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Archaeologists Believe They Found Location Where Jesus Christ Taught
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Applause

great posts,
the ancient mosaic gym floor is beautiful.

[Image: files.php?file=Laodicea_mosaic_664673207.jpg]

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Could This Newfound Cave Hold More Dead Sea Scrolls?
By Owen Jarus, Live Science Contributor | January 22, 2018 06:22pm ET

[Image: aHR0cDovL3d3dy5saXZlc2NpZW5jZS5jb20vaW1h...ZlLmpwZw==][Image: aHR0cDovL3d3dy5saXZlc2NpZW5jZS5jb20vaW1h...ZlLmpwZw==]

Images of the newfound cave have yet to be released. Here, the caves of Qumran that were discovered between 1947-1956
Credit: Shutterstock
Archaeologists are excavating a newfound cave in Qumran, with the hope of finding new Dead Sea Scrolls.
The Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered in 12 caves and date back around 2,000 years and consist of thousands of fragments from more than 900 manuscripts, including numerous copies of texts from the Hebrew Bible. The scrolls were written in Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek, but who, exactly, wrote them is a matter of debate among scholars. Many experts believe that members of a Jewish sect called the Essenes wrote the scrolls at Qumran. Eleven of the Dead Sea Scroll caves were discovered between 1947 and 1956 near the newfound cave, in what is now the West Bank, near the shore of the Dead Sea.
In 2017, archaeologists announced the discovery of a 12th cave, though they said the cave had been looted in the mid-20th century. Inside the cave, they discovered only one blank scroll, along with the remains of jars, cloth and a leather strap that would have been used to wrap and store the scrolls, according to the team, led by Oren Gutfeld, an archaeologist with the Hebrew University of Jerusalem's Institute of Archaeology. [See Images of the Dead Sea Scrolls]
Gutfeld and Randall Price, of Liberty University in Lynchburg, Virginia, are now leading an archaeology team that is excavating this newfound cave.
"Dr. Gutfeld and I have been at Qumran since December, working with our team on excavating a new cave in the Qumran area," Price told Live Science in an email. No other details about this "new cave" have been released, but the team will release a statement soon, Price said.
In 2016, the Israel Antiquities Authority announced that it is carrying out a program to find and excavate any undiscovered caves in the Judaean Desert. In the past few years, there have been a number of instances in which looters have been caught carrying the remains of scrolls.  
Archaeologists with the Israel Antiquities Authority say it's possible that more scrolls will be found in caves that are yet to be discovered. Scrolls were sometimes hidden in caves, particularly around 70 (after Jerusalem fell to a Roman army) and between A.D. 132 and 136, when there was a failed rebellion against the Roman Empire. 

https://www.livescience.com/61496-dead-s...found.html



Minister Regev Presents 67 CE ‘Great Rebellion’ Coin at Cabinet Meeting
By
JNi.Media
-
12 Kislev 5777 – December 12, 2016
Photo Credit: Courtesy Ministry of Culture and Sports
[Image: Both-sides-of-the-Freedom-of-Zion-coin.jpg]Both sides of the Freedom of Zion coin
Quote:Archaeologists with the Israel Antiquities Authority say it's possible that more scrolls will be found in caves that are yet to be discovered. Scrolls were sometimes hidden in caves, particularly around 70 (after Jerusalem fell to a Roman army) and between A.D. 132 and 136, when there was a failed rebellion against the Roman Empire. 

Culture and Sports Minister Miri Regev on Sunday presented at the start of the cabinet meeting a coin discovered by a team of her office about a month ago, as part of the preparation for the public revelation of the Pilgrims’ Road which was recently unearthed at the City of David. The presentation and the planned public event mark the coming jubilee of the liberation and unification of Jerusalem.
The coin bears on one side a vine leaf and the statement “Freedom of Zion.” On the opposite side it bears a standing cup and the statement “Second year of the great rebellion” – the year 67 CE.

“Precisely 1,900 years later, in 1967, the paratroopers entered the Old City of Jerusalem and renewed her and our freedom, returning Jewish sovereignty to Jerusalem,” Minister Regev said. “We dumped in history’s trash bin the coins minted by [General and later Roman emperor ] Titus following his victory over the rebels [with the statement] ‘Judaea Capta’ (Captive Judea),” she added, “and we returned to liberated Judea, to free and unified Jerusalem, and this is how it will remain for eternity.”
Regev mocked the infamous UNESCO resolution this fall that the Jewish people have no historic connection to the Temple Mount and even the Western Wall, saying Israel’s return to the Biblical sites of Judea and Samaria, which are drenched in Jewish history, repudiate that grotesque resolution.
During Hanukkah, the Ministry of Culture and the Israel Antiquities Authority will hold an event revealing the streets of ancient Jerusalem, where the Maccabees once strolled, and celebrating 50 years since the liberation of the city. The event will open to the public ancient Jerusalem’s main street and its commercial hub, which was used by the pilgrims on the holidays to come up from the Pool of Siloam on the southern slope of the City of David, up to the courtyard of the Temple Mount.

http://www.jewishpress.com/news/breaking...016/12/12/
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The Qumran calendar used a 364-day system, perfectly divided into 4 and 7, with each holiday falling on the same day of the week each year. The Haifa U. researchers speculate that this reflected the sect’s notion of perfection.

More Wine?

The fragmented scroll lists the main dates according to the sectoral calendar, with two unique festivals that were not mentioned in the Torah but are cited in the Qumran “Temple Scroll” as the Wine Harvest and Oil Harvest festival. They were an extension of the Shavuot festival, which celebrates the wheat harvest. According to this calendar, the wheat festival took place 50 days after the Shabbat that followed Passover, then, 50 days later, came the wine harvest festival, and another 50 days later the oil harvest festival.
Scroll Doh  down to read more:

One of Last Two Qumran Dead Sea Scrolls Reconstructed, Deciphered, Throwing Light on Alternative Jewish Calendar
By
JNi.Media
-
5 Shevat 5778 – January 21, 2018
Photo Credit: Alan Mayers via Flickr
[Image: One-of-the-Qumran-caves-where-the-Dead-S...96x522.jpg]One of the Qumran caves where the Dead Sea scrolls were found

Following a year’s strenuous labor of assembling more than 60 tiny segments, written in a secret code, Dr. Eshbal Ratson and Prof. Jonathan Ben Dov of the Department of Bible Studies at the University of Haifa succeeded in reconstructing and deciphering one of the last two out of about 900 Qumran scrolls. Their reward was another encounter with the unique 364-day calendar of the Judaean Desert sect, as well as the identification—for the first time—of the name given by the cult members to the special transitional days between the four seasons.
[Image: complete-puzzle-one-layer.jpg]The assembled fragments comprising the next to last deciphered Dead Sea scroll / Photo credit: Israel Antiquities Authority, the Leon Levy Library of the Dead Sea Scrolls.
Most of the Qumran Dead Sea Scrolls discovered in the 1940s and 1950s have already been restored and published. Among the small “mosaic” pieces, some of them smaller than a square centimeter, which remained without a qualified reading, there were about 60 pieces of parchment written in a coded script.
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An earlier researcher who studied the passages claimed that they belonged to a number of different scrolls. Now, with the interpretation of Dr. Ratson and Prof. Ben Dov, in a study funded by the National Science Foundation (ISF) and published in the Journal of Biblical Literature (A Newly Reconstructed Calendrical Scroll from Qumran in Cryptic Script), it turns out that they are all parts of a single scroll.
Now there remains only one scroll that has not been restored and published, and the two researchers are working on it, too.
The Qumran sect were an extremist Jewish group that left Jerusalem and suffered persecution by the ruling establishment between 200 BCE and 100 CE. They wrote many manuscripts on leather, papyrus, and copper, the best-preserved and most famous of which include an Isaiah Scroll; the Rule of the Community (also called the Manual of Discipline); The War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness, or War Scroll; a scroll of thanksgiving hymns; and a commentary on Habakkuk.
The fragmented scroll that’s just been deciphered deals with the sect’s unique 364-day calendar, which represents a major dispute with the rabbinic tradition: the Jewish calendar is based on the cycles of the moon, which the rabbis adjusted to fit the solar calendar – to meet Torah requirements such as Passover falling in the Spring and Sukkot during the autumnal harvest season. To that end, the rabbinic calendar introduced a 19-year cycle that includes leap years with an extra lunar month, to synchronize the lunar and solar cycles.
The Qumran calendar used a 364-day system, perfectly divided into 4 and 7, with each holiday falling on the same day of the week each year. The Haifa U. researchers speculate that this reflected the sect’s notion of perfection.
The fragmented scroll lists the main dates according to the sectoral calendar, with two unique festivals that were not mentioned in the Torah but are cited in the Qumran “Temple Scroll” as the Wine Harvest and Oil Harvest festival. They were an extension of the Shavuot festival, which celebrates the wheat harvest. According to this calendar, the wheat festival took place 50 days after the Shabbat that followed Passover, then, 50 days later, came the wine harvest festival, and another 50 days later the oil harvest festival.
The Qumran calendar also includes celebrations of the changes of the seasons, a special day for each of the four seasons, which the calendar calls Tkuffah (period), a term being used in later rabbinical literature.
The newly deciphered scroll also sheds light on the customs of the scroll writers. It turns out that whoever wrote the scroll—probably one of the leaders of the sect who knew the secret code—forgot to mention some of the communal dates, and another writer had to correct his mistakes, adding the dates to the spaces between columns.
The scroll also mentions a number of words and expressions which later appear in the Talmud, a testimony to the fact that the sages were using an ancient vocabulary that developed in the Second Temple period.

http://www.jewishpress.com/news/israel/o...018/01/21/
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...


Quote:The fragmented scroll that’s just been deciphered deals with the sect’s unique 364-day calendar,


the 364 day calendar is what I have suggested and pushed for the last ten years

it is the perfect calendar

52 weeks of 7 days each

13 months of 28 days -- 13 months of 4 seven day weeks

plus one extra day per year


Quote:To that end, the rabbinic calendar introduced a 19-year cycle 
that includes leap years with an extra lunar month, to synchronize the lunar and solar cycles.


they didn't introduce that ... they simply carried on the ancient globally recognized Metonic cycles

...
Reply
(02-04-2018, 03:31 PM)Vianova Wrote: ...


Quote:The fragmented scroll that’s just been deciphered deals with the sect’s unique 364-day calendar,


the 364 day calendar is what I have suggested and pushed for the last ten years

it is the perfect calendar

52 weeks of 7 days each

13 months of 28 days -- 13 months of 4 seven day weeks

plus one extra day per year


Quote:To that end, the rabbinic calendar introduced a 19-year cycle 
that includes leap years with an extra lunar month, to synchronize the lunar and solar cycles.


they didn't introduce that ... they simply carried on the ancient globally recognized Metonic cycles

...

Eye thought it might interest you.

thatz why I highlighted itza!
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Excavations Reveal First Temple Treasures, Large Pool System Outside Jerusalem
By
JNi.Media
15 Shevat 5778 – January 31, 2018



A large and majestic system of pools from the Byzantine period (4th–6th centuries CE), a fragment of a capital typical of royal structures and estates in the First Temple period, and a rare silver coin from the 4th century BCE—one of the most ancient ever unearthed in the Jerusalem area, were found in excavations at Ein Hanniya, south-west of Jerusalem, just inches west of the 1967 green line.
[Image: Site-of-Ein-Hanniya-exposed-by-Israel-An...ration.jpg]Site of Ein Hanniya exposed by Israel Antiquities Authority Conservation Administration. / Photo credit: Assaf Peretz, Israel Antiquities Authority.
These remarkable finds were unearthed in Israel Antiquities Authority excavations at the site of Ein Hanniya between 2012 and 2016. The area will open to the public in the coming months.
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The excavations, headed by IAA archaeologists Irina Zilberbod and Yaakov Billig, under the direction of the Jerusalem district archaeologist, Dr. Yuval Baruch, were carried out as part of the establishment of the Ein Hanniya park, were financed by the Jerusalem Development Authority in cooperation with the Israel Nature and Parks Authority, and were complemented by conservation and development work by the Israel Antiquities Authority’s Conservation Administration.
[Image: Rare-silver-coin-from-the-4th-century-BCE.jpg]Rare silver coin from the 4th century BCE, possibly the most ancient ever discovered in the Jerusalem area. / Photo credit: Clara Amit, Israel Antiquities Authority.
The park was dedicated Wednesday morning at a Tu B’Shvat planting ceremony attended by Minister of Environmental Protection, Jerusalem and Heritage Ze’ev Elkin (Likud), the Grand Sacristan of the Armenian Apostolic Patriarchate of Jerusalem, Archbishop Sevan Gharibian, Jerusalem Mayor Nir Barkat, Jerusalem Development Authority Director General Eyal Haimovsky, Israel Nature and Parks Authority Director General Shaul Goldstein and IAA Director General Israel Hasson.
According to Zilberbod, “the most significant find in the excavation is a large and impressive pool from the Byzantine period. This pool was built in the center of a spacious complex at the foot of a church that once stood here. Roofed colonnades were built around the pool, giving access to residential wings.”
[Image: Pottery-vessels-used-by-inhabitants-in-t...period.jpg]Pottery vessels used by inhabitants in the Byzantine period. / Photo credit: Clara Amit, Israel Antiquities Authority.
Zilberbod noted that “it’s difficult to know what the pool was used for – whether for irrigation, washing, landscaping or perhaps as part of baptismal ceremonies at the site.”
The pool’s water drained through a network of channels to a magnificent structure, the first of its kind to be discovered in Israel – a nymphaeum (fountain), a monument consecrated to the nymphs, especially those of springs.”
Settlement in the area of Ein Hanniya apparently began at the time of the First Temple and perhaps even earlier. The most outstanding find from this period uncovered in this excavation is a fragment of a proto-Ionic capital – an artistic element typical of structures and estates of the kings of the First Temple period.
The image of one such capital appears on the Israeli 5-shekel coin.
[Image: Israeli-5-shekel-coin.jpg]Israeli 5-shekel coin / Screenshot
Similar capitals have been found in the City of David in Jerusalem, which was the capital of the Kingdom of Judah, and in Ramat Rachel, where one of the palaces of the kings of Judah was found. Such capitals were also found in Samaria, Megiddo and Khatzor, which were major cities in the Kingdom of Israel.
According to the archaeologists, the site at Ein Hanniya may have been a royal estate at the time of the First Temple. After the destruction of the First Temple, settlement may have been renewed at the site in the form of an estate house that was inhabited by Jews.
[Image: Armenian-Patriarch-of-Jerusalem-Nourhan-...anniya.jpg]Armenian Patriarch of Jerusalem Nourhan Manougian (2nd from left), planting a tree at Ein Hanniya. / Photo credit: Yoli Shwartz, Israel Antiquities Authority.
The most significant find from this period is a rare silver coin, one of the most ancient to be discovered so far in the Jerusalem area – a drachma, minted in Ashdod by a Hellenic sovereign between 420 and 390 BCE.
The coins, pottery, glass, roof tiles and multicolored mosaic tesserae (individual tile used in creating a mosaic) from the Byzantine period which were unearthed in the excavation attest to the fact that it was during this period (4th–6th centuries CE) that the site reached its peak.
[Image: The-Ein-Hanniya-pool-with-a-view-of-the-...usalem.jpg]The Ein Hanniya pool with a view of the train to Jerusalem. / Photo credit: Assaf Peretz, Israel Antiquities Authority.
According to Jerusalem District Archaeologist Dr. Yuval Baruch, “we believe that some early Christian commentators identified Ein Hanniya as the site where the Ethiopian eunuch was baptized, as described in Acts 8:26–40. The baptism of the eunuch by St. Philip was one of the key events in the spread of Christianity. Therefore, identifying the place where it occurred occupied scholars for many generations and became a common motif in Christian art. It’s no wonder that part of the site is still owned by Christians and is a focus of religious ceremonies, both for the Armenian Church (which owns the property) and the Ethiopian Church.”
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I wonder how much of ALL these discoveries are on Palestinian Land or Zionist Land? i.e past the 1967 lines.   Hmm2


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Holycowsmile 

New study suggests Shroud of Turin a fake, supporting study retracted
July 24, 2018 by Bob Yirka, Phys.org report


[Image: shroudofturin.jpg]
Full length negatives of the shroud. Credit: Public Domain
A pair of Italian researchers, one a forensic anthropologist, the other a chemist, has conducted tests to determine the authenticity of the Shroud of Turin and report that their analysis indicates that the shroud is a forgery. In their paper published in the Journal of Forensic Sciences, Matteo Borrini and Luigi Garlaschelli describe the tests they conducted and what they found. A separate paper published last year has been retracted; it was originally published on the open access site PLOS One by another team claiming to have found evidence of trauma to the body of the person seen on the shroud.



In this new effort, Borrini and Garlaschelli tested the authenticity of the shroud by carrying out experiments with fake and real blood and cloth simulating the shroud. Their goal was to find out if blood stains on the shroud were consistent with each other and with reports from the Bible.

One of the experiments involved applying blood to the body of a live volunteer (who was lying in a pose reminiscent of the person seen on the shroud) and then wrapping him in linen to see what sorts of stains it would leave. They also noted that the Bible reported that Jesus had been stabbed in the side with a spear—to mimic such a wound, the researchers attached a sponge to a wooden stake, soaked it with blood and then used it as a spear to impale a mannequin.

The researchers report that the bloodstains on the shroud are inconsistent—blood flowing in rivulets would not have formed stains in the ways observed on the shroud. As one example, they point out that blood flowing from a wound to the hand could only have made the stains seen on the shroud if the person were standing upright—the Bible reports that the body of Christ was put in the shroud after death. They conclude by claiming that it would have been impossible for the blood stains on the shroud to have originated in the way the Bible describes; therefore, they say the shroud is a forgery.

Meanwhile, a paper published by a team last year detailing a study of the shroud (and claiming to have found evidence of trauma in the victim) has been retracted by the publishers of PLOS One—the editors note in their retraction that concerns have been raised about the quality of the data used by the researchers and the conclusions they drew.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Italian group claims to debunk Shroud of Turin (Update)

More information: Matteo Borrini et al. A BPA Approach to the Shroud of Turin, Journal of Forensic Sciences (2018). DOI: 10.1111/1556-4029.13867

Elvio Carlino et al. Atomic resolution studies detect new biologic evidences on the Turin Shroud, PLOS ONE (2017). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0180487


Journal reference: PLoS ONE


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-07-shroud-tur...d.html#jCp






An Early Christian Church May Have Been Found in Rome
The structure, inlaid with beautiful colored marble, was built around the time that Christianity began to gain widespread acceptance
[Image: roman_church.jpg] Some of the finds from the excavated building, which because of its size, decorations and location archaeologists speculate is a church. (Archaeological Superintendency of Rome)
By Brigit Katz
smithsonian.com
July 20, 2018
Construction projects in Rome often unearth incredible artifacts from the city’s rich history. Work on a new subway line, for instance, has led to the discovery of ancient army barracks, the remains of imperial homes and centuries-old peach pits imported from Persia. So it is not entirely surprising that electrical technicians laying cables near the Tiber River recently found the remains of a luxurious building, which, as the Local Italy reports, may be one of the earliest churches in Rome.

The ruins were discovered close to the Ponte Milvio, a bridge that crosses the Tiber in the northern part of the city. According to La Repubblica, the site consists of four rooms dating from the first and fourth centuries A.D.
Part of the complex seems to have been used as a warehouse. But one of the structures clearly had a more special purpose. As Nick Squires writes in the Telegraph, it was made of “brick walls and exquisitely rendered floors made of red, green and honey-colored marble from Sparta, Egypt and what is now Tunisia.”
The function of this structure is not entirely clear; Rome’s Archaeological Superintendency called it “an archaeological enigma shrouded in mystery,” according to the Local. The building may have been an ornate Roman villa. But experts think it could have also been a church. After excavating the surrounding area, archaeologists discovered a small cemetery and several tombs, including one that still held the remains of a Roman man. The find leads archaeologists to believe that the site may have been a Christian holy place since, as Emily Petsko points out in Mental Floss, churches are often attached to mausoleums.
“It was definitely a building for public use and we think it may have been a place of worship,” Marina Piranomonte, the director of the dig, told the Telegraph.
Intriguingly, the structure was built around the time that Christianity began to gain widespread acceptance in the Roman Empire. In fact, as Squires of the Telegraph notes, the building is located just “100 yards” from the Ponte Milvio, where a defining battle that may have spurred the Emperor Constantine’s adoption of Christianity took place in 312 A.D.

At this tim[Image: image.jpg]e, according to Encyclopedia Britannica, the Roman Empire was cracking, plagued by civil wars and an uneasy division of power between coalitions of high-ranking men. In 312, Constantine, who had been declared emperor in 306, set out for battle against his rival, Maxentius, who had also claimed the imperial title.
Prior to the battle, Constantine is said to have had a vision:
https://me.me/i/bring-wine-my-kind-of-ba...me-2333819
[Image: bring-wine-my-kind-of-bat-signal-works-f...722343.png]
...the sign of the cross hovering above the sun and bearing the inscription, “By this symbol you will conquer.”

After the battle, from which Constantine emerged victorious, the emperor declared that Christians—once a persecuted minority—should be able to worship freely. Years later, Constantine was baptized on his deathbed.
The Roman Empire’s earliest churches were built during Constantine’s reign in the fourth century. The newly discovered structure, according to La Repubblica, dates to some time between the third and fourth centuries. So while its significance is far from certain, the mysterious building may have been one of Rome’s early churches, built during a new era of tolerance for people of the Christian faith.

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-new...180969707/
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The most excellent move today.

I moved a couple of Nuns and it was fun.


I was moving only a few of them but there was three others around and about helping out

They were all in their 70's-80's

I apprised them of as much of the pertinent info from this thread as I could fit in to a 4-5 hour window.


These elderly women were all in full capacity of their faculty and were all awed of how little they did know.


I updated the ol' gals.


They will (even at their advanced stage)recall: Jesus was a tekton and none disputed the new/ancient interpretation.

They tipped me twenty bucks and I drink  my Bud-Lights on them tonight. Food-smiley-004

The double entendre' of 'my father built this house' between Yaweh and step-dad Joseph resonated to a woman in their group as the theory was explained.

I paraphrase...  They had gut feelings and I told them to watch present archeaology.

I taught sum ol' Nuns anu trick.


They thanked me. I couldn't let them pass without current gnosis.
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Applause Applause always a Heavenly Teacher Angel  You could be professor when lifting gets old.

Good Job Worship


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Archeologists find one of Christianity’s most important sites & plan to open underwater museum
Published time: 7 Sep, 2018 15:03 Edited time: 8 Sep, 2018 11:17
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[Image: 5b92912ffc7e93e6498b4638.png]
© Mustafa Şahin/Lake Iznik Excavation Archive








A chance discovery by a team of archeologists in Turkey may have revealed one of the most significant sites in the history of Christianity after years of fruitless searching. And they’re now planning an underwater museum.
When Constantine I, the first Roman Emperor to convert to Christianity, chaired the ecumenical Council of Nicaea in 325 AD, bishops from across the world descended on Lake Ascanius to iron out divisions in the early Christian church. The modern-day lake, Lake Iznik in Turkey, has for years been the focus of archeologists trying to find treasures from that ancient time.  
[Image: 5b92917ddda4c871678b4625.png] © Mustafa Şahin/Lake Iznik Excavation Archive
Now it turns out, what they had been searching for was right in front of them the whole time. And they finally found it thanks to some new aerial photographs commissioned by the government of Bursa province. The snaps clearly revealed the structure of a church submerged underwater.
Turkish archeologist Mustafa Şahin, who is the head of archaeology at Bursa Uludağ University, has been undertaking field surveys of the lake since 2006, but had never discovered the church. The ironic thing was, according to Şahin, the Bursa City Hall photography team had been capturing aerial photographs of the lake since 2013, “but hadn’t thought of contacting any expert.”
“So when they started capturing aerial pictures of the lake again, team member Saffet Yilmaz contacted me and asked if the remains of the structure might have meant something,” he said, adding that it was a shock to see the structure of a church so clearly in the images.
Şahin believes the location of the church ruins could mark the site where the First Council of Nicaea was held nearly 1700 years ago. He also believes it marks the spot where Saint Neophytos was martyred in 303 AD — and that the church could have been built to honor him.
[Image: 5b9291bcdda4c870678b4633.png] © Mustafa Şahin/Lake Iznik Excavation Archive
Archeologists say there is also evidence that an earlier temple dedicated to the Greek and Roman god Apollo could have been located underneath.
An earthquake in 740 AD destroyed the church and caused it to sink below the lake — about two or three meters below the surface and 50 meters from the shore.
“The hardest part of the underwater excavation is that visibility sometimes drops under 10cm because of intense algae and plankton activity,” Şahin said. Waves hitting archeologists as they try to work is another problem, so they take the soil from the site and sift through it on the shore instead.
Şahin has big plans for the site and said he would like it to become Turkey’s first underwater museum, which would incorporate a 20-metre tower to allow tourists to see the ruins from the shore, a walkway directly over the lake itself and a glass room submerged under the water where visitors could pray at the site. There could also be a diving team, which would allow people to see the ancient structure up close.
The archeologist said there is “no need to wait” until the excavation is over to build the museum and that it could open as early as 2019. “With our excavation methodology, the visitors aren’t a distraction for the work in progress,” he said.
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Discovery of first genetic variants associated with finding meaning in life Holycowsmile
October 4, 2018, University of Amsterdam

[Image: 1-life.jpg]
Credit: CC0 Public Domain

For the first time, locations on the human genome have been identified that can explain differences between individuals in finding meaning in life.

This is the result of research conducted with over 220,000 individuals by Professor Meike Bartels and Ph.D. student Bart Baselmans from the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. The researchers identified two genetic variants for finding meaning in life and six genetic variants for happiness.

Quote:Sermon: Happy are those who believe without seeing | The New ...
https://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/read/92544
Apr 18, 2009 - Thomas then believed. But Jesus said to him “Do you believe because you see me? How happy are those who believe without seeing me!

The results were published this week in the scientific journal Scientific Reports.

The existence of genetic variants for finding a meaning in life indicates that differences between people in such complex cognitive processes are in part due to biological differences. VU professor Meike Bartels says, "We live in a society where everyone is expected to thrive, achieve the highest, and live a meaningful life.
[Image: italian_1p_life_of_brian_JC07834_L.jpg]
If we have a better idea of the causes of differences between people, we can use that information to help people who feel less happy or struggle with the meaning of life. We also find that there are environmental factors that are important for happiness, but not for meaning and vice versa. In the future, we would like to identify which environmental factors are responsible for this discrepancy."

Previous research has shown that individual differences in happiness and well-being can partly be attributed to genetic differences between people. Furthermore, the first genetic variants for happiness were found a few years ago. Baselmans says, "These results show that genetic differences between people not only play a role in differences in happiness, but also in differences for in meaning in life. By a meaning in life, we mean the search for meaning or purpose of life."


All people who participated in the study are part of the UK Biobank and have donated a DNA sample and completed a questionnaire. Bartels says, "We then tested which genetic variants in the DNA lead to differences in meaning in life." The genetic variants are mainly expressed in the central nervous system, showing the involvement of different brain areas.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Genetic study suggests there are variants that can increase chances of success in life
More information: B. M. L. Baselmans et al, A genetic perspective on the relationship between eudaimonic –and hedonic well-being, Scientific Reports (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-32638-1

Journal reference: Scientific Reports [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: University of Amsterdam

Quote:Monty Python's Life of Brian, also known as Life of Brian, is a 1979 British religious satire comedy film starring and written by the comedy group Monty Python (Graham Chapman, John Cleese, Terry Gilliam, Eric Idle, Terry Jones and Michael Palin). It was also directed by Jones. The film tells the story of Brian Cohen (played by Chapman), a young Jewish man who is born on the same day as, and next door to, Jesus Christ, and is subsequently mistaken for the Messiah.
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Genetically handicapped people will have to be prescribed
massive amounts of psychoactive drugs
lest they be driven to act out their unhappiness
with negative consequences for society.
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2,000-Year-Old Stone Inscription Is Earliest to Spell Out ‘Jerusalem’
In ancient times, a shorthand spelling was typically used

image: https://thumbs-prod.si-cdn.com/hL0KW7izM...884e/5.jpg
[Image: 5.jpg]The inscription, as found on a column drum unearthed during the dig (Danit Levy, Israel Antiquities Authority)
By Brigit Katz
SMITHSONIAN.COM 
OCTOBER 17, 2018

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Last winter, archaeologists working near the entrance of Jerusalem discovered the foundations of a Roman structure dating to the 1st century B.C. But it was the unassuming drum of a column that once supported the building that really caught their eye. As Nir Hasson reports for Haaretz, the limestone drum is etched with the oldest known inscription of the city’s name, spelled out in full.
When modern Hebrew speakers talk or write about Jerusalem, they refer to it as “Yerushalayim.” But in ancient times, a shorthand spelling was often used: “Yerushalem.” In fact, of the 660 times that Jerusalem is mentioned in the Bible, only five of them use the full spelling. So while undertaking the recent excavation, which was conducted before the planned construction of a road in the area, archaeologists were surprised to find the drum’s inscription read “Hananiah son of Dodalos of Jerusalem.”
The drum on which the inscription was found recently went on display at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. The stone appears to have been repurposed from a building even older than the Roman structure where it was discovered. According to a statement from the museum, the inscription was written in Aramaic, a Semitic language commonly spoken by Jews of the ancient world, using Hebrew letters. This style was typical of the era when Herod the Great, a Roman-appointed king, ruled over Judea from 37 to 4 B.C., during the Second Temple Period.
“First and Second Temple period inscriptions mentioning Jerusalem are quite rare,” Yuval Baruch, an archaeologist with the Israel Antiquities Authority, and Ronny Reich, a professor of archaeology at Haifa University, note together in the statement. But it is the unique spelling of Jerusalem that really makes the stone special. The full version of the city’s name has been found on just one other artifact from the Second Temple Period: a coin dating between 66 and 70 A.D., a period of Jewish revolt against the Romans.

Archaeologists don’t know who Hananiah son of Dodalos was, though they have a theory about his occupation. “Hananiah” was a common name in ancient Israel, but “Dodalos” was an unusual one. According to Laura Geggel of Live Scienceexperts think the name might be a modification of “Daedalus,” the craftsman of Greek mythology. Perhaps Hananiah and his father, then, were craftsmen.
The area where the stone inscription was found certainly seems to suggest as much. Located near what is now Jerusalem’s International Convention Center, the site was once home to the “largest ancient pottery production site in the region of Jerusalem,” according to Danit Levy, one of the archaeologists who has been leading excavations in the area, in the museum statement . Ruins pointing to an extensive pottery operation—kilns, water cisterns, pools for preparing clay, work spaces for drying and storing vessels—have been discovered across the site.
This potter’s quarter was active for three centuries. During Herod’s reign, production seems to have been focused on cooking vessels, and activity at the site continued on a smaller scale following the Roman destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. By the early 2nd century A.D., the workshop appears to have been taken over by a Roman legion for the mass production of ceramic vessels like pipes, roof tiles and bricks. Archaeologists also discovered tableware and cooking utensils that are “typical of the Roman army,” according to the museum statement.
Of course, experts can’t say for sure where the column drum originally came from, or whether it was sourced from a site near the potter’s quarter. Other questions—like why Hananiah son of Dodalos emphasized his place of residence in the inscription, and spelled “Jerusalem” in an atypical way—only add to the mystery of this curious artifact.



Read more: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-new...fqVrSWP.99
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'Jesus' face' uncovered at ancient church in the Israeli desert
By James Rogers | Fox News

300-year-old mummy mystery solved
300-year-old mummy mystery solved


A previously unknown 1,500-year-old painting of Christ’s face has been uncovered at a Byzantine church in Israel’s Negev desert.
The discovery in the ancient Byzantine village of Shivta has thrilled archaeologists. Although the painting is fragmented, experts from Israel’s University of Haifa were able to make out the facial outline. Their research was published recently in the journal Antiquity.

The painting, which is believed to date from the sixth century, depicts Jesus as a short-haired youth.
'SHIPS IN THE DESERT': STRANGE 2,000-YEAR-OLD GRAFFITI DISCOVERED IN ISRAEL
“Christ’s face in this painting is an important discovery in itself,” they explained in their paper. “It belongs to the iconographic scheme of a short-haired Christ, which was especially widespread in Egypt and Syro-Palestine, but gone from later Byzantine art.”
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The face of Christ with proposed reconstruction. (Photograph by Dror Maayan/Antiquity)
The painting was briefly noted in the 1920s, but has now undergone more analysis. In their study, the University of Haifa archaeologists explain that Christ is depicted next to a much larger figure, which is probably John the Baptist. “The location of the scene – above the [church’s] crucifix-shaped Baptist font – suggests its identification as the baptism of Christ,” said the study’s authors.
Experts describe the painting’s discovery as extremely important, noting that it predates the religious iconography used in the Orthodox Christian Church. “Thus far, it is the only in situ baptism-of-Christ scene to date confidently to the pre-iconoclastic Holy Land,” they said in the study. “Therefore, it can illuminate Byzantine Shivta’s Christian community and Early Christian art across the region.”
ANCIENT INSCRIPTION DISCOVERY THRILLS ARCHAEOLOGISTS IN ISRAEL
The painting is the latest fascinating archaeological discovery in Israel. Engravings of ships, for example, were recently found on an ancient water cistern discovered in a city in the Negev desert.
[Image: ChristIsrael3.jpg?ve=1&tl=1]
The Baptistry Chamber (on right) where the painting was found. (Photograph by Dror Maayan/Antiquity)
In a separate project, archaeologists recently confirmed the first full spelling of “Jerusalem” on an ancient stone inscription excavated in the area of Jerusalem’s International Convention Center, known as Binyanei Ha'Uma.
In another project, experts discovered a site that may offer fresh insight into the ancient biblical kingdom of David and Solomon. In a separate archaeological dig, a trove of bronze coins, the last remnants of an ancient Jewish revolt against the Roman Empire, were recently discovered near the Temple Mount in Jerusalem.
STUNNING BIBLICAL 'SPIES' MOSAIC DISCOVERED IN ISRAEL
In February, archaeologists announced the discovery of a clay seal mark that may bear the signature of the biblical Prophet Isaiah.
[Image: b5ffb727-ChristIsrael2.jpg?ve=1&tl=1]
Remnants of the baptism-of-Christ scene (indicated by white arrow) on the apse of the Baptistry chamber. (Photograph by Dror Maayan/Antiquity)
Other recent finds include the skeleton of a pregnant woman, dating back 3,200 years, in Israel’s Timna Valley, at a place once called King Solomon’s Mines.
At the site of an ancient city on the West Bank, archaeologists are also hunting for evidence of the tabernacle that once housed the Ark of the Covenant.
LOST ROMAN CITY THAT WAS HOME TO JESUS' APOSTLES FOUND, SAY ARCHAEOLOGISTS
Some experts also believe they have found the lost Roman city of Julias, formerly the village of Bethsaida, which was the home of Jesus' apostles Peter, Andrew and Philip.






Clinically Dead Veteran Miraculously Wakes Up

November 13, 2018 at 2:52 pm

MILWAUKEE, Wis. (CBS Local)

A Wisconsin veteran was declared clinically dead, but then he woke up.

[size=undefined]Sgt. First Class Jim Bittner, who served 32-and-a-half years as a member of the Wisconsin Army National Guard, was scheduled for a specialized surgery to clean plaque out of his arteries and lungs, but poor health threatened to delay or cancel the procedure.
Dog Who Received Rare Kidney Transplant From One Of Her Pups Suddenly Dies
“I was having shortness of breath and I started coughing up blood,” Bittner told WTMJ.
Bittner went to the emergency room in Mosinee and then was flown by helicopter to Froedtert Hospital near Milwaukee to receive more specialized care. There, he went into cardiac arrest.[/size]

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“His heart did not beat just over three minutes,” said Mary Bittner, Jim’s wife.[/size]

[size=undefined]
With little hope, heart surgeon Dr. Lyle Joyce put Jim Bittner on life support.
“This would at least give him a chance to say goodbye to his family,” Joyce said.
“Worst day of my life,” said Mary Bittner.
Watch Out For The ‘Secret Sister’ Facebook Scam
But Jim Bittner woke up the next day and he was in much better shape than anyone could have imagined. He underwent heart surgery and is now back home preparing for another holiday season with his family.
“I got too much stuff to do!” said Bittner.[/size]


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WORLD’S FIRST MEDIEVAL GOLD CROSS RELIQUARY WITH HOLY CROSS PARTICLE DISCOVERED IN TRAPESITSA FORTRESS IN BULGARIA’S VELIKO TARNOVO
November 14, 2018 · by Ivan Dikov · in Bulgarian EmpireByzantine EmpireChristianityMiddle Ages
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The newly found artifact is the world’s first known reliquary cross containing particles of Jesus Christ’s Holy Cross that is made of pure gold. Photo: Regnews
A 12th century cross, which is a reliquary (engolpion) containing a particle from the Holy Cross from Jesus Christ’s crucifixion, and is the first known artifact of its kind that is made of pure gold, has been discovered by archaeologists in a recently found medieval church in the Trapesitsa Fortress in Bulgaria’s Veliko Tarnovo.
The previously unknown 13th century church was discovered earlier this fall in the Trapesitsa Fortress, one of the citadels of medieval Tarnovgrad (today’s Veliko Tarnovo), capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire (1185-1396/1422).


It is the 23rd medieval church to have been found in the Trapesitsa Hill Fortress. Its discovery made headlines with its 13th century frescoes, which are surprisingly well preserved, albeit fragmented.

The new find, the massive gold cross reliquary, has been found behind the altar table of the church in question by an archaeological team led by Prof. Konstantin Totev from the Veliko Tarnovo Office of the National Institute and Museum of Archaeology in Sofia.
In addition to the gold cross, the archaeologists have also discovered the church’s original altar table, which also features depictions of three crosses, the middle one of which has an inscription in the Old Bulgarian language, saying “Tsar of Glory”.
Togehter with the neighboring Tsarevets Hill Fortress, the party recently restored Trapesitsa Hill Fortress was one of the two main citadels of the medieval city of Tarnovgrad, the capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire (1185-1396/1422) for 208 years, until 1393 when it was conquered by the invading Ottoman Turks.


Engolpions (or encolpions) are religious artifacts, usually in Eastern Orthodox Christianity, worn upon the bosom with inside containers for keeping holy relics.

In 2017, archaeologists discovered another previously unknown church in the Trapesitsa Fortress in Veliko Tarnovo, church No. 22, where they also found a hidden hoard of bronze engolpion crosses and other Christian artifacts.
The gold cross reliquary from Church 23 in the Trapesitsa Fortress contains wood particles which are believed to be from the Holy Cross on which Jesus Christ was crucified.
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The newly found gold cross reliquary from Bulgaria’s Trapesitsa Fortress was made in the late 12th century, probably in Constantinople, and was built into a 13th century church in Tarnovgrad, the capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire. Photos: Regnews

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While the authenticity of the Holy Cross particles technically cannot be verified, it is assumed that all wooden particles used as relics in medieval Eastern churches were derived from pieces of the Holy Cross.
In the Middle Ages, in Eastern Orthodox states such as the Byzantine Empire and the Bulgarian Empire (the division between the eastern and the western church was not formalized until the Great Schism of 1054), it was customary to build holy items such as pieces from Jesus Christ’s Holy Cross and relics of saints into new churches.
The newly found gold cross reliquary as an artifact is dated to the second half of the 12th century AD. At the time, Bulgaria was still part of Byzantium (after the First Bulgarian Empire was destroyed in 1018); the Second Bulgarian Empire was not established until 1185, the end of the century.
The church itself, however, where the gold cross has been found, is dated to the 13th century, the height of the Second Bulgarian Empire.
The gold cross reliquary weighs 75 grams, and is 11 centimeters tall, 5.5 centimeters wide, and 1 centimeter thick. The archaeologists believe it was made in a jewelry atelier in Byzantium’s capital Constantinople.
The gold cross’s front features an image of Jesus Christ’s crucifixion, while the back features an image of the Holy Mother of God (Virgin Mary) with arms in upright position, with Christ enclosed in a circle in her womb, a depiction known as “Oranta”, i.e. “praying", (from Greek), as well as saints or evangelists, and archangels depicted inside images of medallions.
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For the time being, the archaeologists abstain from opening the gold engolpion (reliquary) cross which is supposed to contain a particle from the Holy Cross on which Jesus Christ was crucified 2,000 years ago. Photo: bTV

“This is a very rare engolpion cross. It’s no accident it’s been discovered in the altar since at the time of the Second Bulgarian Empire, it was a tradition to embed valuable holy relics into churches,” says lead archaeologist Konstantin Totev, as cited by the Bulgarian National Television.
“This cross is really a world-class find! But it goes hand in hand with [the discovery of] a very interesting church. It was placed in the most sacred place in every temple, behind the altar table. The altar table itself features clearly three crosses. The middle one of them has an inscription, reading, “Tsar of Glory”!” explains in turn archaeologist Nadezhda Boteva.


More specifically, the gold cross reliquary containing a small piece of Jesus Christ’s Holy Cross was discovered inside a small chamber made of mortar right behind the altar pillar, deeper than the layer where other artifacts such as crosses and earrings have also been found in the church in recent days.

“The engolpion cross was built into the church at the time when it was consecrated. We known that the Seventh Ecumenical Council of 787 AD decided that a church may not be built without consecration,” Totev says, as cited by local news site Regnews.
He also revealed further intriguing finds in the newly discovered 13th century church in the Trapesitsa Fortress in Bulgaria’s Veliko Tarnovo: a procession cross was discovered above the gold reliquary cross, in the floor of the temple, and another cross with an inscription “Jesus Christ Wins” was also found but underneath the floor level.
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Two more crosses as well as other artifacts such as earrings have been discovered in the floor of the newly found church in the Trapesitsa Fortress, alongside the gold cross. Photo; Regnews

“The gold engolpion cross is Byzantine craftsmanship. Such Byzantine engolpion crosses contain relics [pieces] from the Holy Cross [of Jesus Christ]. In fact, they originated in Asia Minor as as reliquaries for particles from the Holy Cross on which Jesus Christ was crucified. They were very popular during Byzantium’s Macedonian Dynasty (867 – 1056) and Comnenus Dynasty (1057 – 1185) but they continued to be made during the Palaeologus Dynasty (1259 – 1453) as well, in the 13th – 14th century. The type of engolpion crosses such as the newly discovered gold one later became popular in Russia,” the lead archaeologist elaborates.
He points out that the “ear” used for hanging the gold cross is especially interesting because it was decorated through a Byzantine jewelry technique using niello, a metal mixture applied to gold.
“Usually, such [reliquary] crosses are made of bronze or silver. Silver ones are kept in Geneva, [for example]. No such crosses made of gold have been described in the scientific literature. It seems like the cross has not been opened,” Totev emphasizes.
“The Trapesitsa find of the great importance since it is a gold cross and no such artifact is known. This is the only engolpion cross made of pure gold that has been found in the world so far. Most of them were made of bronze, while a handful were made of silver, or of bronze with silver or gold plating," he adds.
“For the time being we haven’t thought of opening it since that is connected with its conservation and restoration.
He also notes the importance of his archaeological team’s other major find alongside the gold cross, the altar table of the 13th century medieval Bulgarian church.
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Archaeologist Konstantin Totev shows the newly found altar table with its three crosses and the inscription in Old Bulgarian, reading, “The Tsar of Glory”, a reference to the Psalm of David about the coming of the messiah. Photos: Regnews
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“It is great that, in addition to the altar pillar, we’ve found also the actual altar table. It has three engravings of crosses with inscriptions, reading, “Christ”, “Christ”, and “Christ Wins”. Above them, there is an inscription in Old Bulgarian, clearly visible, which reads, “Tsar of Glory”. It refers to Jesus Christ, a formula connected with Psalm 24 from the Book of Psalms, also known as the Psalm of David which mentions the coming of the messiah,” the archaeologist explains.
A dozen archaeologists participated in Totev’s digs in the Trapesitsa Fortress of the late medieval Bulgarian capital Tarnovgrad in today’s city of Veliko Tarnovo focusing on its western fortress wall, with the adjacent newly discovered Church No. 23.
The researchers have also unearthed a necropolis next to the church, and have excavated more than 30 graves.
“This is a small church. The necropolis demonstrates that it was a civilian, not a military church [despite its location close to the fortress wall]… the necropolis is dated to the end of the 14th century [later than the time when the church was constructed],” Totev says.
Another intriguing artifact from his team’s excavations is a gold Byzantine coin of Emperor John III Ducas Vatatzes (technically, Emperor of Nicaea) from the 1260s, which has been studied by numismatist Prof. Konstantin Dochev. A large number of other coins has also been found.
Church 23 is 9 meters long and 5 meters wide, and is attached to the inside of the Trapesitsa fortress wall; the only other church attached to a fortress wall from the medieval Bulgarian capital Tarnovgrad (Veliko Tarnovo) is Church No. 10 in the Tsarevets Hill fortress.
In addition to the fortifications, Totev’s excavations and research have also provided ample information about the urban planning of Tarnovgrad’s Trapesitsa Fortress, a citadel and a quarter, whose streets were oriented in the east-west direction.
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Archaeologist Konstantin Totev shows his marvelous finds from the newly discovered church in the Trapesitsa Fortress in Bulgaria’s Veliko Tarnovo. Photos: Regnews
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The well preserved though fragmented murals from Church 23 of the Trapestisa Fortress, whose discovery made headlines earlier this fall, have already been transported to the Veliko Tarnovo Branch of Bulgaria’s National Institute and Museum of Archaeology. They have filled up a total of about 250 crates.
They appear to be similar to the Pre-Renaissance iconography (or Early Renaissance) known from other 13th century churches from the time of the Second Bulgarian Empire, the most famous of which is the Boyana Church in Sofia’s Boyana Quarter, which predates the Renaissance art in Italy by more than a century.
“The frescoe material reveals not just images but also parts of scenes, for example, with St. John the Baptist, which indicates that some of the artists who painted them might have also worked in scriptoriums in Tarnovgrad where illustrated codices were produced,” Totev notes.
“Both I and my colleague, restorer Diana Toteva, are certain that there are two layers of murals. One is from the 1230s – 1260s, and the other is from the 14th century. Against the backdrop of what has been discovered in Trapesitsa’s churches over the past 130 years in terms of preserved frescoes, these stand out because they feature preserved faces. Faces had not been before,” the lead archaeologist adds.
“The murals are a rich iconography gallery. It is apparent that the first layer of frescoes is connected with the artists from the Tarnovo Iconography School. It’s very beautiful art. In terms of quality and artistic value, the frescoes here outdo those from churches 13 and 2 which had been the most beautiful to have been discovered in the Trapesitsa Fortress so far. So far we have found three human figures painted monumentally, and a head with a halo," Totev explains.
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Fragmented but still well preserved frescoes from the 13th century church in Tarnovgrad where the gold cross has been found depict entire scenes, and appear to have been painted in a pre-Renaissance style also known from other 13th century temples from the Second Bulgarian Empire. Photos: Regnews

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Assoc. Prof. Diana Toteva from the Veliko Tarnovo Regional Museum of History is researching the newly discovered frescoes and murals.
The team of archaeologist Konstantin Totev also includes Plamen Karailiev, Director of the Museum of History in the town of Radnevo; Nadezhda Boteva, head of the excavations of the Hotalich Fortress near the town of Sevlievo; and Reni Petrova, Director of the Museum of History in the town of Botevgrad.
“With the inscription – here we have a combination between the crucifix of Jesus Christ and Plasm 24 of David which tells us to expect to raise heads and expect the coming of the Tsar of Glory,” the lead archaeologist concludes.
In 2015, a 3D model of a late medieval residential quarter from the Trapesitsa Fortress was produced based on the research of archaeologist Deyan Rabovyanov.
Other jewels from the medieval Bulgarian Empire believed to have been made in Constantinople include, for example, a gold heart jewel discovered in Veliki Preslav (capital of the First Bulgarian Empire in 893 – 970) in 2016, and the Veliki Preslav Gold Treasure, found 40 years ago, in 1978, and presently on display in the Louvre Museum in Paris, France.

The Trapesitsa Hill is one of two main fortified historic hills in the medieval city of Tarnovgrad,today’s Veliko Tarnovo, in Central Northern Bulgaria, the capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire between 1185 and 1396 AD. Together with the Tsarevets Hill, Trapesitsa was one of the two fortresses of the inner city acropolis of Tarnovgrad (Veliko Tarnovo).
The Trapesitsa Hill is a natural fortress on the right bank of the Yantra River, and is surrounded by it on three sides. It is located northwest of the Tsarevets Hill. The Trapesitsa Fortress had four gates, the main one being its southern gate, which was also connected with the Tsarevets Fortress with a bridge across the Yantra River.
There are two hypotheses about Trapesitsa’s name. The first one is that it comes from the Bulgarian word “trapeza" meaning a “table" or “repast", possibly referring to the receptions of the medieval Bulgarian Tsars; the second hypothesis is that the word comes from “trapezium" because the hill is in fact is a trapezoidal plateau.
The first archaeological excavations on the Trapesitsa Hill Fortress in Bulgaria’s Veliko Tarnovo between 1884 and 1900 revealed the foundations of 17 medieval Bulgarian churches with fragments of rich murals, colorful mosaics, and beautiful floor tiles. The documented artifacts discovered there include crosses, necklaces, coins, rings, earrings, vessels. The churches on Trapesitsa were richly decorated with various architectural forms such as pilasters, niches, blind arches, colored slabs, among others.
The largest preserved church on the Trapesitsa Hill known as “Church No. 8″ is named after the 10thcentury AD Bulgarian saint, St. Ivan Rilski (St. John of Rila) (876-946 AD); it was surrounded with other buildings which are believed to have been part of a monastery complex. It is known that in 1195 AD, Bulgaria’s Tsar Asen I (r. 1189-1196 AD) transported the relics of St. Ivan Rilski from the city of Sredets (today’s Sofia) to Tarnovgrad (today’s Veliko Tarnovo), and had them placed in the specially constructed church on the Trapesitsa Hill. The Bulgarian archaeologists believe that a room in the southern part of Church No. 8 was the reliquary for St. Ivan Rilski’s relics. The relics of St. Ivan Rilski (St. John of Rila), who is Bulgaria’s patron saint, were kept in Veliko Tarnovo until 1469 AD when they were transported to the Rila Monastery where they are kept to this day in what became a major event for the Bulgarians during the early period of the Ottoman Yoke (1396-1878/1912), as the Second Bulgarian Empire had been conquered by the invading Ottoman Turks in 1396 AD.
The numerous and richly decorated small churches indicate that the Trapesitsa Hill harbored the homes of the medieval Bulgarian nobility, the boyars, and the supreme clergy. More recent excavations, however, also indicate that the imperial palace of the early Bulgarian Tsars from the House of Asen (the Asen Dynasty, r. 1185-1257 AD) was in fact located on the Trapesitsa Hill, and the imperial seat was possibly moved to the nearby Tsarevets Hill only later, during the reign of Tsar Ivan Asen II (r. 1218-1241 AD). In the recent years, the Trapesitsa Hill has been excavated by Prof. Konstantin Totev from the Veliko Tarnovo Branch of the National Institute and Museum of Archaeology of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, and by Prof. Hitko Vatchev from the Veliko Tarnovo Regional Museum of History.
***
The Tsarevets Hill is one of two main fortified historic hills in the medieval city of Tarnovgrad,today’s Veliko Tarnovo, in Central Northern Bulgaria, the capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire between 1185 and 1396 AD. Together with the Trapesitsa Hill, Tsarevets was one of the two fortresses of the inner city acropolis of Tarnovgrad (Veliko Tarnovo). The Tsarevets Hill is a natural fortress on the left bank of the Yantra River, and is surrounded by it on all four sides with the exception of a small section to the southwest. It is located southeast of the Trapesitsa Hill. The Tsarevets Fortress had three gates, the main one being its southwestern gate. The name of Tsarevets stems from the word “tsar", i.e. emperor.
The first settlement on the Tsarevets Hill in Bulgaria’s Veliko Tarnovo dates to the Late Chalcolithic (Aeneolithic, Copper Age), around 4,200 BC. The hill was also inhabited during the Bronze Age and Iron Age by the Ancient Thracians, and there have been hypothesis that it was the site of the legendary Ancient Thracian city Zikideva – even though a recent hypothesis claims that Zikideva was in fact located in the nearby fortress Rahovets. An Ancient Bulgar settlement was built on the Tsarevets Hill in the 9th century AD, during the First Bulgarian Empire (632/680-1018 AD) which later grew into a city. The Tsarevets Hill rose to prominence as the center of the Second Bulgarian Empire (1185-1396 AD) in 1187, after the successful Uprising of Asen and Petar, later Tsar Asen I (r. 1190-1195 AD) and Tsar Petar IV (r. 1185-1197), who ruled as co-emperors, against the Byzantine Empire in 1185-1186 AD.
Thus, the construction of the Tsarevets Hill Fortress began in the 12th century AD. The total length of the Tsarevets Hill fortress wall is 1,1 km, and it reaches a height of 10 meters (on top of the natural defenses of the hill’s slopes) and a width of 2.4-3.6 meters. The most vulnerable point of the Tsarevets fortification was the southeast section with its gate; however, it was protected by the so called Baldwin’s Tower because it is known that after defeating the Crusader knights from the 3rdCrusade in the Battle of Adrianople in 1205 AD, the Bulgarian Tsar Kaloyan captured the Latin Emperor of Constantinople Baldwin of Flanders, and kept him captive in the tower for several months, until Baldwin’s death. The Baldwin’s Tower was restored in 1933 by Bulgarian archaeologist and architect Alexander Rashenov; the restored Baldwin’s Tower was modeled after the surviving fortress tower in another medieval Bulgarian city, the Cherven Fortress.
The medieval church of the Bulgarian Patriarchate is located in the center of the Tsarevets Hill. It is called the Church of the Ascension of God, and was restored in 1981. The church was known as the “mother of all Bulgarian churches", and was part of a complex with a territory of 2,400 square meters. Right next to it are the ruins of the imperial palace of the monarchs from the Second Bulgarian Empire which had a territory of almost 3,000 square meters. Both the imperial palace and the Patriarchate’s complex were surrounded by fortress walls and protected by towers. The archaeological excavations on the Tsarevets Hill have revealed the foundations of a total of 470 residences which housed the high-ranking Bulgarian aristocracy, 23 churches and 4 urban monasteries as well as a medieval inn. In the northern-most point of the Tsarevets Hill there is a high cliff cape known as the Cliff of Executions which in the 12th-14th century AD was used for executing traitors by throwing them into the canyon of the Yantra River.
For some 200 years the medieval Tarnovgrad, also known as Tsarevgrad Tarnov (i.e. the Tsar’s City), together with its fortresses Tsarevets, Trapesitsa, and Momina Krepost (“Maiden’s Fortress"), also known as Devingrad (“Virgins’ Town"), rivaled Constantinople as the most important city in this part of Europe, with some of the most glorious and famous Bulgarian Tsars – Tsar Asen (r. 1190-1195), Tsar Petar (r. 1185-1197), Tsar Kaloyan (r. 1197-1207), Tsar Ivan Asen II (r. 1218-1241), Tsar Konstantin Asen Tih (r. 1257-1277), Tsar Ivaylo (r. 1277-1280), Tsar Todor (Theodore) Svetoslav (r. 1300-1322), Tsar Ivan Alexander (r. 1331-1371), and Tsar Ivan Shishman (r. 1371-1395) – ruling their empire from Tsarevets.
Tsarevets and the rest of Tarnovgrad had a tragic fate, however, after in 1393 AD, after a three-month siege, it became the first European capital to fall prey to the invading Ottoman Turks. This was somewhat of a logical outcome after the de facto feudal disintegration of the Second Bulgarian Empire in the second half of the 14th century. After Bulgarian Tsar Ivan Alexander (r. 1331-1371 AD) lost his two eldest sons – Ivan in 1349 AD and Mihail in 1355 AD – in battles with the Ottoman Turks, he failed to prevent a number of Bulgarian feudal lords from seceding, and on top of that divided the remainder of the Bulgarian Tsardom between his two surviving sons. His third son Ivan Sratsimir (r. 1371-1396) received the smaller so called Vidin Tsardom, with the Danube city of Bdin (Vidin) as its capital, and his fourth son Ivan Shishman (r. 1371-1395) received the rest, the so called Tarnovo Tsardom, with the capital proper of Tarnovgrad (today’s Veliko Tarnovo). Just two decades later all Bulgarian lands, disunited and even warring among themselves, fell prey to the invading Ottoman Turks, ushering Bulgaria into five centuries of Ottoman Yoke (1396-1878/1912), and signifying a practically irreversible loss of its former great power status.
As the last ruler of Tarnovgrad, Tsar Ivan Shishman was not in the capital at the time it was besieged by the forces of Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I (r. 1389-1402 AD), its defense was led by the legendary Bulgarian Patriarch St. Euthymius (Evtimiy) of Tarnovo (ca. 1325-ca. 1402-1404 AD), the founder of the Tarnovo Literary School. After they conquered the Bulgarian capital on July 17, 1393, the Ottoman Turks slaughtered its population – an especially dramatic scene was the beheading of 110 captured Bulgarian aristocrats, and razed to the ground the Bulgarian imperial palace and the churches and monasteries of the Bulgarian Patriarchate. Tsarevets and Veliko Tarnovo were liberated from the Turks in the summer of 1877 in the Russian-Turkish War of 1877-1878 that restored the Bulgarian state.
The archaeological restoration of the Tsarevets Hill Fortress began in 1930 and was completed in 1981, the year that was celebrated, now somewhat questionably, as the 1300th anniversary since the founding of the Bulgarian state. Tourists visiting Tsarevets can view the so called “Sound and Light" audiovisual show, an attraction using lasers and music to tell the story of the medieval Bulgarian Empire as well as Bulgaria’s fight for freedom against the Ottoman Empire, and the story of Bulgaria’s National Liberation. It was first launched in 1985 for the 800th anniversary since the Uprising of Asen and Petar. The Tsarevets Fortress was granted a protected status by the Bulgarian government for the first time in 1927, and in 1964 it was declared a “monument of culture of national importance".

http://archaeologyinbulgaria.com/2018/11...o-tarnovo/
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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[Image: Gold-Cross-Reliquary-Engolpion-Medieval-...=640%2C360]


You know this looks like a Kewl HOLY GOLD BONG !!!!

Bob... Ninja Bong7bp
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
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Quote:You know this looks like a Kewl HOLY GOLD BONG !!!!


And this looks like Mary may never  Holycowsmile bang a gong!>>> = Jesus
Except for all the other brothers and sisters of Jesus... non-miracles. Doh

"...You're dirty sweet
And you're my girl

Get it on
Bang a gong
Get it on
Get it on
Bang a gong
Get it on

Well you're built like a car
You got a hubcap
Diamond star halo

You're built like a truck oh my..."-[color=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.87)]The Heat Is On The Power Station
[/color]


WHO WAS MARY (Mother Of Jesus') Father???


Researchers find rare instances of male mtDNA being passed on to offspring

November 27, 2018 by Bob Yirka, Medical Xpress report



[Image: mitochondria.png]
Mitochondrial DNA. Credit: en.wikipedia.org
A team of researchers from the U.S., China and Taiwan has found some rare instances of fathers passing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to their offspring. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the group describes how they came across one case, and then found it in others.








Mitochondria are organelles that reside inside every human cell—their function is to produce energy. Mitochondria are unique in that they have a type of DNA that is separate from the DNA found in the nucleus—called quite aptly mitochondrial DNA. Prior research has shown that the mtDNA inside sperm cellsis destroyed once an egg becomes fertilized. Thus, offspring inherit only maternal mtDNA. Because of the uniqueness of mtDNA, it has been used extensively to study the genetic history of humans and other animals.



Most people learn in school that mtDNA is passed down from the mother to her offspring, but there appear to be some rare exceptions. Back in 2002, for example, a team of researchers reported finding a case in which a man had mtDNA from both parents. In this new effort, the researchers have found 17 more cases—all falling within three independent family trees.



The researchers report that they became interested in the case of a man who was suffering from what was believed to be mitochondrial mutations. Subsequent testing of his and his parents' mtDNA, revealed that he had inherited mtDNA from both of them. Intrigued, the researchers began focusing on other patients who were also experiencing maladies traced to mitochondrial mutations. In all, the researchers found 17 cases of people with mtDNA from both parents. They report also that their findings were independently validated and that using multiple types of sequencing ensured the validity of their results.



The researchers suggest it is likely that some males carry genetic mutations that prevent their mtDNA from being destroyed, thus allowing it to allow remain active in the mitochondria of their offspring, along with the maternal mtDNA. They suggest further that their findings might prove useful in combating some types of mitochondrial ailments.



[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Higher number of mitochondrial DNA-molecules can compensate for negative effects of mutations



More information: Shiyu Luo et al. Biparental Inheritance of Mitochondrial DNA in Humans, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2018). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1810946115 


Journal reference: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences





Researchers discover honeybee gynandromorph with two fathers and no mother

November 28, 2018 by Bob Yirka, Phys.org report



[Image: honeybee.jpg]
Credit: CC0 Public Domain
A team of researchers at the University of Sydney has discovered a honeybee gynandromorph with two fathers and no mother—the first ever of its kind observed in nature.     In their paper published in the journal Biology Letters, the group describes their study of honeybee gynandromorphs and what they found.








Honeybees are haplodiploid creatures—which means that females develop from fertilized eggs, while males arise from eggs that are not fertilized. Because of this, honeybees are susceptible to producing gynandromorphs, creatures with both male and female tissue. This is different from hermaphrodites, which are one gender but have sex organs of both male and female. In this new effort, the researchers sought to learn more about the nature of gynandromorphs and what causes them.



Prior research has suggested the likelihood that rare mutations result in the creation of gynandromorphs. The mechanics of the process are due to multiple males mating with a queen, resulting in more than a single sperm fertilizing an egg. To learn more about the genetics involved, the researchers captured 11 gynandromorph honeybees, all from a single colony, and studied their genome.



The genetic makeup of the gynandromorphs revealed that five of them had normal ovaries, while three had ovaries that were similar to those of the queen. Also, one of them had normal male sex organs while two had only partial sex organs. The researchers also found that out of the 11 gynandromorphs tested, nine had either two or three fathers. And remarkably, one had two fathers but no mother—a development that could only have occurred through the development of sperm fusion.



The researchers note that gynandromorphs confer no known evolutionary advantagefor a species; thus, their development must be due to mistakes resulting in still unknown mutations. They suggest that the large number of gynandromorphs in a single hive likely means the queen carries the mutation. They note that gynandromorphs have been observed in other species as well, including some crustaceans, other insects and a few bird species. The mutation that causes it in those other species has not been found, either.



[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Dual-sex butterfly hatches at Natural History Museum



More information: Sex mosaics in the honeybee: how haplodiploidy makes possible the evolution of novel forms of reproduction in social Hymenoptera, Biology Letters(2018). rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.or … .1098/rsbl.2018.0670 



Journal reference: Biology Letters




Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-11-honeybee-g...r.html#jCp





Jesus, the XX Male

December 8, 2015Dan


[Image: image_thumb11.png?w=204&h=242]The feature article in the December 2015 issue of the New Oxford Review is an article by Maria Hsia Chang, The Virgin Birth: Where Science Meets Scripture

Quote:If that occurs — if replicability is achieved for the DNA data from the Shroud and Sudarium — it means Jesus indeed was an XX male. We are then faced with two rival hypotheses:
1. Jesus was one of those rare four out of every 100,000 all-too-human males who have two X chromosomes but no Y chromosome. But that doesn’t mean He was born of a virgin or that He had no biological father. The only problem is: How could the writer of the Gospel According to Luke, centuries before the discovery of DNA, possibly know that Jesus was an XX male and so tried to account for Jesus’ abnormal DNA with a made-up virgin-birth story?
2. Jesus was an XX male with no Y chromosome because Luke 1:26-35 tells the truth: Jesus was born of a virgin and has no human biological father.
In the end, as in the identification of the man who left His image on the Shroud of Turin, it is science that enables us to decipher DNA testimony from the Shroud and the Oviedo Cloth. There was a time when science caused an erosion of faith. But the Shroud and the Sudarium demonstrate that science and faith need not be at loggerheads. Instead of showing the Shroud and the Oviedo Cloth to be fakes, it may well be that science can confirm the miraculous character of both.

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The article began by pointing out that 68% of American adults believe that Jesus is God or the Son of God but only 57% believe in the virgin birth.[/size]


Quote:Disbelief in Jesus being born of a virgin, which is a fundamental tenet of Christianity, in turn implies a belief that the author of the Gospel According to Luke lied when he wrote:
Quote:The angel Gabriel was sent from God to a town of Galilee called Nazareth, to a virgin betrothed to a man named Joseph…. The angel said to her, “Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God. Behold you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you shall name him Jesus….” But Mary said to the angel, “How can this be, since I have no relations with a man?” And the angel said to her in reply, “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. Therefore the child to be born will be called holy, the Son of God.” (1:26-35; emphasis added)
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This is a philosophical minefield. It imposes assumptions about miraculous conception onto science in order to try and prove the assumption. You may not want to believe it, but Luke could have been writing myth to make a point. That is a third hypothesis. To an Atheist, what Luke (and indeed Matthew) wrote about the virgin birth is part of the fabric of what must be a much bigger fictional account.
Does the XX male argument rest on the authenticity of the shroud or is it another argument for authenticity?  
[/size]
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
Actually it was T-Rex which wrote and the original song:



Got the Original Album.

But it does make one wonder about the male mtDNA   Holycowsmile

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
Reply
Indeed it was T-Rex originally.
[Image: Trex_hates_presents_too_f6aeefc3-c0d8-40...1478612264] 
Thatz a conundrum for Genesis.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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Have Faith even dinosaurs had sex.

[Image: 51iGQ8XLEwL._AC_US218_.jpg]

While the genitals are pix-elated, they are worth the cost...only a few left.

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
Reply
Quote:...only a few left.

Arrow  Excavations are underway in cave 53c to determine if it still holds any scrolls.

Archaeologists Are Looking for Dead Sea Scrolls Inside 2 Newfound Qumran Caves
By Owen Jarus, Live Science Contributor | November 30, 2018 08:22am ET
[Image: aHR0cDovL3d3dy5saXZlc2NpZW5jZS5jb20vaW1h...VTRS5qcGc=]

These Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered during a 1947 excavation of Qumran caves northwest of the Dead Sea.
Credit: Photo12/UIG via Getty Images

Archaeologists have discovered two caves near Qumran, in the West Bank, that may hold Dead Sea Scrolls.
So far, the archaeologists excavating the caves have yet to find the remains of any biblical-era manuscripts. However, both caves, now called 53b and 53c, are near caves that held the already-discovered Dead Sea Scrolls, and the team is not done investigating the sites.   
The Dead Sea Scrolls consist of the remains of 900 manuscripts found in 12 caves located near Qumran. Many scholars believe that a group called the Essenes lived at Qumran and wrote many of the Dead Sea Scrolls before abandoning the site around A.D. 70, when a revolt against the Romans started.
Caves 1 through 11 were discovered between 1946 and 1956; most of the Dead Sea Scrolls were found in these 11 caves. The 12th cavewas discovered in 2017 but has divulged just one, blank scroll. Inside the cave, archaeologists also found the remains of items used to store scrolls —  jars, textiles, rope and string. This indicates that more scrolls existed in Cave 12 in the past but were looted some time ago. [Gallery of Dead Sea Scrolls: A Glimpse of the Past]
The two newfound caves are near the 12th cave, and they also hold evidence of having contained scrolls in the past.
Evidence for scrolls
While looters plundered cave 53b sometime in the past, archaeologists found a bronze cooking pot and "large amounts of pottery representing store jars, flasks, cups and cooking pots, and [the researchers also found] fragments of woven textiles, braided ropes and string," archaeologists Randall Price, of Liberty University in Virginia, and Oren Gutfeld, of Hebrew University of Jerusalem, wrote in the abstract of a paper they presented recently at the American Schools of Oriental Research annual meeting, held in Denver Nov. 14-17. Additionally, an oil lamp was found at the entrance to the cave, they said.

[Image: MTU0MzU4NDY4NA==]
Archaeologists are excavating two newfound caves in Qumran (shown here), looking for the remains of Dead Sea Scrolls.
Credit: Shutterstock

"We have not analyzed all of the pottery from this cave [53b], so we do not know if a scroll jar was present," Price, a professor of divinity at Liberty University in Virginia, told Live Science. The textiles, rope and string found in 53b are similar to those found in cave 12, he said. This means that cave 53b may also have been used to store scrolls.
The bronze cooking pot found in cave 53b dates to sometime between 100 B.C. and 15 B.C., a time when people were living at Qumran. The design of the lamp is similar to those of lamps found at Qumran, Price said, suggesting that the people who lived at Qumran used the cave.
Inside cave 53c, the researchers found a fragment of a scroll jar, providing evidence that scrolls were once stored in that cave. Excavations are underway in cave 53c to determine if it still holds any scrolls.
Gutfeld is a researcher at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

https://www.livescience.com/64200-dead-s...vered.html


More wine?




From Biblical to revival: Jordan's desert winemakers
December 2, 2018 by Kamal Taha


[Image: omarzumotman.jpg]
Omar Zumot, manager of Amman's Saint George winery and who studied winemaking in France, samples a glass as two Jordanian families look to revive an age-old tradition that some suggest has Biblical heritage

Two Jordanian families aim to put wine from their desert land on the world viticultural map, reviving an age-old tradition that some suggest has Biblical heritage.



Wine lovers like to say that the wine Jesus Christ served to his disciples at the Last Supper came from the northern town of Umm Qais in modern-day Jordan, to signify how old the country's winemaking tradition is.

"Wine was produced in Jordan more than 2,000 years ago but then it disappeared for centuries," said Omar Zumot, who studied winemaking in France, and now manages the Saint George winery in an eastern suburb of Amman.

"It's our responsibility to relaunch it," he told AFP.

The Zumots and their main competitors, the Haddads, belong to Jordan's Christian minority in a Muslim-majority kingdom, where the sale of alcohol is legal.

"We began to produce wine in 1996 and today we produce 400,000 litres a year," Zumot said, during a tour of his winery, which makes a range of organic wines that are aged in 700 French oak barrels before being bottled.

"We're only at the start of the road but my dream is to put Jordanian wines on the map."

Firas Haddad, marketing manager of Eagle Distilleries, home of the award-winning Jordan River wine, shares that dream.

"We set up the first winery in 1975. We used to produce just two kinds of wines, white and red from grapes that we brought from Suweida in (neighbouring) Syria," he said.

Today, the company based in Zarka, near Amman, produces wine from 45 varieties of grapes, most of them from vines brought to Jordan from France, Italy and Spain, he said.

[Image: jordanianwin.jpg]
Jordanian wine lovers like to say that the wine Jesus Christ served to his disciples at the Last Supper came from Umm Qais in modern-day Jordan Ancient winemaking

Swiss archaeologist Ueli Bellwald told AFP that winemaking in Jordan goes back much further than the time of Christ.

"Winemaking in Jordan does not date back only 2,000 years," said Bellwald, who has been working on digs in the ancient Nabatean city of Petra for nearly three decades.

Wine production started in the Nabatean kingdom "in the middle of the first century BC" and reached a peak during the Roman and Byzantine periods, "based on the enormous number of wine presses from these times", he said.

According to Bellwald, as many as 82 wine presses have been discovered in the Beidha-Baaja area of Petra in southern Jordan.

"There were even winemaking facilities of industrial scale," he said.

 

Basalt, water, sunshine

Both the Haddads and the Zumots have vineyards in the northeastern Mafraq province neighbouring Syria and Iraq.

Mafraq is one of the most fertile regions of Jordan with soil rich in basalt that was formed by volcanic activity tens of thousands of years ago.

It lies 840 metres (2,800 feet) above sea level, is rich in underground water and enjoys sunshine 330 days a year, said Haddad.

All this makes for "exceptional" wine, he said.

[Image: workersinspe.jpg]
Workers inspect bottles at Eagle Distilleries in Zarqa, east of Amman—but while the makers say the wine is "exceptional" high duties and taxes make it expensive

The Haddads have set up the "Wine Experience" in the heart of Amman touted as Jordan's first wine tasting lounge, and like the Zumots organise vineyard tours.

Tourists visiting the lounge, like Peggy from Australia and Frederic from France, were "surprised" that Jordan produces wine. Both noted the high price tags.

All alcoholic drinks, whether they are imported or domestically-produced, are subject to taxes that exceed 300 percent, while even items used in the production process face substantial duties.

"Customs duties are exorbitant and because of that (our) wine is expensive. The cheapest bottle sells for between 15-20 euros," or $20 to $25, said Zumot.

His company exports only "small quantities" to Europe and some Arab countries, including Iraq, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, he said, citing high shipping costs.

'A passion, an art'

Jordan River produces 500,000 bottles of wine annually, 90 percent of which is sold domestically, said Haddad.

For now, very little is sent abroad.

"A few months ago, we sent a shipment to Australia. Another one is on its way to California," he said, adding he also expects to export his wine soon to Paris.

The Jordan River wine has won 96 awards, while the Saint George has clinched 23 prizes.

"Wine is not just an industry, it's a passion, an art," said Alaa Mansur, production manager at the Haddad winery.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Blue wine? A tea-infused vintage? Spain startup shakes things up


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-12-biblical-r...s.html#jCp
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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Wild yeasts may hold key to better wines from warmer climates
December 3, 2018 by Crispin Savage, University of Adelaide

[Image: wine.jpg]
Credit: CC0 Public Domain
Researchers at the University of Adelaide have found yeasts that naturally occur on wine grapes may improve wines produced in warmer climates. Up until now the use of these 'natural' or 'wild' yeasts during the production process has mostly been discouraged by wine makers.


The study, published in Scientific Reports, focuses on the effects of Lachancea thermotolerans yeast which occurs naturally on grapes.

"This important research shows a potential new way for oenologists to improve the quality of wine grown in warm climates using different strains of naturally-occurring yeasts," says Vladimir Jiranek, Professor of Oenology and Head of the Department of Wine and Food Science, University of Adelaide.

Dr. Ana Hranilovic, a recent Ph.D. graduate from the University's ARC Training Centre for Innovative Wine Production, carried out the research with support from the University of Bordeaux, Charles Sturt University, CSIRO and Laffort Oenology.

"Intentional over-ripening of grapes, as well as rising global temperatures due to climate change, produce excess sugar in grapes, which are converted to ethanol during fermentation. This results in highly alcoholic wines," says Dr. Hranilovic.

"Highly alcoholic wines may not necessarily be a good thing. Wine fashions change as consumers' tastes change but also these wines can lack acidity, be different in flavour and lead to a higher cost to the consumer in the form of higher taxes."

'Fixing' such wines can be difficult or costly. For example, boosting acidity for a 'fresher' taste and to reduce the risk of bacterial spoilage adds to the production costs.

A solution to all of these problems may be the use of different yeasts. While these have always been around, efforts were made to suppress them during production. "These yeasts don't always improve wine as they can cause different off-flavours," says Dr. Hranilovic.

However, this study has highlighted that certain strains of naturally-occurring yeasts have beneficial effects in wine production.

"The yeast Lachancea thermotolerans produces high levels of acidity in the form of lactic or 'good' acid. This type of acid improves the wine by giving it a soft, mellow taste."

"But Lachancea thermotolerans, and other similar yeasts, cannot be used on their own as they are not capable of consuming all the grape sugars. They must be used in conjunction with the typical 'wine yeasts'.

"We now need to do more research into how different blends of yeasts affect the taste and the quality of wine," says Dr. Hranilovic.

"The ultimate aim of the research is to produce a simple method of blending different strains of yeasts to improve the quality of wine," says Professor Jiranek.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Knowing yeast genome produces better wine

More information: Ana Hranilovic et al. Oenological traits of Lachancea thermotolerans show signs of domestication and allopatric differentiation, Scientific Reports (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-33105-7 

Journal reference: Scientific Reports [Image: img-dot.gif] [Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: University of Adelaide



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-12-wild-yeast...r.html#jCp




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Quote:To the very short list of clues about Pilate as a historical figure, archaeologists have added one more: a 2,000-year-old copper alloy ring bearing his name.
The ring was discovered in the late 1960s, one of thousands of artifacts found in the excavation of Herodium, an ancient fortress and palace south of Bethlehem, in the West Bank. But it was not until recently that researchers, analyzing those objects with advanced photography, were able to decipher the ring’s inscription.
It reads “of Pilates,” in Greek letters set around a picture of a wine vessel known as a krater, and is said by archaeologists to be only the second artifact from his time ever found with his name. Kraters are a common image in artifacts of that time and place.



Holycowsmile



Pontius Pilate’s Name Is Found on 2,000-Year-Old Ring

Image[img=630x0]https://static01.nyt.com/images/2018/12/01/world/01ring-print/merlin_147526287_d466d7d2-bd3a-4a51-884c-e61e08320c63-articleLarge.jpg?quality=75&auto=webp&disable=upscale[/img]
The ring bearing the name of Pontius Pilate was discovered in the late 1960s, one of thousands of artifacts found in the excavation of Herodium, an ancient fortress and palace south of Bethlehem, in the West Bank.CreditCreditBernat Armangue/Associated Press

By Palko Karasz
  • Nov. 30, 2018
The name of Pontius Pilate, the Roman official who ordered the killing of Jesus, according to the Gospel, is mentioned in thousands of sermons every year and is familiar to countless people, but little is known about his life and work.
To the very short list of clues about Pilate as a historical figure, archaeologists have added one more: a 2,000-year-old copper alloy ring bearing his name.
The ring was discovered in the late 1960s, one of thousands of artifacts found in the excavation of Herodium, an ancient fortress and palace south of Bethlehem, in the West Bank. But it was not until recently that researchers, analyzing those objects with advanced photography, were able to decipher the ring’s inscription.
It reads “of Pilates,” in Greek letters set around a picture of a wine vessel known as a krater, and is said by archaeologists to be only the second artifact from his time ever found with his name. Kraters are a common image in artifacts of that time and place.

The findings were published last week in the Israel Exploration Journal, an archaeological review in Israel.
Pilate was the prefect, or governor, of the province of Judea, on the eastern fringes of the Roman Empire, roughly from A.D. 26 to 36.
The report says it is unlikely that the ring belonged to Pilate, in part because such simple rings usually belonged to soldiers and lesser officials, not to someone as wealthy and powerful as a prefect.
“We think it implausible that a prefect would have used a simple, all-metal, copper-alloy personal sealing ring with a motif that was already a well-known Jewish motif in Judea before and during his rule,” it says.
“But in practice, we have a ring inscribed with the name Pilate and the personal connection just cries out,” Roi Porat, one of the authors of the report told The Times of Israel. The name Pilate was not common in the region at the time.

The New Testament story of Pilate presenting a scourged Jesus to an angry crowd with the words “behold the man” — “ecce homo” in Latin — was a central theme of religious art for centuries.
Beyond the Gospel, most of what little is known about Pilate comes from the surviving work of the ancient historians Flavius Josephus, a Jew, and Tacitus, a Roman.
Herodium, where the ring was found, was built by Herod the Great, a client king of the Roman Empire, and is the site of his tomb. (One of his sons, also named Herod, was king in Jesus’ time.) The site is controlled by Israel and is claimed by Palestinians.
The ring was found in a room filled with bits of glass, shards of pottery, arrowheads, coins and other items.
The language of the ring’s inscription is Greek, which Roman officials used to communicate with the peoples of the eastern Mediterranean. It could have been used for official correspondence by Pilate himself and his officials who had to sign his name.
The first archaeological find in Judea that mentioned Pilate was a fragment of carved stone, discovered in 1961, in the ancient port city of Caesarea. It is known as the Pilate stone and is kept at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem.
“It solved the problem of what actual title he had,” said Jonathan Price, professor of classics and ancient history at Tel Aviv University.

According to Mr. Price, for historians of the Roman period, Pilate was just one of a string of Roman officials who were sent to Judea to govern and keep the peace. Were it not for his biblical role, “he would be remembered as a Roman official who didn’t do so well,” he said.
During his decade-long tenure, which was longer than usual, Pilate displayed hostility to local residents and nearly provoked two uprisings.
“He was called back and called to account for what seemed to be a lack of competence,” Mr. Price said. “And after that we don’t really hear about him.”

Correction: 
A previous version of this article misstated the location of Judea. It was on the eastern fringes of the Roman Empire, not the western fringes.
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(01-23-2015, 01:30 AM)EA Wrote:
(01-21-2015, 12:55 PM)Fsbirdhouse link Wrote:Very interesting EA.....Quite!
If this place is 'Hard By' Bethlehem, actually part thereof......Why not? The symbolism fits the 'Type'.

Really been enjoying looking into the different bits of foreshadowing 'Types' thru out the Torah as well.
Incredible the things that are being revealed in these last days.

Jesus in all of his forms are fascinating fsb.
My current opinion is I don't believe we are in the last days,and I will tell you why.
Nigh

This is why.

Third along the vines of the vineyard...
Second secure forked tongue in cheek...
First I must apologise to Mayito and turn the other cheek...

I Am sorry mayito.


Moving on...

FSB.
The entire gamut of Jesus' can be discussed here.
We've got all the time in the world.

Consider this this the council of 'nice' EA so that Mayito's hertz shall be Schumanned.

This is the Third Rock from the sun and Jesus didn't live under a rock.

This thread will flesh the word out.

From the Composite sketches left behind after witness accounts and hearsay as opposed to heresey.

hearsay as opposed to heresey posted "Here Say"

Say Here because itz the Counsel of Nice EA

I don't bury my talents... let's dig up Jesus!!!

Happy Birthday fsb  Bd1

recall:

#275
Tuesday, September 18th, 2018, 04:14 am

Archeologists find one of Christianity’s most important sites & plan to open underwater museum
Published time: 7 Sep, 2018 15:03 Edited time: 8 Sep, 2018 11:17
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[Image: 5b92912ffc7e93e6498b4638.png]
© Mustafa Şahin/Lake Iznik Excavation Archive

A chance discovery by a team of archeologists in Turkey may have revealed one of the most significant sites in the history of Christianity after years of fruitless searching. And they’re now planning an underwater museum.
When Constantine I, the first Roman Emperor to convert to Christianity, chaired the ecumenical Council of Nicaea in 325 AD, bishops from across the world descended on Lake Ascanius to iron out divisions in the early Christian church. The modern-day lake, Lake Iznik in Turkey, has for years been the focus of archeologists trying to find treasures from that ancient time.
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Shrine to Apostle Peter unearthed: Israeli archaeologist 
Stephen Weizman
AFPJuly 19, 2019 

[Image: 45869f17b92d9ada89805cd443a28c4f7ac7949b.jpg]

An archeological excavation site believed to be the location of a biblical village that was home to Saint Peter near the Sea of Galilee in northern Israel (AFP Photo/MENAHEM KAHANA)

[size=undefined]Jerusalem (Israel) (AFP) - Excavations in Israel's Galilee have uncovered remains of an ancient church said to mark the home of the apostles Peter and Andrew, the dig's archaeological director said Friday.
Mordechai Aviam of Kinneret Academic College, on the shore of the Sea of Galilee in northern Israel, said this season's dig at nearby El-Araj confirmed it as the site of Bethsaida, a fishing village where Peter and his brother Andrew were born according to the Gospel of John.
The Byzantine church was found near remnants of a Roman-era settlement, matching the location of Bethsaida as described by the first century AD Roman historian Flavius Josephus, Aviam said.
The newly-discovered church, he added, fitted the account of Willibald, the Bavarian bishop of Eichstaett who visited the area around 725 AD and reported that a church at Bethsaida had been built on the site of Peter and Andrew's home.
According to Willibald, Aviam says, Bethsaida lay between the biblical sites of Capernaum and Kursi.
"We excavated only one third of the church, a bit less, but we have a church and that's for sure," Aviam told AFP.
"The plan is of a church, the dates are Byzantine, the mosaic floors are typical... chancel screens, everything that is typical of a church."
"Between Capernaum and Kursi there is only one place where a church is described by the visitor in the eighth century and we discovered it, so this is the one," he said.
Christians recognise Saint Peter, originally a fisherman, as one of the first followers of Jesus and the leader of the early Church following the ascension.
The Catholic Church also venerates him as its first pope.
El-Araj, known as Beit Habeck in Hebrew, is not the only candidate for the site of Bethsaida.
About two kilometres (more than a mile) away at e-Tell, digging has been going on since 1987 and according to the National Geographic website has unearthed major ninth-century BC fortifications and "Roman-period houses with fishing equipment, including iron anchors and fishing hooks, and the remains of what may be a Roman temple".
- Inscription would be clincher -
Aviam is convinced that he and his international team, with professor R. Steven Notley of New York City's Nyack College as academic director, are digging in the right spot.
"We have a Roman village, in the village we have pottery, coins, also stone vessels which are typical of first century Jewish life, so now we strengthen our suggestion and identification that El-Araj is a much better candidate for Bethsaida than e-Tell," he said.
"It has been excavated for the past 32 years. We started digging two years ago because we thought it's the better one and now we have the proofs."
Notley, interviewed in Israeli daily Haaretz, is a little more cautious, saying the clincher will be if complete excavation of the El-Araj church reveals an inscription.
"It would be normal to find an inscription in a church of the Byzantine period, describing in whose memory it was built, for instance," he told the paper.

[/size]


https://news.yahoo.com/shrine-apostle-pe...22931.html
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JULY 24, 2019 REPORT
Study of data from 1988 Shroud of Turin testing suggests mistakes
by Bob Yirka , Phys.org
[Image: shroudofturin.jpg]
A team of researchers from France and Italy has found evidence that suggests testing of the Shroud of Turin back in 1988 was flawed. In their paper published in Oxford University's Archaeometry, the group describes their reanalysis of the data used in the prior study, and what they found.

Back in 1988, a team of researchers was granted access to the Shroud of Turin—a small piece of cloth that many believe was used to cover the face of Christ after crucifixion. As part of the research effort, several research entities were chosen to examine individual pieces of cloth from the shroud, but in the end, only three were allowed to do so: The University of Arizona in the U.S., the Federal Institute of Technology in Switzerland and Oxford University in the U.K.
After testing was concluded, the researchers announced that all three research groups had dated their cloth snippets to a time between 1260 and 1390—evidence that the shroud was not from the time of Christ. But there was a problem with the findings—the Vatican, which owns the shroud, refused to allow other researchers access to the data. In this new effort, the research team sued the University of Oxford, which had the data, for access—and won. After studying the data for two years, the new research team announced that the study from 1988 was flawed because it did not involve study of the entire shroud—just some edge pieces. Edge pieces from the shroud are rumored to have been tampered with by nuns in the Middle Ages seeking to restore damage done to the shroud over the years. In a recent interview with L"Homme Nouveau, Tristan Casabianca, team lead on the new effort, claimed that the raw data from the 1988 tests showed that the test samples were heterogeneous, invalidating the results.
The researchers suggest that new studies must be conducted on the shroud if its true date is to be ascertained. For that to happen, the Vatican will once again have to provide access to the shroud, which appears to be in doubt, as officials with the church have proven reluctant to allow further testing.


[size=undefined]

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New study suggests Shroud of Turin a fake, supporting study retracted[/size]


[size=undefined]
More information: T. Casabianca et al. Radiocarbon Dating of the Turin Shroud: New Evidence from Raw Data, Archaeometry (2019). DOI: 10.1111/arcm.12467

Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin, Nature, Vol. 337, No. 6208, pp. 611-615, 16th February, 1989. www.nature.com/articles/337611a0
Journal information: Archaeometry  Nature
[/size]


[size=undefined]https://phys.org/news/2019-07-shroud-turin.html[/size]
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[Image: 1076084047.jpg]Archaeologists Discover Possible Biblical Site Visited by Jesus Christ After the Resurrection

TECH
20:42 01.09.2019Get short URL
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Even as the archaeological team brought forward its findings regarding the possible location of the fabled Biblical town, other experts urged caution, noting that it remains merely a hypothesis at this point.
A team of archaeologists operating in the vicinity of Jerusalem has recently unearthed a millennia-old fortification which might help identify the location of Emmaus – a town which the New Testament names as the place where Jesus made his first appearance after his crucifixion and subsequent resurrection.
According to Haaretz, the Franco-Israeli team discovered an ancient Hellenistic fortification which was possibly built by the Seleucid general Bacchides who defeated Judah Maccabeus, at Kiriath Yearim, a hill that overlooks the western approach to Jerusalem.
"The importance of this site, its dominant position over Jerusalem, was felt again and again through time: in the eighth century B.C.E., and then again in the Hellenistic period and then again after the First Jewish Revolt and the sack of Jerusalem in 70 C.E.", said Tel Aviv University archaeologist Israel Finkelstein.
Having consulted historic accounts detailing the list of fortifications erected by Bacchides, "the only known case of large-scale fortification construction in Judea during this period", as Thomas Römer, a professor of biblical studies at the College de France, explained, the researchers noticed that while Kiriat Yearim isn’t mentioned there, the lists do include one location to the west of Jerusalem, that "was known to Josephus and to the author of 1 Maccabees as Emmaus".
With this in mind, and considering the apparent lack of any other known Hellenistic strongholds west of Jerusalem, Finkelstein and Römer now believe that the hill and the adjacent town of Abu Ghosh should be identified as Emmaus.
Römer also pointed out that there are ancient traditions linking Kiriath Yearim and Abu Ghosh to Emmaus, with crusaders building the Church of Resurrection in the town in the 12th century.
However, Benjamin Isaac, emeritus professor of ancient history from Tel Aviv University, urged caution, noting that while “Finkelstein and Römer have a good case archaeologically, geographically, and topographically,” their hypothesis is just that, a hypothesis, at this time.



https://sputniknews.com/science/20190901...urrection/
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OCTOBER 21, 2019
Archaeologists uncover 2,000-year-old street in Jerusalem built by Pontius Pilate
[Image: 18-archaeologis.jpg]View of the foundations of the Western Wall (left) and the retaining wall that abutted it, built on bedrock (below). To the right are the constructive layers that filled the support system. Credit: M. Hagbi, IAA
An ancient walkway most likely used by pilgrims as they made their way to worship at the Temple Mount has been uncovered in the "City of David" in the Jerusalem Walls National Park.

In a new study published in Tel Aviv: Journal of the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University, researchers at the Israel Antiquities Authority detail finding over 100 coins beneath the paving stones that date the street to approximately 31 CE. The finding provides strong evidence that the street was commissioned by Pontius Pilate.
After six years of extensive archaeological excavations, researchers from the Israel Antiquities Authority and Tel Aviv University have uncovered a 220-meter-long section of an ancient street first discovered by British archaeologists in 1894. The walkway ascends from the Pool of Siloam in the south to the Temple Mount.
Both monuments are hugely significant to followers of Judaism and Christianity. The Temple Mount, located within the Old City of Jerusalem, has been venerated as a holy site for thousands of years. At the time of the street's construction, it is where Jesus is said to have cured a man's blindness by sending him to wash in the Siloam Pool.
The excavation revealed over 100 coins trapped beneath paving stones. The latest coins were dated between 17 CE to 31 CE, which provides firm evidence that work began and was completed during the time that Pontius Pilate governed Judea.

[Image: 19-archaeologis.jpg]
The pavement of the street and the solid foundation that was exposed in a place where no paving stones were preserved Credit: A. Peretz, IAA
"Dating using coins is very exact," says Dr. Donald T. Ariel, an archaeologist and coin expert with the Israel Antiquities Authority, and one of the co-authors of the article. "As some coins have the year in which they were minted on them, what that means is that if a coin with the date 30 CE on it is found beneath the street, the street had to be built in the same year or after that coin had been minted, so any time after 30 CE."
"However, our study goes further, because statistically, coins minted some 10 years later are the most common coins in Jerusalem, so not having them beneath the street means the street was built before their appearance, in other words only in the time of Pilate."
The magnificent street—600 meters long and approximately 8 meters wide—was paved with large stone slabs, as was customary throughout the Roman Empire. The researchers estimate that some 10,000 tons of quarried limestone rock was used in its construction, which would have required considerable skill.

The opulent and grand nature of the street coupled with the fact that it links two of the most important spots in Jerusalem—the Siloam Pool and Temple Mount—is strong evidence that the street acted as a pilgrim's route.

[Image: 20-archaeologis.jpg]
A location map, marking excavation sites. Credit: Drawing: D. Levi, IAA; printed by permission of the Survey of Israel
"If this was a simple walkway connecting point A to point B, there would be no need to build such a grand street," says Dr. Joe Uziel and Moran Hagbi, archaeologists at the Israel Antiquities Authority, co-authors of the study. "At its minimum it is 8 meters wide. This, coupled with its finely carved stone and ornate 'furnishings' like a stepped podium along the street, all indicate that this was a special street."
"Part of it may have been to appease the residents of Jerusalem, part of it may have been about the way Jerusalem would fit in the Roman world, and part of it may have been to aggrandize his name through major building projects," says author Nahshon Szanton.
The paving stones of the street were found hidden beneath layers of rubble, thought to be from when the Romans captured and destroyed the city in 70 CE. The rubble contained weapons such as arrowheads and sling stones, remains of burnt trees, and collapsed stones from the buildings along its edge.
It is possible that he had the street constructed to reduce tensions with the Jewish population. "We can't know for sure—although all these reasons do find support in the historical documents, and it is likely that it was some combination of the three."




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Israel displays coins from ancient Jewish revolt



[b]More information:[/b] Tel Aviv: Journal of the Institute of Archaeologytandfonline.com/10.1080/03344355.2019.1650491
Provided by Taylor & Francis

https://phys.org/news/2019-10-archaeolog...salem.html
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