day 332 and day 333 fitz the bill. Quote:Ancient Astronomers Tell Us Earth's Days Have Lengthened  Brian Koberlein , A rising sun and Earth's horizon are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 13 crewmember on the International Space Station. Credit: NASA A day on Earth is longer than it used to be. The increase is tiny. Over the span of a hundred years the Earth's day will increase by only a few milliseconds. It's only been in the past few decades that we've been able to measure Earth with enough precision to see this effect directly. Usingatomic clocks and ultra-precise measurements of distant quasars, we can measure the length of a day to within nanoseconds. Our measurements are so precise that we can observe various fluctuations in the length of a day due to things like earthquakes. Those fluctuations make it a challenge to answer another question. How has Earth's rotation changed over longer periods of time? Variation of the length of a day in recent years. Credit: Wikipedia. Part of the reason Earth's days are getting longer is due to the gravitational pull of the Moon on our oceans. The tides slosh against the Earth,gradually slowing its rotation. Over millions of years this means Earth's day was hour shorter than it is now, thus there were more days in a year than today. We see this effect in the geological record, which tells us an Earth day was about 22 hours long 620 million years ago. Trying to measure the length of a day between the recent and geological era, however, is difficult. Hundreds of years ago clocks weren't accurate enough to measure this variation, and the length of a day was fixed to its rotation, making any such comparison impossible. But recent work has found a way to study Earth's changing days. Although our ancestors of centuries past didn't have accurate clocks, they were good astronomers. They observed and documented astronomical events such as the occultation of bright stars by the Moon, as well as solar eclipses. The occurrence of these events depends critically on when and where you are. If, for example, an astronomer in one city sees the Moon pass in front of a star one night, an astronomer in a nearby city will only see the Moon pass close to the star. By comparing the observations of these astronomical events with the actual time of their event as calculated from the orbital motions of the Earth and Moon, we know exactly when and where they occurred. Fitting a history of observations together, we can get an average rate for the increase of a day. That turns out to be about 1.8 milliseconds per century. There are two things that are interesting about this result. The first is that it's pretty amazing to be able to determine this rate from historical documents. The observations span more than two and a half millennia, and are written in various languages and locations. Gathering them all together and verifying them is an amazing effort. The other is that this rate is actually less than the rate theorized from the tidal effects of our Moon (about 2.3 ms/century). This is likely due to changes in Earth's overall shape. We know, for example, that the melting of ice since the last ice age (about 10,000 years ago) has released pressure at the Earth's poles, allowing it to return to a more spherical shape. This would tend to shorten Earth's days a bit. The combination of these two effects give us the historical rate we see. Overall this work is a great demonstration of how history can speak to us. If we listen closely, we can even see the changes of time. Paper: F. R. Stephenson, et al. Measurement of the Earth's rotation: 720 BC to AD 2015. Proceedings of the Royal Society A. DOI:10.1098/rspa.2016.0404 (2016) http://www.forbes.com/sites/briankoberle...b68604459c (12-02-2016, 08:18 PM)Fsbirdhouse Wrote: The Jesus of bread and fish. A Divine multiplier? Do not discount miracles. Until you pray for one with every ounce of sincerity you can muster, and then have it done that very instant, and in an almost blinding flash of light....conviction takes quite a turn. Pascal's Wager seems a pristine bit of logic ever after! As an improvised rap sure I'm sowin' my oats. In tune with that tune and knowin' my notes. But un-exactly like that there's Simone Oates. Who fell not from grace but Okay as I Wrote. Recall: and then have it done that very instant, and in an almost blinding flash of light....conviction takes quite a turn. everyone was quite understandably bemoaning a young lady who fell about a decade ago named Simone Oates and  I had the Gaul to infer to that was unnecessary to be fatalistic.   FSB: What you describe I saw in my heart. I never posted anything with such surety. Turned out as far as I remember back then she recovered. but as we speak... Rings around young star suggest planet formation in progress December 12, 2016 An ALMA image of the star HD 163296 and its protoplanetary disk as seen in dust. New observations suggested that two planets, each about the size of Saturn, are in orbit around the star. These planets, which are not yet fully formed, revealed themselves in the dual imprint they left in both the dust and the gas portions of the star's protoplanetary disk. Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), Andrea Isella, B. Saxton (NRAO/AUI/NSF) Rice University astronomers and their colleagues have for the first time mapped gases in three dark rings around a distant star. The rings mark spaces where planets are thought to have formed from dust and gas around the star. All the rings around HD 163296 are devoid of dust, and the international team of researchers led by Rice astronomer Andrea Isella is sure that planets, probably gas giants with masses comparable to Saturn, are responsible for clearing the outermost ones. But the inner ring has far more carbon monoxide than the other two, leading them to believe no planet exists there. That remains unexplained, he said. "The inner gap is mysterious," Isella said. "Whatever is creating the structure is removing the dust but there's still a lot of gas." The work appears this week in Physical Review Letters. Only 20 years after the first exoplanet was spotted, astronomers are beginning to learn how planets form. Thousands of planets are now in the database, and scientists continue to improve their ability to analyze them for life-supporting characteristics. One aim of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile, the world's largest radio telescope used in the research, is to study protoplanetary systems. Their mechanics will help scientists understand how the planets like Earth formed. (Radio telescopes detect the unique electromagnetic waves emitted by elements and compounds in space, allowing them to be identified and measured.) The Rice-led team's target star, nearly 400 light years away and best observed from the Southern hemisphere, is one of many known to have a large disk of dust and gas, Isella said. "Of the material that formed this disk, about 1 percent is dust particles and 99 percent is gas," Isella said. "So if you only see the dust, you cannot tell if a ring was formed by a planet or another phenomenon. In order to distinguish and really tell if there are planets or not, you need to see what the gas is doing, and in this study, for the first time, we can see both the dust and the gas." An artist's impression of the protoplanetary disk surrounding the young star HD 163296. By studying the dust (ruddy brown) and carbon monoxide gas (light blue) profiles of the disk, astronomers led by Rice University's Andrea Isella discovered tantalizing evidence that two planets are forming in the outer two dust gaps in the disk. Credit: B. Saxton/NRAO/AUI/NSF The outer rings are 100 and 160 astronomical units from HD 163296. (One unit is the distance from the center of the sun to Earth.) That's much farther from the star than previously thought possible for planet formation. The star is too far from Earth for direct observation of the planets, yet evidence from the new study shows they are likely to be there, clearing dust and gas from the outer rings much like orbiting asteroids called shepherd satellites clear space between the rings around Saturn, Isella said. The inner ring, 60 astronomical units from its star, showed a much greater concentration of the three carbon monoxide isotopes measured relative to dust. "Theoreticians have proposed other phenomena that can form dark rings without planets," Isella said. The researchers suspect one in particular: a lack of turbulence among non-ionized gas molecules in a magnetorotational instability "dead zone" that allows gas and dust to condense into a Saturn-like ring at the edge of the dark zone rather than a planet. The ring may also appear at the carbon monoxide frost line where the gas becomes cold enough to condense. Composite image of the protoplanetary disk surrounding the young star HD 163296. The inner red area shows the dust of the protoplanetary disk. The broader blue disk is the carbon monoxide gas in the system. ALMA observed that in the outer two gaps in the dust, there was a significant dip in the concentration of carbon monoxide, suggesting two planets are forming there. Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO); A. Isella; B. Saxton (NRAO/AUI/NSF) The results laid the foundation for a new round of observations just starting at ALMA. Isella's initiative to study 20 stars with protoplanetary disks is one of two "large programs" (from 24 proposals) accepted by the telescope. "'Large program' means that you ask for a lot of telescope time, more than 50 hours," Isella said. "The other one they accepted will look at the emissions from a galaxy at the beginning of the universe. "It means our topic is considered by the astronomical community to be one of its highest priorities," he said. Isella said the researchers will also return to HD 163296 to learn what other elements are in the disk and rings. Taking inventory will help them determine what kind of a planet might form from material that's readily available. "If we know the chemistry of the material forming a planet, we can understand the chemistry of the planet," he said. Proximity to the star is also important. For example, water has to be far enough from a star to freeze around grains and allow them to aggregate. Rice University researchers led the first mapping of gases in rings around a distant star with the powerful ALMA radio telescope. Clockwise from upper left: Yann Boehler, Shanfei Liu, Andrea Isella, Luca Ricci and Erik Weaver. Credit: Jeff Fitlow/Rice University There is a chance that systems like HD 163296 and HL Tauri, two of the first three (with TW Hydrae) observed by ALMA to show protoplanetary rings, are anomalies, he said. "Now the question is whether all the protoplanetary disks are like this. Do they all have this structure? There is the concern that this object and HL Tauri are freaks," Isella said. Answers should come when the 20-star survey is completed. "We won't begin to get the data until next September, but it will tell us a lot," he said.  Explore further: Proto-planet has two masters More information: Ringed structure of the HD 163296 disk revealed by ALMA, Physical Review Letters, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.251101  Journal reference: Physical Review Letters   Provided by: Rice University Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-12-young-star-planet-formation.html#jCp[/url][url=http://phys.org/news/2016-12-young-star-planet-formation.html#jCp] Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... EA Posting Freak Posts: 9,747 Threads: 147 Joined: Jan 2006 Reputation: 16 12-17-2016, 12:42 AM 2,100-Year-Old Wine Press Unearthed in Israel Friday, December 16, 2016 (Assaf Peretz/Israel Antiquities Authority) ASHKELON, ISRAEL—A 2,100-year-old wine press and a nearby building were discovered at the site of an elementary school construction project on the Mediterranean coast of southern Israel. The Jewish News Service reports that the press, which was covered with a thick layer of plaster mixed with seashells, is thought to have been part of a larger farm. The square-shaped press had a flat surface where grapes were stomped into juice. The juice would flow into a pit where the skins were filtered out, and then it was piped into a collection vat. The nearby building may have provided a place to store wine vessels and accommodations for the workers. The press will be preserved as part of the new school.  For more on archaeology in Israel, go to “Mask Metamorphosis.” Along the vines of the Vineyard. With a forked tongue the snake singsss... « Next Oldest | Next Newest »