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Back to the garden(S)... origin(S) of mankind(S).
holy pontic caspian steppe Holycowsmile

Greeks and Italians aint who they thought they were too!!!  Doh


DNA and Dateable Archaeology...  Re-writes the tale of humanity  LilD

It gets rid of many man made mythos and racial impure insanity  Gangup

DNA does not Lie... the rest is up to science,  all  ma at @that  Arrow


Quote:"For the study, we extracted ancient DNA of 50 individuals from four archaeological sites located in Northeastern and Central Italy dated to Chalcolithic, Early Bronze Age, and Bronze Age. We were able to generate the first genome-wide shotgun data of ancient Italians dated to the Bronze Age period and study the arrival of the Steppe-related ancestry component in the Italian Peninsula. This genetic component, ultimately tracing its origin in the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, a steppeland located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, and very common in Central and Northern Europe. It is also presented in the Bronze Age Italian individuals which we scrutinised and suggesting that populations in the South of the Alps experienced a similar evolution," said Tina Saupe from the Institute of Genomics, the lead author of the work.


MAY 10, 2021
Bronze Age migrations changed societal organization, genomic landscape in Italy
by Estonian Research Council
[Image: bronze-age-migrations.jpg]Excavation site Grotta La Sassa - Angelica Ferracci. Credit: University of Tartu
A new study in Current Biology from the Institute of Genomics of the University of Tartu, Estonia has shed light on the genetic prehistory of populations in modern day Italy through the analysis of ancient human individuals during the Chalcolithic/Bronze Age transition around 4,000 years ago. The genomic analysis of ancient samples enabled researchers from Estonia, Italy and the UK to date the arrival of the Steppe-related ancestry component to 3,600 years ago in Central Italy, also finding changes in burial practice and kinship structure during this transition.
In recent years, the genetic history of ancient individuals has been extensively studied, focusing on movements and settlements of humans around Eurasia. However, the genetic history of individuals from the Italian Peninsula during the Chalcolithic/Bronze Age transition around 4,000 years ago was still unexplored. Researchers from the Institute of Genomics of the University of Tartu in collaboration with universities in Italy and the U.K. have collected human remains from the Italian Peninsula and generated ancient genomes in the aDNA laboratory at the University of Tartu, Estonia.
"For the study, we extracted ancient DNA of 50 individuals from four archaeological sites located in Northeastern and Central Italy dated to Chalcolithic, Early Bronze Age, and Bronze Age. We were able to generate the first genome-wide shotgun data of ancient Italians dated to the Bronze Age period and study the arrival of the Steppe-related ancestry component in the Italian Peninsula. This genetic component, ultimately tracing its origin in the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, a steppeland located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, and very common in Central and Northern Europe. It is also presented in the Bronze Age Italian individuals which we scrutinised and suggesting that populations in the South of the Alps experienced a similar evolution," said Tina Saupe from the Institute of Genomics, the lead author of the work.
"For the genetic analysis, we used a reference dataset including individuals from the Italian Peninsula, Sicily, and Sardinia dated from the Neolithic to the Iron Age. We decided to study the new genomes altogether with available data to have a deeper insight into the genetic changes and demography of this important transition, but also to understand its impact in the following centuries" added co-author Francesco Montinaro from the same institution and from the University of Bari, Italy. Researchers found that samples dated to the Neolithic and Chalcolithic from the Italian Peninsula are more similar to Early Neolithic farmers in Eastern Europe and Anatolian farmers than to farmers from Western Europe, which opens the possibility of different histories for the two Neolithic groups in Europe.

[Image: bronze-age-migrations-1.jpg]
Map - Eugenio Israel Chávez Barreto. Credit: Eugenio Israel Chávez Barreto
"Because of the geographical distribution of the archaeological sites of published and newly generated genomes, we were able to date the arrival of the Steppe-related ancestry component to at least ~4,000 years ago in Northern Italy and ~3,600 years ago in Central Italy. We did not find the component in individuals dated to the Neolithic and Chalcolithic, but in individuals dated to the Early Bronze Age and increasing through time in the individuals dated to the Bronze Age," pointed out by Luca Pagani, Associate Professor at the Institute of Genomics and University of Padova and co-senior author of this work.

"In addition, we were able to find a shift in burial practice correlated with the change of relatedness between the individuals in two of the sites, but we did not find any changes in the phenotypes of ancient Italians during the transition," said Christiana L. Scheib, the aDNA research group leader at the Institute of Genomics and corresponding author.
"It was remarkable to see how this project developed over time and how the interpretation of the results changed once samples from Central Italy were added thanks to the collaboration with the universities of Oxford, Durham, Groningen and Rome Tor Vergata," said Cristian Capelli (University of Parma), co-senior author of this study.
"These results of this study have shown that the genetic profile of ancient individuals from the Italian Peninsula changed with the movement and settlement of humans since the Neolithic. This knowledge enlightens us on our genetic origin and enables plans for further studies including a denser sampling of individuals dated to the Iron Age and Roman empire," said Scheib.




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Ancient DNA reveals origin of first Bronze Age civilizations in Europe



[b]More information:[/b] Current Biology (2021). DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.04.022 , www.cell.com/current-biology/f … 0960-9822(21)00535-2
[b]Journal information:[/b] Current Biology



https://phys.org/news/2021-05-bronze-age...nomic.html

There is the Pontic-Caspian steppe  again... Arrow


Quote:The study also finds that by the Middle Bronze Age (4000-4,600 years ago), individuals from the northern Aegean were considerably different compared to those in the Early Bronze Age. These individuals shared half their ancestry with people from the Pontic-Caspian steppe, a large geographic region stretching between the Danube and the Ural rivers and north of the Black Sea, and were highly similar to present-day Greeks.

The findings suggest that migration waves from herders from the Pontic-Caspian steppe, or populations north of the Aegean that bear Pontic-Caspian Steppe like ancestry, shaped present-day Greece.

MAY 5, 2021
Ancient DNA reveals origin of first Bronze Age civilizations in Europe
by Center for Genomic Regulation
[Image: ancient-dna-reveals-or.jpg]Skeleton of one of the two individuals who lived in the middle of the Bronze Age and whose complete genome was reconstructed and sequenced by the Lausanne team. It comes from the archaeological site of Elati-Logkas, in northern Greece. Credit: Ephorate of Antiquities of Kozani, Hellenic Ministry of Culture, Greece. Dr Georgia Karamitrou-Mentessidi.
The first civilizations to build monumental palaces and urban centers in Europe are more genetically homogenous than expected, according to the first study to sequence whole genomes gathered from ancient archaeological sites around the Aegean Sea. The study has been published in the journal Cell.
Despite marked differences in burial customs, architecture, and art, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Helladic civilization in mainland Greece and the Cycladic civilization in the Cycladic islands in the middle of the Aegean Sea, were genetically similar during the Early Bronze age (5000 years ago).
The findings are important because it suggests that critical innovations such as the development of urban centers, metal use and intensive trade made during the transition from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age were not just due to mass immigration from east of the Aegean as previously thought, but also from the cultural continuity of local Neolithic groups.
The study also finds that by the Middle Bronze Age (4000-4,600 years ago), individuals from the northern Aegean were considerably different compared to those in the Early Bronze Age. These individuals shared half their ancestry with people from the Pontic-Caspian steppe, a large geographic region stretching between the Danube and the Ural rivers and north of the Black Sea, and were highly similar to present-day Greeks.
The findings suggest that migration waves from herders from the Pontic-Caspian steppe, or populations north of the Aegean that bear Pontic-Caspian Steppe like ancestry, shaped present-day Greece. These potential migration waves all predate the appearance of the earliest documented form of Greek, supporting theories explaining the emergence of Proto-Greek and the evolution of Indo-European languages in either Anatolia or the Pontic-Caspian Steppe region.
The team took samples from well-preserved skeletal remains at archaeological sites. They sequenced six whole genomes, four from all three cultures during the Early Bronze Age and two from a Helladic culture during the Middle Bronze Age.
The researchers also sequenced the mitochondrial genomes from eleven other individuals from the Early Bronze Age. Sequencing whole genomes provided the researchers with enough data to perform demographic and statistical analyses on population histories.
Sequencing ancient genomes is a huge challenge, particularly due to the degradation of the biological material and human contamination. A research team at the CNAG-CRG, played an important role in overcoming this challenge through using machine learning.

According to Oscar Lao, Head of the Population Genomics Group at the CNAG-CRG, "Taking an advantage that the number of samples and DNA quality we found is huge for this type of study, we have developed sophisticated machine learning tools to overcome challenges such as low depth of coverage, damage, and modern human contamination, opening the door for the application of artificial intelligence to palaeogenomics data."
"Implementation of deep learning in demographic inference based on ancient samples allowed us to reconstruct ancestral relationships between ancient populations and reliably infer the amount and timing of massive migration events that marked the cultural transition from Neolithic to Bronze Age in Aegean," says Olga Dolgova, postdoctoral researcher in the Population Genomics Group at the CNAG-CRG.
The Bronze Age in Eurasia was marked by pivotal changes on the social, political, and economic levels, visible in the appearance of the first large urban centers and monumental palaces. The increasing economic and cultural exchange that developed during this time laid the groundwork for modern economic systems—including capitalism, long-distance political treaties, and a world trade economy.
Despite their importance for understanding the rise of European civilisations and the spread of Indo-European languages, the genetic origins of the peoples behind the Neolithic to Bronze Age transition and their contribution to the present-day Greek population remain controversial.
Future studies could investigate whole genomes between the Mesolithic and Bronze Age in the Armenian and Caucasus to help further pinpoint the origins of migration into the Aegean, and to better integrate the genomic data with the existing archaeological and linguistic evidence.




Explore further
Neolithic genomes from modern-day Switzerland indicate parallel ancient societies



[b]More information:[/b] Florian Clemente et al, The genomic history of the Aegean palatial civilizations, Cell (2021). DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2021.03.039
[b]Journal information:[/b] Cell




https://phys.org/news/2021-05-ancient-dn...e-age.html

.





Researchers reconstruct the oral microbiomes of Neanderthals, primates, and humans


[font="Open Sans", sans-serif]Living in and on our bodies are trillions of microbial cells belonging to thousands of bacterial species, known as the microbiome. These microbes play key roles in human health, but little is known about their evolution. ...[/font]

Quote:And finally, 
the hardest theory to swallow 
is the possibility that early people from Australasia, 
somehow  
made their way directly to the shores of South America.

That is not a theory, that is exactly what happened, and it happened a lot.

Here we are in the 21st century,
and modern university "anthro-paleologists" are still unconvinced.
Idiots.
They remind of the NASA politically correct "planetary protection guidelines" nonsense syndrome.
...




Itza Fact that is exactly what happened, and happenned to create our lot. ---
APRIL 30, 2021

One incredible ocean crossing may have made human evolution possible
by Nicholas R. Longrich, The Conversation
[Image: one-incredible-ocean-c.jpg]Credit: Yasni/Shutterstock
Humans evolved in Africa, along with chimpanzees, gorillas and monkeys. But primates themselves appear to have evolved elsewhere—likely in Asia—before colonizing Africa. At the time, around 50 million years ago, Africa was an island isolated from the rest of the world by ocean—so how did primates get there?
land bridge is the obvious explanation, but the geological evidence currently argues against it. Instead, we're left with a far more unlikely scenario: early primates may have rafted to Africa, floating hundreds of miles across oceans on vegetation and debris.
Such oceanic dispersal was once seen as far-fetched and wildly speculative by many scientists. Some still support the land bridge theory, either disputing the geological evidence, or arguing that primate ancestors crossed into Africa long before the current fossil record suggests, before the continents broke up.
But there's an emerging consensus that oceanic dispersal is far more common than once supposed. Plantsinsectsreptilesrodents and primates have all been found to colonize island continents in this way—including a remarkable Atlantic crossing that took monkeys from Africa to South America 35 million years ago. These events are incredibly rare but, given huge spans of time, such freak events inevitably influence evolution—including our own origins.

[b]Primate origins[/b]
Humans appeared in southern Africa between 200,000-350,000 years ago. We know we come from Africa because our genetic diversity is highest there, and there are lots of fossils of primitive humans there.
Our closest relatives, chimps and gorillas, are also native to Africa, alongside baboons and monkeys. But primates' closest living relatives—flying lemurs, tree shrews and rodents—all inhabit Asia or, in the case of rodents, evolved there. Fossils provide somewhat conflicting evidence, but they also suggest primates arose outside of Africa.
The oldest primate relative, Purgatoriuslived 65 million years ago, just after the dinosaurs disappeared. It's from Montana.
The oldest true primates also occur outside Africa. Teilhardina, related to monkeys and apes, lived 55 million years ago, throughout Asia, North America, and Europe. Primates arrived in Africa later. Lemur-like fossils appear there 50 million years ago, and monkey-like fossils around 40 million years ago.
But Africa split from South America and became an island 100 million years ago, and only connected with Asia 20 million years ago. If primates colonized Africa during the 80 million years the continent spent isolated, then they needed to cross water.


[Image: one-incredible-ocean-c-1.jpg]

Primates have differentiated over tens of millions of years. Credit: Nicholas R. Longrich/Wikimedia
[b]Ocean crossings[/b]
The idea of oceanic dispersal is central to the theory of evolution. Studying the Galapagos Islands, Darwin saw only a few tortoises, iguanas, snakes, and one small mammal, the rice rat. Further out to sea, on islands like Tahiti, were only little lizards.
Darwin reasoned that these patterns were hard to explain in terms of Creationism—in which case, similar species should exist everywhere—but they made sense if species crossed water to colonize islands, with fewer species surviving to colonize more distant islands.
He was right. Studies have found tortoises can survive weeks afloat without food or water—they probably bobbed along until hitting the Galapagos. And in 1995, iguanas swept offshore by hurricanes washed up 300km away, very much alive, after riding on debris. Galapagos iguanas likely traveled this way.
The odds are against such crossings. A lucky combination of conditions—a large raft of vegetation, the right currents and winds, a viable population, a well-timed landfall—is needed for successful colonization. Many animals swept offshore simply die of thirst or starvation before hitting islands. Most never make landfall; they disappear at sea, food for sharks. That's why ocean islands, especially distant ones, have few species.
Rafting was once treated as an evolutionary novelty: a curious thing happening in obscure places like the Galapagos, but irrelevant to evolution on continents. But it's since emerged that rafts of vegetation or floating islands—stands of trees swept out to sea—may actually explain many animal distributions across the world.
[b]Rafting[/b]
Several primate rafting events are well established. Today, Madagascar has a diverse lemur fauna. Lemurs arrived from Africa around 20 million years ago. Since Madagascar has been an island since the time of the dinosaurs, they apparently rafted the 400 kilometer-wide Mozambique Channel. Remarkably, fossils suggest the strange aye-aye crossed to Madagascar separately from the other lemurs.
Even more extraordinary is the existence of monkeys in South America: howlers, spider monkeys and marmosets. They arrived 35 million years ago, again from Africa. They had to cross the Atlantic—narrower then, but still 1,500 km wide. From South America, monkeys rafted again: to North America, then twice to the Caribbean.


[Image: one-incredible-ocean-c-2.jpg]

Floating 800km from the Seychelles to Africa, this tortoise washed up on shore – covered in barnacles, but alive. Credit: Catharine Muir
But before any of this could happen, rafting events would first need to bring primates to Africa: one brought the ancestor of lemurs, another carried the ancestor of monkeys, apes, and ourselves. It may seem implausible—and it's still not entirely clear where they came from—but no other scenario fits the evidence.
Rafting explains how rodents colonized Africa, then South America. Rafting likely explains how Afrotheria, the group containing elephants and aardvarks, got to Africa. Marsupials, evolving in North America, probably rafted to South America, then Antarctica, and finally Australia. Other oceanic crossings include mice to Australia, and tenrecsmongooses and hippos to Madagascar.
Oceanic crossings aren't an evolutionary subplot; they're central to the story. They explain the evolution of monkeys, elephants, kangaroos, rodents, lemurs—and us. And they show that evolution isn't always driven by ordinary, everyday processes but also by bizarrely improbable events.
[b]Macroevolution[/b]
One of Darwin's great insights was the idea that everyday events—small mutations, predation, competition—could slowly change species, given time. But over millions or billions of years, rare, low-probability, high-impact events—"black swan" events—also happen.
Some are immensely destructive, like asteroid impactsvolcanic eruptions, and ice ages—or viruses jumping hosts. But others are creative, like genome duplicationsgene transfer between multicellular species—and rafting.




Quote:And finally, 
the hardest theory to swallow Whip 
is the possibility that early people from Australasia, somehow Slap2 
made their way directly to the shores of South America.
Marcos Araújo Castro e Silva et al. Deep genetic affinity between coastal Pacific and Amazonian natives evidenced by Australasian ancestry, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2021)DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2025739118  Gangup


 Marcos Araújo Castro e Silva et al. Deep swallow theory hard Arrow

The role rafting played in our history shows how much evolution comes down to chance. Had anything gone differently—the weather was bad, the seas rough, the raft washed up on a desert island, hungry predators waited on the beach, no males aboard—colonization would have failed. No monkeys, no apes—no humans.
It seems our ancestors beat odds that make Powerball lotteries seem like a safe bet. Had anything had gone differently, the evolution of life might look rather different than it does. At a minimum, we wouldn't be here to wonder about it.





Updated and correlated:  Arrow

Hominins Originated in Africa from Ape Ancestors Unlike Any Living Species, Study Suggests
May 7, 2021 by News Staff / Source
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[b]Understanding the origins of the human lineage (hominins) requires reconstructing the morphology, behavior, and environment of the chimpanzee-human last common ancestor. In new research, paleoanthropologists from the American Museum of Natural History and elsewhere looked at the major discoveries in this area since Charles Darwin’s works and concluded that the morphology of fossil apes was varied and that it is likely that the last shared ape ancestor had its own set of traits, different from those of modern humans and modern apes.[/b]
[Image: image_9634_1-Hominins.jpg]

The last common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans represents the starting point of human and chimpanzee evolution. Image credit: Christopher M. Smith.

Humans diverged from apes — specifically, the chimpanzee lineage (genus [i]Pan[/i]) — at some point between 9.3 and 6.5 million years ago, and habitual bipedalism evolved early in hominins.
To understand hominin origins, paleoanthropologists aim to reconstruct the physical characteristics, behavior, and environment of the last common ancestor of humans and chimps.
“In [i]The Descent of Man[/i] in 1871, Charles Darwin speculated that humans originated in Africa from an ancestor different from any living species. However, he remained cautious given the scarcity of fossils at the time,” said Dr. Sergio Almécija, a researcher in the Division of Anthropology at the American Museum of Natural History.
“150 years later, possible hominins have been found in eastern and central Africa, and some claim even in Europe.”
“In addition, more than 50 fossil ape genera are now documented across Africa and Eurasia.”
“However, many of these fossils show mosaic combinations of features that do not match expectations for ancient representatives of the modern ape and human lineages.”
“As a consequence, there is no scientific consensus on the evolutionary role played by these fossil apes.”
[Image: image_9634_2-Hominins.jpg]

The evolutionary history of apes and humans is largely incomplete: whereas the phylogenetic relationships among living species can be retrieved using genetic data, the position of most extinct species remains contentious; surprisingly, complete-enough fossils that can be attributed to the gorilla and chimpanzee lineages remain to be discovered; assuming different positions of available fossil apes — or ignoring them owing to uncertainty — markedly affects reconstructions of key ancestral nodes, such as that of the chimpanzee-human last common ancestor. Image credit: Almécija [i]et al[/i]., doi: 10.1126/science.abb4363.

There are two major approaches to resolving the human origins problem:
(i) ‘top-down,’ which relies on analysis of living apes, especially chimpanzees;
(ii) and ‘bottom-up,’ which puts importance on the larger tree of mostly extinct apes.
For example, some scientists assume that hominins originated from a chimp-like knuckle-walking ancestor.
Others argue that the human lineage originated from an ancestor more closely resembling, in some features, some of the strange Miocene apes.
In reviewing the studies surrounding these diverging approaches, Dr. Almécija and his colleagues discuss the limitations of relying exclusively on one of these opposing approaches to the hominin origins problem.
‘Top-down’ studies sometimes ignore the reality that living apes are just the survivors of a much larger, and now mostly extinct, group.
On the other hand, studies based on the ‘bottom-up’ approach are prone to giving individual fossil apes an important evolutionary role that fits a preexisting narrative.
Overall, the researchers found that most stories of human origins are not compatible with the fossils that they have today.
“Living ape species are specialized species, relicts of a much larger group of now extinct apes,” said Dr. Ashley Hammond, an assistant curator in the Division of Anthropology at the American Museum of Natural History.
“When we consider all evidence, it is clear that a human evolutionary story based on the few ape species currently alive is missing much of the bigger picture.”
“The unique and sometimes unexpected features and combinations of features observed among fossil apes, which often differ from those of living apes, are necessary to untangle which features hominins inherited from our ape ancestors and which are unique to our lineage,” added Dr. Kelsey Pugh, a postdoctoral researcher in the Division of Anthropology and the New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology at the American Museum of Natural History.
“Living apes alone offer insufficient evidence. Current disparate theories regarding ape and human evolution would be much more informed if, together with early hominins and living apes, Miocene apes were also included in the equation,” Dr. Almécija said.
“In other words, fossil apes are essential to reconstruct the ‘starting point’ from which humans and chimpanzees evolved.”
paper on the findings was published in the journal [i]Science[/i].
_____
Sergio Almécija [i]et al[/i]. 2021. Fossil apes and human evolution. [i]Science[/i] 372 (6542): eabb4363; doi: 10.1126/science.abb4363



http://www.sci-news.com/othersciences/an...09634.html
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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MAY 27, 2021
Study sheds light on population history of northern east Asia
[Image: study-sheds-light-on-p.jpg]Geographic and temporal distribution and population structure of newly sampled and published populations in northern East Asia. Credit: Mao et al., 2021
A study led by research groups of Prof. Fu Qiaomei from the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Prof. Zhang Hucai from Yunnan University covers the largest temporal transect of population dynamics in East Asia so far and offers a clearer picture of the deep population history of northern East Asia.
The study was published in Cell on May 27.
Northern East Asia falls within a similar latitude range as central and southern Europe, where human population movements and size were influenced by Ice Age climatic fluctuations. Did these climatic fluctuations have an impact on the population history of northern East Asia?
Stories uncovered by ancient DNA in East Asia remain relatively underexplored. The population dynamics between 40,000 and 9,500 years ago still remain mysterious.
To answer questions related to the deep population history of East Asia, the researchers obtained genome-wide genotype data from 25 ancient humans ranging from 33,000 to 3,400 years ago from the Songnen Plain (Heilongjiang Province, northeastern China) in the Amur Region. This period covers the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), which is crucial to understanding what happened to northern East Asians before, during and after the LGM.
They found that the oldest sample (AR33K, ~33,000 years ago) shares the highest genetic affinity with the Tianyuan man (~40,000 years ago near Beijing, which represents the earliest ancient genome found in East Asia so far), compared to all other published ancient and modern individuals. This probably indicates that Tianyuan/AR33K ancestry was widespread before the LGM in northern East Asia, both geographically and temporally (between 33,000 and 40,000 years ago). In addition, both AR33K and Tianyuan are basal to all East Asians.

[Image: study-sheds-light-on-p-1.jpg]
Overview of population dynamics in northern East Asia before and after the Last Glacial Maximum. Credit: Mao et al., 2021
The second oldest sample (AR19K, ~19,000 years ago), an individual who lived toward the end of the LGM, is revealed to be the earliest northern East Asian yet identified. This shows that North-South genetic separation in East Asia occurred as early as 19,000 years ago, 10,000 years earlier than previously discovered. AR19K also possesses a genetic ancestry distinct from that of the modern humans who occupied this region before the LGM (e.g., Tianyuan and AR33K), indicating a potential population shift.

The analyses of younger samples after the LGM demonstrate that the genetic continuity reported between modern inhabitants of the Amur Region and the Devil's Cave population (about 8,000 years ago) probably started as early as 14,000 years ago, i.e., 6,000 years earlier than previously proposed.
"The Amur Region populations could have been at the forefront of interactions with ancient North Eurasian (ANE)-related populations that likely contributed to the Ancient Paleo-Siberians," said Prof. Fu. The Ancient Paleo-Siberians are reported to be the closest relatives of Native American populations outside of the Americas.
Besides elucidating population dynamics, these analyses provide the first ancient DNA evidence to narrow the time of appearance of an Asian-specific variant (EDAR V370A), which is associated with anthropogenic traits like thicker hair shafts, more sweat glands, and shovel-shaped incisors.
"This genetic variant was likely to be elevated to high frequency after the LGM. Our direct observations using ancient DNA likely support the hypothesis that selection on EDAR V370A increased vitamin D in breast milk in a low UV environment," said Associate Professor MAO Xiaowei, the first author of the study.




Explore further
Genome-wide data from a 40,000-year-old man in China reveals complicated genetic history of Asia



[b]More information:[/b] Xiaowei Mao et al, The deep population history of northern East Asia from the Late Pleistocene to the Holocene, Cell (2021). DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2021.04.040
[b]Journal information:[/b] Cell



https://phys.org/news/2021-05-population...-asia.html
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With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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WOW!!!

JUNE 2, 2021

New evidence may change timeline for when people first arrived in North America
by Iowa State University

One of the rabbit bones dated for the study. Credit: Andrew Somerville, Iowa State University
An unexpected discovery by an Iowa State University researcher suggests that the first humans may have arrived in North America more than 30,000 years ago—nearly 20,000 years earlier than originally thought.

Andrew Somerville, an assistant professor of anthropology in world languages and cultures, says he and his colleagues made the discovery while studying the origins of agriculture in the Tehuacan Valley in Mexico. As part of that work, they wanted to establish a date for the earliest human occupation of the Coxcatlan Cave in the valley, so they obtained radiocarbon dates for several rabbit and deer bones that were collected from the cave in the 1960s as part of the Tehuacan Archaeological-Botanical Project. The dates for the bones suddenly took Somerville and his colleagues in a different direction with their work.

The date ranges for the bone samples from the base of the cave ranged from 33,448 to 28,279 years old. The results are published in the academic journal Latin American Antiquity. Somerville says even though previous studies had not dated items from the bottom of the cave, he was not expecting such old ages. The findings add to the debate over a long-standing theory that the first humans crossed the Bering Land Bridge into the Americas 13,000 years ago.

"We weren't trying to weigh in on this debate or even find really old samples. We were just trying to situate our agricultural study with a firmer timeline," Somerville said. "We were surprised to find these really old dates at the bottom of the cave, and it means that we need to take a closer look at the artifacts recovered from those levels."

Somerville says the findings provide researchers with a better understanding of the chronology of the region. Previous studies relied on charcoal and plant samples, but he says the bones were a better material for dating. However, questions still remain. Most importantly, is there a human link to the bottom layer of the cave where the bones were found?

To answer that question, Somerville and Matthew Hill, ISU associate professor of anthropology, plan to take a closer look at the bone samples for evidence of cut marks that indicate the bones were butchered by a stone tool or human, or thermal alternations that suggest the bones were boiled or roasted over fire. He says the possible stone tools from the early levels of the cave may also yield clues.

"Determining whether the stone artifacts were products of human manufacture or if they were just naturally chipped stones would be one way to get to the bottom of this," Somerville said. "If we can find strong evidence that humans did in fact make and use these tools, that's another way we can move forward."

Year-long journey to even find the bones

Not only was this discovery unexpected, but the process of tracking down the animal bones to take samples was more than Somerville anticipated. The collection of artifacts from the 1960s Tehuacan Archaeological-Botanical Project was distributed to different museums and labs in Mexico and the United States, and it was unclear where the animal bones were sent.

After a year of emails and cold calls, Somerville and his collaborator, Isabel Casar from the National Autonomous University of Mexico, had a potential lead for a lab in Mexico City. The lab director, Joaquin Arroyo-Cabrales, agreed to give Somerville and Casar a tour to help search for the missing collection. The tour proved to be beneficial. Among the countless boxes of artifacts, they found what they were looking for.

Andrew Somerville made an unexpected discovery while studying the origins of agriculture. Credit: Christopher Gannon, Iowa State University
"Having spent months trying to locate the bones, we were excited to find them tucked away on the bottom shelf in a dark corner of the lab," Somerville said. "At the time, we felt that was a great discovery, we had no idea it would lead to this."

Once he located the bones, Somerville got permission from the Mexican government to take small samples—about 3/4 inch in length and 1/4 inch in width—from 17 bones (eight rabbits and nine deer) for radiocarbon dating. If closer examination of the bones provides evidence of a human link, Somerville says it will change what we know about the timing and how the first people came to America.

"Pushing the arrival of humans in North America back to over 30,000 years ago would mean that humans were already in North America prior to the period of the Last Glacial Maximum, when the Ice Age was at its absolute worst," Somerville said. "Large parts of North America would have been inhospitable to human populations. The glaciers would have completely blocked any passage over land coming from Alaska and Canada, which means people probably would have had to come to the Americas by boats down the Pacific coast."

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Mexico cave with evidence of early humans closed to visitors
More information: Andrew D. Somerville et al, New AMS Radiocarbon Ages from the Preceramic Levels of Coxcatlan Cave, Puebla, Mexico: A Pleistocene Occupation of the Tehuacan Valley?, Latin American Antiquity (2021). DOI: 10.1017/laq.2021.26

https://phys.org/news/2021-06-evidence-t...erica.html
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Post  333

full circle DNA improv.

Now I nearly know all my personal history genetically and culturally.

I hope all members of THM may can and will one day find theirs too.

Just in time for my mom and my younger sisters birthdays june 5th and 6th.All the while that my mother has full documented research on my dads side and is going to complete our family tree back to the 1700s.



My mother ruffled through the hall of records and memories of her maiden name and has established her family line and the branches she will make and will combine them with the branches of my dads side of our family by autumn...  Then once combined, MY immediate family and also the rest of our kin generally will have a complete graphic chart while her son provides the antholgy in all a-t-c-g
ancillary ancient code with these new emerging genetic details.



post 333 near full gnosis.

RE: Back to the garden(S)... origin(S) of mankind(S).

J
JUNE 2, 2021
New evidence may change timeline for when people first arrived in North America
[Image: new-evidence-may-chang-1.jpg]One of the rabbit bones dated for the study. Credit: Andrew Somerville, Iowa State University
An unexpected discovery by an Iowa State University researcher suggests that the first humans may have arrived in North America more than 30,000 years ago—nearly 20,000 years earlier than originally thought.
Andrew Somerville, an assistant professor of anthropology in world languages and cultures, says he and his colleagues made the discovery while studying the origins of agriculture in the Tehuacan Valley in Mexico. As part of that work, they wanted to establish a date for the earliest human occupation of the Coxcatlan Cave in the valley, so they obtained radiocarbon dates for several rabbit and deer bones that were collected from the cave in the 1960s as part of the Tehuacan Archaeological-Botanical Project. The dates for the bones suddenly took Somerville and his colleagues in a different direction with their work.
The date ranges for the bone samples from the base of the cave ranged from 33,448 to 28,279 years old. The results are published in the academic journal Latin American Antiquity. Somerville says even though previous studies had not dated items from the bottom of the cave, he was not expecting such old ages. The findings add to the debate over a long-standing theory that the first humans crossed the Bering Land Bridge into the Americas 13,000 years ago.
"We weren't trying to weigh in on this debate or even find really old samples. We were just trying to situate our agricultural study with a firmer timeline," Somerville said. "We were surprised to find these really old dates at the bottom of the cave, and it means that we need to take a closer look at the artifacts recovered from those levels."
Somerville says the findings provide researchers with a better understanding of the chronology of the region. Previous studies relied on charcoal and plant samples, but he says the bones were a better material for dating. However, questions still remain. Most importantly, is there a human link to the bottom layer of the cave where the bones were found?
To answer that question, Somerville and Matthew Hill, ISU associate professor of anthropology, plan to take a closer look at the bone samples for evidence of cut marks that indicate the bones were butchered by a stone tool or human, or thermal alternations that suggest the bones were boiled or roasted over fire. He says the possible stone tools from the early levels of the cave may also yield clues.

"Determining whether the stone artifacts were products of human manufacture or if they were just naturally chipped stones would be one way to get to the bottom of this," Somerville said. "If we can find strong evidence that humans did in fact make and use these tools, that's another way we can move forward."
[b]Year-long journey to even find the bones[/b]
Not only was this discovery unexpected, but the process of tracking down the animal bones to take samples was more than Somerville anticipated. The collection of artifacts from the 1960s Tehuacan Archaeological-Botanical Project was distributed to different museums and labs in Mexico and the United States, and it was unclear where the animal bones were sent.
After a year of emails and cold calls, Somerville and his collaborator, Isabel Casar from the National Autonomous University of Mexico, had a potential lead for a lab in Mexico City. The lab director, Joaquin Arroyo-Cabrales, agreed to give Somerville and Casar a tour to help search for the missing collection. The tour proved to be beneficial. Among the countless boxes of artifacts, they found what they were looking for.

[Image: new-evidence-may-chang.jpg]
Andrew Somerville made an unexpected discovery while studying the origins of agriculture. Credit: Christopher Gannon, Iowa State University
"Having spent months trying to locate the bones, we were excited to find them tucked away on the bottom shelf in a dark corner of the lab," Somerville said. "At the time, we felt that was a great discovery, we had no idea it would lead to this."
Once he located the bones, Somerville got permission from the Mexican government to take small samples—about 3/4 inch in length and 1/4 inch in width—from 17 bones (eight rabbits and nine deer) for radiocarbon dating. If closer examination of the bones provides evidence of a human link, Somerville says it will change what we know about the timing and how the first people came to America.
"Pushing the arrival of humans in North America back to over 30,000 years ago would mean that humans were already in North America prior to the period of the Last Glacial Maximum, when the Ice Age was at its absolute worst," Somerville said. "Large parts of North America would have been inhospitable to human populations. The glaciers would have completely blocked any passage over land coming from Alaska and Canada, which means people probably would have had to come to the Americas by boats down the Pacific coast."




Explore further
Mexico cave with evidence of early humans closed to visitors



[b]More information:[/b] Andrew D. Somerville et al, New AMS Radiocarbon Ages from the Preceramic Levels of Coxcatlan Cave, Puebla, Mexico: A Pleistocene Occupation of the Tehuacan Valley?, Latin American Antiquity (2021). DOI: 10.1017/laq.2021.26



https://phys.org/news/2021-06-evidence-t...erica.html
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Congratulations reaching 333 Worship Greet012 Reefer Worship



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Quote:The dates for the bones suddenly took Somerville and his colleagues in a different direction with their work.

The date ranges for the bone samples from the base of the cave ranged from 33,448 to 28,279 years old. The results are published in the academic journal Latin American Antiquity. Somerville says even though previous studies had not dated items from the bottom of the cave, he was not expecting such old ages. The findings add to the debate over a long-standing theory that the first humans crossed the Bering Land Bridge into the Americas 13,000 years ago.
New evidence may change timeline for when people first arrived in North America
[Image: new-evidence-may-chang-1.jpg]One of the rabbit bones dated for the study. Credit: Andrew Somerville, Iowa State University
An unexpected discovery by an Iowa State University researcher suggests that the first humans may have arrived in North America more than 30,000 years ago—nearly 20,000 years earlier than originally thought.
LilD
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...

You did not provide a link Whip 



https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/20...165038.htm

New evidence may change timeline for when people first arrived in North America


Animal bones at bottom of cave:


Quote:from 17 bones (eight rabbits and nine deer) for radiocarbon dating.



They are looking for tool marks on the bones from possible tools found in the cave.
The inference is that the bones got to the bottom of the cave,
by human activity of consumption.



Quote:"Determining whether the stone artifacts were products of human manufacture
or 
if they were just naturally chipped stones, 
would be one way to get to the bottom of this," Somerville said.


...
Reply
Arrow Vianova link to paper:

https://doi.org/10.1017/laq.2021.26


Also this mexican regional ancient date of approx 33,333 yag blends well with far north Yukon dates of another cave site approx 25,000 yag.
Seems to support pre-glacial arrival of hominids of some sort ---before native americans arrived in a flash as the clovis culture.
The Bluefish Caves in Northern Canada.

excerpt:
As we shall see below, some results indicate that the history of the deposit goes as far back as about 25,000 BP



SIGNIFICANCE OF THE BLUEFISH CAVES IN BERINGIAN PREHISTORY





Quote:CHRONOLOGICAL CONTEXT
  • As we have seen, the sedimentological, palynological and palaeontological data enable us to place the cave deposits on a chronological scale that definitely includes the Holocene (humus-rich rubble) and the end of the late Pleistocene, or Late Glacial (loess). Several 14C measurements made early in the research (Cinq-Mars 1979; Morlan and Cinq-Mars 1982) roughly confirmed this chronostratigraphic estimate and even gave some indication of precision. We were able to date an episode of forest fire, definitely Holocene, in the (cryoturbated) upper sediments of Cave I. We also obtained a date of 12,900 BP from the femur of a horse, collected in the upper level of the lower loess of Cave I; and a date of 15,500 BP from a mammoth scapula found in the lower loess of Cave II, where the palynological signs of the herbaceous tundra were identified.A new series of 14C dates obtained recently from specimens of megafauna (Note 5; Cinq-Mars and Nelson 1989) recovered from the three caves have enabled us to put forward a somewhat more detailed chronostratigraphy which sheds new light on a number of palaeontological, palaeoecological and archaeological issues.For example, some of these findings can help us identify periods of extinction and extirpation and, in retrospect, furnish valuable information on the evolution of the environment. The example of the saiga is particularly instructive. Its ecological requirements (Vereshchagin and Baryshnikov 1982) make it an unusually fine indicator of a xeric environment (semi-arid steppe), relatively rich in herbaceous species and characterised by only slight accumulations of snow in winter. Until recently, the presence of saiga in eastern Beringia was dated prior to the Glacial Maximum (Harington 1980; Matthews 1982). However, its discovery in the sediments of Cave III indicate that populations of saiga, apparently living in an environment which was not altogether unfavourable, survived in far-eastern Beringia as late as about 13,400 BP. The overlap between this date and the age of the (palynological) birch zone which, as we have seen, is an indicator of a major ecological change, probably means that the Bluefish saiga is one of the last to have lived in these regions.Besides providing clear confirmation of the loess/humus-rich rubble dichotomy and of its dating to about 10,000 years ago, many of these new chronometric results have led to an unexpected increase in the range of our chronostratigraphy. As we shall see below, some results indicate that the history of the deposit goes as far back as about 25,000 BP. More importantly, these results demonstrate that the mammoth steppe fauna mentioned above, in a combination that remains to be precisely determined, constituted an essential element of the Glacial Maximum biotope of eastern Beringia (between about 17,000 and 25,000 BP). Without elaborating further on this information, which sheds light on an important Beringian controversy (Note 6), we must emphasise that this demonstration of the viability of a Glacial Maximum environment is of major significance for our understanding of several aspects of Beringian archaeology.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE BLUEFISH CAVES IN BERINGIAN PREHISTORY – PAGE 3



CULTURAL MANIFESTATIONS





Like other Beringian sites that have yielded very ancient archaeological material, the cultural remains found in the Bluefish Caves are exasperatingly sparse. They consist of three classes of lithics, some butchering marks found on various megafaunal remains and some examples of simple bone tools. With a few rare exceptions (Note 7) , these were all found in the loess layer of Caves I and II, and in a context which, once again, is not always easy to read.


LITHIC ARTEFACTS

The first class consists of a series of about one hundred specimens. It includes, on the one hand, shaped objects (Fig. 4) such as cores, microblades, angle burins on truncated blades or flakes, burin spalls, notches, etc. and, on the other hand, various flakes and flake fragments, some of which may have been used. The raw materials are primarily high-quality cherts, usually blue, but occasionally speckled or more rarely, black, and definitely exotic to the region, although we have not yet determined their exact source (Note 8). So far, such artefacts have been recovered only in Caves I and II.
[Image: cmfig4e_l.jpg]

Most of them occurred mainly in the interior and at the entrance of Cave II, both at the bottom and the upper limit of the (lower) loess level where were also found most of the faunal remains. Several technological characteristics of the burins (all angle burins on truncated supports) may indicate that much of the assemblage represents either a specific episode in the use of the cave, or consecutive visits by a particular group. Although the context does not allow us to date these lithics with precision, we know that they considerably predate the end of the period in which the loess was deposited; i.e., before 10,000 BP. Their provenance and association with the remains of extinct species suggest that they may have been incorporated into the deposit around 12,000 BP or perhaps even earlier.


Several tools, including a burin spall, a few microblade fragments and some flakes (one resulting from bifacial retouch) were also collected inside Cave I, in a somewhat more precise stratigraphic context (Cinq-Mars 1979). Some of these pieces seem to date from the first half of the period characterised by the “birch” zone. Others are slightly more recent (possibly between 10,000 and 12,000 BP) or earlier (before 13,500 BP).


The second class consists of several dozen detrital microflakes, the result of flaking, retouching or using chert tools (Note 9). Small as they are, they exhibit all the morphological characteristics of larger flakes or splinters, and are found, in varying quantities, in any archaeological deposit where stone tools were made or used. The raw materials they are made of differ significantly from that of other stone fragments of similar sizes. Although microflakes were found in all three caves, those from Cave I furnished the most information. Their distribution inside the cave parallels that of the tools described above and is also suggestive of some cultural sedimentation in that portion of the loess unit whose pollen is characteristic of the herbaceous tundra which dates, as noted above, from between 25,000 and 13,500 BP.


The third class comprises a number of small cobbles, which for the most part were collected at the base of the loess, at or near the bedrock, and generally near the entrance or at the front of the caves. As they are all clearly allochthonous, we believed until recently (Morlan and Cinq-Mars 1982: Fig. 9) that their presence in the loess could be explained only by animal activity or in the case of the larger specimens, possibly by cultural activity. However, as is the case with the caves themselves, their origin is best explained in the context of the development of the regional karst network. Nevertheless, we have chosen to retain this category, as it may eventually be of use for several of the larger specimens that could, after all, have been used as hammerstones




CUT OR BUTCHERING MARKS


Despite the difficulties inherent in any attempt at taphonomic interpretation, we have managed to extract complementary signs of human presence from the enormous palimpsest (Binford 1981: 9) represented by faunal and other remains from Bluefish.


The evidence consists of a variety of cut marks, incisions, scrape marks, chopping marks and striations resulting from the intentional butchering and defleshing of animals with stone tools, and penetrating, more or less deeply and in various places, the external walls of the bones. (Morlan and Cinq-Mars 1982: Fig. 10). It is important to note that we refer here to undeniable cultural indicators and not to similar marks made by carnivores, rodents, various geological processes or even excavators (Note 10). Thus far, we believe that we have been able to identify examples on numerous elements of the skeleton of nearly every large mammal species, with the possible exception of wolf, moose, wapiti and saiga. Almost all were found in Caves I and II.


This type of data also enables us to refine the time frame of the cultural content of the deposit. As there are no such markings on the faunal remains found in the humus-rich rubble, it is evident that this type of evidence and its causes date to the Pleistocene. This is confirmed by the 14C dates mentioned earlier and which were obtained from some of the specimens exhibiting such modifications. These dates suggest that cultural activities relating to the exploitation of the Bluefish fauna occurred sporadically between about 25,000 BP and 10,000 BP.


BONE TOOLMAKING

The few examples of bone toolmaking can be divided into two groups. The first includes traditional tools that have been shaped somewhat, either intentionally or through use. Examples were collected in Caves I and II. The second group includes bones that were shaped by percussion. There are fewer examples of these, all from Cave II.


The first group comprises a few long bones which, after having been split lengthwise, may have been used as fleshers for processing hides. One in particular, shaped from a caribou tibia, exhibits a planed facet which may have been made with a burin, as well as a highly polished area located along the edge of a distal break (possibly the result of use ?) (Morlan and Cinq-Mars 1982: Fig.9). This object was discovered outside Cave II, in the lower level of the loess. It has been dated to 24,820 BP, giving us a clearer picture of the chronological range not only of the deposit, but also of its cultural manifestations. In other words, we believe that we can add this tool to a growing list of data which, while sparse, demonstrates that human populations were in a position to exploit the resources of the region during the Glacial Maximum or even earlier.

[Image: cmfig5e_l.jpg]

The same goes for the second group that comprises only two bone objects produced by percussion. They consist of a bone flake (Note 11) and its parent core (Fig. 5), both obviously derived from the same mammoth long bone. They were obtained through a relatively complex sequence of actions or “chaîne opératoire”, which can be summarised as follows:

the raw material, namely a mammoth long bone, was first reduced to a fragment consisting of an epiphysis and the contiguous portion of the diaphysis;
what could be described as a rough striking platform was then prepared at the end of the diaphysis segment;
from this platform, a series of three flakes, ranging from 7 to 10 cm in length, were subsequently detached by percussion from the cortical face of the diaphysis segment;
finally, one of these flakes, the longest one, was further worked and/or retouched bifacially and reduced diagonally, from its proximal end, by more than a third of its original size.




https://www.historymuseum.ca/learn/resea...rehistory/

.
.

Hoof proof right from the horses mouth... 

If Horses went back and forth over Beringia... so did hominids.

Sum-one was in the Americas wayyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy before the Clovis.







Eurasian Horses Diverged from North American Horses One Million Years Ago, DNA Study Shows
May 24, 2021 by News Staff / Source

In new research, an international team of scientists sequenced and analyzed mitochondrial and nuclear genomes of living and extinct caballine horses (Equus spp.) to explore the possible impacts of the Bering Land Bridge on genetic diversity within, and connectivity among, populations of this once wide-ranging group. They found that Eurasian horse populations initially diverged from those in North America, their ancestral continent, around 1 million years ago; subsequent to this split, they identified two bi-directional long-range dispersals across the Bering Land Bridge 875,000-625,000 and 200,000-50,000 years ago.

[Image: Beringia-study.jpg?w=800&ssl=1]
Ancient horses crossed over the Bering Land Bridge in both directions between North America and Asia multiple times during the Pleistocene. Image credit: Julius Csotonyi.

Paleontologists have long known that horses evolved and diversified in North America.

One lineage, the caballine horses (which includes domestic horses), dispersed into Eurasia over the Bering Land Bridge about 1 million years ago, and the Eurasian population then began to diverge genetically from the horses that remained in North America.

The new study shows that after the split, there were at least two periods when horses moved back and forth between the continents and interbred, so that the genomes of North American horses acquired segments of Eurasian DNA and vice versa.

“This is the first comprehensive look at the genetics of ancient horse populations across both continents,” said Dr. Alisa Vershinina, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of California, Santa Cruz.

“With data from mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, we were able to see that horses were not only dispersing between the continents, but they were also interbreeding and exchanging genes.”

Dr. Vershinina and colleagues sequenced 78 new mitochondrial genomes from ancient horses found across Eurasia and North America.

Combining those with 112 previously published mitochondrial genomes, they reconstructed a phylogenetic tree, a branching diagram showing how all the samples were related.

With a location and an approximate date for each genome, they could track the movements of different lineages of ancient horses.

“We found Eurasian horse lineages here in North America and vice versa, suggesting cross-continental population movements,” Dr. Vershinina said.

“With dated mitochondrial genomes we can see when that shift in location happened.”

The analysis showed two periods of dispersal between the continents, both coinciding with periods when the Bering Land Bridge would have been open.

In the Middle Pleistocene, shortly after the two lineages diverged, the movement was mostly east to west.

A second period in the Late Pleistocene saw movement in both directions, but mostly west to east.

The researchers also sequenced two new nuclear genomes from well-preserved horse fossils recovered in Yukon Territory, Canada.

These were combined with 7 previously published nuclear genomes, enabling the team to quantify the amount of gene flow between the Eurasian and North American populations.

“The usual view in the past was that horses differentiated into separate species as soon as they were in Asia, but these results show there was continuity between the populations,” said Dr. Ross MacPhee, a paleontologist at the American Museum of Natural History.

“They were able to interbreed freely, and we see the results of that in the genomes of fossils from either side of the divide.”

“The new findings help reframe the question of why horses disappeared from North America,” said Dr. Grant Zazula, a paleontologist with the Government of Yukon.

“It was a regional population loss rather than an extinction. We still don’t know why, but it tells us that conditions in North America were dramatically different at the end of the last Ice Age. If horses hadn’t crossed over to Asia, we would have lost them all globally.”

The results were published in the journal Molecular Ecology.
http://www.sci-news.com/paleontology/ber...09688.html
_____

Alisa O. Vershinina et al. Ancient horse genomes reveal the timing and extent of dispersals across the Bering Land Bridge. Molecular Ecology, published online May 10, 2021; doi: 10.1111/mec.15977
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JUNE 14, 2021
Pacific islanders likely found Antarctica first: study
[Image: a-new-study-has-conclu.jpg]A new study has concluded that Polynesian seafarers likely reached Antarctica hundreds of years before the Western explorers usually credited with discovering the frozen continent.
Polynesian seafarers likely reached Antarctica hundreds of years before the Western explorers usually credited with discovering the frozen continent, a new study has concluded.
New Zealand researchers scoured so-called "grey literature"—including oral records, historic indigenous artworks and non-academic sources—looking for links between Maori people and Antarctica.
"When you put it together, it's really clear, there's a very long history of connection to Antarctica," said project leader Priscilla Wehi from New Zealand's government research institute Manaaki Whenua.
"We found connection to Antarctica and its waters (has) been occurring since the earliest traditional voyaging, and later through participation in European-led voyaging and exploration, contemporary scientific research, fishing, and more, for centuries."
Polynesian seafarers are widely regarded as some of history's greatest sailors, navigating vast distances between Pacific islands with pin-point precision on their double-hulled waka, or canoes.
The research, published last week in the Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, found they reached Antarctica long before the first Westerners in the 1820s.
The researchers believe the first voyage to Antarctica waters even pre-dates Maori arrival in New Zealand in the 14th century.
"We find Polynesian narratives of voyaging between the islands include voyaging into Antarctic waters by Hui Te Rangiora and his crew on the vessel Te Ivi O Atea, likely in the early seventh century," Wehi said.
"These navigational accomplishments are widely acknowledged."
Oral histories of the voyage include reference to "a foggy, misty and dark place not seen by the sun" and iceberg-like summits "piercing the sky with no vegetation".
The study said that Maori carving and weaving also supported accounts of early Antarctic exploration.
Wehi said collating traditional Maori accounts helped give a broader view of Antarctic history, beyond the accounts of European male explorers that usually predominate.
"History tends to be told by one voice and there's often a dominant narrative," she told the New Zealand Herald.
"Often indigenous history and even women's history becomes invisible, so for me it's about making that history visible."




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Māori connections to Antarctica may go as far back as 7th century



[b]More information:[/b] Priscilla M. Wehi et al, A short scan of Māori journeys to Antarctica, Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand (2021). DOI: 10.1080/03036758.2021.1917633



https://phys.org/news/2021-06-pacific-is...ctica.html


[Image: 5f05bf51dece3.jpg]
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Missionaries always try to erase anything pagan. Naughty
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(06-16-2021, 03:16 PM)Kalter Rauch Wrote: Missionaries always try to erase anything pagan. Naughty

Recall:  Arrow

Quote:Waters said that until recently, Clovis was thought to represent the initial group of indigenous people to enter the Americas and that people carrying Clovis weapons and tools spread quickly across the continent and then moved swiftly all the way to the southern tip of South America. However, a short age range for Clovis does not provide sufficient time for people to colonize both North and South America. Furthermore, strong archaeological evidence "amassed over the last few decades shows that people were in the Americas thousands of years before Clovis, but Clovis still remains important because it is so distinctive and widespread across North America," he said.

What if Pagans erased sum-one previous... also pagan? 
Clovis is as Missionary was perhaps. Eh?  No?



OCTOBER 23, 2020
Tools made by some of North America's earliest inhabitants were made only during a 300-year period [Image: holycowsmile.gif]
by Keith Randall, Texas A&M University
[Image: texasaampmex.jpg]Clovis spear points from the Gault site in Texas. Credit: Center for the Study of the First Americans, Texas A&M University
There is much debate surrounding the age of the Clovis—a prehistoric culture named for stone tools found near Clovis, New Mexico in the early 1930s—who once occupied North America during the end of the last Ice Age. New testing of bones and artifacts show that Clovis tools were made only during a brief, 300-year period from 13,050 to 12,750 years ago.


In a Third of a century did Clovis wipe-out earlier humans already in the Americas? Cry

[b][b]More information:[/b] Michael R. Waters et al, The age of Clovis—13,050 to 12,750 cal yr B.P., [i]Science Advances
 (2020). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaz0455

[/i]
[/b]


https://phys.org/news/2020-10-tools-nort...tants.html
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Evidence of the Clovis culture must then exist in Asia?
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