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Next President of the United Fates of America
When eating x-mas turkey soon recall: 

Trump is gonna build that wall! 


(12-01-2016, 12:09 AM)EA Wrote: You might be be tired of leftovers after  a while America but  ...>>> the Original local yokels cultivated the food-coma!

Researchers talk turkey: Native Americans raised classic holiday bird
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November 21, 2016

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Credit: Yathin S Krishnappa
Hundreds of years before the first Thanksgiving, Native Americans were raising and feasting on America's classic holiday meal.



Florida State University Associate Professor of Anthropology Tanya Peres and graduate student Kelly Ledford write in a paper published today in the Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports that Native Americans as early as 1200 - 1400 A.D. were managing and raising turkeys.
This is the first time scientists have suggested that turkeys were potentially domesticated by early Native Americans in the southeastern United States.
"In the Americas, we have just a few domesticated animals," Peres said. "Researchers haven't really talked about the possibility of Native Americans domesticating or raising turkeys."
Researchers knew that turkeys had been a part of Native American life long before the first Thanksgiving in 1621.
Their feathers were used on arrows, in headdresses and clothing. The meat was used for food. Their bones were used for tools including scratchers used in ritual ceremonies. There are even representations of turkeys in artifacts from the time. An intricately engraved marine shell pendant found at a site in central Tennessee shows two turkeys facing each other.
But this new research indicates turkeys were more than just a casual part of life for Native Americans of that era. Peres and Ledford came across a few curiosities as they examined skeletons of turkeys from archaeological sites in Tennessee that led them to believe that Native Americans were actively managing these fowls.
For one, the groupings researchers worked on had more male turkeys than a typical flock.
In a typical flock of turkeys, there are usually more females, Peres said. But in the flock they examined, they found more remains of males. That would only happen if it were designed that way, she said.
"It appears Native Americans were favoring males for their bones for tools," Peres said. "And they certainly would have favored males for their feathers. They tend to be much brighter and more colorful than the female species. Female feathers tend to be a dull grey or brown to blend in to their surroundings since they have to sit on the nest and protect the chicks."
The other immediately noticeable trait that stood out to Peres and Ledford was that these ancient American gobblers were big boned—much larger than today's average wild turkey. That could be the result of them being purposefully cared for or fed diets of corn.
"The skeletons of the archaeological turkeys we examined were quite robust in comparison to the skeletons of our modern comparatives," Ledford said. "The domestication process typically results in an overall increase in the size of the animal so we knew this was a research avenue we needed to explore."
Peres and Ledford are working with colleagues at Washington State University to perform a DNA sequencing of these turkeys and also conduct experiments to see what the turkeys were eating. If they were being fed corn, a chemical signature should appear in the remains.
Ledford is also collecting data from additional sites across the southeastern United States to see if this pattern of managing turkeys was consistent across settlements or if it was an isolated practice.
"It might be that not everybody was practicing this, but some people were for sure," Peres said.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: What is a heritage turkey?
Provided by: Florida State University


Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-11-turkey-nati...y.html#jCp[/url]






Quote:"...this discovery is huge."   News 



Researchers find evidence of original 1620 Plymouth settlement
November 30, 2016 by Colleen Locke

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UMass Boston students have affectionately named this calf Constance. Credit: David Landon
Three hundred and ninety-five years after Pilgrims celebrated the first Thanksgiving in Plymouth, Massachusetts, researchers from UMass Boston's Andrew Fiske Memorial Center for Archaeological Research can say they have definitively discovered evidence of the original 1620 Plymouth settlement. Part of the proof involves a calf that UMass Boston students have affectionately named Constance.



For the fourth summer, David Landon, associate director of the Fiske Center, led a group of undergraduate and graduate students in a field school in Plymouth offered through UMass Boston's College of Advancing and Professional Studies. Landon and the students spent five weeks on Burial Hill looking for the site of the original Pilgrim 
settlement. Landon's goal when he started was to find evidence of the original settlement prior to the 400th anniversary of the founding of the Plymouth Colony in 2020. He met his goal four years early, in the first year of a three-year, $200,000 National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) grant.
Because the original structures weren't built with bricks, the research team couldn't look for foundations. Rather, they had to look for "post and ground construction" – basically holes for wood, and dirt.
"While we're digging, we're constantly in the process of trying to interpret what we're finding. It really goes to just moving slowly and trying to see if there are any patterns in the flow that we can map out. As soon as that starts, it becomes a slow process. It's about much more than the artifacts – it's about trying to pin down soil color and trying to understand constructed features that are no longer there," Landon said.
But then Landon's team did start finding 17th century artifacts: 17th century pottery, tins, trade beads, and musket balls – around that post and ground construction. Landon says the students and researchers were at this point cautiously optimistic that they had found a location inside the settlement walls.

And then they found "Constance" – a calf buried whole in the bottom-most pit. 
Holycowsmile 
Because native people didn't have domestic cattle, Landon says we know that she lived – and died—in the confines of the original Plymouth settlement.

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Credit: UMass Boston
"Constance is a great symbol of this. Oftentimes success in the colony depended on herds of cattle. It became a centerpiece of the economy. So the calf does connect us to that story," Landon said.
Kathryn Ness is the curator of collections at Plimoth Plantation, UMass Boston's partner in this project. She says this discovery is huge.



"Finding evidence of colonial activity inside the original 1620 Plymouth settlement is an incredibly exciting discovery that has the potential to change dramatically our understanding of early European colonization in New England. For the first time, we have proof of where the settlement was located and what kinds of items the Pilgrims owned and used," Ness said. "At Plimoth Plantation, the team's findings will help us further refine our exhibits, as we use archaeological evidence and historical documents as the basis for our portrayal of the past and to ensure that our buildings, activities, and reproduction objects are as accurate as possible. We are looking forward to learning more about their discoveries and seeing what they find next season!"
Landon and more students and researchers will be back next summer.
"We've opened the first window but we want a bigger view. We want the bay window. We want to see if we can find other components," Landon said.
For now, researchers and students are cleaning, labeling, and researching what was found this past summer. They're also going to be trying to figure out how Constance died and why she was buried, rather than eaten.
[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: The two men who almost derailed New England's first colonies
Provided by: University of Massachusetts Boston


Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-11-evidence-pl...t.html#jCp[url=http://phys.org/news/2016-11-evidence-plymouth-settlement.html#jCp]

Enjoy the FRESH leftovers from the original settlers!!!

It makes a nice tooth-pick of awesome news/data that deserves American Pie for dessert.

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Enjoy your History   no longer a mystery?

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I truly believe we live in interesting times.

1776 will commence again -alex jones.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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RE: Next President of the United Fates of America - by EA - 12-01-2016, 10:58 PM

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