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Strange brews...
#67
FDA must nix cattle antibiotic
Food-supply risks outweigh benefits.

Published Sunday, March 11, 2007

This appeared Wednesday in the Sacramento Bee.

In deciding whether to approve new pharmaceuticals, the federal Food and Drug Administration must often weigh risks versus benefits, depending on test results that contain varying levels of uncertainty.

For drugs that could treat human diseases, these decisions can sometimes be exceedingly difficult. If the FDA errs in approving a product that hasn’t been fully tested, it can sicken or even kill people the drug was intended to help. Yet if the agency is overly cautious, it can reject a promising medication that potentially could save lives.

The risk-benefit equation is less challenging, however, when the FDA evaluates medications aimed at increasing production of cattle and other livestock. If the FDA errs in rejecting one of these drugs, certain industries and farmers might lose potential profits, but no one is directly harmed. Yet if it errs in approving a drug that could find its way into the food chain, the consequences to consumers could be staggering.

By all indications, the FDA isn’t sufficiently weighing these consequences as it prepares to approve a highly potent cattle antibiotic called cefquinome. As the Washington Post reported last Sunday, the American Medical Association and about a dozen other health groups have warned that cefquinome could speed the emergence of cattle microbes resistant to certain antibiotics. If consumers were to ingest the microbes in large quantities while eating meat, it could increase their resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics used to treat diseases and infections.

Despite the warnings, the FDA appears to be close to approving cefquinome, which is made by a Delaware company called InterVet Inc. to treat cattle lung infections. According to the Post, an internal policy document called Guidance Document 152 makes it difficult for the FDA to say no to cefquinome, even though the FDA’s advisory board recommended rejecting the drug last fall.

The agency’s march toward approval is doubly troubling because the federal government has a mixed history of keeping potentially dangerous antibiotics out of the food supply. In the mid-1990s, the FDA allowed poultry to be treated with two antibiotics containing a class of drugs called flouroroquinolones. Only after bacteria resistant to flourorquinolones started showing up in patients with severe diarrhea did the agency pull the antibiotics from the market.

While bovine respiratory disease is highly common and extremely expensive for the cattle industry, experts say effective medicines are already on the market to treat this disease. Moreover, indications are the industry could reduce the spread of this disease by not packing cattle so closely into feedlots and train cars.

Clearly, the risks of cefquinome outlined by the FDA’s advisory board outweigh the benefits. Until InterVet can demonstrate otherwise, the federal government should keep this drug off the market.

http://www.columbiatribune.com/2007/Mar ... omm008.asp
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#68
Quote:DELETED babble of Omnirat

Well here is another post of the late great (not so) Omnirat. If you are watching, I saw one of your crazily modified pics of cydonia...it was a joke!

In other matters, the die-off of bees and other life forms does concern me as well as the eruption of new diseases...possibly man-made.
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#69
Now scientists create a sheep that's 15% human
By CLAUDIA JOSEPH - More by this author » Last updated at 21:26pm on 24th March 2007


Scientists have created the world's first human-sheep chimera - which has the body of a sheep and half-human organs.


The sheep have 15 per cent human cells and 85 per cent animal cells - and their evolution brings the prospect of animal organs being transplanted into humans one step closer.

Professor Esmail Zanjani, of the University of Nevada, has spent seven years and £5million perfecting the technique, which involves injecting adult human cells into a sheep's foetus.

More news...
• I have been sentenced to death by my sister

Chimera: sheep have 15 per cent human cells and 85 per cent animal cells

He has already created a sheep liver which has a large proportion of human cells and eventually hopes to precisely match a sheep to a transplant patient, using their own stem cells to create their own flock of sheep.

The process would involve extracting stem cells from the donor's bone marrow and injecting them into the peritoneum of a sheep's foetus. When the lamb is born, two months later, it would have a liver, heart, lungs and brain that are partly human and available for transplant.

"We would take a couple of ounces of bone marrow cells from the patient,' said Prof Zanjani, whose work is highlighted in a Channel 4 programme tomorrow.

"We would isolate the stem cells from them, inject them into the peritoneum of these animals and then these cells would get distributed throughout the metabolic system into the circulatory system of all the organs in the body. The two ounces of stem cell or bone marrow cell we get would provide enough stem cells to do about ten foetuses. So you don't just have one organ for transplant purposes, you have many available in case the first one fails."

At present 7,168 patients are waiting for an organ transplant in Britain alone, and two thirds of them are expected to die before an organ becomes available.

Scientists at King's College, London, and the North East Stem Cell Institute in Newcastle have now applied to the HFEA, the Government's fertility watchdog, for permission to start work on the chimeras.

But the development is likely to revive criticisms about scientists playing God, with the possibility of silent viruses, which are harmless in animals, being introduced into the human race.

Dr Patrick Dixon, an international lecturer on biological trends, warned: "Many silent viruses could create a biological nightmare in humans. Mutant animal viruses are a real threat, as we have seen with HIV."

Animal rights activists fear that if the cells get mixed together, they could end up with cellular fusion, creating a hybrid which would have the features and characteristics of both man and sheep. But Prof Zanjani said: "Transplanting the cells into foetal sheep at this early stage does not result in fusion at all."

lAnimal Farm is on Channel 4 at 9pm tomorrow

link
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#70
Global drugs company GlaxoSmithKline was fined 217,000 New Zealand dollars (USD 156,000; EUR 117,000) for misleading advertising Tuesday after two science students found its iconic black currant drink Ribena contained no detectable vitamin C.


The multinational company admitted to 15 charges of misleading advertising between 2002 and 2006 in a suit filed by the Commerce Commission, a consumer watchdog, after a 2004 school science project exposed the false claims.

Ribena has long been sold as a healthy drink based on advertisements that black currant juice has more vitamin C than orange juice. Its New Zealand advertisements claimed Ready to Drink Ribena had 7 milligrams of vitamin C per 100 milliliters (0.25 ounce per 3.4 fluid ounces).

But high school students Anna Devathasan and Jenny Suo, then 14, found it contained almost no trace of vitamin C after testing the children's syrup-based drink as part of a science project in 2004.

Auckland District Court Judge Phil Gittos fined GlaxoSmithKline and ordered it to run corrective advertisements, in addition to a message on its Web site.

The girls were in court to hear the verdict, the AP reports.

"We feel quite proud ... blown away," Devathasan told National Radio. "If we hadn't done that science test three years ago, Ribena could have been promoted as vitamin C full forever."

It was "remarkable nobody had even picked it up ... and we just stumbled on it by chance," she said, adding that she thought the fine should have been more because GlaxoSmithKline was a multibillion dollar company.

Commerce Commission chairwoman Paula Rebstock praised the teenagers and called them a "true inspiration to everyone at the commission." The commission had sought a fine of NZ$350,000.

http://english.pravda.ru/news/science/2 ... 4-ribena-0

Makes you wonder if anything sold by these creeps is real...
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#71
http://www.commondreams.org/news2007/0403-09.htm

FDA Considers Mislabeling Irradiated Food

"The Food and Drug Administration announced today that it may allow irradiated food to be mislabeled with alternate terms such as 'pasteurized.' This move by FDA would deny consumers clear information about whether they are buying food that has been exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation.

"Consumers have been reluctant to buy irradiated food, and rightly so. Irradiation damages many foods and can ruin their flavor, odor, and texture. The process destroys vitamins, protein, essential fatty acids and other nutrients - up to 80 percent of vitamin A in eggs and half the beta carotene in orange juice, the FDA has noted.

"The proposal is a clear gift to the irradiation industry, which has been struggling for years. The request to change labeling rules for irradiated food is not a new one. In 2002, the Farm Bill instructed the FDA to re-consider its labeling rules for irradiated food, which require irradiated food to bear the radura symbol and a disclosure statement ('treated with irradiation' or 'treated by irradiation.')

"The public is no more enthusiastic about changing the label than about irradiated food itself. Thousands of Americans submitted comments in opposition to proposed changes irradiation labels in 1999 and 2002, and polls consistently demonstrate consumer support for accurate labeling with the word 'irradiation.'

"Consumers have a right to know if their food has been exposed to ionizing radiation. FDA should be implementing rules that guarantee that right, not allowing the meat and irradiation industries to mislead consumers into buying something they might otherwise avoid. We urge FDA to abandon this proposed rule change and will urge consumers to object to the agency's dangerous proposal."

An example of the radura symbol can be found at http://www.foodandwaterwatch.org/food/i ... symbol.gif
Don't believe anything they say. <br />And at the same time, <br />Don't believe that they say anything without a reason. <br />---Immanuel Kant
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#72
Deadly fungus invades B.C.


Warming climate blamed for tropical disease that has killed 8 people and countless animals on Vancouver Island
Apr 09, 2007 04:30 AM
Doug Struck
SPECIAL TO THE STAR

VICTORIA, B.C.–The mystery emerged slowly, its clues maddeningly diverse.

Sally Lester, an animal pathologist at a B.C. laboratory, slipped a slide under her microscope – tissue from a dog on Vancouver Island. Her lens focused on a tiny cell that looked like a boiled egg. It was late 1999. She had started seeing a lot of those.

On the eastern side of the island, several dead porpoises washed ashore early the next year. Scientist Craig Stephen, who runs a research centre on the island, slit one open. He found its lungs seized by pneumonia and its other organs swollen by strange, flower-like tumours.

At work at the family trucking firm in Victoria, on the southern tip of the island, Esther Young, a lively 45-year-old mother, was feeling lousy in the fall of 2001. She had headaches and night sweats and was tired, her family said. The doctor told her she was pre-menopausal and it would pass.

All would become pieces of a medical mystery centred on a tropical disease apparently brought to North America by a warming climate. An alien fungus took root on Vancouver Island eight years ago and has since killed eight people and infected at least 163 others, as well as many animals.

Similar cases have been found elsewhere in B.C. and in Washington state and Oregon. Scientists say the fungus may be thriving because of a string of unusually warm summers here. They say it is a sign of things to come.

"As climate change happens, new ecological niches will become available to organisms, and we will see this kind of thing happen again," said Karen Bartlett, a scientist at the University of British Columbia who played a central role in the search for the disease's cause.

Her investigation eventually would focus on a fungus, a member of the yeast family, called Cryptococcus gattii. The microscopic fungus is found in the bark of eucalyptus trees in Australia and other tropical zones.

Physicians in North America are familiar with a relative, Cryptococcus neoformans. In humans, it shows up through pneumonia when immune systems already are weak, most typically in AIDS patients. In dogs and cats, it can form abscesses below the eyes. Lester, working in her pathology lab in 1999, was used to seeing tissue specimens from six to 10 pets a year with it.

But by 2000, vets on the island were sending her 10 positive samples a month. Lester knew Cryptococcus causes a disease that, like bird flu and West Nile virus, affects animals and humans. She put in a call to the B.C. Centre for Disease Control.

The call came at a busy time for Murray Fyfe. The head epidemiologist at the provincial CDC was then dealing with a bevy of other public health problems: Peanuts from China had caused salmonella. Some local spinach was tainted. Fyfe consulted Pamela Kibsey, a microbiologist at the Vancouver Island Health Authority. Kibsey said she had noticed an increase in human cases of Cryptococcus. And it was infecting healthy people, not just the sick.

Fyfe formed a group to begin combing records of veterinarians and hospitals, tracing the first cases back to 1999. He asked Bartlett, at UBC, to join the group. They sent samples of the Cryptococcus recovered from diseased tissue for further analysis. The results showed it wasn't the familiar form.

"This was an Australian fungus," Stephen said. More disturbing, the fungus appeared to be more virulent than in Australia. There, it infects about four people per million and is rarely fatal. On Vancouver Island, the rate was 27 per million, and it was more often killing people.

The scientists can only guess how, or when, the fungus arrived. It could have been brought on eucalyptus trees imported by nurseries from Australia. Or it may always have been on the island. "With global warming, it may have finally been able to emerge to a level (at which) it is infectious," Fyfe said. Bartlett formed a team of students to try to find gattii in the wild. Armed with new detection kits, they tramped through back yards on Vancouver Island, digging up soil, taking air samples, swabbing bark on trees. They went out with hour-long questionnaires to talk to survivors of the disease and to owners of infected pets.

One common site came up: Rathtrevor Beach Provincial Park, an expanse of moss-covered fir and hemlock trees that reach for the sky, cheered by ravens and gulls, next to the Strait of Georgia. Patient Esther Young had gone to the park to kayak. Several other patients had been there.

Fyfe helped the students swab an old Douglas fir at the park. Two weeks later, Bartlett called him, excited. The swabs had come back positive.

By the start of 2003, Bartlett's students had found the fungus in other spots. They eventually concluded that it had infested a several-hundred-kilometre range on eastern Vancouver Island. Health authorities agreed with business leaders in the adjacent city of Parksville that it was no longer fair to target the park alone, and warning signs at the Rathtrevor Beach park came down in favour of a wider information campaign.

Young went home sick in February 2002. By that summer, she could not walk, had lost her ability to speak, had gone temporarily blind and was slowly starving because she could not keep food down. By the time doctors tested her, the fungus had reached her brain.

"My poor sister couldn't even tell anyone how she was feeling,'' said Deborah Chow, 51, reminiscing with her family. Finally, with Young's pain clear and the end inevitable, Chow held her sister in the hospital and whispered, "It's okay to go. Dad will be okay. Your son will be okay." She died 45 minutes later.

http://www.thestar.com/News/article/200901
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#73
That is quite the hideous story there... fungii, molds, yeast...all the spore producing beings.
&quot;Confusion... first sign of a bad relationship-whether personal, societal or governmental&quot;
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#74
[Image: 070919perumeteorite02ze2.jpg]

19 September, 2007 [ 09:00 ]
Peru: Doctors Aid in Rising Number of Illnesses after Meteorite Crash

(LIP-ir) -- Puno, Peru's Regional Health Directorate reported yesterday that doctors and nurses found it necessary to establish auxiliary medical tents near the health center in Carancas.

The medical tents were established so as to aid the rising number of people reporting to be sick after a meteorite landed in the area on Saturday afternoon.

According to Peru's La Republica newspaper, due to the high number of illnesses, district authorities are considering placing the town of Carancas, Puno, Peru in a state of emergency. It has been reported that at least 600 people have been affected by the meteorite.

Puno, Peru's Regional Health Director, Jorge López Tejada, reported yesterday that at least 150 people had been seen after having stated they had dermal injuries, were dizzy, nauseous or vomiting.

According to the townspeople, the illnesses began after the meteorite crashed and they began to touch the glowing rock believing it had some type of monetary value. Aside from the hundreds of townspeople that were affected, Tejada reported that 8 police officers had to be hospitalized after having taken samples of the meteorite.

Blood samples are being taken and there are several teams of specialists in the area.


http://tinyurl.com/2px4zd

---

quote
"There aren't any serious cases, but the substance from the object could affect (the people) in the long term, that's why apart from these tests, it will be necessary to follow up the cases in the next few months," said López Tejada.

The Regional Health Director stated that not only would the people living closest to where the supposed meteorite landed be observed, but that people in the surrounding areas would also be tested for illnesses.

In addition, it was reported that a health brigade arrived with personnel and medication today. The Regional Director is also expecting the arrival of specialists from Lima and Arequipa who are to evaluate the site where it is thought that the meteorite landed.

López Tejada, who is currently in Carancas, has confirmed that there are very strong odors coming from the supposed meteorite crash site. He has stated that despite the fact that masks are being worn, the odor causes throat irritation and nose itchiness.




The director of the health ministry in the Puno region, Jorge Lopez, said none of the patients was in serious condition but that they would have to undergo blood and neurological tests as a precaution in three to six months.

A medical facility was installed in Carancas to treat the patients, and "if necessary, some will be sent to hospitals in Puno," the nearest big city, he said.

http://tinyurl.com/324h4x
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#75
EXCELLENT EXPOSEE!


Are we winning the wars officials say we must? Wars against cancer, AIDS and terrorism?

Hollywood films and health officials herald happy endings, but family and friends everywhere are ill and getting sicker, fatter, more depressed, and broke popping pills and paying medical bills.

Now officials urge you to prepare for the worst bioterrorist attacks in history (aside from nuclear explosions, and escalating "natural" disasters).

This controversial documentary produced by "World Leading Intellectual" and drug cartel critic, Sir Leonard George Horowitz, exposes officials, corporations, and American intelligence agencies for historic devil-doing.

This unique film takes you inside the policies, politics, and propaganda of genocide with a twist of humor. Horowitz exposes unprecedented fraud, malfeasance, and murder as a clear and present danger to you and your loved ones.

In Lies We Trust examines the CIA's direction of Hollywood, and modern medicine, and will have you rethinking their impacts on the way you think about current events, increasing threats of outbreaks, cancer, and AIDS.

Where do you suppose skyrocketing rates of these and other modern plagues came from?

This award-winning doctor advances compelling analyses of documents explaining our modern maladies as
"socio-political impositions" not made in Heaven.

In Lies We Trust examines the military-medical-petrochemical-pharmaceu tical profiteers behind medical maddness; their political prostitutes, and shoddy scientists.

Stunning evidence including secreted interviews explains why millions of innocent and gullible people worldwide have been killed, and billions more are now being frightened into drug addictions, side-effects, profitable illnesses, and premature death.

Watch In Lies We Trust: The CIA, Hollywood & Bioterrorism to learn why your life is entrusted to Manchurian candidates who don't even know how and why they aim to kill you.

Horowitz brilliantly critiques the government's new 24-hour television network and feature documentary, History of Bioterrorism, which is now broadcasting daily over the Dish Network.

September is "National Preparedness Month." Officials say you must prepare for the worst bioterrorist attacks, yet they use fear and gross inaccuracies (propaganda) examined by Horowitz for your edutainment and informed choice.

Dr. Horowitz generously donated this life-saving DVD for widespread free public distribution without copyright restrictions. View every part of this production in the low resolution Quicktime files below, or order your high resolution DVD today.

Make copies and share these DVDs and website liberally. Every American should watch this film to prepare for forced injections, mass quarantines, and
official predictions of disasters.

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Call 1-888-508-4787 to make your contribution and order your free copies of In Lies We Trust available in late September. Or simply secure it online at http://www.healthyworldstore.com.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8df9-oAD ... ted&search
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#76
Genetically engineered corn could affect aquatic ecosystems
Science Centric
— 9 October 2007 | 12:30 GMT

A study by an Indiana University environmental science professor and several colleagues suggests a widely planted variety of genetically engineered corn has the potential to harm aquatic ecosystems. The study is being published online this week by the journal Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences.

Researchers, including Todd V. Royer, an assistant professor in the IU School of Public and Environmental Affairs, established that pollen and other plant parts containing toxins from genetically engineered Bt corn are washing into streams near cornfields.

They also conducted laboratory trials that found consumption of Bt corn byproducts produced increased mortality and reduced growth in caddisflies, aquatic insects that are related to the pests targeted by the toxin in Bt corn. Caddisflies, Royer said, ‘are a food resource for higher organisms like fish and amphibians. And, if our goal is to have healthy, functioning ecosystems, we need to protect all the parts. Water resources are something we depend on greatly.’

Other principal investigators for the study, titled ‘Toxins in transgenic crop byproducts may affect headwater stream ecosystems,’ were Emma Rosi-Marshall of Loyola University Chicago, Jennifer Tank of the University of Notre Dame and Matt Whiles of Southern Illinois University. It was funded by the National Science Foundation.

more

http://www.sciencecentric.com/news/07100914.htm
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#77
One person, from Africa, went to Haiti, then to the US.

Traced: The Origins of the Aids Epidemic in America
An international team of scientists has revealed in the US National Academy of Sciences that the strain of the HIV virus which was the scourge of the United States and Europe in the 1970s and 1980s in all probability originated in the Caribbean island of Haiti.

Posted : Tue, 30 Oct 2007 111609 GMT
Author : Mike Burns

An international team of scientists has revealed in the US National Academy of Sciences that the strain of the HIV virus which was the scourge of the United States and Europe in the 1970s and 1980s in all probability originated in the Caribbean island of Haiti. It was brought to American shores sometime around 1969 and thereafter spread to other countries. It took about twelve years for AIDS to be recognized in 1981.

The scientists had focused on a variety of HIV known as subtype B, which is prevalent most countries outside Africa, and found a 99.7% certainty that it had originated in Haiti.
In the course of their study they analyzed HIV DNA saved 25-years earlier in 1982-1983 from five people who were among the first recognized AIDS patients and who had all emigrated from Haiti to Miami.

As a baseline, they analyzed and used another 117 virus samples from Central Africa that are considered some of the earliest forms of the human immunodeficiency virus as well as samples from other parts of the world.

The team discovered that the Haitian samples and the African virus were the most closely related genetically pointing to the probability that they were among the earliest to branch.

They used this information to construct a family tree for the virus and they believe this allays any doubts of that the strain coming to the United States from Haiti. They believe it to be possible that one person was responsible for bringing the strain over somewhere around 1969.
The strain of the virus that became an epidemic in the US also spread to Canada, Europe, Australia, and Japan.

"Once the virus got to the US, then it just moved explosively around the world," Worobey said
Previous knowledge of the virus' migration has been only vaguely traced from its origin in Africa in the 1930s to when it was first detected in Los <img src="{SMILIES_PATH}/angelic005.gif" alt="Angel" title="" />es in 1981.

Assistant clinical professor of medicine at UCLA, Dr. Michael Gottlieb, who was one of the discoverers of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, stated that the study placed the virus in the United States nearly ten years earlier than had been previously believed.

"It's pretty clear evidence for Haiti as a steppingstone. The suggestion that the infection was further below our radar than I'd previously suspected is kind of unnerving," he is reported to have said.

The scientists hope that this knowledge will be instrumental in finding a cure for HIV and ultimately for AIDS.

One of the study's authors and evolutionary biologist, Michael Worobey from Tucson's University of Arizona and team now aim to trace the roots of the strain even further. He suspects that it most likely was brought to Haiti from the Democratic Republic of Congo, formerly Zaire, by Haitians working in Africa at that time.

The professor believes that understanding the genesis of this particular strain as well as those of other strains would allow scientists to accurately envisage its future modes of mutation.
Robert Garry, a microbiologist at Tulane University remarked, "The findings are significant,” and continued that they indicated "an important lineage of subtype B HIV was present in Haiti, which eventually spread elsewhere."

However he does not believe that a Haitian origin is the only explanation for subtype-B strains in the Americas, but thinks it quite possible that other B lineages made their appearance in the Americas before this and were most probably independent of the Haitian strain.



http://www.earthtimes.org/articles/show/133071.html




US invaded by AIDS virus from Haiti in 1969
Last updated at 11:01am on 30th October 2007

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Actor Tom Hanks played a man stricken with AIDS in the 1990s movie 'Philadelphia'
the aids virus

The AIDS virus could have been circulating in the US years earlier than thought
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The AIDS virus invaded the United States in about 1969 from Haiti, carried most likely by a single infected immigrant who set the stage for it to sweep the world in a tragic epidemic, scientists said yesterday.

Michael Worobey, a University of Arizona evolutionary biologist, said the 1969 U.S. entry date is earlier than some experts had believed.

The timeline laid out in the study led by Worobey indicates that HIV infections were occurring in the United States for roughly 12 years before AIDS was first recognised by scientists as a disease in 1981. Many people had died by that point.

"It is somehow chilling to know it was probably circulating for so long under our noses," Worobey said in a telephone interview.

The researchers conducted a genetic analysis of stored blood samples from early AIDS patients to determine when the human immunodeficiency virus first entered the United States.

They found that HIV was brought to Haiti by an infected person from central Africa in about 1966, which matches earlier estimates, and then came to the United States in about 1969.

The researchers think an unknown single infected Haitian immigrant arrived in a large city like Miami or New York, and the virus circulated for years - first in the U.S. population and then to other nations.

It can take several years after infection for a person to develop AIDS, a disease that ravages the immune system.

"That one infection would have become two, and then it doubles again and the two becomes four," Worobey said. "So you have a period - probably a fair number of years - where you're dealing with probably fewer than a hundred people who are infected.

"And then, as with epidemic expansion, at some point the hundred becomes 200, you start getting into thousands, tens of thousands. And then quite rapidly you can be up into the hundreds of thousands of infections that were probably already there before AIDS was recognised in the early 1980s."

The study was published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The path the virus traveled as it jumped from nation to nation has long been debated by scientists.

The University of Miami's Dr. Arthur Pitchenik, a co-author of the study, had seen Haitian immigrants in Miami as early as 1979 with a mystery illness that turned out to be AIDS. He knew the government long had stored some of their blood samples.

The researchers analyzed samples from five of these Haitian immigrants dating from 1982 and 1983. They also looked at genetic data from 117 more early AIDS patients from around the world.

This genetic analysis allowed the scientists to calibrate the molecular clock of the strain of HIV that has spread most widely, and calculated when it arrived first in Haiti from Africa and then in the United States.

The researchers virtually ruled out the possibility that HIV had come directly to the United States from Africa, setting a 99.8 percent probability that Haiti was the steppingstone.

"I think that it gives us more clear insight into the history of it (the AIDS epidemic) and what path the virus took - and hard objective evidence, not just armchair thinking," Pitchenik said in a telephone interview....



http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/a ... to=newsnow
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