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Osiris REx: To learn in return and teach us each.
#34
(12-19-2018, 02:10 PM)Vianova Wrote: ...

On that cone formula -- redesigned at -- 0.3333333~ x Pi x radius x height,
that is correct,
but maybe it could be looked at from the perspective of:

sine 19.47122063  x Pi x radius x height.

If they want to attribute asteroid shapes to bi-cones,
then all this YORP spin-fu that they attribute to shape,
should probably have a fairly standard geometry in the cone apex.

Otherwise, we will see a plethora of dimensional cone shapes corresponding to different "spin" rates?

...

Recall:

Mnemonic devices are techniques a person can use to help them improve their ability to remember something. In other words, it's a memory technique to help your brain better encode and recall important information.

[/url]Memory and Mnemonic Devices - Psych Central


https://psychcentral.com/lib/memory-and-...c-devices/


Thatz the beauty of the variants of all the things three.

sum times the sine of the x's @~19.5 rides shot-gun.
Quote:On that cone formula -- redesigned at -- 0.3333333~
[Image: 45650183944_5b3089d49d_b.jpg]
Just an easy way to teach my grand-kid complex ideas as simple stuff.



So for the moment(um) just nevermind the cone or octahedrons and such.

In that previous article about gravity which is why asteroids aggregate etc.

Gravity is mathematically relatable to dynamics of subatomic particles
December 18, 2018 by Catherine Zandonella, [url=http://www.princeton.edu/main/]Princeton University

[Image: gravityismat.jpg]
Gravity, the force that brings baseballs back to Earth and governs the growth of black holes, is mathematically relatable to the peculiar antics of the subatomic particles that make up all the matter around us. Credit: J.F. Podevin

Gravity as the Fifth Dimension  Holycowsmile
Quote:Why don't they use TIME also as a variable?  Time is NEVER truly 'static', particles may be 'static' in 3 dimensions and in gravity, but can never be static in TIME.  TIME ALWAYS moves ... you had an article once that TIME may move BACKWARD.

Remember: "Why can't can't we remember the future...?" from Paul Kantner's The Light 1st of 5 song "theme" to Common Sense Party?
Quote:Recall:


Mnemonic devices are techniques a person can use to help them improve their ability to remember something. In other words, it's a memory technique to help your brain better encode and recall important information.

You found an article on "TIME CRYSTALS".  You cannot discard measurements of items in ANY 'theory' that you KNOW is there.
[Image: images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSMAIf9EoV6PrDhQ6k6ohl...fVsF8nu89A]


Let's use that tetrahedron instead of a cone.
[Image: hqdefault.jpg]
5-D eh?



Okay the first 3-D's are there in length width height right?
Time is the Base of the Tetrahedron. the 4th-D no matter which facet you choose if you were floating in 3-D space.
What if the Time Cone of the theoretical universe was a Time Tetrahedron instead?
An ever expanding and accelerating tetrahedron whose base was the Now.

The fifth dimension(Gravity would be the center of the base(Time Based)
and the 6th dimension would be the Apex/Origin point(Apex timeless)


Whew!  



[Image: regular-tetrahedron-and-face_0.jpg]

If the Point of Apex was Then and The Center of the Base was Now
you can already see the implicit 1/3 =~.333

Gravity is the fifth dimension of variants of the things three.

The Apex is the 6th
The Universe can be tetrahedrally summed up ???  
In a nutshell That fired some neurons and fried sum cells LilD sells snake-oil y'all.

Beer X's  Beer

I'll make a graph after a toke or two too. Heh.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#35
Compare:
Quote:YORP spin-fufu [Image: whip.gif]


"Experiments like this are helping us better understand and control the quantum vacuum. It's what one might call 'the physics of empty space,' which upon closer examination seems to be not so empty after all," said John Gillaspy, the physics program officer who oversaw NSF funding of the research.

"Classically, the vacuum is really empty—it is, by definition, the absence of anything," said Gillaspy. "But quantum physics predicts that even the most empty space that one can imagine is filled with 'virtual' particles and fields, quantum fluctuations in pure emptiness that lead to subtle, but very real, effects that can be measured and even exploited to do things that would otherwise be impossible. The universe contains many complicated things, yet there are still unanswered questions about some of the simplest, most fundamental phenomena—this research may help us to find some of the answers."


The Casimir torque: Scientists measure previously unexamined tiny force

December 19, 2018, University of Maryland



[Image: 5c1a25ef84672.jpg]
Apparatus measuring the Casimir torque. Credit: Nature (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-018-0777-8
Researchers from the University of Maryland have for the first time measured an effect that was predicted more than 40 years ago, called the Casimir torque.








When placed together in a vacuum less than the diameter of a bacterium (one micron) apart, two pieces of metal attract each other. This is called the Casimir effect. The Casimir torque—a related phenomenon that is caused by the same quantum electromagnetic effects that attract the materials—pushes the materials into a spin.spin-fufu [Image: whip.gif] Because it is such a tiny effect, the Casimir torque has been difficult to study. The research team, which includes members from UMD's departments of electrical and computer engineering and physics and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, has built an apparatus to measure the decades-old prediction of this phenomenon and published their results in the December 20th issue of the journal Nature.



"This is an interesting situation where industry is using something because it works, but the mechanism is not well-understood," said Jeremy Munday, the leader of the research. "For LCD displays, for example, we know how to create twisted liquid crystals, but we don't really know why they twist. Our study proves that the Casimir torque is a crucial component of liquid crystal alignment. It is the first to quantify the contribution of the Casimir effect, but is not the first to prove that it contributes."



The device places a liquid crystal just tens of nanometers from a solid crystal. With a polarizing microscope, the researchers then observed how the liquid crystal twists to match the solid's crystalline axis.



The team used liquid crystals because they are very sensitive to external forces and can twist the light that passes through them. Under the microscope, each imaged pixel is either light or dark depending on how twisted the liquid crystal layer is. In the experiment, a faint change in the brightness of a liquid crystal layer allowed the research team to characterize the liquid crystal twist and the torque that caused it.



The Casimir effect could make nanoscale parts move and can be used to invent new nanoscale devices, such as actuators or motors.



"Think of any machine that requires a torque or twist to be transmitted: driveshafts, motors, etc.," said Munday. "The Casimir torque can do this on a nanoscale."







Knowing the amount of Casimir torque in a system can also help researchers understand the motions of nanoscale parts powered by the Casimir effect.



The team tested a few different types of solids to measure their Casimir torques, and found that each material has its own unique signature of Casimir torque.



The measurement devices were built in UMD's Fab Lab, a shared user facility and cleanroom housing tools to make nanoscale devices.



In the past, the researchers also made the first measurements of a repulsive Casimir force and a measurement of the Casimir force between two spheres. They have also made some predictions that could be confirmed if the current measurement technique can be refined; Munday reports they are testing other materials to control and tailor the torque.



Munday is an associate professor of electrical and computer engineering in UMD's A. James Clark School of Engineering, and his lab is housed in UMD's Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, which enables interdisciplinary research between its natural science and engineering colleges.



"Experiments like this are helping us better understand and control the quantum vacuum. It's what one might call 'the physics of empty space,' which upon closer examination seems to be not so empty after all," said John Gillaspy, the physics program officer who oversaw NSF funding of the research.



"Classically, the vacuum is really empty—it is, by definition, the absence of anything," said Gillaspy. "But quantum physics predicts that even the most empty space that one can imagine is filled with 'virtual' particles and fields, quantum fluctuations in pure emptiness that lead to subtle, but very real, effects that can be measured and even exploited to do things that would otherwise be impossible. The universe contains many complicated things, yet there are still unanswered questions about some of the simplest, most fundamental phenomena—this research may help us to find some of the answers."



 Explore further: Uncovering the interplay between two famous quantum effects



More information: David A. T. Somers et al, Measurement of the Casimir torque, Nature (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-018-0777-8 



Journal reference: Nature 
Provided by: University of Maryland





Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-12-casimir-torque-scientists-previously-unexamined.html#jCp







In the new paper, the researchers propose levitating a nanoscale rotor using optical tweezers, which are formed by two counter-propagating polarized laser beams that cause the rotor to tightly align with the field polarization. When the beams are switched off, however, the tightly oriented rotor is predicted to quickly disperse into a superposition of all possible rotation statesspin-fufu [Image: whip.gif] as it falls toward the ground due to gravity.
 
Interestingly, the rotor is predicted to experience "quantum revivals" in which, at regular intervals in time, the collective interference of all of the rotation states leads to the re-emergence of the initial state that it occupied when it was aligned by the laser beams. The orientation can potentially be measured by illuminating the rotor with a weak probe laser, and the trapping laser could be switched back on to catch the rotor in this state before it reaches the ground.



Proposed test of quantum superposition measures 'quantum revivals'
December 19, 2018 by Lisa Zyga, Phys.org feature

[Image: proposedtest.jpg]
A nanoscale rotor (black rod) is levitated by two counter-propagating laser beams. When the beams are switched off, the quantum state of the rotor disperses into a superposition of all possible orientations, except at certain intervals of …more
Physicists have proposed an entirely new way to test the quantum superposition principle—the idea that a quantum object can exist in multiple states at the same time. The new test is based on examining the quantum rotation of a macroscopic object—specifically, a nanoscale rotor, which is considered macroscopic despite its tiny size.




Until now, most tests of quantum superposition have been based on linear, rather than rotational, motion. By examining rotational motion, the new testmay lead to applications such as quantum-enhanced torque sensing, and could provide insight into a variety of open questions, such as what causes the quantum wave function to collapse.

The physicists, led by Klaus Hornberger at the University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany, have published a paper on the proposed test in a recent issue of the New Journal of Physics.

Quantum superposition arises because, at the quantum scale, particles behave like waves. Similar to the way in which multiple waves can overlap each other to form a single new wave, quantum particles can exist in multiple overlapping states at the same time. If quantum superposition occurred in everyday life, we might observe phenomena like Schrödinger's cat, which is dead and alive at the same time until it is measured, forcing it to assume a single state.

In the new paper, the researchers propose levitating a nanoscale rotor using optical tweezers, which are formed by two counter-propagating polarized laser beams that cause the rotor to tightly align with the field polarization. When the beams are switched off, however, the tightly oriented rotor is predicted to quickly disperse into a superposition of all possible rotation states as it falls toward the ground due to gravity.

[Image: proposedtest.gif]
Animation showing how a nanorotor can disperse into a quantum superposition of rotation states, and then, due to quantum interference, undergo a revival, proving that a quantum state has existed. Credit: James Millen, King’s College London
Interestingly, the rotor is predicted to experience "quantum revivals" in which, at regular intervals in time, the collective interference of all of the rotation states leads to the re-emergence of the initial state that it occupied when it was aligned by the laser beams. The orientation can potentially be measured by illuminating the rotor with a weak probe laser, and the trapping laser could be switched back on to catch the rotor in this state before it reaches the ground.



So far, orientational quantum revivals have been observed only in gases of diatomic molecules. As the nanorods consist of at least 10,000 atoms, they are much larger than the diatomic molecules, allowing for quantum mechanics to be tested in an uncharted regime.

The physicists expect that it will be possible to observe quantum revivals of the nanorods using existing technology, such as by using a carbon nanotube as the rotor. If so, the observation would represent a new macroscopic test of quantum superposition.

"By observing the quantum revivals, we hope to confirm quantum mechanics at an unprecedented mass and complexity scale, thereby exploring the quantum-to-classical borderline," Hornberger told Phys.org.

In the future, coauthor James Millen, now at King's College London, plans to perform the proposed experiment to detect macroscopic quantum revivals.

"Testing whether quantum physics breaks down at a high mass is an exciting, yet daunting, challenge," Millen said. "We may have to develop entirely new technologies to isolate nanoscale particles, or even perform experiments in space. However, this experiment which we propose opens up an entirely new route to probing enigmatic quantum effects, in a way which I firmly believe is feasible with today's technology. Furthermore, we will be able to harness this physics to develop useful devices of unprecedented sensitivity."

Explore further: How Einstein's equivalence principle extends to the quantum world

More information: Benjamin A. Stickler et al. "Probing macroscopic quantum superpositions with nanorotors." New Journal of Physics. DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/aaece4 

Journal reference: New Journal of Physics


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-12-quantum-su...s.html#jCp


EA States:
The Universe is a spinning tetrahedron in a superposition of all states.

spin-fufu [Image: whip.gif]

I put this spin on it...

doubled is as trebled was
[Image: depalma+spinning+ball+exp.JPG]
If a tetrahedron spins on an axis from the apex point to the center of the base the Trace would be a cone but would require time to route out from the fabric of space a cone shape like a tool-bit and there you have tour vortex from the basal 3 vertex.
If spin is measured as a superimposition of all states then a Tetrahedron can indeed be a solid/non-solid cone if an Axis is prefered.

A tetrahedron with no axis that spins around itz core central point superimposes a sphere that itza circumscribed itself.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#36
...

Roman Tcachenko animations 
https://twitter.com/i/status/1072841352017313794
Flying Over Asteroid Bennu 
This 3D visualization is based on my preliminary 3D shape model of Bennu


Bennu 3D rotation
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V_DVoetIHEw



...
Reply
#37
[Image: 121418_jl_bennu-shape_feat.jpg]


2-D cross-section of Bennu / Ruyugu 2 too?
[Image: e127_3_medium.png] doubled is as trebled was
Same shape as the twin asteroids

Twin ass-rhoids  Arrow

We'll now call Bennu "Stu"

...and Ryugu's called "Stu2"



Just for improv's sake.

Quote:Posted by rhw007 - Wednesday, December 19th, 2018, 04:46 am
Why don't they use TIME also as a variable?  Time is NEVER truly 'static', particles may be 'static' in 3 dimensions and in gravity, but can never be static in TIME.  TIME ALWAYS moves ... you had an article once that TIME may move BACKWARD.

Remember: "Why can't can't we remember the future...?" from Paul Kantner's The Light 1st of 5 song "theme" to Common Sense Party?

Quote:Asking what happened before the Big Bang is a meaningless question in general relativity, because space-time ends, and there is no before. 

You found an article on "TIME CRYSTALS".  You cannot discard measurements of items in ANY 'theory' that you KNOW is there.

To do that, you are doing no better than Never A Straight Answer/ Just Pricks Lapping.

Also gravity is also a variable, not a constant.  We may think it is a constant 32/feet/ second on Earth, at Sea Level, what is the gravity of Voyagers 1 & 2 by the Sun ?  The same 32/feet/sec?   [Image: naughty.gif] 

When I had an A in Calculus before wife had stroke, doing several equations at once was a breeze.  Not so anymore. But I haven't lost some BASIC 'presumptions' that one must throw away to free up the blank holes in the mind to awaken and light new insight into the brains neurons; otherwise...your RAM never gets updates.

Bob.... 

You asked and the improvisphere thus provides.  Arrow


Beyond the black hole singularity
December 20, 2018 by Sam Sholtis, Pennsylvania State University

[Image: beyondthebla.jpg]
Artist representation of a black hole. The bottom half of the image depicts the black hole which, according to general relativity, traps everything including light. Effects based on loop quantum gravity, a theory that extends Einstein's …more
Our first glimpses into the physics that exist near the center of a black hole are being made possible using "loop quantum gravity"—a theory that uses quantum mechanics to extend gravitational physics beyond Einstein's theory of general relativity. Loop quantum gravity, originated at Penn State and subsequently developed by a large number of scientists worldwide, is opening up a new paradigm in modern physics. The theory has emerged as a leading candidate to analyze extreme cosmological and astrophysical phenomena in parts of the universe, like black holes, where the equations of general relativity cease to be useful.




Previous work in loop quantum gravity that was highly influential in the field analyzed the quantum nature of the Big Bang, and now two new papers by Abhay Ashtekar and Javier Olmedo at Penn State and Parampreet Singh at Louisiana State University extend those results to black hole interiors. The papers appear as "Editors' suggestions" in the journals Physical Review Letters and Physical Review on December 10, 2018 and were also highlighted in a Viewpoint article in the journal Physics.

"The best theory of gravity that we have today is general relativity, but it has limitations," said Ashtekar, Evan Pugh Professor of Physics, holder of the Eberly Family Chair in Physics, and director of the Penn State Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos. "For example, general relativitypredicts that there are places in the universe where gravity becomes infinite and space-time simply ends. We refer to these places as 'singularities.' But even Einstein agreed that this limitation of general relativity results from the fact that it ignores quantum mechanics."

At the center of a black hole the gravity is so strong that, according to general relativity, space-time becomes so extremely curved that ultimately the curvature becomes infinite. This results in space-time having a jagged edge, beyond which physics no longer exists—the singularity. Another example of a singularity is the Big Bang. Asking what happened before the Big Bang is a meaningless question in general relativity, because space-time ends, and there is no before.  But modifications to Einstein's equations that incorporated quantum mechanics through loop quantum gravity allowed researchers to extend physics beyond the Big Bang and make new predictions. The two recent papers have accomplished the same thing for the black hole singularity.

"The basis of loop quantum gravity is Einstein's discovery that the geometry of space-time is not just a stage on which cosmological events are acted out, but it is itself a physical entity that can be bent," said Ashtekar. "As a physical entity the geometry of space-time is made up of some fundamental units, just as matter is made up of atoms. These units of geometry—called 'quantum excitations'—are orders of magnitude smaller than we can detect with today's technology, but we have precise quantum equations that predict their behavior, and one of the best places to look for their effects is at the center of a black hole." According to general relativity, at the center of a black hole gravity becomes infinite so everything that goes in, including the information needed for physical calculations, is lost. This leads to the celebrated 'information paradox' that theoretical physicists have been grappling with for over 40 years. However, the quantum corrections of loop quantum gravity allow for a repulsive force that can overwhelm even the strongest pull of classical gravity and therefore physics can continue to exist. This opens an avenue to show in detail that there is no loss of information at the center of a blackhole, which the researchers are now pursuing.

Interestingly, even though loop quantum gravity continues to work where general relativity breaks down—black hole singularities, the Big Bang—its predictions match those of general relativity quite precisely under less extreme circumstances away from the singularity. "It is highly non-trivial to achieve both," said Singh, associate professor of physics at Louisiana State. "Indeed, a number of investigators have explored the quantum nature of the black hole singularity over the past decade, but either the singularity prevailed or the mechanisms that resolved it unleashed unnatural effects. Our new work is free of all such limitations."

Explore further: Theorists apply loop quantum gravity theory to black hole

More information: Abhay Ashtekar et al, Quantum Transfiguration of Kruskal Black Holes, Physical Review Letters (2018). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.241301 

Journal reference: Physical Review Letters
Provided by: Pennsylvania State University



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-12-black-hole-singularity.html#jCp







Viewpoint: Black Hole Evolution Traced Out with Loop Quantum Gravity
  • Carlo Rovelli, Center of Theoretical Physics, CNRS, Aix-Marseille University and Toulon University, Marseille, France
December 10, 2018• Physics 11, 127
Loop quantum gravity—a theory that extends general relativity by quantizing spacetime—predicts that black holes evolve into white holes.
[Image: e127_2_medium.png][Image: icon-expand.svg]
F. Vidotto/University of the Basque Country

Figure 1: Artist rendering of the black-to-white-hole transition. Using loop quantum gravity, Ashtekar, Olmedo, and Singh predict that black holes evolve into white holes.

Black holes are remarkable entities. On the one hand, they have now become familiar astrophysical objects that have been observed in large numbers and in many ways: we have evidence of stellar-mass holes dancing around with a companion star, of gigantic holes at the center of galaxies pulling in spiraling disks of matter, and of black hole pairs merging in a spray of gravitational waves. All of this is beautifully accounted for by Einstein’s century-old theory of general relativity. Yet, on the other hand, black holes remain highly mysterious. We see matter falling into them, but we are in the dark about what happens to this matter when it reaches the center of the hole.
Abhay Ashtekar and Javier Olmedo at Pennsylvania State University in University Park and Parampreet Singh at Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, have taken a step toward answering this question [1]. They have shown that loop quantum gravity—a candidate theory for providing a quantum-mechanical description of gravity—predicts that spacetime continues across the center of the hole into a new region that exists in the future and has the geometry of the interior of a white hole. A white hole is the time-reversed image of a black hole: in it, matter can only move outwards. The passage “across the center” into a future region is counterintuitive; it is possible thanks to the strong distortion of the spacetime geometry inside the hole that is allowed by general relativity. This result supports a hypothesis under investigation by numerous research groups: the future of all black holes may be to convert into a real white hole, from which the matter that has fallen inside can bounce out. However, existing theories have not been able to fully show a way for this bounce to happen. That loop quantum gravity manages to do it is an indication that this theory has ripened enough to tackle real-world situations.
The reason why we are in the dark about aspects of black hole physics is that quantum phenomena dominate at the center and in the future of these objects. Classical general relativity predicts that a black hole lives forever and that its center is a “singularity” where space and time end. These predictions are not realistic because they disregard quantum effects. To tackle these effects we need a quantum theory of gravity. We don’t yet have consensus on such a theory, but we have candidates, some of which are now reaching the point of allowing actual calculations on the quantum behavior of black holes. Loop quantum gravity, which has a clean conceptual structure and a well-defined mathematical formulation based on representing the fabric of space as a spin network that evolves in time, is one such theory.
During the last few years, a number of research groups have applied loop theory to explore the evolution of black holes. These efforts are building a compelling picture based on a black-to-white-hole transition scenario (Fig. 1), which can be summarized as follows [2]. At the center of the black hole, space and time do not end in a singularity, but continue across a short transition region where the Einstein equations are violated by quantum effects. From this region, space and time emerge with the structure of a white hole interior, a possibility suggested in the 1930s by physicist John Lighton Synge [3]. As the hole’s center evolves, its external surface, or “horizon,” slowly shrinks because of the emission of radiation—a phenomenon first described by Stephen Hawking. This shrinkage continues until the horizon reaches the Planck size (the characteristic scale of quantum gravity) or earlier [45], at which point a quantum transition (“quantum tunneling”) happens at the horizon, turning it into the horizon of a white hole (Fig. 2). Thanks to the peculiar distorted relativistic geometry, the white hole interior born at the center joins the white horizon, completing the formation of the white hole.
[Image: e127_3_medium.png][Image: icon-expand.svg]
C. Rovelli/Aix-Marseille University; adapted by APS/Alan Stonebraker

Figure 2: Diagram representing the spacetime evolution of a black hole into a white hole via a quantum transition. The vertical axis represents time; the horizontal axis represents distance from the center.

Loosely speaking, the full phenomenon is analogous to the bouncing of a ball. A ball falls to the ground, bounces, and then moves up. The upward motion after the bounce is the time-reversed version of the falling ball. Similarly, a black hole “bounces” and emerges as its time-reversed version—a white hole. Collapsing matter does not disappear at the center: it bounces up through the white hole. Energy and information that fell into the black hole emerge from the white hole. The configuration where the compression is maximal, which separates the black hole from the white hole, is called a “Planck star.” Because of the huge time distortion allowed by relativity, the time for the process to happen can be short (microseconds) when measured from inside the hole but long (billions of years) when measured from the outside. Black holes might be bouncing stars seen in extreme slow motion.
This is a compelling picture because it removes the singularity at a black hole’s center and resolves the paradox of the apparent disappearance of energy and information into a black hole. Until now, this black-to-white-hole picture was not derived from an actual quantum theory of gravity; it was just conjectured—and implemented with ad hocmodifications to Einstein’s general relativity equations. Ashtekar, Olmedo, and Singh have shown that a crucial ingredient of this scenario, the transition at the center, follows from a genuine quantum gravity theory, namely, loop theory. The result was obtained through an approximation of the full loop-quantum-gravity equations [6]—similar to the one employed in previous work aimed at resolving the big bang singularity [7].
It is important to note that the Ashtekar-Olmedo-Singh model addresses only the transition at the center of the hole. To complete the picture, we also need the calculation of the tunneling at the horizon [5]. Preliminary steps in this direction have been taken, but the problem is open. Its solution would lead to a complete understanding of the quantum physics of black holes.
It is not implausible that empirical observations could support this scenario. Models suggest that several observed astrophysical phenomena could be related to the black-to-white-hole transition [8]. Among these are fast radio bursts (FRBs) and certain high-energy cosmic rays. Both could be produced by matter and photons that were trapped in black holes produced in the early Universe and liberated by the black-to-white-hole transition. For the moment, however, the astrophysical data are insufficient to determine whether the statistical properties of observed FRBs and cosmic rays confirm this hypothesis [8]. Another intriguing possibility is that small holes produced by the black-to-white-hole transition may be stable: in which case, these “remnants” could be a component of dark matter [9].
We are only beginning to understand the quantum physics of black holes, but in this still speculative field, the Ashtekar-Olmedo-Singh result gives us a welcome fixed point: loop gravity predicts that the interior of a black hole continues into a white hole. The importance of any progress in this field goes beyond understanding black holes. The center of a black hole is where our current theory of spacetime, as given by Einstein’s general relativity, fails. Understanding the physics of this region would mean understanding quantum space and quantum time.
This research is published in Physical Review Letters and Physical Review D.
References
  1. A. Ashtekar, J. Olmedo, and P. Singh, “Quantum transfiguration of Kruskal black holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 241301 (2018); “Quantum extension of the Kruskal spacetime,” Phys. Rev. D 98, 126003 (2018).

  2. E. Bianchi, M. Christodoulou, F. D’Ambrosio, H. M. Haggard, and C. Rovelli, “White holes as remnants: A surprising scenario for the end of a black hole,” Class. Quant. Grav. 35, 225003 (2018).

  3. J. L. Synge, “The gravitational field of a particle,” Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. A 53, 83 (1950).

  4. C. Rovelli and F. Vidotto, “Planck stars,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 23, 1442026 (2014).

  5. H. M. Haggard and C. Rovelli, “Quantum-gravity effects outside the horizon spark black to white hole tunneling,” Phys. Rev. D 92, 104020 (2015).

  6. L. Modesto, “Black hole interior from loop quantum gravity,” Adv. High Energy Phys. 2008, 459290 (2008).

  7. I. Agullo and P. Singh, “Loop quantum cosmology: A brief review,” Loop Quantum Gravity, 100 Years of General Relativity Vol. 4, edited by A. Ashtekar and J. Pullin (World Scientific, Singapore, 2017)[Amazon][WorldCat].

  8. A. Barrau, B. Bolliet, F. Vidotto, and C. Weimer, “Phenomenology of bouncing black holes in quantum gravity: A closer look,” J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 2016, 022 (2016); A. Barrau, K. Martineau, and F. Moulin, “Status report on the phenomenology of black holes in loop quantum gravity: Evaporation, tunneling to white holes, dark matter and gravitational waves,” Universe 4, 102 (2018).

  9. C. Rovelli and F. Vidotto, “Small black/white hole stability and dark matter,” Universe 4, 127 (2018).
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#38
Well, as I stated I used to do Calculus before my wife's stroke there is no way to get back up to speed on that.  However, Has a 'WHITE HOLE" ever been seen?

Never heard of one, so my other notion was that each black hole could be an entry to a NEW Universe than the one that the Black hole resides.  Since most of the matter and energy in our Universe is DARK Matter and Dark Energy, which when pushed it actually attracts to what pushed it. From current understanding as I know it.

If wrong please forgive me.  If the Black Hole is a portal to a new Universe with a reverse in Dark Matter and Dark Energy to one of Light Matter and Light Energy, if a spaceship had a 'map' of all KNOWN Black Holes in our Universe we could transport back through a WHITE HOLE back into OUR Universe...if there were White Holes in the bottom of Black Holes.

Or, Dark Holes could simply be more "Big Bangs" starting new Universes.   Who knows what the 'Creator' created and why and when?

We keep getting so many 'timelines' wrong, making so many presumptions, so many new 'theories' that facts aren't as flat as they should be.  We might only know after final death when our souls FINALLY are free from the body.  I had 7 actual trips, close to death, 8 months coming close to that same plane of existence; I won't KNOW until I finally leave for good.  If I could come back in some manner I might try, then again, I may be unable to do much of anything.

It seems that even physics article is also generating 'possibility' after equation after equation, the answer continues to elude us.

Thank you for the response EA Worship

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
Reply
#39
...
Bennu in a number of still images,
number 8 is my favorite.

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1nx4TPd0...LVk2BfIkms

...
Reply
#40
(12-21-2018, 01:43 AM)rhw007 Wrote: Thank you for the response EA Worship

Bob... Ninja Assimilated

feedback-loops are pluralities and therefore superimposed  and thus superimprovised.
Recall:
Arrow To learn in return and teach us each.


Quote:Posted by EA - Friday, December 21st, 2018, 12:17 am

for improv's sake.


Bob.... 
[size=undefined]

You asked and the improvisphere thus provides.  [Image: arrow.png] [/size]


Same  Sheep   Difference
    feedback                                      loop
[Image: 121418_jl_bennu-shape_feat.jpg]Sss.............................Stu    [Image: images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSpSZT-GvZ-766uUV6s3qu..._v3T_aOnKA]Stu2

Stupor-imposed like they were  exo/in-situ/see too ipso@ http://thehiddenmission.com/forum/index.php
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#41
Quote:Stupor-imposed like...



Frontier of planetary science
Ultima Thule is named for a mythical, far-northern island in medieval literature and cartography, according to NASA.
Project scientist Hal Weaver of the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory said humans didn't even know the Kuiper Belt—a vast ring of relics from the formation days of the solar system—existed until the 1990s.
"This is the frontier of planetary science," said Weaver.
"We finally have reached the outskirts of the solar system, these things that have been there since the beginning and have hardly changed—we think. We will find out."
Another NASA spacecraft, OSIRIS-REx, also set a new record on Monday by entering orbit around the asteroid Bennu, LilD the smallest cosmic object—about 1,600 feet (500 meters) in diameter—ever circled by a spacecraft.
NASA said the orbit some 70 million miles (110 million kilometers) away marks "a leap for humankind" because no spacecraft has ever "circled so close to such a small space object—one with barely enough gravity to keep a vehicle in a stable orbit."
The twin planetary feats coincided with the 50th anniversary of the first time humans ever explored another world, when US astronauts orbited the Moon aboard Apollo 8 in December, 1968.
"As you celebrate New Year's Day, cast an eye upward and think for a moment about the amazing things our country and our species can do when we set our minds to it," Stern wrote in the New York Times on Monday.


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2019-01-nasa-year-historic-flyby-faraway.html#jCp
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#42
OSIRIS-REx finds rugged terrain on asteroid Bennu
January 31, 2019 Stephen Clark
[img=788x0]https://mk0spaceflightnoa02a.kinstacdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/NavCamJan17Images.jpg[/img]NASA’s OSIRIS-REx spacecraft’s navigation camera captured this image of asteroid Bennu on Jan. 17 from a distance of approximately 1 mile (1.6 kilometers). The large boulder in partial shadow at the lower right of the frame is about 165 feet (50 meters) across. Credit: NASA/Goddard/University of Arizona/Lockheed Martin
Some time next year, NASA’s OSIRIS-REx spacecraft will descend to the boulder-strewn surface of asteroid Bennu, reach out with a robotic arm, and fetch a sample for return to Earth, but an initial survey of the space rock millions of miles from Earth suggests the robotic mission may have few suitable targets for the touch-and-go maneuver.

OSIRIS-REx is still in the early weeks of its stay at asteroid Bennu, a roughly 1,640-foot-wide (500-meter) object that oscillates inside and outside of Earth’s orbit on each trip around the sun. Bennu’s proximity to Earth, which makes it an impact risk to the planet in the distant future, allowed ground-based radars to scan the asteroid in detail, revealing its size and shape before OSIRIS-REx’s launch in 2016.
The radar observations made by stations at Arecibo, Puerto Rico, and Goldstone, California, did a “phenomenal job of predicting the shape and topography of the asteroid for us,” said Dante Lauretta, principal investigator for the $1 billion Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, Regolith Explorer mission at the University of Arizona, Tucson.
On its approach to the asteroid last year, OSIRIS-REx showed Bennu is shaped like diamond, or a spinning top, just as the radar observations suggested.
“It’s really good news that we got it so right, and that all our mission design plans are valid as we move forward,” Lauretta said Wednesday at a meeting of NASA’s Small Bodies Assessment Group, a community of scientists with research interests in asteroids, comets and other small objects in the solar system.
“We do have the expected, so-called ‘spinning top’ shape, which seems to be characteristic of a subset of the near-Earth asteroid population,” Lauretta said.
“One of the reasons we think it’s top-shaped is because it’s been accelerated by thermal pressures to sort of spin up,” said Olivier Barnouin, a co-investigator on the OSIRIS-REx mission from the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. “You can imagine if you take a top and start spinning up, if you have little rocks on it, things might go flying off.”
OSIRIS-REx’s cameras searched for evidence of moons or debris around Bennu late last year.
“We can confirm, to this point, that we have not identified any rocks that are flying around, and that there’s no risk to the spacecraft, which actually I think is kind of remarkable because this place is very dynamic,” Barnouin said in a Dec. 31 presentation of the mission’s preliminary findings at Bennu.
But Bennu did present some surprises to scientists, such as its jagged, craggy terrain covered with a collection of boulders, rock piles, craters and ridges.
“Some of the things that jump out at us right away from the asteroid’s surface are the large boulders,” Lauretta said Wednesday. “We are a looking at a pretty rough and rugged surface, more so than we expected.”
The first detailed images from OSIRIS-REx suggest Bennu exhibits the scars from collisions with other objects in the solar system, perhaps when Bennu orbited in the main asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. The basins include up to a dozen large impact craters that measure up to 500 feet (150 meters) in diameter, according to Lauretta.
“We’re thinking that the asteroid surface’s cratering age may be older than we expected, and may record its collisional history in the main asteroid belt,” he said.
Scientists believe the asteroid’s visible surface may be between 100 million and 1 billion years old, and Lauretta says Bennu is likely a “rubble pile” asteroid, made by the merging of several distinct objects. With the data already returned by OSIRIS-REx, scientists have calculated Bennu has a bulk density just 20 percent higher than that of water, and a bit less than that of Jupiter.
Officials marked OSIRIS-REx’s arrival at Bennu on Dec. 3, when the spacecraft flew over the asteroid’s north pole. Subsequent passes over both poles and the equator allowed scientists to calculate the asteroid’s mass, a crucial parameter for planning the probe’s future trajectories.
[img=788x0]https://mk0spaceflightnoa02a.kinstacdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/1472585684039.jpg[/img]An artist’s concept of OSIRIS-REx at Bennu, with its sample collection arm extended. Credit: Lockheed Martin
OSIRIS-REx is currently in the mission’s “Orbital A” phase, following a maneuver Dec. 31 that directed the spacecraft into a slow-speed loop around Bennu that ranges between 1 mile and 1.3 miles (1.6 to 2.1 kilometers) from the asteroid. Due to Bennu’s weak gravity field, thousands of times weaker than that of Earth, OSIRIS-REx travels at a speed of just one-tenth of a mile per hour, or 5 centimeters per second, relative to the asteroid.
The orbital velocity of satellites circling the Earth can be as high as 17,500 mph (7.8 kilometers per second).
OSIRIS-REx has set records, becoming the first mission to orbit an object as small as Bennu, and as the closest any spacecraft has orbited to any planetary body.
The craft’s navigation team on Earth is plotting the location of landmarks and other prominent features on the asteroid’s surface. Beginning next month, OSIRIS-REx will fly on station-to-station trajectories around the asteroid, pulsing its thrusters to cover Bennu globally and periodically move to closer and farther distances.
“The orbit phase is not really a science campaign phase,” Lauretta said. “It’s primarily there for the navigation team to transition from using star fields to landmarks on the asteroid surface. That transition is going very well, and are achieving navigation accuracies that are required for us to depart orbit in about four weeks and begin the detailed survey campaign of the mission.”
When the solar system formed more than 4.5 billion years ago, chunks of rock and ice collided as they circled the sun like the balls on a billiard table, eventually building up planets. The leftovers became asteroids and comets, and scientists believe Bennu still harbors the basic carbon-bearing organic molecules that were present in the early solar solar system, the stuff that may have helped seed life.
The spacecraft carries three cameras — one for long-range viewing, a color camera for mapping, and another imager to take pictures as OSIRIS-REx collects samples from the asteroid’s surface. The rest of OSIRIS-REx’s suite of science instruments includes a thermal emission spectrometer to detect heat coming from the asteroid, a visible infrared spectrometer to locate minerals and organic materials, a laser altimeter provided by the Canadian Space Agency to create topographic maps, and a student-built X-ray spectrometer to identify individual chemical elements present on the asteroid.
Data gathered by thermal emission and visible infrared spectrometer instruments — OTES and OVIRS — indicates clay minerals on the asteroid’s surface contain hydroxyl molecules with oxygen and hydrogen molecules bonded together. This finding suggests Bennu’s surface was once in contact with water, likely when the asteroid was part of a much larger parent body that was smashed to bits in a collision in the chaotic early solar system.
One prominent feature of Bennu’s landscape is a large boulder protruding from the surface near the south pole. While ground-based radar images suggested the boulder to be at least 33 feet, or 10 meters, in height, OSIRIS-REx imagery indicates is closer to 164 feet, or 50 meters, tall with a width of approximately 180 feet, or 55 meters, according to NASA.
On approach to Bennu, ground controllers at Lockheed Martin in Denver — where OSIRIS-REx was built — unlatched the probe’s robotic arm from its launch restraint for the first time. Over several days, the ground team commanded the arm to bend its joints and jettison a launch cover over the sample collection mechanism, which will release compressed air during a touch-and-go maneuver to force gravel and surface material into an on-board chamber for the journey back to Earth.
[img=788x0]https://mk0spaceflightnoa02a.kinstacdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/bennuasteroid.jpg[/img]This mosaic image of asteroid Bennu is composed of 12 PolyCam images collected on Dec. 2 by the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft from a range of 15 miles (24 km). One of the darkest features on Bennu is visible at lower left. Credits: NASA/Goddard/University of Arizona
One of the darkest features spotted so far on Bennu appears to be rich in magnetite and iron oxide, Lauretta said, based on early spectral measurements from OSIRIS-REx’s instruments. Scientists are intrigued by the darker regions of the asteroid because they are expected to contain more carbon, the scientific pay dirt for the sample return mission.
But officials will evaluate where OSIRIS-REx can safely reach the surface in the coming months, with the tough-and-go descent currently scheduled for July 4, 2020. That can be pushed back a few months, if necessary, before the spacecraft must depart Bennu in March 2021 to reach Earth in September 2023.
“The OSIRIS-REx mission’s sample site selection campaign starts next month, which is when we will start receiving science data at the resolution needed to make informed assessments about the safety of various regions on Bennu,” Lauretta said in a written response Thursday to questions from Spaceflight Now.
“We’re thinking about sampling the surface … and the craters are starting to look as possibly good candidates because they’re fairly smooth in structure, as far as we can tell at this point in the mission,” Barnouin said.


https://spaceflightnow.com/2019/01/31/os...oid-bennu/
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#43
...
That was a good catch up on info and data in that article.
this caught my eye:


Quote:While ground-based radar images suggested the boulder to be at least ---> 33 feet, 
or 10 meters, in height, 
OSIRIS-REx imagery indicates is closer to  --->  164 feet, 
or 50 meters tall, 
with a width of approximately 180 feet, or 55 meters, 
according to NASA.


That is an enormous differential at 5 times the height when imaged by the probe!
Tells you a lot about "ground based" science conclusions,
on objects out in space, 
to include all their theories offered on that ground based science of those solar system objects.

...
Reply
#44
Asteroid Bennu, target of NASA's sample return mission, is rotating faster over time
March 12, 2019, American Geophysical Union

[Image: asteroidbenn.jpg]
This mosaic image of asteroid Bennu is composed of 12 PolyCam images collected on Dec. 2 by the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft from a range of 15 miles (24 km). The image was obtained at a 50° phase angle between the spacecraft, asteroid and the …more
In late 2018, the Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) spacecraft arrived at Bennu, the asteroid it will be studying and sampling over the next several years.




Now, new research in the AGU journal Geophysical Research Lettersshows Bennu is spinning faster over time—an observation that will help scientists understand the evolution of asteroids, their potential threat to Earth and if they could be mined for resources.

Bennu is 110 million kilometers (70 million miles) away from Earth. As it moves through space at about 101,000 kilometers per hour (63,000 miles per hour), it also spins, completing a full rotation every 4.3 hours.

The new research finds the asteroid's rotation is speeding up by about 1 second per century. In other words, Bennu's rotation period is getting shorter by about 1 second every 100 years.

While the increase in rotation might not seem like much, over a long period of time it can translate into dramatic changes in the space rock. 

Quote:EA States:
The Universe is a spinning tetrahedron in a superposition of all states.

spin-fufu [Image: whip.gif]

I put this spin on it...

doubled is as trebled was

As the asteroid spins faster and faster over millions of years, it could lose pieces of itself or blow itself apart, according to the study's authors.

Detecting the increase in rotation helps scientists understand the types of changes that could have happened on Bennu, like landslides or other long-term changes, that the OSIRIS-REx mission will look for.

"As it speeds up, things ought to change, and so we're going to be looking for those things and detecting this speed up gives us some clues as to the kinds of things we should be looking for," said Mike Nolan, a senior research scientist at the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at the University of Arizona in Tucson, who is the lead author of the new paper and the head of the OSIRIS-REx mission's science team. "We should be looking for evidence that something was different in the fairly recent past and it's conceivable things may be changing as we go."

The OSIRIS-REx mission is scheduled to bring a sample of Bennu to Earth in 2023. Understanding Bennu's rotational change could help scientists figure out what asteroids can tell us about the origin of the solar system, how likely it is for asteroids to pose a threat to humans and if they could be mined for resources.

"If you want to do any of those things, you need to know what is affecting it," Nolan said.



[Image: asteroidbenn.gif]
This series of MapCam images was taken over the course of about four hours and 19 minutes on Dec. 4, 2018, as OSIRIS-REx made its first pass over Bennu’s north pole. The images were captured as the spacecraft was inbound toward Bennu, shortly before its closest approach of the asteroid’s pole. As the asteroid rotates and grows larger in the field of view, the range to the center of Bennu shrinks from about 7.1 to 5.8 miles (11.4 to 9.3 km). This first pass was one of five flyovers of Bennu’s poles and equator that OSIRIS-REx conducted during its Preliminary Survey of the asteroid. Credit: NASA/Goddard/University of Arizona
Detecting a change

In order to understand Bennu's rotation, scientists studied data of the asteroid taken from Earth in 1999 and 2005, along with data taken by the Hubble Space Telescope in 2012. It was when they looked at the Hubble data that they noticed the rotation speed of the asteroid in 2012 didn't quite match their predictions based on the earlier data.

"You couldn't make all three of them fit quite right," Nolan said. "That was when we came up with this idea that it had to be accelerating."

The idea that the rotation of asteroids could speed up over time was first predicted around 2000 and first detected in 2007, according to Nolan. To date, this acceleration has only been detected in a handful of asteroids, he said.

The change in Bennu's rotation could be due to a change in its shape. Similar to how ice skaters speed up as they pull in their arms, an asteroid could speed up as it loses material.

Nolan and his co-authors suggest the reason for the increase in Bennu's rotation is more likely due to a phenomenon known the YORP effect. Sunlight hitting the asteroid is reflected back into space. The change in the direction of the light coming in and going out pushes on the asteroid and can cause it to spin faster or slower, depending on its shape and rotation.

The OSIRIS-REx mission will determine Bennu's rotation rate independently this year, which will help scientists nail down the reason for the increase in rotation. Since spacecraft will never visit the vast majority of asteroids, the measurements will also help scientists learn how well ground-based measurements are able to understand these far-away objects.

"By testing these predictions in a few cases, we will significantly improve our confidence in predictions made for other objects," the study's authors write.

The measurement of Bennu's acceleration rate combined with the arrival of OSIRIS-REx at the asteroid gives scientists a great opportunity to validate the new study's results and test theories about the YORP effect, said Desiree Cotto-Figueroa, an assistant professor of physics and electronics at the University of Puerto Rico at Humacao, who was not involved in the new study.

"This is a great opportunity, in general, having this measurement and having the spacecraft OSIRIS-REx there observing this asteroid to help us better understand this effect, which is a dominant mechanism in the evolution of asteroids," she said.

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: Video: Planetary scientist talks about her work with NASA studying asteroid Bennu

More information: M. C. Nolan et al, Detection of Rotational Acceleration of Bennu Using HST Light Curve Observations, Geophysical Research Letters (2019). DOI: 10.1029/2018GL080658 

Journal reference: Geophysical Research Letters [Image: img-dot.gif][Image: img-dot.gif]
Provided by: American Geophysical Union



Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2019-03-asteroid-bennu-nasa-sample-mission.html#jCp
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#45
Gee ya think this tin can with kilos of equipment now in IT"S OWN orbit around the Sun wouldn't ya think the Probe ITSELF is causing the difference from now on?

Doh

If not, then you better hurry up on that "sample return" while you STILL have a non-rotating curve of its own spacecraft.


Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
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#46
looks like plumes are jetting out and increasing spin rate.

OSIRIS-REx reveals asteroid Bennu has big surprises
March 19, 2019 by Dwayne Brown / Joanna Wendel, NASA

[Image: osirisrexrev.jpg]
This view of asteroid Bennu ejecting particles from its surface on January 19 was created by combining two images taken on board NASA’s OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. Other image processing techniques were also applied, such as cropping and adjusting the brightness and contrast of each image. Credit: NASA/Goddard/University of Arizona/Lockheed Martin
A NASA spacecraft that will return a sample of a near-Earth asteroid named Bennu to Earth in 2023 made the first-ever close-up observations of particle plumes erupting from an asteroid's surface. Bennu also revealed itself to be more rugged than expected, challenging the mission team to alter its flight and sample collection plans, due to the rough terrain. 




Bennu is the target of NASA's Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission, which began orbiting the asteroid on Dec. 31. Bennu, which is only slightly wider than the height of the Empire State Building, may contain unaltered material from the very beginning of our solar system.

"The discovery of plumes is one of the biggest surprises of my scientific career," said Dante Lauretta, OSIRIS-REx principal investigator at the University of Arizona, Tucson. "And the rugged terrain went against all of our predictions. Bennu is already surprising us, and our exciting journey there is just getting started."

Shortly after the discovery of the particle plumes on Jan. 6, the mission science team increased the frequency of observations, and subsequently detected additional particle plumes during the following two months. Although many of the particles were ejected clear of Bennu, the team tracked some particles that orbited Bennu as satellites before returning to the asteroid's surface.

The OSIRIS-REx team initially spotted the particle plumes in images while the spacecraft was orbiting Bennu at a distance of about one mile (1.61 kilometers). Following a safety assessment, the mission team concluded the particles did not pose a risk to the spacecraft. The team continues to analyze the particle plumes and their possible causes.

"The first three months of OSIRIS-REx's up-close investigation of Bennu have reminded us what discovery is all about—surprises, quick thinking, and flexibility," said Lori Glaze, acting director of the Planetary Science Division at NASA Headquarters in Washington. "We study asteroids like Bennu to learn about the origin of the solar system. OSIRIS-REx's sample will help us answer some of the biggest questions about where we come from."

OSIRIS-REx launched in 2016 to explore Bennu, which is the smallest body ever orbited by spacecraft. Studying Bennu will allow researchers to learn more about the origins of our solar system, the sources of water and organic molecules on Earth, the resources in near-Earth space, as well as improve our understanding of asteroids that could impact Earth.



The OSIRIS-REx team also didn't anticipate the number and size of boulders on Bennu's surface. From Earth-based observations, the team expected a generally smooth surface with a few large boulders. Instead, it discovered Bennu's entire surface is rough and dense with boulders. 

The higher-than-expected density of boulders means that the mission's plans for sample collection, also known as Touch-and-Go (TAG), need to be adjusted. The original mission design was based on a sample site that is hazard-free, with an 82-foot (25-meter) radius. However, because of the unexpectedly rugged terrain, the team hasn't been able to identify a site of that size on Bennu. Instead, it has begun to identify candidate sites that are much smaller in radius.

The smaller sample site footprint and the greater number of boulders will demand more accurate performance from the spacecraft during its descent to the surface than originally planned. The mission team is developing an updated approach, called Bullseye TAG, to accurately target smaller sample sites.

"Throughout OSIRIS-REx's operations near Bennu, our spacecraft and operations team have demonstrated that we can achieve system performance that beats design requirements," said Rich Burns, the project manager of OSIRIS-REx at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. "Bennu has issued us a challenge to deal with its rugged terrain, and we are confident that OSIRIS-REx is up to the task." 

The original, low-boulder estimate was derived both from Earth-based observations of Bennu's thermal inertia—or its ability to conduct and store heat—and from radar measurements of its surface roughness. Now that OSIRIS-REx has revealed Bennu's surface up close, those expectations of a smoother surface have been proven wrong. This suggests the computer models used to interpret previous data do not adequately predict the nature of small, rocky, asteroid surfaces. The team is revising these models with the data from Bennu. 

The OSIRIS-REx science team has made many other discoveries about Bennu in the three months since the spacecraft arrived at the asteroid, some of which were presented Tuesday at the 50th Lunar and Planetary Conference in Houston and in a special collection of papers issued by the journal Nature

The team has directly observed a change in the spin rate of Bennu as a result of what is known as the Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect. The uneven heating and cooling of Bennu as it rotates in sunlight is causing the asteroid to increase its rotation speed. As a result, Bennu's rotation period is decreasing by about one second every 100 years. Separately, two of the spacecraft's instruments, the MapCam color imager and the OSIRIS-REx Thermal Emission Spectrometer (OTES), have made detections of magnetite on Bennu's surface, which bolsters earlier findings indicating the interaction of rock with liquid water on Bennu's parent body. 

[Image: 1x1.gif] Explore further: NASA's first look: Tiny asteroid is studded with boulders

More information: The unexpected surface of asteroid (101955) Bennu, Nature (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1033-6, www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1033-6

Shape of (101955) Bennu indicative of a rubble pile with internal stiffness, DOI: 10.1038/s41561-019-0330-x , www.nature.com/articles/s41561-019-0330-x

Properties of rubble-pile asteroid (101955) Bennu from OSIRIS-REx imaging and thermal analysis, DOI: 10.1038/s41550-019-0731-1 , www.nature.com/articles/s41550-019-0731-1

Evidence for widespread hydrated minerals on asteroid (101955) Bennu, DOI: 10.1038/s41550-019-0722-2 , www.nature.com/articles/s41550-019-0722-2

The operational environment and rotational acceleration of asteroid (101955) Bennu from OSIRIS-REx observations, DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-09213-x , 
www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-09213-x


The dynamic geophysical environment of (101955) Bennu based on OSIRIS-REx measurements, DOI: 10.1038/s41550-019-0721-3 , www.nature.com/articles/s41550-019-0721-3

Craters, boulders and regolith of (101955) Bennu indicative of an old and dynamic surface, DOI: 10.1038/s41561-019-0326-6 , www.nature.com/articles/s41561-019-0326-6 

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#47
AUGUST 9, 2019
Asteroid's features to be named after mythical birds
by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
[Image: asteroidsfea.jpg]This image shows asteroid Bennu’s boulder-covered surface. It was taken by the PolyCam camera on NASA’s OSIRIS-REx spacecraft on April 11, 2019, from a distance of 2.8 miles (4.5 km). The field of view is 211 ft (64.4 m), and the large boulder in the upper right corner of the image is 50 ft (15.4 m) tall. When the image was taken, the spacecraft was over the southern hemisphere, pointing PolyCam far north and to the west. Credit: NASA/Goddard/University of Arizona
Working with NASA's OSIRIS-REx team, the International Astronomical Union's Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN) approved the theme "birds and bird-like creatures in mythology" for naming surface features on asteroid (101955) Bennu.

OSIRIS-REx is NASA's first mission to bring a sample from an asteroid back to Earth. The OSIRIS-REx spacecraft has been mapping Bennu's surface since its arrival on Dec. 3, 2018, looking for a site from which to take a sample. Bennu is the smallest body in the solar system to be orbited and surveyed by a spacecraft at close range.
The named features on Bennu will include several terrain classification types that the IAU also approved for asteroid (162173) Ryugu's surface features (currently being explored by the Japanese Space Agency's Hayabusa2 spacecraft). These include craters, dorsa (peaks or ridges), fossae (grooves or trenches) and saxa (rocks and boulders). The last of these types—saxum—is a new feature classification that the IAU introduced earlier this year for small, rocky asteroids like Ryugu and Bennu. These surface features on Bennu will be named after mythological birds and bird-like creatures, complementing the mission's existing naming theme, which is rooted in Egyptian mythology.
The name OSIRIS-REx is an acronym for the mission's major concepts and goals, which stands for Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer. The name also finds inspiration in the Egyptian myth of the god Osiris. In ancient Egyptian mythology, Osiris is associated with the afterlife, the underworld and rebirth. He granted all life, including sprouting vegetation and the fertile flooding of the Nile River. Similarly, the OSIRIS-REx mission seeks to understand the origin and process of life on Earth by studying Bennu's carbon-rich regolith.
Bennu was named in 2013 by a 9-year-old boy from North Carolina who won the Name that Asteroid! Competition, a collaboration between the mission, the Planetary Society, and the LINEAR asteroid survey that discovered Bennu. Michael Puzio won the contest by suggesting that the spacecraft's Touch-and-Go Sample Mechanism (TAGSAM) arm and solar panels resemble the neck and wings in illustrations of Bennu, whom ancient Egyptians usually depicted as a gray heron. Bennu is the ancient Egyptian deity linked with the Sun, creation and rebirth—Puzio also noted that Bennu is the living symbol of Osiris. The myth of Bennu suits the asteroid itself, given that it is a primitive object that dates back to the creation of the Solar System. Themes of origins, rebirth and duality are all part of this asteroid's story. Birds and bird-like creatures are also symbolic of rebirth, creation and origins in various ancient myths.
The process of naming of Bennu's surface and features will begin this summer. The OSIRIS-REx team is scheduled to begin detailed reconnaissance on candidate sample sites this fall. Sample collection is scheduled for summer 2020, and the sample will return to Earth in September 2023.


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With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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#48
Quote:Counterintuitive physics property found to be widespread in living organisms

In order to further adapt to Bennu's ruggedness, the OSIRIS-REx team has made other adjustments to its sample site identification process.
The original mission plan envisioned a sample site with a radius of 82 feet (25 m).
Boulder-free sites of that size don't exist on Bennu, so the team has instead identified sites ranging from 16 to 33 feet (5 to 10 m) in radius. In order for the spacecraft to accurately target a smaller site, the team reassessed the spacecraft's operational capabilities to maximize its performance.



AUGUST 13, 2019
NASA mission selects final four site candidates for asteroid sample return
by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

[Image: nasamissions.jpg]Pictured are the four candidate sample collection sites on asteroid Bennu selected by NASA’s OSIRIS-REx mission. Site Nightingale (top left) is located in Bennu’s northern hemisphere. Sites Kingfisher (top right) and Osprey (bottom left) are located in Bennu’s equatorial region. Site Sandpiper (bottom right) is located in Bennu’s southern hemisphere. In December, one of these sites will be chosen for the mission’s touchdown event. Credit: NASA/University of Arizona
After months grappling with the rugged reality of asteroid Bennu's surface, the team leading NASA's first asteroid sample return mission has selected four potential sites for the Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) spacecraft to "tag" its cosmic dance partner.

Since its arrival in December 2018, the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft has mapped the entire asteroid in order to identify the safest and most accessible spots for the spacecraft to collect a sample. These four sites now will be studied in further detail in order to select the final two sites—a primary and backup—in December.
The team originally had planned to choose the final two sites by this point in the mission. Initial analysis of Earth-based observations suggested the asteroid's surface likely contains large "ponds" of fine-grain material. The spacecraft's earliest images, however, revealed Bennu has an especially rocky terrain. Since then, the asteroid's boulder-filled topography has created a challenge for the team to identify safe areas containing sampleable material, which must be fine enough—less than 1 inch (2.5 cm) diameter—for the spacecraft's sampling mechanism to ingest it.
"We knew that Bennu would surprise us, so we came prepared for whatever we might find," said Dante Lauretta, OSIRIS-REx principal investigator at the University of Arizona, Tucson. "As with any mission of exploration, dealing with the unknown requires flexibility, resources and ingenuity. The OSIRIS-REx team has demonstrated these essential traits for overcoming the unexpected throughout the Bennu encounter."
The original mission schedule intentionally included more than 300 days of extra time during asteroid operations to address such unexpected challenges. In a demonstration of its flexibility and ingenuity in response to Bennu's surprises, the mission team is adapting its site selection process. Instead of down-selecting to the final two sites this summer, the mission will spend an additional four months studying the four candidate sites in detail, with a particular focus on identifying regions of fine-grain, sampleable material from upcoming, high-resolution observations of each site. The boulder maps that citizen science counters helped create through observations earlier this year were used as one of many pieces of data considered when assessing each site's safety. The data collected will be key to selecting the final two sites best suited for sample collection.

In order to further adapt to Bennu's ruggedness, the OSIRIS-REx team has made other adjustments to its sample site identification process. The original mission plan envisioned a sample site with a radius of 82 feet (25 m). Boulder-free sites of that size don't exist on Bennu, so the team has instead identified sites ranging from 16 to 33 feet (5 to 10 m) in radius. In order for the spacecraft to accurately target a smaller site, the team reassessed the spacecraft's operational capabilities to maximize its performance. The mission also has tightened its navigation requirements to guide the spacecraft to the asteroid's surface, and developed a new sampling technique called "Bullseye TAG," which uses images of the asteroid surface to navigate the spacecraft all the way to the actual surface with high accuracy. The mission's performance so far has demonstrated the new standards are within its capabilities.
"Although OSIRIS-REx was designed to collect a sample from an asteroid with a beach-like area, the extraordinary in-flight performance to date demonstrates that we will be able to meet the challenge that the rugged surface of Bennu presents," said Rich Burns, OSIRIS-REx project manager at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. "That extraordinary performance encompasses not only the spacecraft and instruments, but also the team who continues to meet every challenge that Bennu throws at us."

Since arriving at near-Earth asteroid Bennu in December 2018, NASA's OSIRIS-REx mission has been studying this small world of boulders, rocks, and loose rubble - and looking for a place to touch down. The goal of OSIRIS-REx is to collect a sample of Bennu in mid-2020, and return it to Earth in late 2023. Credit: NASA
The four candidate sample sites on Bennu are designated Nightingale, Kingfisher, Osprey, and Sandpiper—all birds native to Egypt. The naming theme complements the mission's two other naming conventions—Egyptian deities (the asteroid and spacecraft) and mythological birds (surface features on Bennu).
The four sites are diverse in both geographic location and geological features. While the amount of sampleable material in each site has yet to be determined, all four sites have been evaluated thoroughly to ensure the spacecraft's safety as it descends to, touches and collects a sample from the asteroid's surface.
Nightingale is the northern-most site, situated at 56 degrees north latitude on Bennu. There are multiple possible sampling regions in this site, which is set in a small crater encompassed by a larger crater 459 feet (140 m) in diameter. The site contains mostly fine-grain, dark material and has the lowest albedo, or reflection, and surface temperature of the four sites.
Kingfisher is located in a small crater near Bennu's equator at 11 degrees north latitude. The crater has a diameter of 26 feet (8 m) and is surrounded by boulders, although the site itself is free of large rocks. Among the four sites, Kingfisher has the strongest spectral signature for hydrated minerals.
Osprey is set in a small crater, 66 feet (20 m) in diameter, which is also located in Bennu's equatorial region at 11 degrees north latitude. There are several possible sampling regions within the site. The diversity of rock types in the surrounding area suggests that the regolith within Osprey may also be diverse. Osprey has the strongest spectral signature of carbon-rich material among the four sites.
Sandpiper is located in Bennu's southern hemisphere, at 47 degrees south latitude. The site is in a relatively flat area on the wall of a large crater 207 ft (63 m) in diameter. Hydrated minerals are also present, which indicates that Sandpiper may contain unmodified water-rich material.
This fall, OSIRIS-REx will begin detailed analyses of the four candidate sites during the mission's reconnaissance phase. During the first stage of this phase, the spacecraft will execute high passes over each of the four sites from a distance of 0.8 miles (1.29 km) to confirm they are safe and contain sampleable material. Closeup imaging also will map the features and landmarks required for the spacecraft's autonomous navigation to the asteroid's surface. The team will use the data from these passes to select the final primary and backup sample collection sites in December.
The second and third stages of reconnaissance will begin in early 2020 when the spacecraft will perform passes over the final two sites at lower altitudes and take even higher resolution observations of the surface to identify features, such as groupings of rocks that will be used to navigate to the surface for sample collection. OSIRIS-REx sample collection is scheduled for the latter half of 2020, and the spacecraft will return the asteroid samples to Earth on Sept. 24, 2023.


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More information: Explore the final four candidate sites in detail: www.asteroidmission.org/candidate-sample-sites
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(09-09-2016, 11:12 PM)EA Wrote: ~7 years from NOW.(nice Top-Hat btw  -kudos: adept @ egypt!)

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Icy comets serve as storks for life on Earth
July 8, 2015
[Image: 16071174053_28296c0153_o.jpg]
In order to further adapt to Bennu's ruggedness, the OSIRIS-REx team has made other adjustments to its sample site identification process. The original mission plan envisioned a sample site with a radius of 82 feet (25 m). Boulder-free sites of that size don't exist on Bennuso the team has instead identified sites ranging from 16 to 33 feet (5 to 10 m) in radius. In order for the spacecraft to accurately target a smaller site, the team reassessed the spacecraft's operational capabilities to maximize its performance.
[Image: icycometsser.jpg]
This simulation depicts a comet hitting the young Earth, generating the amino acids necessary for life. Image courtesy of Matthew Genge/Imperial College London.
Early Earth was an inhospitable place where the planet was often bombarded by comets and other large astrophysical bodies.



Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2015-07-icy-comets-...h.html#jCp



What does the Asteroid Bennu serve as?


Phoenix Symbolically is as Bennu Symbiotically was?


Philae's comet may host alien 'life': astronomers

July 7, 2015



[Image: 1-animagetaken.jpg]
An image taken by Rosetta's Philae on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko shows part of the lander, in a photo released by the European Space Agency (ESA) on November 13, 2014
Astronomers proposed a novel explanation Monday for the strange appearance of the comet carrying Europe's robot probe Philae through outer space: alien microscopic life.





Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2015-07-philae-comet-host-alien-life.html#jCp


Levin will have his day.

  Full Circle Improv! 

Wickramasinghe will have his day.


AUGUST 13, 2019

Meteorite strikes made life on Earth possible

by University of Tübingen

[Image: meteoritestr.jpg]Clean lab facilities of the Isotope Geochemistry Laboratory, University of Tübingen (from left to right): Dr. María Isabel Varas-Reus, Dr. Stephan König and Aierken Yierpan. Credit: University of Tübingen
Meteorites from the far reaches of the solar system delivered large amounts of water, carbon and volatile substances to the Earth. Only then could the Earth host life. Dr. María Isabel Varas-Reus, Dr. Stephan König, Aierken Yierpan and Professor Dr. Ronny Schönberg from Tübingen University's Isotope Geochemistry Group, and Dr. Jean-Pierre Lorand from the Université de Nantes, provide evidence for this scenario in a new study. Using a method recently developed at the University of Tübingen, the researchers measured selenium isotopes in rocks derived from the Earth's mantle. Identical isotope signatures in these rocks and in certain types of meteorites revealed the origin of the selenium as well as large amounts of water and other vital substances. The study has been published in the latest Nature Geoscience.

Strictly speaking, there shouldn't be any selenium in the Earth's mantle. "It is attracted to iron. That is why, in the early history of our planet, it went down into the iron-rich core," Dr. María Isabel Varas-Reus explains. There was no more selenium in the Earth's outer layer. "The previous selenium signatures were completely erased there. The selenium found in the Earth's mantle today must therefore have been added after the formation of the Earth's core. Geologically speaking, "at the last moment of the formation of the Earth, after our moon had also formed," Varas-Reus adds. It's hard to say exactly when—it could have been between 4.5 and 3.9 billion years ago.
Complex measurements
In various places, the research team took samples of mantle rocks, which have been brought to the surface by plate tectonic processes and had remained unchanged with regard to its selenium isotope composition since the formation of the Earth. The researchers determined the isotope signature of the selenium in these rocks. Isotopes are atoms of the same chemical element with different weights. "It has been possible for some time now to measure selenium isotopes in high concentrations—for example in samples from rivers," says Varas-Reus. "However, the selenium concentration in high-temperature rocks is very low. Samples must be dissolved out at high temperatures, and selenium is volatile. This makes the measurements difficult." But recently it became possible to measure selenium isotopes in high-temperature rocks. Dr. Stephan König and his group of researchers developed a complex method as part of his ERC grant, the O2RIGIN project funded by the European Research Council.
It has long been suspected that meteorites added substances to the Earth's mantle. "But we thought they were meteorites from the inner solar system," Varas-Reus says. "So we were very surprised that the selenium isotope signature of the Earth's mantle closely matched a certain type of meteorite from the outer solar system. These are carbonaceous chondrites from the solar system beyond the asteroid belt, from the area of the planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. The selenium isotope signatures of various meteorites were collected by the geologist Dr. Jabrane Labidi, a former O2RIGIN collaborator, in a previous study.
The research team was also able to quantify what else—apart from selenium—these meteorites brought with them when they hit the early Earth. "According to our calculations, around 60 percent of the water on Earth today comes from this source. That is the only way oceans could eventually form," says Varas-Reus. Volatile substances from the meteorites contributed to the formation of the earth's protective atmosphere. "This created the conditions for life on Earth to develop in its present form."




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Formation of the moon brought water to Earth[/size]



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More information: María Isabel Varas-Reus et al. Selenium isotopes as tracers of a late volatile contribution to Earth from the outer Solar System, Nature Geoscience (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41561-019-0414-7
Journal information: Nature Geoscience [/url]

Provided by [url=https://phys.org/partners/university-of-t--bingen/]University of Tübingen


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Quote:researchers showed that a negative differential response also occurs in autocatalytic reactions—"self-catalyzing" reactions, or reactions that produce products that catalyze the reaction itself. 

Chicken or the Egg?

[Image: 16071174053_28296c0153_o.jpg]No such conundrum. Naughty
https://phys.org/news/2019-08-counterint...pread.html

Full Circle Thread Sews it all up to a point EYE make.

It Writes itself.
It Rights itself.
Itza Rite Itself.

Arrow

AUGUST 13, 2019 FEATURE
Counterintuitive physics property found to be widespread in living organisms
by Lisa Zyga , Phys.org
[Image: 1-counterintui.jpg]A negative differential response occurs in substrate inhibition, a process that occurs in about 20% of all known enzymes. Credit: Khopkins2010, Wikimedia Commons
Ever since the late 19th century, physicists have known about a counterintuitive property of some electric circuits called negative resistance. Typically, increasing the voltage in a circuit causes the electric current to increase as well. But under some conditions, increasing the voltage can cause the current to decrease instead. This basically means that pushing harder on the electric charges actually slows them down.

Due to the relationship between current, voltage, and resistance, in these situations the resistance produces power rather than consuming it, resulting in a "negative resistance." Today, negative resistance devices have a wide variety of applications, such as in fluorescent lights and Gunn diodes, which are used in radar guns and automatic door openers, among other devices.
Most known examples of negative resistance occur in human-engineered devices rather than in nature. However, in a new study published in the New Journal of Physics, Gianmaria Falasco and coauthors from the University of Luxembourg have shown that an analogous property called negative differential response is actually a widespread phenomenon that is found in many biochemical reactions that occur in living organisms. They identify the property in several vital biochemical processes, such as enzyme activity, DNA replication, and ATP production. It seems that nature has used this property to optimize these processes and make living things operate more efficiently at the molecular scale.
"This counterintuitive, yet common phenomenon has been found in a wealth of physical systems after its first discovery in low-temperature semiconductors," the researchers wrote in their paper. "We have shown that a negative differential response is a widespread phenomenon in chemistry with major consequences on the efficacy of biological and artificial processes."
As the researchers explained, a negative differential response can occur in biochemical systems that are in contact with multiple biochemical reservoirs. Each reservoir tries to pull the system to a different equilibrium point (like a balance point), so that the system is constantly exposed to competing thermodynamic forces.
When a system is in equilibrium with its surroundings, any small perturbation, or noise, affecting the reservoirs will typically cause an increase in the production rate of some product, in accordance with positive entropy. The production rate of a product can be thought of as a chemical current. From this perspective, the increase in noise that causes an increase in chemical current is analogous to the "normal" case in electric circuits in which an increase in voltage causes an increase in electric current.

But when a system in contact with multiple reservoirs becomes out of equilibrium, it may respond differently to noise. In an out-of-equilibrium system, additional factors come into play, so that an increase in noise decreases the chemical current. This negative differential response is analogous to the case in which electric circuits exhibit negative resistance.
In their work, the researchers identified several biological processes that have negative differential responses. One example is substrate inhibition, which is a process used by enzymes to regulate their ability to catalyze chemical reactions. When a single substrate molecule binds to an enzyme, the resulting enzyme-substrate complex decays into a product, generating a chemical current. On the other hand, when the substrate concentration is high, two substrate molecules may bind to an enzyme, and this double binding prevents the enzyme from producing more product. As an increase in substrate molecule concentration causes a decrease in the chemical current, this is a negative differential response.
As a second example, the researchers showed that a negative differential response also occurs in autocatalytic reactions—"self-catalyzing" reactions, or reactions that produce products that catalyze the reaction itself. Autocatalytic reactions occur throughout the body, such as in DNA replication and ATP production during glycolysis. The researchers showed that negative differential responses can arise when two autocatalytic reactions occur simultaneously in the presence of two different chemical concentrations (reservoirs) in an out-of-equilibrium system.
The researchers also identified negative differential responses in dissipative self-assembly, a process in which energy is needed for a system to self-assemble, making it far from equilibrium. Dissipative self-assembly occurs, for example, in the ATP-driven self-assembly of actin filaments—the long, thin microstructures in the cytoplasm of cells that give cells their structure.
Nature does everything for a reason, and the presence of negative differential response in living organisms is no exception. The researchers showed that this property imparts advantages for biochemical processes mainly in terms of energy efficiency. In substrate inhibition, for example, it allows a system to reach homeostasis with less energy than would otherwise be required. In dissipative self-assembly, the negative differential response allows the system to realize a nearly optimal signal-to-noise ratio, ultimately increasing the efficiency of the self-assembly process.


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Researchers get around bad gap problem with graphene by using negative differential resistance[/size]


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More information: Gianmaria Falasco et al. "Negative differential response in chemical reactions." New Journal of PhysicsDOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/ab28be
Journal information: New Journal of Physics
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#49
DECEMBER 4, 2019
NASA's OSIRIS-REx in the midst of site selection
by Brittany Enos, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
[Image: nasasosirisr.jpg]Images of the four candidate sample collection sites on asteroid Bennu: Nightingale, Kingfisher, Osprey and Sandpiper. One of these four sites will ultimately be the location on which NASA's OSIRIS-REx spacecraft will touch down to collect a sample. Credit: NASA/Goddard/University of Arizona
NASA's OSIRIS-REx mission is just days away from selecting the site where the spacecraft will snag a sample from asteroid Bennu. After a lengthy and challenging process, the team is finally ready to down-select from the four candidate sites to a primary and backup site.

OSIRIS-REx is NASA's first asteroid sample return mission, so this decision of a sample collection site is key for asteroid operations and mission success.
After selecting the four candidate sample sites—Sandpiper, Osprey, Kingfisher, and Nightingale—in July, the mission completed its Reconnaissance A phase. During Recon A, the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft performed a month-long series of four flyovers—one over each potential sample collection site. This mission phase provided the team with high-resolution imagery in order to thoroughly examine the sampleability (fine-grained material), topography, albedo, and color of each site. The data collected from these high-altitude flyovers is central for determining which site is best-suited for sample collection.
While the mission is one step closer to collecting a sample, Recon A observations have revealed that even the best candidate sites on Bennu pose significant challenges to sample collection, and the choice before the site selection board is not an easy one.
"Sample site selection really is a comprehensive activity. It requires that we look at many different types of data in many different ways to ensure the selected site is the best choice in terms of spacecraft safety, presence of sampleable material, and science value," said Heather Enos, OSIRIS-REx deputy principal investigator at the University of Arizona, Tucson, and chair of the sample site selection board. "Our team is incredibly innovative and integrated, which is what makes the selection process work."

[Image: 1-nasasosirisr.jpg]
This flat projection mosaic of asteroid Bennu shows the relative locations of the four candidate sample collection sites on the asteroid: Nightingale, Kingfisher, Osprey and Sandpiper. NASA's OSIRIS-REx spacecraft is scheduled to touch down on one of these four sites to collect a sample in summer 2020. Credit: NASA/Goddard/University of Arizona
The most recent images show that while there is fine-grained material (smaller than 2.5 cm in diameter), much of it may not be easily accessible. The mission was originally designed for a beach-like surface, with "ponds" of sandy material, not for Bennu's rugged terrain. In reality the potential sample sites are not large, clear areas, but rather small spaces surrounded by large boulders, so navigating the spacecraft in and out of the sites will require a bit more fine-tuning than originally planned.
Starting in Bennu's southern hemisphere, site Sandpiper was the first flyover of the Recon A mission phase. Sandpiper is one of the "safer" sites because it is located in a relatively flat area, making it easier for the spacecraft to navigate in and out. The most recent images show that fine-grained material is present, but the sandy regolith is trapped between larger rocks, which makes it difficult for the sampling mechanism to operate.

Site Osprey was the second site observed during Recon A. This site was originally chosen based on its strong spectral signature of carbon-rich material and because of a dark patch in the center of the crater, which was thought to possibly be fine-grained material. However, the latest high-resolution imagery of Osprey suggests that the site is scattered with material that may be too large to ingest for the sampling mechanism.
Site Kingfisher was selected because it is located in a small crater—meaning that it may be a relatively young feature compared to Bennu's larger craters (such as the one in which Sandpiper is located). Younger craters generally hold fresher, minimally-altered material. High-resolution imagery captured during the Recon A flyover revealed that while the original crater may be too rocky, a neighboring crater appears to contain fine-grained material.

The team is mere months away from a sample collection attempt at the asteroid surface. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
Recon A concluded with a flyover of site Nightingale. Images show that the crater holds a good amount of unobstructed fine-grained material. However, while the sampleability of the site ranks high, Nightingale is located far to the north where the lighting conditions create additional challenges for spacecraft navigation. There is also a building-size boulder situated on the crater's eastern rim, which could be a hazard to the spacecraft when backing away after contacting the site.
Bennu has also made it a challenge for the mission to identify a site that won't trigger the spacecraft's safety mechanisms. During Recon A, the team began cataloguing Bennu's surface features to create maps for the Natural Feature Tracking (NFT) autonomous navigation system. During the sample collection event, the spacecraft will use NFT to navigate to the asteroid's surface by comparing the onboard image catalog to the navigation images it will take during descent. In response to Bennu's extremely rocky surface, the NFT system has been augmented with a new safety feature, which instructs it to wave-off the sampling attempt and back away if it determines the point of contact is near a potentially hazardous surface feature. With Bennu's building-sized boulders and small target sites, the team realizes that there is a possibility that the spacecraft will wave-off the first time it descends to collect a sample.
"Bennu's challenges are an inherent part of this mission, and the OSIRIS-REx team has responded by developing robust measures to overcome them," said Mike Moreau, OSIRIS-REx deputy project manager at Goddard. "If the spacecraft executes a wave-off while attempting to collect a sample, that simply means that both the team and the spacecraft have done their jobs to ensure the spacecraft can fly another day. The success of the mission is our first priority."
Whichever site wins the race, the OSIRIS-REx mission team is ready for whatever new challenges Bennu may bring. Next spring, the team will undertake further reconnaissance flights over the primary and backup sample sites, and will then start spacecraft rehearsals for touchdown. Sample collection is scheduled for summer 2020, and the sample will return to Earth in September 2023.




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OSIRIS-REx's final four sample site candidates in 3-D



Provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center [/url]


DECEMBER 5, 2019
OSIRIS-REx mission explains Bennu's mysterious particle events
by Nancy N. Jones, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
[Image: 2-nasasosirisr.jpg]This view of asteroid Bennu ejecting particles from its surface on January 6 was created by combining two images taken by the NavCam 1 imager onboard NASA's OSIRIS-REx spacecraft: a short exposure image (1.4 ms), which shows the asteroid clearly, and a long exposure image (5 sec), which shows the particles clearly. Other image processing techniques were also applied, such as cropping and adjusting the brightness and contrast of each layer. Credit: NASA/Goddard/University of Arizona/Lockheed Martin
Shortly after NASA's OSIRIS-REx spacecraft arrived at asteroid Bennu, an unexpected discovery by the mission's science team revealed that the asteroid could be active, or consistently discharging particles into space. The ongoing examination of Bennu—and its sample that will eventually be returned to Earth—could potentially shed light on why this intriguing phenomenon is occurring.

The OSIRIS-REx team first observed a particle ejection event in images captured by the spacecraft's navigation cameras taken on Jan. 6, just a week after the spacecraft entered its first orbit around Bennu. At first glance, the particles appeared to be stars behind the asteroid, but on closer examination, the team realized that the asteroid was ejecting material from its surface. After concluding that these particles did not compromise the spacecraft's safety, the mission began dedicated observations in order to fully document the activity.
"Among Bennu's many surprises, the particle ejections sparked our curiosity, and we've spent the last several months investigating this mystery," said Dante Lauretta, OSIRIS-REx principal investigator at the University of Arizona, Tucson. "This is a great opportunity to expand our knowledge of how asteroids behave."
After studying the results of the observations, the mission team released their findings in a Science paper published Dec. 6. The team observed the three largest particle ejection events on Jan. 6 and 19, and Feb. 11, and concluded that the events originated from different locations on Bennu's surface. The first event originated in the southern hemisphere, and the second and third events occurred near the equator. All three events took place in the late afternoon on Bennu.
The team found that, after ejection from the asteroid's surface, the particles either briefly orbited Bennu and fell back to its surface or escaped from Bennu into space. The observed particles traveled up to 10 feet (3 meters) per second, and measured from smaller than an inch up to 4 inches (10 cm) in size. Approximately 200 particles were observed during the largest event, which took place on Jan. 6.
The team investigated a wide variety of possible mechanisms that may have caused the ejection events, and narrowed the list to three candidates: meteoroid impacts, thermal stress fracturing, and released of water vapor.

This animation illustrates the modeled trajectories of particles that were ejected from Bennu’s surface on January 19. After ejecting from the asteroid’s surface, the particles either briefly orbited Bennu and fell back to its surface or escaped away from Bennu and into space. Credit: NASA/Goddard/University of Arizona/Lauretta & Hergenrother et al., Science 10.1126
Meteoroid impacts are common in the deep space neighborhood of Bennu, and it is possible that these small fragments of space rock could be hitting Bennu where OSIRIS-REx is not observing it, shaking loose particles with the momentum of their impact.

The team also determined that thermal fracturing is another reasonable explanation. Bennu's surface temperatures vary drastically over its 4.3-hour rotation period. Although it is extremely cold during the night hours, the asteroid's surface warms significantly in the mid-afternoon, which is when the three major events occurred. As a result of this temperature change, rocks may begin to crack and break down, and eventually particles could be ejected from the surface. This cycle is known as thermal stress fracturing.
Water release may also explain the asteroid's activity. When Bennu's water-locked clays are heated, the water could begin to release and create pressure. It is possible that as pressure builds in cracks and pores in boulders where absorbed water is released, the surface could become agitated, causing particles to erupt.
But nature does not always allow for simple explanations. "It could be that more than one of these possible mechanisms are at play," said Steve Chesley, an author on the paper and Senior Research Scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. "For example, thermal fracturing could be chopping the surface material into small pieces, making it far easier for meteoroid impacts to launch pebbles into space."
If thermal fracturing, meteoroid impacts, or both, are in fact the causes of these ejection events, then this phenomenon is likely happening on all small asteroids, as they all experience these mechanisms. However, if water release is the cause of these ejection events, then this phenomenon would be specific to asteroids that contain water-bearing minerals, like Bennu.
Bennu's activity presents larger opportunities once a sample is collected and returned to Earth for study. Many of the ejected particles are small enough to be collected by the spacecraft's sampling mechanism, meaning that the returned sample may possibly contain some material that was ejected and returned to Bennu's surface. Determining that a particular particle had been ejected and returned to Bennu might be a scientific feat similar to finding a needle in a haystack. The material returned to Earth from Bennu, however, will almost certainly increase our understanding of asteroids and the ways they are both different and similar, even as the particle ejection phenomenon continues to be a mystery whose clues we'll also return home with in the form of data and further material for study.
Sample collection is scheduled for summer 2020, and the sample will be delivered to Earth in September 2023.




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OSIRIS-REx breaks another orbit record



[b]More information:[/b] D.S. Lauretta el al., "Episodes of particle ejection from the surface of the active asteroid (101955) Bennu," Science (2019). science.sciencemag.org/cgi/doi … 1126/science.aay3544

"Close-up view of an active asteroid," Science (2019). science.sciencemag.org/cgi/doi … 1126/science.aaz7129
[b]Journal information:[/b] Science 

Provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center



[url=https://medicalxpress.com/]
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#50
Cry
DECEMBER 11, 2019
Engineers pull off daring rescue of OSIRIS-REx asteroid mission
[Image: engineerspul.gif]This 3D view of asteroid Bennu was created by the OSIRIS-REx Laser Altimeter (OLA), contributed by the Canadian Space Agency. From Feb. 12 to Feb. 17, 2019, OLA made more than 11 million measurements of the distance between OSIRIS-REx and Bennu’s surface as the spacecraft flew less than 1.2 miles (2 kilometers) above the surface — the closest orbit ever achieved by a spacecraft. Credit: NASA/University of Arizona/CSA/York/MDA
On Friday, Oct. 11, the OSIRIS-REx team should have been preparing to point their spacecraft cameras precisely over the asteroid Bennu to capture high-resolution images of a region known as Osprey. It is one of four sites scientists are considering from which the spacecraft can safely collect a sample in late 2020.

But early that morning, the team learned that a telecommunications facility near Madrid had suffered an unexpected network outage. Part of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) of global spacecraft communications facilities, the Spanish complex is home to giant radio antennas. One of these was scheduled to ping OSIRIS-REx for a critical data download.
The data download would have kicked off a 24-hour marathon process known as a "late update" to predict the spacecraft's trajectory in time for a flyover of Osprey. Among the litany of complex tasks the navigation team needed to do that day was to download images of Bennu. The team uses these images to identify landmarks on the asteroid in order to update the spacecraft's position and velocity.
But the DSN outage threatened to throw the mission off track.
The OSIRIS-REx team identified Osprey as one of the most promising sites on Bennu's rugged surface, based on its relatively smooth terrain and lack of large, potentially hazardous boulders. Osprey is set inside an approximately 66-foot- (20-meter-) wide crater near Bennu's equator.

This (silent) animation shows the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft deploying its Touch-and-Go Sample Acquisition Mechanism (TAGSAM) to collect a sample of regolith (loose rocks and dirt) from the surface of the asteroid Bennu. The sampler head, with the regolith safely inside, is then sealed up in the spacecraft's Sample Return Capsule, which will be returned to Earth in late 2023. Scientists will study the sample for clues about the early solar system and the origins of life. Credit: NASA/Goddard
On Oct. 12, engineers were planning to collect critical images of the surface in order to assess Osprey's population of rocks that might be small enough to be ingested into OSIRIS-REx's sample collection head when the spacecraft ultimately touches Bennu next year. This assessment was the key piece of information the team needed to choose the top sample collection site from the final four.
The Osprey flyover was the second of the four sites to be surveyed during the reconnaissance campaign. It would bring the spacecraft a little more than half a mile, or 1 kilometer, from Bennu's surface. The missed opportunity to download the images of Bennu on Oct. 11 meant that there would not be enough time to follow the usual 24-hour process to update the spacecraft position at the time of the critical observations. This update is required for the spacecraft's cameras to be pointed correctly at Osprey on Oct. 12.
Missing the Osprey observations would have set off a domino effect of delays, said Kenneth Getzandanner, OSIRIS-REx flight dynamics manager based at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. "We knew that if we didn't get the Osprey data, we wouldn't be able to make the decision about our top sites for sample collection."

Not selecting a sample site would have meant postponing the mission's headlining event next year: the few hours of nail-biting action the team calls TAG, which stands for "Touch-And-Go." During TAG, the spacecraft will deploy its robotic arm, dip to the surface of Bennu, and collect a sample of dirt and rocks, or regolith in scientific terms, from Bennu. Ultimately, the spacecraft will deliver a capsule with the sample to Earth, dropping it in the Utah desert in September 2023.
To scientists around the globe, the primitive gravel from Bennu is a porthole to the early solar system, when asteroids may have played a role in delivering life-forming compounds to Earth. Delaying this monumental mission—one of the most ambitious ever attempted—would be costly and demoralizing to scientists.

[Image: engineerspul.jpg]
Credit: Cat Dolch
So OSIRIS-REx engineers quickly hatched a daring plan.
"Typically, a dropped DSN pass would not cause such a scramble, but the critical nature of the images made us realize we needed to take action immediately," said Brennen Miller, a systems engineer from Lockheed Martin Space Systems in Littleton, Colorado.
The 24-hour trajectory update process is already ambitious compared to other missions. But the team decided to squeeze this entire procedure into less than four hours to keep their mission timeline intact. That procedure would have to occur on Oct. 12, the next window of opportunity they'd have to downlink the key images from the spacecraft.
On Oct. 11, engineers practiced their new, ultra-quick routine that they dubbed "super late update." It hinged on each team member, like a relay racer, standing by for their turn to help execute the plan with ruthless efficiency.
"People were pretty nervous about compressing the 24-hour timeline," said Richard Burns, the Goddard-based OSIRIS-REx project manager, "but the team was well practiced at performing late updates, so we knew we had the right people and the right tools to make it happen."

[Image: 1-engineerspul.jpg]
This is an image of the asteroid Bennu was taken by the navigation camera aboard the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft at about 10 p.m. ET on Oct. 26, 2019, during a flyby that brought the spacecraft within a little more than half a mile, or 1 kilometer, of Bennu’s surface. The spacecraft shutters about a dozen similar images, which are downlinked through NASA’s Deep Space Network every day to support navigation about Bennu. Using a technique called Stereo Photoclinometry, or SPC, navigation software compares these features in the images to corresponding features in simulated images rendered by computer models. Shown in the pull-out box, patches of the asteroid like this one are chosen because they have distinguishing features, including albedo (brightness) variations, boulders or small craters. Small shifts in locations of the landmarks between the actual and modeled images allow engineers to determine the spacecraft’s exact trajectory. Knowing the spacecraft’s trajectory at the time the images were taken helps engineers predict where the spacecraft is going, and where, over Bennu, it needs to point its cameras in the future to capture images of a specific region. Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/Mike Moreau
Flying a spacecraft within a kilometer of a small body like Bennu requires ultimate precision. Since engineers can't see their spacecraft in space, they often rely on DSN antennas to collect signals that allow them to determine its speed and location. But tracking through the DSN is not precise enough for a spacecraft that's both far from Earth (more than 155 million miles, 250 million kilometers) and needs to get very close to a planetary body, as was the case with OSIRIS-REx and Osprey.
For such close encounters—the closest that any spacecraft has orbited its celestial object of study—OSIRIS-REx engineers relied on images of Bennu's surface taken by the spacecraft's cameras in a technique known as optical navigation. Unique landmarks in the images, such as boulders and craters, help reveal where the spacecraft is located in relation to the asteroid. Together with sophisticated mathematical models that take into account forces such as the slight pull of Bennu's gravity or the slight push of radiation from the Sun, these images allow engineers to predict where the spacecraft is headed, and ultimately where it'll have to point its cameras when a region of interest is being observed. But the predictions aren't perfect. With each burn of the engine, for instance, the spacecraft can boost itself farther or closer than anticipated.
"Most missions aren't that sensitive to small changes in position, but this one is because we're so close to the asteroid that small changes in position result in big changes in where you want to be pointed, particularly when you want to be pointed at a really small patch of the asteroid such as Osprey," said Burns.
Having pulled off dozens of detailed observations under these constraints earlier in the mission, the OSIRIS-REx engineers, like highly trained athletes with fine-tuned motor skills, were able to complete the compressed procedure. On Oct. 12, they sent the updated positions to the spacecraft and waited for the resulting images of Osprey. As the images materialized, crisp and clear and perfectly centered on Osprey, it was evident that the race had paid off.
"It's a testament to the preparation and skill of the team that we were able to accomplish this in less than four hours. It speaks to the fact that we have a stellar team as we head into the most critical and challenging phase of this mission: the sample collection campaign," Burns said.
NASA will announce the primary sample site, as well as a backup, on Dec. 12. Two final reconnaissance flyovers at even lower altitudes beginning in January will allow the OSIRIS-REx team to collect final, detailed images of these sites.




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OSIRIS-REx's final four sample site candidates in 3-D



Provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center 



https://phys.org/news/2019-12-osiris-rex...ssion.html





DECEMBER 13, 2019
X marks the spot: NASA selects site for asteroid sample collection
by NASA
[Image: 1-xmarksthespo.jpg]This image shows sample site Nightingale, OSIRIS-REx’s primary sample collection site on asteroid Bennu. The image is overlaid with a graphic of the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft to illustrate the scale of the site. Credit: NASA/Goddard/University of Arizona
After a year scoping out asteroid Bennu's boulder-scattered surface, the team leading NASA's first asteroid sample return mission has officially selected a sample collection site.

The Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-Rex) mission team concluded a site designated "Nightingale"—located in a crater high in Bennu's northern hemisphere—is the best spot for the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft to snag its sample.
The OSIRIS-REx team spent the past several months evaluating close-range data from four candidate sites in order to identify the best option for the sample collection. The candidate sites—dubbed Sandpiper, Osprey, Kingfisher, and Nightingale—were chosen for investigation because, of all the potential sampling regions on Bennu, these areas pose the fewest hazards to the spacecraft's safety while still providing the opportunity for great samples to be gathered.
"After thoroughly evaluating all four candidate sites, we made our final decision based on which site has the greatest amount of fine-grained material and how easily the spacecraft can access that material while keeping the spacecraft safe," said Dante Lauretta, OSIRIS-REx principal investigator at the University of Arizona in Tucson. "Of the four candidates, site Nightingale best meets these criteria and, ultimately, best ensures mission success."
Site Nightingale is located in a northern crater 460 feet (140 meters) wide. Nightingale's regolith—or rocky surface material—is dark, and images show that the crater is relatively smooth. Because it is located so far north, temperatures in the region are lower than elsewhere on the asteroid and the surface material is well-preserved. The crater also is thought to be relatively young, and the regolith is freshly exposed. This means the site would likely allow for a pristine sample of the asteroid, giving the team insight into Bennu's history.
Although Nightingale ranks the highest of any location on Bennu, the site still poses challenges for sample collection. The original mission plan envisioned a sample site with a diameter of 164 feet (50 meters). While the crater that hosts Nightingale is larger than that, the area safe enough for the spacecraft to touch is much smaller—approximately 52 feet (16 meters) in diameter, resulting in a site that is only about one-tenth the size of what was originally envisioned. This means the spacecraft has to very accurately target Bennu's surface. Nightingale also has a building-size boulder situated on the crater's eastern rim, which could pose a hazard to the spacecraft while backing away after contacting the site.

The mission also selected site Osprey as a backup sample collection site. The spacecraft has the capability to perform multiple sampling attempts, but any significant disturbance to Nightingale's surface would make it difficult to collect a sample from that area on a later attempt, making a backup site necessary. The spacecraft is designed to autonomously "wave-off" from the site if its predicted position is too close to a hazardous area. During this maneuver, the exhaust plumes from the spacecraft's thrusters could potentially disturb the surface of the site, due to the asteroid's microgravity environment. In any situation where a follow-on attempt at Nightingale is not possible, the team will try to collect a sample from site Osprey instead.
"Bennu has challenged OSIRIS-REx with extraordinarily rugged terrain," said Rich Burns, OSIRIS-REx project manager at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The team has adapted by employing a more accurate, though more complex, optical navigation technique to be able to get into these small areas. We'll also arm OSIRIS-REx with the capability to recognize if it is on course to touch a hazard within or adjacent to the site and wave-off before that happens."
With the selection of final primary and backup sites, the mission team will undertake further reconnaissance flights over Nightingale and Osprey, beginning in January and continuing through the spring. Once these flyovers are complete, the spacecraft will begin rehearsals for its first "touch-and-go" sample collection attempt, which is scheduled for August. The spacecraft will depart Bennu in 2021 and is scheduled to return to Earth in September 2023.




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NASA's OSIRIS-REx in the midst of site selection



[b]More information:[/b] For more information about OSIRIS-REx, visit www.nasa.gov/osiris-rex
Provided by NASA 


https://phys.org/news/2019-12-nasa-site-...ample.html
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
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#51
...


Quote:The mission also selected site Osprey 
as a backup sample collection site. 
The spacecraft has the capability to perform multiple sampling attempts, 
but any significant disturbance Slap2
to Nightingale's surface, 
would make it difficult to collect a sample from that area on a later attempt, 
making a backup site necessary. 

The spacecraft is designed to autonomously "wave-off"  Hi
from the site if its predicted position is too close to a hazardous area. 
During this maneuver, 
the exhaust plumes from the spacecraft's thrusters 
could potentially disturb the surface of the site, 
due to the asteroid's microgravity environment. 

In any situation where a follow-on attempt at Nightingale is not possible, 
the team will try to collect a sample from site Osprey instead.



Chances are good that they might try both sites.
That would be even better.

I would like to point something out about the planned sample collection.
NASA doctrine is -- Planetary Protection Guidelines --
that applies to Mars and Europa, and Ceres etc etc
but 
they are bringing home these soil samples to Earth,
samples from an asteroid.
No consideration of "planetary protection" for Mother Earth Nonono
NASA simply says,
"we have no evidence of life anywhere in the solar system"
well,
I agree that odds are infinitesimally small,
that an asteroid may harbor a dangerous organism,
like a toxic fungal cyst Whip
just waiting for millenia to explode into life,
and infect the brains of the first scientists to handle the soil  Hi
or a rapidly mutating virus,  
with a 90 % kill rate ... 

yep,
that's all science fiction,
like those alien tic tac drones in the pentagon videos,
they don't exist officially either,
just like life,
on other planets, moons asteroids or comets.

That soil should be taken solely to the ISS,
and sample work started there,
first,
then bring it down to the surface, 
when the soil is determined to be uncontaminated.

Planetary Protection Guidelines for Mother Earth?
NASA policy is the peak of hypocrisy,
as they bath themselves in media televised award ceremonies with each mission. 


Fresh asteroid soil samples!

I wouldn't touch it with a ten foot pole!




at about 2:30 minutes in, they really start to rock

...

...
Reply
#52
FEBRUARY 14, 2020
Status update: OSIRIS-REx Osprey Flyover
by Nancy Neal Jones, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
[Image: statusupdate.jpg]OSIRIS-REx orbit the asteroid Bennu. Credit: University of Arizona
NASA's OSIRIS-REx spacecraft safely executed a 0.4-mile (620-m) flyover of the backup sample collection site Osprey as part of the mission's Reconnaissance B phase activities. Preliminary telemetry, however, indicates that the OSIRIS-REx Laser Altimeter (OLA) did not operate as expected during the 11-hour event. The OLA instrument was scheduled to provide ranging data to the spacecraft's PolyCam imager, which would allow the camera to focus while imaging the area around the sample collection site. Consequently, the PolyCam images from the flyover are likely out of focus.
The other science instruments, including the MapCam imager, the OSIRIS-REx Thermal Emissions Spectrometer (OTES), and the OSIRIS-REx Visual and InfraRed Spectrometer (OVIRS), all performed nominally during the flyover. These instruments and the spacecraft continue in normal operations in orbit around asteroid Bennu.
The mission team is currently reviewing the available data from the flyover in order to fully assess the OLA instrument. The entire data set from the flyover, including the PolyCam images, will be completely downlinked from the spacecraft next week and will provide additional insight into any impact that the loss of the OLA data may have.
OLA has already completed all of its principal requirements for the OSIRIS-REx mission. Last year, OLA's scans of Bennu's surface were used to create the high-resolution 3D global maps of Bennu's topography that were crucial for selecting the primary and backup sample collection sites last fall.




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OSIRIS-REx completes closest flyover of sample site nightingale



Provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center



https://phys.org/news/2020-02-status-osi...yover.html
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#53
They Still have NOT acquired a sample yet ?

WTF Doh 

They sound like my friend who has a hernia in the muscles under his balls; very very painful in continuous time as moving and walking at various times.

Sometimes you have to make a DECISION about doing something to get something DONE.

It's like Joe Biden constant "I did that" in the 2020 Dems race.

Still they picked the wrong little asteroid to grab a sample from. Psyche 16

https://www.outerplaces.com/science/item...rs-jupiter

If you are spending TAX $$$ for "dirt" with going into 25+ Trillion Debt to ILLEGAL Federal Reserves Notes.

Time to bust the Zionists out of USA...if Trump wants "America 1st" that means Israel and ANY other country gets no USA taxpayer $$$ until OUR roads, bridges, health care, and soldiers are taken care of before putting a single penny to any other country.

PERIOD !!!!

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
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#54
MARCH 5, 2020
OSIRIS-REx swoops over sample site Nightingale
[Image: osirisrexswo.jpg]On Mar. 3, the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft performed a low-altitude flyover of site Nightingale. During the pass, science observations of asteroid Bennu took place from a distance of approximately 820 ft (250 m) – the closest the spacecraft has ever been to the asteroid’s surface. The primary goal of this flyover was to collect high-resolution imagery for the team to locate the site’s best areas for collecting a sample. Credit: University of Arizona
NASA's first asteroid-sampling spacecraft just got its best look yet at asteroid Bennu. Yesterday, the Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) spacecraft executed a very low pass over sample site Nightingale, taking observations from an altitude of 820 feet (250 m), which is the closest that OSIRIS-REx has flown over the asteroid so far. Nightingale, OSIRIS-REx's primary sample collection site, is located within a crater in Bennu's northern hemisphere.

To perform the 5-hour flyover, the spacecraft left its 0.6-mile (1-km) safe-home orbit and aimed its science instruments toward the 52-ft (16-m) wide sample site. The science observations from this pass are the closest taken of Bennu to date.
The main goal of yesterday's low flyover was to collect high-resolution imagery of the site's surface material. The spacecraft's sample collection mechanism is designed to pick up small rocks less than 0.8 inches (2 cm) in size, and the PolyCam images from this low pass are very detailed, allowing the team to identify and locate rocks of this size. Several of the spacecraft's other instruments also took observations of the Nightingale site during the flyover event, including the OSIRIS-REx Thermal Emissions Spectrometer (OTES), the OSIRIS-REx Visual and InfraRed Spectrometer (OVIRS), the OSIRIS-REx Laser Altimeter (OLA), and the MapCam color imager.
After completing the flyover, the spacecraft returned to orbit—but for the first time, OSIRIS-REx reversed the direction of its safe-home orbit and is now circling Bennu clockwise (as viewed from the Sun). This shift in orbital direction positioned the spacecraft for its next close encounter with the asteroid—its first rehearsal for the sample collection event.
This spring, the mission will perform two rehearsals in preparation for the sample collection event. The first rehearsal, scheduled for Apr. 14, navigates the spacecraft down to 410 feet (125 m) over Bennu's surface. At this altitude, the spacecraft will execute the Checkpoint maneuver, designed to put the spacecraft on a descent trajectory toward the sample collection site on the surface. The spacecraft will stop its descent ten minutes later at an altitude of approximately 164 ft (50 m) by executing a maneuver to back away from the asteroid. The second rehearsal, scheduled for June, follows the same trajectory but takes the spacecraft to a lower altitude of 164 feet (50 m), where it will perform the Matchpoint maneuver, designed to slow the spacecraft's descent rate. Subsequent to this burn the spacecraft will execute a back away maneuver between 131 ft (40 m) and 82 ft (25 m) from Bennu's surface. The spacecraft will venture all the way to the asteroid's surface in late August, for its first attempt to collect a sample. During this event, OSIRIS-REx's sampling mechanism will touch Bennu's surface and fire a charge of pressurized nitrogen to disturb the surface and collect its sample before the spacecraft backs away.




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OSIRIS-REx completes closest flyover of sample site nightingale



Provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

https://phys.org/news/2020-03-osiris-rex...ngale.html






MARCH 2, 2020
OSIRIS-REx students catch unexpected glimpse of black hole
[Image: osirisrexstu.jpg]This image shows the X-ray outburst from the black hole MAXI J0637-043, detected by the REXIS instrument on NASA's OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. The image was constructed using data collected by the X-ray spectrometer while REXIS was making observations of the space around asteroid Bennu on Nov. 11, 2019. The outburst is visible in the center of the image, and the image is overlaid with the limb of Bennu (lower right) to illustrate REXIS’s field of view. Credit: NASA/Goddard/University of Arizona/MIT/Harvard
University students and researchers working on a NASA mission orbiting a near-Earth asteroid have made an unexpected detection of a phenomenon 30 thousand light years away. Last fall, the student-built Regolith X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) onboard NASA's OSIRIS-REx spacecraft detected a newly flaring black hole in the constellation Columba while making observations off the limb of asteroid Bennu.

REXIS, a shoebox-sized student instrument, was designed to measure the X-rays that Bennu emits in response to incoming solar radiation. X-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation, like visible light, but with much higher energy. REXIS is a collaborative experiment led by students and researchers at MIT and Harvard, who proposed, built, and operate the instrument.
On Nov. 11, 2019, while the REXIS instrument was performing detailed science observations of Bennu, it captured X-rays radiating from a point off the asteroid's edge. "Our initial checks showed no previously cataloged object in that position in space," said Branden Allen, a Harvard research scientist and student supervisor who first spotted the source in the REXIS data.
The glowing object turned out to be a newly flaring black hole X-ray binary—discovered just a week earlier by Japan's MAXI telescope—designated MAXI J0637-430. NASA's Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) telescope also identified the X-ray blast a few days later.
Holycowsmile Both MAXI and NICER operate aboard NASA's International Space Station and detected the X-ray event from low Earth orbit. REXIS, on the other hand, detected the same activity millions of miles from Earth while orbiting Bennu, the first such outburst ever detected from interplanetary space.

[Image: osirisrexstu.gif]
This visualization simulates an X-ray outburst from the black hole MAXI J0637-043, detected by the REXIS instrument on NASA's OSIRIS-REx spacecraft, as it moves through REXIS’s line of sight. At first, the outburst is visibly intense, but it gradually fades as it subsides. The animation was constructed using data collected by the X-ray spectrometer while REXIS was making observations of the space around asteroid Bennu on Nov. 11, 2019. Credit: NASA/Goddard/University of Arizona/MIT/Harvard
"Detecting this X-ray burst is a proud moment for the REXIS team. It means our instrument is performing as expected and to the level required of NASA science instruments," said Madeline Lambert, an MIT graduate student who designed the instrument's command sequences that serendipitously revealed the black hole.
X-ray blasts, like the one emitted from the newly discovered black hole, can only be observed from space since Earth's protective atmosphere shields our planet from X-rays. These X-ray emissions occur when a black hole pulls in matter from a normal star that is in orbit around it. As the matter spirals onto a spinning disk surrounding the black hole, an enormous amount of energy (primarily in the form of X-rays) is released in the process.
"We set out to train students how to build and operate space instruments," said MIT professor Richard Binzel, instrument scientist for the REXIS student experiment. "It turns out, the greatest lesson is to always be open to discovering the unexpected."


Quote:RE: Osiris REx: To learn in return and teach us each. LilD 
The main purpose of the REXIS instrument is to prepare the next generation of scientists, engineers, and project managers in the development and operations of spaceflight hardware. Nearly 100 undergraduate and graduate students have worked on the REXIS team since the mission's inception.




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Asteroid mission will carry student X-ray experiment



Provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center



https://phys.org/news/2020-03-osiris-rex...black.html
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#55
MARCH 6, 2020
First official names given to features on asteroid Bennu
by Nancy Neal Jones, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
[Image: firstofficia.jpg]This flat projection mosaic of asteroid Bennu shows the locations of the first 12 surface features to receive official names from the International Astronomical Union. The accepted names were proposed by NASA's OSIRIS-REx team members, who have been mapping the asteroid in detail over the last year. Bennu's surface features are named after birds and bird-like creatures in mythology, and the places associated with them. Credit: NASA/Goddard/University of Arizona
Asteroid Bennu's most prominent boulder, a rock chunk jutting out 71 ft (21.7 m) from the asteroid's southern hemisphere, finally has a name. The boulder—which is so large that it was initially detected from Earth—is officially designated Benben Saxum after the primordial hill that first arose from the dark waters in an ancient Egyptian creation myth.

Benben Saxum and 11 other features on the asteroid are the first to receive official Bennu feature names approved by the International Astronomical Union (IAU), the internationally recognized authority for naming celestial bodies and their surface features. The accepted names were proposed by NASA's OSIRIS-REx team members, who have been mapping the asteroid in detail over the last year. The OSIRIS-REx spacecraft, NASA's first asteroid sample return mission, is currently visiting the asteroid and is scheduled to collect a sample from Bennu's surface this summer.
"Since arriving at the asteroid, the OSIRIS-REx team has become incredibly familiar with all of the geological features on Bennu," said Dante Lauretta, OSIRIS-REx principal investigator at the University of Arizona, Tucson. "These features are providing us with insight into Bennu's history, and their new names symbolize the essence of the mission—studying the past to both discover our origins and understand our future," said Dante Lauretta, OSIRIS-REx principal investigator at the University of Arizona, Tucson.
The approved Bennu surface feature names are listed below. Bennu's diverse terrain types—including regiones (broad geographic regions), craters, dorsa (ridges), fossae (grooves or trenches) and saxa (rocks and boulders) - will be named after birds and bird-like creatures in mythology, and the places associated with them.
[b]Tlanuwa Regio[/b] is named for the giant birds who scattered the Earth with pieces of a serpent that turned into standing pillars of rocks in Cherokee mythology. Tlanuwa Regio is an area covered by large boulders in Bennu's southern hemisphere.
[b]Benben Saxum[/b] is named for an ancient Egyptian mound that arose from the primordial waters Nu. In Egyptian mythology, the god Atum settled upon Benben to create the world after his flight over the waters in the form of the Bennu bird. Benben Saxum is the tallest boulder on Bennu.
[b]Roc Saxum[/b] is named for the Roc, an enormous bird of prey in Arabian mythology of the Middle East. Roc Saxum is the largest boulder feature on Bennu.
[b]Simurgh Saxum[/b] is named for the benevolent, mythological bird in Persian mythology. The Simurgh was said to possess all knowledge, and Simurgh Saxum defines the prime meridian on Bennu and is the basis for the asteroid's coordinate system.
[b]Huginn Saxum[/b] and Muninn Saxum are adjacent boulders named for the two ravens, Huginn and Muninn, who accompany the god Odin in Norse mythology.
[b]Ocypete Saxum[/b] is named for one of the Greek harpies, the half-maiden and half-bird personification of storm winds that would snatch and carry things away from Earth. Ocypete Saxum is located near the origin of the Jan. 19, 2019, particle ejection event on Bennu.
[b]Strix Saxum[/b] is named for the Strix bird of ill-omen from Roman mythology. Strix Saxum is a large boulder flanking the OSIRIS-REx mission's backup sample collection site.
[b]Amihan Saxum[/b] is named for the Tagalog (Philippines) mythological deity, who is depicted as a bird and was the first creature to inhabit the universe. This large, flat boulder appears to be partly buried and is located in Tlanuwa Regio, which has an unusually high concentration of large boulders.
[b]Pouakai Saxum[/b] is named for the monstrous bird who kills and eat humans in Māori (Polynesia) mythology. Pouakai Saxum is a 55 ft (10.6 m)-wide boulder located in Bennu's southern hemisphere, slightly north of Benben Saxum.
[b]Aetos Saxum[/b] is named for the childhood playmate of the supreme god Zeus, who was turned into an eagle by Hera in Greek mythology. Aetos Saxum is a conspicuously flat boulder, with a general wing-like shape located near Bennu's equator.
[b]Gargoyle Saxum[/b] is named for the French dragon-like monster with wings, bird-like neck, and the ability to breathe fire. Gargoyle Saxum is a large prominent boulder near the mission's backup sample site that is one of the darkest objects on the surface.




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Asteroid's features to be named after mythical birds



Provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center



https://phys.org/news/2020-03-features-a...bennu.html
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
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