Thread Rating:
  • 0 Vote(s) - 0 Average
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
Enceladus & Europa: profusely populated with microbial life and The 3 Monkeys at NASA
#1
...

We need a thread on Enceladus and Europa. 
They are too important for NASA to ignore anymore.
They should send a mission to Enceladus,
before they send a mission to the clouds of Venus,
or a submarine to Titan.
Europa should have been landed on before NASA performed the Pluto Fly  Hi Bye. 

Fly  Hi Bye's are bullshit missions.
You either go into orbit or land there.

These moons with subsurface oceans which will produce massive evidence of life.
Just like Mars will,
when NASA actually decides to really look for life there,
rather than in "el cheapo" missions that are designed to pretend to find evidence of life.

The 3 monkeys at NASA Whip
are
See No Life
Hear No Life
Speak No Life

These NASA monkeys run the Decadal survey corruption of space mission funding.
Otherwise we would already have missions landing on the two moons,
if NASA really wanted to find evidence of life.

But you don't want to hear about all that NASA nonsense, it is old hat and been repeated many times.
Long story made short,
we need priority missions to Enceladus and Europa,
certainly before anything goes to Venus or Titan.

So aside from the NASA mumbo jumbo  Naughty about wanting to find life on Mars or elsewhere,
we 
also
KNOW
there is life on Europa and especially Enceladus.

So I simply want a spot to warm up any developments for Europa and Enceladus.


Enceladus' Tiger Stripes glow red in new global mosaic
https://newatlas.com/space/enceladus-tig...al-mosaic/

excerpts from the article:
Quote:Data captured by the Cassini spacecraft has been used to create a global infrared map,
of the Saturnian moon Enceladus. 

The icy world plays host to the dramatic "Tiger Stripe" vent formation Whip
 which leads down to a massive subsurface ocean that, 
it's long been speculated, 
could play host to extraterrestrial life.

Cassini captured stunning imagery of the icy moon, 
and a horde of data that scientists are still picking through today, 
long after the probe ended its mission by plunging into the swirling depths of Saturn’s cloud surface.

It was from this data,
that scientists constructed a new global infrared mosaic of Enceladus’ frigid surface. 
More specifically, 
researchers used data collected by Cassini’s Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer, 
which was capable of characterizing the temperature, 
makeup and crystallinity of the water ice grains that form the moon’s surface.

The team took this information and performed photometric corrections Hmm2
which takes into account and corrects variations in the data 
caused by different surface materials, 
their shape, 
and the angle at which they are viewed. 
These corrections revealed new details, 
and highlighted deviations in the composition and state of the moon’s surface.

In the resulting infrared views of Enceladus, 
the moon’s iconic Tiger Stripe formation can be seen to glow an angry red, 
which is indicative of the presence of newly deposited freshwater ice. 

This fresh material would have been drawn from Enceladus’ subsurface ocean, 
and ejected from the vents in the moon’s surface to settle on the surrounding terrain.

[Image: ?url=http%3A%2F%2Fnewatlas-brightspot.s3...eladus.jpg]

...
Reply
#2
...
In this image they name the "Tiger Stripes" of Enceladus.
They must be running out of names?
Seems like the better option would be to name them all Egyptian, or all Iraqi.
Bogus bullshit names.
NASA names surface water ice heat anomalies on Enceladus,
after cities on Earth baking in the desert sands. 

Come on man.
Baghdad and Damascus?   Pennywise

What about Earth water deities?  Slap2
 [Image: Enceladus-PIA07800-labeled.jpg]



NASA Monkey -- See No Life
look ...
a handy dandy easy peasy to find and apply ..... list of water deities ...
Two of which, 
from the same area as Baghdad and Damascus ... I can confidently say would be much better:
Enki
and 
Marduk 
or how about:
Nammu
and 
Tiamet   ?

List of water deities ---

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_water_deities

Mesopotamian
Abzu, god of fresh water, father of all other gods.
Enbilulu, god of rivers and canals.
Enki, god of water and of the river Tigris.
Marduk, god associated with water, vegetation, judgment, and magic.
Nammu, goddess of the primeval sea.
Nanshe, goddess of the Persian Gulf, social justice, prophecy, fertility and fishing.
Tiamat, goddess of salt water and chaos, also mother of all gods.
Sirsir, god of mariners and boatmen.


I will go with Nammu and Tiamat. 


https://www.universetoday.com/115732/100...enceladus/
100,000 Ice Blocks Mapped Out at the South Pole … of Enceladus


Quote:Ever since the Cassini space probe conducted its first flyby of Enceladus in 2005, 
the strange Saturnian moon has provided us with a treasure trove of images and scientific wonders. 

These include the jets of icy water vapor, 
periodically bursting from its south pole, 
the possibility of an interior ocean – which may even harbor life – 
and the strange green-blue stripes located around the south pole.


These stripes are essentially four fractures bounded on either side by ridges,
that appear to be composed of mint-green-colored ice. 

Known unofficially as “tiger stripes”,  
these surface fractures have become a source of interest for astronomers, 
since they appear to be the youngest features in the region.

Recently, between these stripes, 
over 100,000 ice blocks were observed, 
and they are a further source of wonder. 
Scientists with the Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences at the California Institute of Technology 
were able to map out the locations of these blocks, 
in the hopes of determining just how they got there.


[Image: enceladus_stripe_11-30-10-1.jpg]



The preliminary results of their work reveal that ice blocks in the southern hemisphere
are most concentrated within the geologically active South Polar Terrain (SPT)
and chiefly concentrated within 20 km of the tiger-stripe fractures. 


Elevated View of Enceladus’ South Pole
[Image: enceladus1.jpg]



To ascertain just how these ice-blocks formed and evolved, 
and how they came to be distributed in the southern region, 
the team considered various mechanisms. 
These included the well-known aspects and features of the moon – 
namely its seismic activity, impacts by meteors, and volcanic eruptions – 
but also the possible roles of tectonic disruption of the icy surface mantle and ice slides.

Ultimately, they concluded that impact cratering as well as slides, 
perhaps triggered by seismic events, 
could account for a majority of ice-block features within the inner SPT.

However, they also noted that cryovolcanic activity – i.e., 
the ejection of icy material caused by sub-surface volcanic eruption, 
and the condensation of ice around the eruption vents – could not be ruled out. 

They noted that the pervasiveness of fracturing on many size scales, 
the sheer number of ice blocks in the inner SPT, 
and the occurrence of linear block arrangements that parallel crack networks along the flanks of tiger stripes, 
would seem to indicate,
that tectonic deformation also played an important role.

Furthermore, 
they postulated that nearer to the warm tiger-stripe fractures, 
sublimation likely leads to erosion and disaggregation, which plays a role as well.

Last, they noted that the relative scarcity of blocks beyond the bounds of the SPT, 
particularly on old, cratered terrains, 
may be attributed to ice grains accumulating on the surface over time,
rather than the same causal factors that led to the 100,000 blocks observed around in the southern region.

In short, 

the CIT team believes that the unusual ice-block formation around Enceladus’ south pole,
is chiefly the result of impacts from meteors or comets   Naughty   and seismic activity Nonono
but, 
that the peculiar activity in this young region of the planet – 
such as volcanic eruptions from the hypothesized interior-ocean – may also play a role.


...
Reply
#3
...

As you can see from the last post,
NASA named this moon's :  "Tiger Stripe" heat anomalies,
where the Enceladus vents spew water vapor from the south pole,
and with a submerged ocean under the ice,
after:
Earth cities in sandy desert environments.

Sorry, I cannot stand for that kind of nonsense.
They must either have idiots at NASA naming solar system planetary and moon geologies,
or they are purposely trying to divert attention from Enceladus,
with stupid names.

So I proposed -- ancient Mesopotamian water deities -- as a more valid alternative.

This is what Enceladus could look like, and generate far more public interest.

The Cradle Of Future Civilization On Enceladus

Enceladian -- Mesopotamia

[Image: onG8Tvj.jpg]



Enceladian  Guitar  Mesopotamia

in the year
2220

edit --
to be clear about "the cradle of future civilization" -- on Enceladus,
there will be cradles of blossoming civilization on Mars, and on Europa, and so on.
Mesopotamia is my candidate for the one on Enceladus.
Another will be at Occator crater on Ceres.
It is perfect spot for a giant artificial dome to cover the entire crater,
with suburb colonies sprawling outside the crater in an eventuality.

but if NASA doesn't get their act together,
the Moon might get renamed China Town. Damned

...
Reply
#4
...

Ever since the Mole failed on Mars all I see is NASA excuses.

It is kind of like ... Mission Rewrite DuJour   
Original mission plans ---> Kickbut <--- New mission cost overruns means go back and redesign the science cheaper 

The mission to Europa is falling apart at the seams.


https://www.space.com/nasa-europa-clippe...limbo.html
Rocket limbo complicating NASA's Europa Clipper mission
Clipper team members say they need a decision soon.



Quote:NASA's highly anticipated mission to the Jupiter ocean moon Europa needs a rocket — 
and soon, 
the project's planners say.

The Europa Clipper probe is scheduled to launch in 2024 to study the Jovian satellite, 
which harbors a huge sea of liquid water beneath its icy shell. 
Clipper will assess the habitability of that buried ocean and perform a number of other tasks, 
including scouting out promising sites for a future life-hunting lander mission.

Congress has long mandated that Clipper launch atop the Space Launch System (SLS), 
the giant rocket that NASA is developing Whistle
to send astronauts toward the moon and other distant destinations. 
But SLS has been plagued by delays and cost overruns, 
and the megarocket isn't slated to debut until late 2021.

That initial mission will launch NASA's Orion capsule,
on an uncrewed flight around the moon for the space agency's Artemis program of lunar exploration. 

SLS and Orion are key elements of Artemis, 
which seeks to land two astronauts near the moon's south pole in 2024 
and establish a sustainable human presence on and around Earth's nearest neighbor by the end of the decade.

Given the commitment to Artemis and the relatively slow pace of SLS development, 

the rocket's availability Whip

for an on-time Europa Clipper launch Whip

is in serious doubt Slap2
NASA's Office of Inspector General concluded last year.

This concern has apparently bubbled up into the U.S. House of Representatives. 
The House's proposed 2021 NASA budget, 
which was released in July,
directs the agency to launch Clipper by 2025 and the Europa lander by 2027. 

The proposal dictates that SLS be used for both missions "if available." Naughty

That wording leaves the door open for a commercial alternative — 
perhaps SpaceX's Falcon Heavy, 
the operational rocket that comes closest to SLS' power 
(though SLS' power remains purely hypothetical until it flies).

The Europa Clipper team has been planning for both launch contingencies. 
But the mission cannot stay in this limbo for much longer, team members said.

"We really need a decision by the end of this calendar year 
in order to continue to mature the spacecraft development," 
Europa Clipper project manager Jan Chodas, of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California, 
said on Wednesday (Sept. 2) during the fall meeting of NASA's Outer Planets Assessment Group.

The mission team is already working toward a big milestone at the end of the year: 
Clipper's critical design review (CDR), 
the final vetting hurdle 
to clear before full-scale manufacturing begins, will be held in December.

The CDR "was originally planned to be earlier, 
but, 
because of the launch-vehicle uncertainty, 
we've delayed it until the end of the year," Chodas said.

The roughly $3 billion Europa Clipper mission has been dealing with other complications as well. 
Costs have ballooned on several science instruments, for example. 
And the coronavirus pandemic has had a significant impact, 
the extent of which is still being assessed, Chodas said.

[Image: V8vcuxBWqx62VTakrCwnmL-970-80.jpg]


The team is aiming to have Clipper launch-ready in early 2024. Nonono
Liftoff will occur in summer or fall of that year,
if all goes according to plan.

Clipper will eventually settle into orbit around Jupiter. 

The probe will study Europa in depth during a series of roughly 50 fly   Hi  byes, 
which will take place over nearly four Earth years. 
Clipper will use nine science instruments to characterize Europa's ocean, 
measure the thickness of the moon's ice shell and hunt for plumes of water vapor wafting from the surface, 
among other tasks. 
The probe will also look for good touchdown sites for the Europa lander, 
which is still a concept mission, not an official NASA project.


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

https://spacenews.com/cost-growth-prompt...struments/
Cost growth prompts changes to Europa Clipper instruments

Cost overruns on three instruments for NASA’s Europa Clipper spacecraft,
led NASA to consider dropping them from the mission Scream 
and ultimately
requiring significant changes to some of them.

At a July 9 briefing to the Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Sciences of the National Academies, 
NASA officials said they recently conducted “continuation/termination reviews”  Horsepoop
for the three instruments: 
a camera, 
infrared imaging spectrometer 
and mass spectrometer. 
Those reviews were prompted by cost overruns on those instruments.

“We’ve been struggling on cost growth on Clipper for some time,” 
said Curt Niebur, 
program scientist for the mission at NASA Headquarters. 
“Overall, we’ve been largely successful in dealing with it, 
but late last fall, 
it became clear that there were three instruments that experiencing some continued and worrisome cost growth.”


[Image: europaclipper-2016-879x485.jpg]



The outcome of the reviews, he said, 
could have ranged from making no changes to the instruments to, 
in a worst-case scenario, 
terminating the instruments.  Pennywise

The leadership of NASA’s Science Mission Directive recently decided to keep all three instruments, 
at least for now.

“We are flying the entire payload, 
and every decision in the memo is intended to maximize the chance, 
that we will retain the entire payload through launch,” he said.

However, there will be changes to some instruments, 
particularly to the Mass Spectrometer 
for Planetary Exploration/Europa, or MASPEX. 
That instrument is designed to measure the composition of the Jovian moon’s very tenuous atmosphere, 
and any plumes of material that erupt from its surface.

MASPEX was suffering serious cost and schedule problems, 
Niebur said, 
a situation “that deteriorated further” Whip
during and after a risk assessment earlier this year.
 “It was really felt that significant relief was needed to avoid termination of MASPEX,” he said.

“We pulled out all the stops” to keep the instrument on the mission, 
he said, 
because of its importance in evaluating the habitability of Europa. 
The instrument now has a cost cap and its risk classification has changed from Class B, 
with a low tolerance for risk, 
to Class D, with a greater acceptance of risk. Nonono

The mission’s overall “Level 1” science requirements will also be modified Scream
to reduce the mission’s reliance on MASPEX and the instrument’s performance requirements.

NASA also decided to replace the principal investigator (PI) of MASPEX,
 which had been Hunter Waite of the Southwest Research Institute. 
Niebur said that the institute, 
which retains responsibility for developing the instrument, 
has appointed an acting PI, 
Jim Burch, and will nominate a permanent replacement to be approved by NASA Headquarters.

Niebur praised Waite for an “incredible job” on MASPEX,
 but that new leadership was needed to keep the instrument on the mission.
 “To get it the final 10 yards to the end zone,
 we need somebody with more experience,” he said. 
“Jim Burch is a good match for that.”

A second instrument, the Europa Imaging System (EIS), will also get a cost cap. 
The camera system was suffering technical issues he described as not particularly surprising, 
but those problems, combined with cost growth, posed a greater concern.

One option considered by the agency was to remove a wide-angle camera (WAC) from the instrument 
“because it has less intrinsic scientific value” 
than its narrow-angle camera, Niebur said. 
Instead, NASA decided to keep both cameras and place a cost cap on EIS, 
with instructions to prioritize development of the narrow-angle camera. 
The mission’s Level 1 requirements will change to reduce reliance on the wide-angle camera.

“If you have to cut corners on the WAC, that’s OK,” he said. 
“In the worst-case scenario, 
if we have to go forward without the WAC, we will.”

The third instrument, the Mapping Imaging Spectrometer for Europa (MISE), 
did not see significant changes. 
Niebur said that reviewers found its design had stabilized after past issues which affected its cost and schedule. 
“The decision for MISE was straightforward,
to adjust the cost and the schedule and to simply continue on,” he said.

These reviews are not the first time that instruments for the mission have faced problems. 
Last year, NASA terminated a magnetometer instrument called ICEMAG 
because of continued cost growth and technical problems. 
The agency replaced it with a simpler and less expensive magnetometer with a different PI.

Some members of the committee wondered if the instruments were being singled out,
for the overall cost growth in the mission, 
which as an agency cost commitment of $4.25 billion. 

Jan Chodas, project manager for Europa Clipper at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 
said that the instruments used about the same amount of budget reserves as the spacecraft, 
or about $70 million each. 
However, she said that dollar amount was a much larger fraction of the overall cost,
to build the instruments than for the spacecraft.

Chodas said that Europa Clipper now has a launch readiness date of 2024, 
a year later than plans announced last year

There are launch opportunities in the summer and fall of 2024 for the mission, 
including an August launch window using the Space Launch System 
that would send the spacecraft directly to Europa. 
An October launch window would require Mars and Earth gravity assists, 
extending the flight time, 
but could also be done by commercial launch vehicles such as SpaceX’s Falcon Heavy.

NASA remains engaged in a debate with Congress about how to launch Europa Clipper. 
Congress has for several years mandated the use of SLS for the mission 
as well as a follow-on Europa lander mission. 
NASA has requested the ability to use other vehicles, 
citing cost savings and the lack of available SLS vehicles, 
which for the next several years are devoted to the Artemis lunar exploration program.

A House appropriations bill introduced July 7 would give NASA some flexibility, 
requiring Europa Clipper to launch on SLS only “if available,” 
a provision not found in previous spending bills. 
However, some in Congress continue to press NASA to use SLS on the mission. 
“NASA must increase the pace of SLS production to ensure an SLS is available for the Europa missions,” 
said Rep. Robert Aderholt (R-Ala.), 
ranking member of the commerce, 
justice and science appropriations subcommittee, at a July 8 markup of the bill.

Chodas said that while the Europa Clipper program has been working to support launches both on SLS and alternative vehicles, she needs a decision soon on which vehicle will launch the spacecraft. That uncertainty forced the program to delay its critical design review from August to December of this year.

“We really need a definitive decision on that launch vehicle by the end of this calendar year,” she said.
Reply
#5
...

The three NASA monkeys strike again!

Megarocket shortage -- cause delays in the Europa Clipper mission?

https://www.space.com/nasa-sls-megarocke...ion-delays

NASA is choosing between human missions to the moon,
and a robotic mission to Jupiter's icy moon Europa,
as the agency manages its limited supply of megarockets in the coming years.

Meanwhile, engineers are building the Europa Clipper spacecraft,
designed to learn enough about the moon's ice shell,
subsurface ocean and geology,
but Congress has mandated the agency also use an SLS rocket to launch Europa Clipper
without consideration for whether one may be available.

supersize image at link
https://cdn.mos.cms.futurecdn.net/4VLzf9...0.jpg.webp
The core stage of the SLS rocket for NASA's Artemis 1 mission, 
complete with four engines, 
seen in Louisiana in January 2020 before shipment to Mississippi for testing.

[Image: 4VLzf9dLB9pEd2nHWovQK8-1024-80.jpg.webp]


"We have a requirement right now by law,
that says that we're going to launch this vehicle on an SLS rocket,"
NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine said,
during a steering committee meeting of the planetary science decadal survey,
an independent report that determines NASA's priorities,
held virtually on Oct. 16.

And that's a major scheduling problem.
NASA can't just whip up an SLS rocket from thin air:
The agency needs to contract with different companies, 
for different parts of the megarocket,
and allow time for manufacturers to deliver on those contracts.

For each massive core stage at the heart of an SLS rocket,

Boeing needs more than a year of preparation timeNaughty
plus three years of manufacturing and testing time, Pennywise
according to a NASA document,
reported by NASA Spaceflight.
That means even if NASA signed its next contract today,
the resulting rocket likely wouldn't be ready to fly until 2025.


Storing Europa Clipper, which is a $3 billion project,
will cost the agency between $3 million and $5 million per month, Horsepoop
according to calculations,
made by NASA's Office of Inspector General and reported to congressional leaders in August 2019.

In addition to getting the spacecraft off the ground sooner,
a commercial launch,
for Europa Clipper would save the government money — $1 billion Whip
according to NASA's Office of Inspector General or $1.5 billion.

Typically,
NASA is free to launch its missions on whatever rockets the agency deems fit.
But in the case of Europa Clipper,
Congress wrote it into the appropriations bills funding,
the agency that the mission must launch on SLS.

That edict has led to the agency's current pinch:
with the moon missions accelerated to land humans in 2024,
as part of the Artemis program also relying on SLS rockets,
the agency doesn't have enough launch vehicles to meet the schedules of both programs.

"We have a lot of demand for the SLS rocket going forward;
when we think about doing a mission to the moon every year,
we don't have extra SLS rocket sitting around,"
Bridenstine said.
"So when we take an SLS rocket to launch Clipper,
then that takes away a moon mission.
And there are other opportunities to launch Clipper,
but there are not other opportunities at this point to launch moon missions with humans."

The Europa Clipper team has warned that continuing uncertainty,
about the launch vehicle may begin to slow work on the mission,
as engineers have to postpone work,
that would make the spacecraft incompatible with one launch vehicle or another.



...
Reply
#6
...

Life under the ice cap in Europa oceans?
Why not?
Question then is, how long has life been able to develop there?
Don't just let NASA science,
suggest a low chance of feeble colonies of surviving bacteria,
clinging on to life around sea floor vents of hot water in underwater oceans.

Think food chain.
Think food chain that has developed and evolved for 1 billion years under that Europa ice cap.
Think that even intelligent aquatic life is possible,
on some planets.
Maybe an advanced alien aquatic race, culture and technology,
seeds the oceans with cephalopods on to other planets? 
Maybe seed an entire ecosystem into another planet's oceans.
Think big,
like the aliens that actually travel the star systems and claim planets.

Europa could have an ancient alien base with sea water creatures of high  Damned  intelligence.

Whoa!
from feeble bacteria colonies,
to alien cephalopods in alien outposts down in the Europa ocean.

heck, that was fun.

But this article,
is more of the surprise that I am expecting in the Europa and Enceladus oceans.

GREAT video at the link that will not hot link to this post <---

This thing swims through the water just like a fake Hollywood alien.
It just got an Oscar.



https://www.livescience.com/rare-bigfin-...ralia.html
Rare squid with 'elbow' tentacles baffles scientists in spooky new footage
The squid's tentacles are taller than an average human,
but its body is small as a dollar bill.

[Image: UpbfYmaUzivQivSuGAx4qU-1024-80.jpg.webp]




Quote:Scientists identified the first Bigfin squid specimen,
which was caught by fishers near Portugal,
in 1907.
It took more than 80 years before anyone saw one in the wild,
swimming 15,535 feet (4,735 meters) underwater <----
off the coast of Brazil in 1988.
The squid is distinct,
with giant fins jutting off of its body like Dumbo the elephant's ears.

In the new study,
which culminates from more than 40 hours of underwater observations,
at depths of 3,100 to 7,900 feet (950 to 2400 m) below the surface:
"It measured 5.9 feet (1.8 m) in length.
The specimen's mantle,
was around 6 inches (15 centimeters),
with the remaining 5.9 feet Jawdrop made up of those long arms and tentacles."

according to Osterhage,
previous studies have estimated that Bigfin squid can grow to 22 feet (7 m) long.


Stranger still may be how the squids hold those tentacles.
Unlike most cephalopods,
whose tentacles hang below their bodies,
the Bigfin squid's appendages jut out at perpendicular angles to their mantles,
before bending and curling away,
making each tentacle,
look like an "elbow," Osterhage said.


During one of the team's sightings, 
a Bigfin surprised the researchers,
by raising one long arm above its body and holding it there —
a baffling
behavior

never before seen in squids, 


the researchers wrote.



The "baffling behavior" in the last sentence of the quote,
is,
Communication Whip

never underestimate a sentient cephalopod.
Psychic alien octopi are trippy creatures with a propensity for persnickety behavior,
which emanates from a unique sense of humor.

Whoa!
there we go again,
from feeble bacterial colonies in survival mode struggling in the dark dank Europa ocean,
to,
sizable male psychic alien cephalopodic octopi that want to have sex with female human observers.  Naughty

They want to wrap their long tentacles entangled all around a human females legs and arms,
and then penetrate her vagina with alien octopus  Hi spooge.
Impregnation for hybridization.

Not to worry,
the female NASA astronaut will be classified as a volunteer.  Cry

My goodness things are getting steamy down there in Europa suddenly.
No wonder NASA is avoiding Europa for as long as possible.

A Lovecraftian encounter on Europa for the first manned mission would be dandy.
Tentacles tentacles and more tentacles.
That is what I want to see.
Yes.

Don't underestimate life anywhere there is liquid water.

Slap2

...
Reply
#7
Vianova, - I share with to you

Never Attempting Seeing Aliens -rhw007 & Vianova
Not Attempting Science Articulately -rhw007 & Vianova
Never Ambitious Scared Arrears -rhw007 & Vianova
Now Arthritis Sleeping Ashamed --rhw007 & Vianova

You bring EVERY WEAPONS and Service people home from 1/2 of the more than 600 bases around the planet and we get enough money to move them into Space Force..I bet ANY Marine would LOVE to fly at 6,000 fee over LA as at least TWO different people were seen and filmed flying over LA Airport to fly onto LIVING planets elsewhere in Solar System

Bob... Ninja Assimilated
"The Morning Light, No sensation to compare to this, suspended animation, state of bliss, I keep my eyes on the circling sky, tongue tied and twisted just and Earth Bound Martian I" Learning to Fly Pink Floyd [Video: https://vimeo.com/144891474]
Reply
#8
 ConfusedNocturnally Alive Squid Attracts
Reply
#9
I ordered take-out from red lobster today.

Space squid???

Is it edible???

tasty? Arrow  https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-11-r...brain.html


Quote:.Don't underestimate life anywhere there is liquid water.
.NOVEMBER 12, 2020
Cysteine synthesis was a key step in the origin of life: study
[Image: 1-originoflife.jpg]Credit: Unsplash/CC0 Public Domain
In an important step during the early evolution of life on Earth, the formation of the amino acid cysteine delivered vital catalysts, which enabled the earliest protein molecules to form in water, according to a new study by UCL researchers.

All proteins are built from the same 20 amino acids. One of these, cysteine, was assumed not to have been present at the origin of life. Despite its fundamental importance to all life today, it was unclear how cysteine might have formed on the early Earth.
In a new study, published in Science, UCL scientists have recreated how cysteine was formed at the origins of life. Additionally, they have observed how, once formed, cysteine catalyses the fusion of peptides in water—a fundamental step in the path towards protein enzymes.
The UCL researchers created cysteine using very simple chemistry and chemicals—hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen sulfide—that were likely to be abundant on the early Earth. The route that they have unravelled closely resembles how cysteine is synthesised in living organisms today, and the researchers believe they are historically linked.
The study also found that cysteine residues catalyse peptide synthesis in water by joining together short peptide fragments that the team had previously found in a study published in Nature last year.
Senior author Professor Matthew Powner (UCL Chemistry) said: "Our results show how cysteine may have formed on the early Earth and how it could have played a critical role in the evolution of protein synthesis.
"Once formed, cysteine catalysts behave as 'proto-enzymes' to produce peptides in water. This robust chemistry could have generated peptides long enough to fold into enzyme-like structures, which would be the precursors to the protein enzymes that are fundamental to all living organisms."
Co-lead author and Research Fellow Dr. Saidul Islam (UCL Chemistry) said: "We have shown that nitriles possess the in-built energy required to form peptide bonds in water. This is the simplest way of making peptides that works with all of the 20 amino acids, which makes it all the more incredible.
"It is precisely the sort of simple, yet special, chemistry that was essential to kick-start life several billion years ago. Our study provides further evidence that the molecules of life descended from nitrile chemistry on the early Earth."
Co-lead author Dr. Callum Foden, who completed the work while a Ph.D. student at UCL, said: "The peptide synthesis we discovered is simple, highly selective and uses molecules that were available on the early Earth.
"A single cysteine residue is enough to produce robust catalytic activity. It is remarkable that such small molecules can carry out such an important (bio)chemical reaction, selectively in water, at neutral pH, and in such high yields."
Discussing further implications of their study, Professor Powner said: "We have resolved a long-standing problem for the origin of life by providing a simple solution to catalytic peptide synthesis in water. Importantly, the catalysts are built only from biology's amino acids. Understanding how cysteine could have controlled the formation of Earth's earliest peptides has made the long path from chemistry to a living organism seem a little shorter, and a little less daunting.
"Our study suggests cysteine was first introduced into life's peptides by modification of serine (another of life's amino acids). This now raises important questions about the early evolution and coding of peptide synthesis. Cysteine is widely assumed not to have been present in life's first genetic code, and this fits neatly with our observations. Our results indicate that encoded serine could furnish cysteine peptides, leading to a key role for cysteine in evolution even before it was assigned to life's genetic code."


Explore further
Origin of life insight: peptides can form without amino acids

[b]More information:[/b] "Prebiotic synthesis of cysteine peptides that catalyze peptide ligation in neutral water" Science (2020). science.sciencemag.org/lookup/ … 1126/science.abd5680
[b]Journal information:[/b] Nature  Science


https://phys.org/news/2020-11-cysteine-s...-life.html




.NOVEMBER 16, 2020
Building blocks of life can form long before stars
[Image: 5fb24fbe7d953.jpg]Glycine. Credit: Public Domain
An international team of scientists have shown that glycine, the simplest amino acid and an important building block of life, can form under the harsh conditions that govern chemistry in space.

The results, published in Nature Astronomy, suggest that glycine, and very likely other amino acids, form in dense interstellar clouds well before they transform into new stars and planets.
Comets are the most pristine material in our Solar System and reflect the molecular composition present at the time our Sun and planets were just about to form. The detection of glycine in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and in samples returned to Earth from the Stardust mission suggests that amino acids, such as glycine, form long before stars. However until recently, it was thought that glycine formation required energy, setting clear constraints to the environment in which it can be formed.
In the new study the international team of astrophysicists and astrochemical modelers, mostly based at the Laboratory for Astrophysics at Leiden Observatory, the Netherlands, have shown that it is possible for glycine to form on the surface of icy dust grains, in the absence of energy, through 'dark chemistry'. The findings contradict previous studies that have suggested UV radiation was required to produce this molecule.
Dr. Sergio Ioppolo, from Queen Mary University of London and lead author of the article, said: "Dark chemistry refers to chemistry without the need of energetic radiation. In the laboratory we were able to simulate the conditions in dark interstellar clouds where cold dust particles are covered by thin layers of ice and subsequently processed by impacting atoms causing precursor species to fragment and reactive intermediates to recombine."
The scientists first showed methylamine, the precursor species of glycine that was detected in the coma of the comet 67P, could form. Then, using a unique ultra-high vacuum setup, equipped with a series of atomic beam lines and accurate diagnostic tools, they were able to confirm glycine could also be formed, and that the presence of water ice was essential in this process.
Further investigation using astrochemical models confirmed the experimental results and allowed the researchers to extrapolate data obtained on a typical laboratory timescale of just one day to interstellar conditions, bridging millions of years. "From this we find that low but substantial amounts of glycine can be formed in space with time," said Professor Herma Cuppen from Radboud University, Nijmegen, who was responsible for some of the modelling studies within the paper.
"The important conclusion from this work is that molecules that are considered building blocks of life already form at a stage that is well before the start of star and planet formation," said Harold Linnartz, Director of the Laboratory for Astrophysics at Leiden Observatory. "Such an early formation of glycine in the evolution of star-forming regions implies that this amino acid can be formed more ubiquitously in space and is preserved in the bulk of ice before inclusion in comets and planetesimals that make up the material from which ultimately planets are made."
"Once formed, glycine can also become a precursor to other complex organic molecules," concluded Dr. Ioppolo. "Following the same mechanism, in principle, other functional groups can be added to the glycine backbone, resulting in the formation of other amino acids, such as alanine and serine in dark clouds in space. In the end, this enriched organic molecular inventory is included in celestial bodies, like comets, and delivered to young planets, as happened to our Earth and many other planets."




Explore further
Protein discovered inside a meteorite



[b]More information:[/b] A non-energetic mechanism for glycine formation in the interstellar medium, Nature Astronomy (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41550-020-01249-0 , www.nature.com/articles/s41550-020-01249-0
[b]Journal information:[/b] Nature Astronomy





...Building blocks of life can form long before stars If  Sheep Then Solar system formed in less than 200,000 years...

NOVEMBER 13, 2020
Solar system formed in less than 200,000 years

[Image: solarsystemf.jpg]Artist's conception of the dust and gas surrounding a newly formed planetary system. Credit: NASA.
A long time ago—roughly 4.5 billion years—our sun and solar system formed over the short time span of 200,000 years. That is the conclusion of a group of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientists after looking at isotopes of the element molybdenum found on meteorites.

The material that makes up the sun and the rest of the solar system came from the collapse of a large cloud of gas and dust about 4.5 billion years ago. By observing other stellar systems that formed similarly to ours, astronomers estimate that it probably takes about 1-2 million years for the collapse of a cloud and ignition of a star, but this is the first study that can provide numbers on our own solar system.
"Previously, the timeframe of formation was not really known for our solar system," said LLNL cosmochemist Greg Brennecka, lead author of a paper appearing in Science. "This work shows that this collapse, which led to the formation of the solar system, happened very quickly, in less than 200,000 years. If we scale this all to a human lifespan, formation of the solar system would compare to pregnancy lasting about 12 hours instead of nine months. This was a rapid process."
The oldest dated solids in the solar system are calcium-aluminum–rich inclusions (CAIs), and these samples provide a direct record of solar system formation. These micrometer- to centimeter-sized inclusions in meteorites formed in a high-temperature environment (more than 1,300 Kelvin), probably near the young sun. They were then transported outward to the region where carbonaceous chondrite meteorites (and their parent bodies) formed, where they are found today. The majority of CAIs formed 4.567 billion years ago, over a period of about 40,000 to 200,000 years.
This is where the LLNL team comes in. The international team measured the molybdenum (Mo) isotopic and trace element compositions of a variety of CAIs taken from carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, including Allende, the largest carbonaceous chondrite found on Earth. Because they found that the distinct Mo isotopic compositions of CAIs cover the entire range of material that formed in the protoplanetary disk instead of just a small slice, these inclusions must have formed within the time span of cloud collapse.
Since the observed time span of stellar accretion (1-2 million years) is much longer than CAIs took to form, the team was able to pinpoint which astronomical phase in the solar system's formation was recorded by the formation of CAIs, and ultimately, how quickly the material that makes up the solar system accreted.




Explore further
Ultraviolet shines light on origins of the solar system



[b]More information:[/b] Gregory A. Brennecka et al. Astronomical context of Solar System formation from molybdenum isotopes in meteorite inclusions, Science (2020). DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz8482

https://phys.org/news/2020-11-solar-years.html
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#10
...

Quote from the link about the squids with the super long tentacles


Quote:During one of the team's sightings,
a Bigfin Squid surprised the researchers,
by raising one long arm above its body and holding it there

baffling Hmm2 

behavior Slap2 

never before seen in squids,
the researchers wrote.




My response was:



Quote:The "baffling behavior" in the last sentence of the quote,
is,
Communication Whip 

Never underestimate a sentient cephalopod.

Psychic alien octopi are trippy creatures with a propensity for persnickety behavior,
which emanates from a unique sense of humor.



Darkness in the ocean under the Europa ice cap?
It's like a squid metropolis of lights down there.


very extensive article  -- excerpts here


Quote:https://www.pnas.org/content/117/15/8524

Bioluminescent backlighting,
illuminates the complex visual signals of a social squid in the deep sea

Visual signals rapidly relay information, 
facilitating behaviors and ecological interactions that shape ecosystems. 
However, 
most known signaling systems can be restricted by low light levels—
a pervasive condition in the deep ocean, 
the largest inhabitable space on the planet. 

Resident visually cued animals,
have therefore been hypothesized to have simple signals with limited information-carrying capacity. 
We used cameras mounted on remotely operated vehicles,
to study the behavior of the Humboldt squid, Dosidicus gigas, 
in its natural deep-sea habitat. 

We show that specific pigmentation patterns from its diverse repertoire  Hi
are selectively displayed during foraging and in social scenarios, 
and we investigate how these behaviors may be used syntactically for communication. 

We additionally identify the probable mechanism by which D. gigas, and related squids, 
illuminate these patterns to create visual signals 
that can be readily perceived in the deep, dark ocean. 

Numerous small subcutaneous (s.c.) photophores (bioluminescent organs
embedded throughout the muscle tissue make the entire body glow, 
thereby backlighting the pigmentation patterns. 
Equipped with a mechanism by which complex information,
can be rapidly relayed through a visual pathway under low-light conditions, 
our data suggest that the visual signals displayed by D. gigas 
could share design features with advanced forms of animal communication. 

Visual signaling by deep-living cephalopods will likely be critical in understanding how, 
and how much, information can be shared in one of the planet’s most challenging environments for visual communication.

Many deep-living species are highly social (7),
 and some display dynamic, 
coordinated movements similar to animals that live in well-lit waters (8). 
Some of the deep-dwelling species are also highly cannibalistic (9, 10). 

Therefore, despite the light-restricted nature of their primary habitat, 
the lifestyles of many deep-living cephalopods 
probably incorporate the need to visually convey large quantities of information rapidly.


Evidence of semanticity (signals tied to specific meanings) 
and 
discreteness (signal combinations convey specific information) 
have been found in the visual signaling of some shallow-living cephalopods (11, 12), 
suggesting complexity comparable with advanced forms of animal communication


Our data indicate that the chromatic behaviors displayed by a deep-living social squid 
could share design features with advanced forms of animal communication (2), 
as specific components seem to be tied to specific contexts (semanticity) 
and may be combinable in distinct ways (discreteness). 
Both features are indicative of signal complexity—
the latter suggesting that multiple components may interact with one another to alter the message they convey,


We hypothesize that the bioluminescence created using s.c. photophores,
backlights the pigmentation patterns and thereby enhances the visual perception of these signals, 
under low-light conditions. 
The evolution of complex visual signals in these squids,
may therefore have been driven by content- and efficacy-based selection

Visual signaling is probably crucial in allowing species in the Ommastrephinae ,

to coordinate complex schooling behaviors, 
facilitate collective decisions, 
and maintain group cohesion during movement behaviors in the deep ocean.



"Semanticity and discreetness". 
heck, these scientists are barely scratching the surface.
Psychic alien octopi never deal in semantics,
and thus being quite persnickety creatures,
they understand that discretion is often the better part of valor in communication with humans.



This photo was taken on a night dive off the coast of Okinawa Japan, 
using a Sealife DC1200 Underwater Camera with external strobe set up

[Image: the-galactic-squid-cameron-knudsen.jpg]
 



https://www.news.ucsb.edu/2009/012645/sc...ated-genes
Scientists Find That Squid's Bioluminescence Comes From Eye-Related Genes

Quote:Using a process called bioluminescence, 
the squid can light up its underside to match the surrounding light from the sun. 
This disguises the squid in much the same way that it discharges black ink to cloak itself.

Hawaiian Bobtail squid, 
has a light organ  Dance2
that is totally separate from the eyes. 
The new finding is that this organ is light sensitive and uses some of the same genes as the squid's eye.

Todd Oakley, an evolutionary biologist at UC Santa Barbara, 
performed the evolutionary analysis of the genes of the squid. 
He confirmed that the genes in the light organ are similar or the same as those of the eye of the squid.

"This is significant because it is an example of how existing components,
can be used in evolution to make something completely new," 
said Oakley. 
"These components existed for use in the eye and then got recruited for use in the light organ. 

The light organ resembles an eye in a lot of ways. 
It has a lens for focusing the light. 
It has the shape of an eye
and now we found 
that it has the sensitivity of an eye as well."

Oakley explained that the analogy used is "evolutionary tinkering." 
"Evolution acts a lot like a tinkerer,
and assembles what's available to make something new," he said.

The light is caused by bacteria that are housed in the squid. 
It harbors the bacteria 
and the bacteria themselves produce the light. 

The scientists confirmed that the squid can actually detect the light that it is producing, 
by confirming that many of the genes used in the eye are also used in the light organ.

The light comes from a chemical reaction that happens within the bacteria. 

The squid doesn't control the chemical reaction directly, 
but the squid can change its light organ to make it more or less open –– 
to let out more or less light, Oakley explained.



[Image: Firefly-squid-showing-bioluminescence.jpg]





Quote:http://www.seasky.org/deep-sea/firefly-squid.html
The firefly squid gets its name from the flashing lights that resemble those of a firefly

growing to a length of only three inches (seven centimeters). 
The squid is equipped with special light-producing organs called photophores. 
These photophores are found on many parts of the squid's body and emit a deep blue light. 

Large photophores can be found on the tips of the tentacles as well as around the eyes. 

Thousands of tiny photophores can be found throughout the squid's body, 
giving it the ability to emit light along its entire form. 
The lights can be flashed in unison or alternated in an endless number of animated patterns. 
These light shows are thought to serve several functions. 
They can be used to communicate with potential mates or rivals. 
They may also be used to disguise the squid's shape and confuse predators, allowing it to escape. 

The firefly squid is the only member of the squid family that is believed to have color vision.  Hi

While most cephalopods have only one visual pigment, firefly squid have three. 
They also have a double-layered retina in the back of the eye. 
These adaptations for color vision may have evolved to enable firefly squid 
to distinguish between ambient light and bioluminescence, 
and to help them decode the patterns of light created by other members of the species.

The firefly squid is an active predator. 

It is believed that the squid can use their blue lights to attract prey. 
By flashing the lights on and off, 
they can attract small fish and then pounce on them with their powerful tentacles.


...
Reply
#11
It is something I have been thinking about a lot lately. Who is to say that an Alien Species would communicate vocally? Perhaps it will be entirely non-vocal. Luminescence, body movement, perhaps even things like cockatoos do, raising/lowering body parts? Quite how far a species could go with that, no idea, would it be possible to achieve higher levels of communication, Math, science with such a form of communicating?
Reply
#12
...

Watcher says

Quote:Who is to say that an Alien Species would communicate vocally? 
Perhaps it will be entirely non-vocal. 
Luminescence, body movement, perhaps even things like cockatoos do, raising/lowering body parts? 
Quite how far a species could go with that, no idea, 
would it be possible to achieve higher levels of communication, Math, science with such a form of communicating?


 
This is a bit on the edge of the possibilities of life,
aside from tangible locations like Europa or this solar system,
or perhaps this universe.

The psychedelic or clairvoyant experience of interacting with life in a separate reality,
an overlapping reality or universe, or whatever it is. 
The experience exists in common with many human travelers,
especially in the usage of dimethyltryptamines. {psilocybes in particular}.

Experience so real, so tangible in the moment, so intensely clairvoyant and telepathic,
in the experiential contact with something sentient and alive in that universe, or reality.

I bring this up due to one of my experiences, involving tentacles that communicated.
Which if many want to attribute to a hallucinatory state, that is fine,
but you weren't there to EXPERIENCE the contact,
and it was quite convincing.

yes, too many psilocybin mushrooms one day.
30 large fresh cyanescens {not dried}.
I had stabilized from the initial tsunami of psychedelic intoxication,
and feeling more in control, and relieved to be able to walk again,
I lit one up. {MJ}
Didn't get high on half a joint.  Naughty
Bad decision.
Smoked the other half.

The psychedelic tsunami came back with a vengeance.

I ended up almost unable to move in a bed finding myself taking one breath every 30 seconds, 
feeling completely awful,
and was in and out of consciousness while struggling through a landscape of another planetary reality.
It had land and beaches and clouds and such,
but it wasn't a dream and it wasn't Earth.

I was lost on another world, like a lone struggling survivor on his last leg,
trying to maintain sanity and my life.
That is when I made direct face to face contact with the alien ... actually I was the alien there.

I was slowly moving about on a beach with waves rolling in.
The creature simply happened to be coming my way,
unaware of me, heading in the direction of the water.
As it passed by suddenly the tall thing turned it's attention to me in surprise.
I looked at it, made some kind of eye contact,
and,
all of a sudden this creature unveiled a large series of flowing swirling tentacles,
moving in many directions,
and it's tentacles,
had little multi colored electric psychedelic light organs from one end to the other of each tentacle,
and,
the light organs communicated with:
mathematical communication code - in light sound Whip

As each light organ color blinked and changed colors in rapid communication code,
a variety of electric synthesizer like sounds were projected,
BUT
not to the ears,
into the MIND.
I heard the light sound as ...  telepathic experience.
Then,
the creature pulled up close.
I sensed it was concerned about my condition.
It's head / face, whatever that was,
came up to mine to inspect me,
and suddenly,
the creature shrank back in near horror, or it was certainly repulsed by my mental condition.
No sooner than you could say , shit ,
the thing moved very quickly but steadily away, walked into the waves of the ocean beach,
and disappeared away in the water.

That is when I decided it was time to get up, no matter what.


So what is the point of the story. Slap2 

This kind of advanced communication exhibited by my visitor,
is from a highly intelligent creature. Probably far more intelligent than any of us.
They exist,
not only on other planets but in other realities, 
while the 3 Monkeys at NASA try to allocate funding to find dead or fossil bacteria,
on poorly chosen locations on Mars,
often with feeble equipment and ridiculous constraints on all the missions ... anywhere.

Our luminescent light squid in mass communication together under the ice cap of Europa,
may be just as primitive as we have been led to believe they are here on Earth,
but the message is:
Water Worlds can evolve super conscious intelligent life forms too,
extremely intelligent and aware creatures capable of high technology,
putting ours to shame.
The more successful of these species seed other water worlds and oceans on other planets.
They exist.
Life exists under the ice cap of Europa.
NASA is in the business of using their fake search for life,
to get funding for pet projects of a small list of scientists.

You want massive funding?
You don't look for dead bacteria on Mars. Nonono 

Watch the funding go on steroids when they manufacture the alien threat.
As soon as NASA admits to bacterial life on Mars,
all the aliens will come out of the closet within no time.
That is why TTSA is in play with all those DoD and CIA top hats in a corporate enterprise.
They are going to make a lot of money on ET.
And ET won't be an emaciated and dying starving colony of cyanobacteria at Jezero crater,
One ET will have tentacles,
that blinks lights in mathematic code light sound with an Asta la Vista  Hi Baby!
as IT flies back to the underwater base on Europa.

...
Reply
#13
Quote:vianova...
Water Worlds can evolve super conscious intelligent life forms too,
extremely intelligent and aware creatures capable of high technology,
putting ours to shame.
The more successful of these species seed other water worlds and oceans on other planets.
They exist.



...on the other hand vianova...
as galaxies collide

The simplest way to get around to other worlds may not involve technos but might be evolved technique...  by worlds in collision...


[Image: familytreeof.jpg]

Family tree of the Milky Way deciphered
Scientists have known for some time that galaxies can grow by the merging of smaller galaxies, but the ancestry of our own Milky Way galaxy has been a long-standing mystery. Now, an international team of astrophysicists has ...https://phys.org/news/2020-11-family-tre...hered.html


NOVEMBER 4, 2020
Microbial space travel on a molecular scale


[Image: microbialspa.jpg]Space traveler Deinococcus radiodurans recovered after 1 year of exposure to low Earth orbit (LEO) outside the International Space Station during the Tanpopo space Mission. Credit: © Tetyana Milojevic
Since the dawn of space exploration, humankind has been fascinated by survival of terrestrial life in outer space. Outer space is a hostile environment for any form of life, but some extraordinarily resistant microorganisms can survive. Such extremophiles may migrate between planets and distribute life across the Universe, underlying the panspermia hypothesis or interplanetary transfer of life.

https://phys.org/news/2020-11-microbial-...scale.html



First the water-bears...then they evolve into squid after arrival on a new world?
Adorable tardigrades fight UV rays with glowing shield
By Mindy Weisberger - Senior Writer October 16, 2020
Though small, tardigrades are known for their toughness.

[*] 
[Image: jDHPuqg9TRfsVUbgy8LCwk-320-80.jpg]
Paramacrobiotus shows tolerance to UV radiation and exhibits fluorescence under UV light.
(Image: © Harikumar R. Suma and Sandeep M. Eswarappa)


Scientists have discovered yet another reason to be impressed with tardigrades; some of these microscopic, nearly indestructible creatures wear a glowing "shield" that protects them from ultraviolet radiation. 
[Image: the-galactic-squid-cameron-knudsen.jpg]
Tubby tardigrades — also called moss piglets or water bears — are known for their toughness, able to withstand extreme heat, cold and pressure, as well as the vacuum of space. They can also survive exposure to levels of radiation that would kill many other life-forms.
Now, scientists have uncovered new clues about tardigrades' radiation resistance. Experiments with tardigrades in the [i]Paramacrobiotus[/i] genus revealed that fluorescence protects them like a layer of sunscreen, transforming damaging UV rays into harmless blue light, according to a new study. 


[*]https://www.livescience.com/tardigrade-f...cence.html
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#14
Watcher says

Quote: Wrote:Who is to say that an Alien Species would communicate vocally? 
Perhaps it will be entirely non-vocal. 
Luminescence, body movement, perhaps even things like cockatoos do, raising/lowering body parts? 
Quite how far a species could go with that, no idea, 
would it be possible to achieve higher levels of communication, Math, science with such a form of communicating?

Quote:vianova:
This is a bit on the edge of the possibilities of life,
aside from tangible locations like Europa or this solar system,
or perhaps this universe.



NOVEMBER 19, 2020
Can animals use iridescent colors to communicate?

[Image: cananimalsus.jpg]Anna’s humming bird (Calypte anna) showing iridescent ‘gorget’ feathers. Credit: Wade Tregaskis
A new paper from the University of Melbourne reveals how animals use beautiful but unreliable iridescent colors as communication signals. Special adaptations enable animals to control how these shifting colors appear so that they can convey reliable information. The new work now published in Trends in Ecology and Evolution draws together studies from across the animal kingdom to discover how animals control the appearance of iridescent colors in nature.

"Iridescence is tricky to study because the hue that you see depends on the position of the viewer and the direction of light," said senior author, Dr. Amanda Franklin from the School of BioSciences. "That means that iridescent colors change constantly, so it's hard to see how they can convey reliable information. The number one rule for communication is that the information must be reliable—it's the same for both animals and humans!"
But paradoxically, iridescent colors, like dazzling butterfly wings or dramatic peacock feathers, are widespread in the natural world.
Co-author and Ph.D. student Leslie Ng explains: "By studying how animals detect and process iridescence, we can get a better idea of when iridescence is actually a useful communication signal. Reliable iridescent signals usually come with behavioral or physical adaptations that help animals control the visual effect. For example, male Anna's hummingbirds precisely control their courtship flights so that their iridescent throats appear a constant bright pink color to watchful females."
Dr. Franklin said organisms can do beautiful things with light. "Through evolution, they have adapted microstructures to produce specific effects. Some use microstructures to control the precise angle at which the hue of iridescent colors appears to shift. In this way, they control the information they communicate with color."
Ms Ng said many studies suggest iridescent colors are important for courtship or camouflage but rarely consider how these flashy signals are actually seen by animals. "Because of this, we know very little about how iridescence is processed in the animal's brain."
The detection of iridescent signals also depends on how organisms display color patches, and the physical position of both the signaller and viewer. For example, an iridescent color can be processed differently if it is flashed quickly, or if the colors are fast-moving.
Lead author, Professor Devi Stuart-Fox, said the insights shed new light on the colorful world of animal communication and highlight the challenges of studying accurately how iridescent colors work in nature.
"Nature provides a testing ground for the detection and processing of dynamic and colorful signals," she said. "Understanding how animals reliably use and produce these shifting signals can help the development of bio-inspired iridescent materials designed for human observers."




Explore further
Jewel beetles' sparkle helps them hide in plain sight



[b]More information:[/b] Devi Stuart-Fox et al. The Paradox of Iridescent Signals, Trends in Ecology & Evolution (2020). DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2020.10.009
[b]Journal information:[/b] Trends in Ecology & Evolution  Trends in Ecology and Evolution 




https://phys.org/news/2020-11-animals-iridescent.html




ArrowSee More #45  

_Enceladus & Europa_ profusely populated with microbial life and The 3 Monkeys at NASA

Water World Wisdom
A Triple phase and Icy place.


Quote: Wrote:"It remains an open question how the presence of two liquids may affect the behavior of aqueous solutions in general, and in particular, how the two liquids may affect biomolecules in aqueous environments," Giovambattista said. "This motivates further studies in the search for potential applications."
Giovambattista is a member of the Physics and degrees Chemistry Ph.D. programs at CUNY.
The international team, led by Anders Nilsson, professor of chemical physics at Stockholm University, used complex experiments and computer simulations to prove this theory. The experiments, described as "science-fiction-like" by Giovambattista, were performed by colleagues at Stockholm University in Sweden, POSTECH University in Korea, PAL-XFEL in Korea, and SLAC national accelerator laboratory in degrees California.



NOVEMBER 19, 2020
Researchers prove water has multiple liquid states  [Image: angel.png] [Image: lilD.gif] 1
[Image: 2-water.jpg]Credit: CC0 Public Domain
Water is a ubiquitous liquid with many highly unique properties. The way it responds to changes in pressure and temperature can be completely different from other liquids, and these properties are essential to many practical applications and particularly to life as we know it. What causes these anomalies has long been a source of scientific exploration, but now, an international team of researchers that includes Nicolas Giovambattista, a professor at CUNY, has proved that water can exist in two different liquid states—a finding that can explain many of water's anomalous properties. Their research appears in a paper published in the November 20 issue of the journal Science.

"The possibility that water could exist in two different liquid states was proposed approximately 30 years ago, based on results obtained from computer simulations," Giovambattista said. "This counterintuitive hypothesis has been one of the most important questions in the chemistry and physics of water, and a controversial scenario since its beginnings. This is because experiments that can access the two liquid states in water have been very challenging due to the apparently unavoidable ice formation at the conditions where the two liquids should exist."
The usual "liquid" state of water that we are all familiar with corresponds to liquid water at normal temperatures (approximately 25 degrees C). However, the paper shows that water at low temperatures (approximately -63 degrees C) exists in two different liquid states, a low-density liquid at low pressures and a high-density liquid at high pressures. These two liquids have noticeably different properties and differ by 20% in density. The results imply that at appropriate conditions, water should exist as two immiscible liquids separated by a thin interface similar to the coexistence of oil and water.
Because water is one of the most important substances on Earth—the solvent of life as we know it—its phase behavior plays a fundamental role in different fields, including biochemistry, climate, cryopreservation, cryobiology, material science, and in many industrial processes where water acts as a solvent, product, reactant, or impurity. It follows that unusual characteristics in the phase behavior of water, such as the presence of two liquid states, can affect numerous scientific and engineering applications.
"It remains an open question how the presence of two liquids may affect the behavior of aqueous solutions in general, and in particular, how the two liquids may affect biomolecules in aqueous environments," Giovambattista said. "This motivates further studies in the search for potential applications."
Giovambattista is a member of the Physics and degrees Chemistry Ph.D. programs at CUNY.
The international team, led by Anders Nilsson, professor of chemical physics at Stockholm University, used complex experiments and computer simulations to prove this theory. The experiments, described as "science-fiction-like" by Giovambattista, were performed by colleagues at Stockholm University in Sweden, POSTECH University in Korea, PAL-XFEL in Korea, and SLAC national accelerator laboratory in degrees California. The computer simulations were performed by Giovambattista and Peter H. Poole, professor at St. Francis Xavier University in degrees Canada. The computer simulations played an important role in the interpretation of the experiments since these experiments are extremely complex and some observables are not accessible during the experiments.





Explore further
Tetrahedra may explain water's uniqueness 
 1



[b]More information:[/b] Experimental observation of the liquid-liquid transition in bulk supercooled water under pressure. Science (2020). science.sciencemag.org/lookup/ … 1126/science.abb9385
[b]Journal information:[/b] Science 



https://phys.org/news/2020-11-multiple-l...tates.html

[Image: bacteriaconv.jpg]

Bacteria convince their squid host to create a less hostile work environment
Bacteria living symbiotically within the Hawaiian bobtail squid can direct the host squid to change its normal gene-expression program to make a more inviting home, according to a new study published in PLoS Biology by researchers ...



Transfer Tech.
[Image: microbialspa.jpg]Space traveler Deinococcus radiodurans recovered after 1 year of exposure to low Earth orbit (LEO) outside the International Space Station during the Tanpopo space Mission. Credit: © Tetyana Milojevic
Since the dawn of space exploration, humankind has been fascinated by survival of terrestrial life in outer space. Outer space is a hostile environment for any form of life, but some extraordinarily resistant microorganisms can survive. Such extremophiles may migrate between planets and distribute life across the Universe, underlying the panspermia hypothesis or interplanetary transfer of life.


https://phys.org/news/2020-11-microbial-...scale.html

[Image: jDHPuqg9TRfsVUbgy8LCwk-320-80.jpg]

https://phys.org/news/2020-11-bacteria-c...stile.html
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#15
(11-18-2020, 09:45 PM)EA Wrote:
Quote:vianova...
Water Worlds can evolve super conscious intelligent life forms too,
extremely intelligent and aware creatures capable of high technology,
putting ours to shame.
The more successful of these species seed other water worlds and oceans on other planets.
They exist.

...on the other hand vianova...
as galaxies collide

The simplest way to get around to other worlds may not involve technos but might be evolved technique...  by worlds in collision...


[Image: familytreeof.jpg]

Family tree of the Milky Way deciphered  Naughty
Scientists have known for some time that galaxies can grow by the merging of smaller galaxies, but the ancestry of our own Milky Way galaxy has been a long-standing mystery. Now, an international team of astrophysicists has ...https://phys.org/news/2020-11-family-tre...hered.html  Doh



New2 everything knew is old again.                                      Arrow ~.333


Stars originally belonging to Heracles account for roughly one third of the mass of the entire Milky Way halo today—meaning that this newly-discovered ancient collision must have been a major event in the history of our galaxy. That suggests that our galaxy may be unusual, since most similar massive spiral galaxies had much calmer early lives.

"As our cosmic home, the Milky Way is already special to us, but this ancient galaxy buried within makes it even more special," Schiavon says.



NOVEMBER 20, 2020
[*]Astronomers discover new 'fossil galaxy' buried deep within the Milky Way
[*]

[*]by Sloan Digital Sky Survey
[*]

[*][Image: 30-astronomersd.jpg]An artist's impression of what the Milky Way might look like seen from above. The colored rings show the rough extent of the fossil galaxy known as Heracles. The yellow dot shows the position of the sun. Credit: Danny Horta-Darrington (Liverpool John Moores University), NASA/JPL-Caltech, and the SDSS
Scientists working with data from the Sloan Digital Sky Surveys' Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) have discovered a "fossil galaxy" hidden in the depths of our own Milky Way.

This result, published today in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, may shake up our understanding of how the Milky Way grew into the galaxy we see today.
The proposed fossil galaxy may have collided with the Milky Way ten billion years ago, when our galaxy was still in its infancy. Astronomers named it Heracles, after the ancient Greek hero who received the gift of immortality when the Milky Way was created.
The remnants of Heracles account for about one third of the Milky Way's spherical halo. But if stars and gas from Heracles make up such a large percentage of the galactic halo, why didn't we see it before? The answer lies in its location deep inside the Milky Way.
"To find a fossil galaxy like this one, we had to look at the detailed chemical makeup and motions of tens of thousands of stars," says Ricardo Schiavon from Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU) in the UK, a key member of the research team. "That is especially hard to do for stars in the center of the Milky Way, because they are hidden from view by clouds of interstellar dust. APOGEE lets us pierce through that dust and see deeper into the heart of the Milky Way than ever before."


[*][*]


[*][Image: 31-astronomersd.jpg]
[*][*][*]



[*]An all-sky image of the stars in the Milky Way as seen from Earth. The colored rings show the approximate extent of the stars that came from the fossil galaxy known as Heracles. The small objects to the lower right of the image are the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, two small satellite galaxies of the Milky Way. Credit: Danny Horta-Darrington (Liverpool John Moores University), ESA/Gaia, and the SDSS
[*][*][*]



[*]APOGEE does this by taking spectra of stars in near-infrared light, instead of visible light, which gets obscured by dust. Over its ten-year observational life, APOGEE has measured spectra for more than half a million stars all across the Milky Way, including its previously dust-obscured core.
Graduate student Danny Horta from LJMU, the lead author of the paper announcing the result, explains, "examining such a large number of stars is necessary to find unusual stars in the densely-populated heart of the Milky Way, which is like finding needles in a haystack."
To separate stars belonging to Heracles from those of the original Milky Way, the team made use of both chemical compositions and velocities of stars measured by the APOGEE instrument.
"Of the tens of thousands of stars we looked at, a few hundred had strikingly different chemical compositions and velocities," Horta said. "These stars are so different that they could only have come from another galaxy. By studying them in detail, we could trace out the precise location and history of this fossil galaxy."

Because galaxies are built through mergers of smaller galaxies across time, the remnants of older galaxies are often spotted in the outer halo of the Milky Way, a huge but very sparse cloud of stars enveloping the main galaxy. But since our galaxy built up from the inside out, finding the earliest mergers requires looking at the most central parts of the Milky Way's halo, which are buried deep within the disc and bulge.

This movie shows a computer simulation of a galaxy like the Milky Way. The movie fast-forwards through simulated time from 13 billion years ago to today. The main galaxy grows as many small galaxies merge with it. Heracles resembles one of the smaller galaxies that merged with the Milky Way early in the process. Credit: Ted Mackereth based on the EAGLE simulations
Stars originally belonging to Heracles account for roughly one third of the mass of the entire Milky Way halo today—meaning that this newly-discovered ancient collision must have been a major event in the history of our galaxy. That suggests that our galaxy may be unusual, since most similar massive spiral galaxies had much calmer early lives.
"As our cosmic home, the Milky Way is already special to us, but this ancient galaxy buried within makes it even more special," Schiavon says.
Karen Masters, the Spokesperson for SDSS-IV comments, "APOGEE is one of the flagship surveys of the fourth phase of SDSS, and this result is an example of the amazing science that anyone can do, now that we have almost completed our ten-year mission."
And this new age of discovery will not end with the completion of APOGEE observations. The fifth phase of the SDSS has already begun taking data, and its "Milky Way Mapper" will build on the success of APOGEE to measure spectra for ten times as many stars in all parts of the Milky Way, using near-infrared light, visible light, and sometimes both.



[*][*][*]



[*]

Explore further
New family of stars discovered in Milky Way shed new light on galaxy's formation



[*][*][*]



[*]
[b]More information:[/b] "Evidence from APOGEE for the Presence of a Major Building Block of the Halo Buried in the Inner Galaxy," Danny Horta et al., 2020 Nov. 20, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Societyarxiv.org/abs/2007.10374].
[b]Journal information:[/b] Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society



space squids everywhere.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#16
...

"The evolutionary history of photophores in any animal group is extremely difficult to determine,
because bioluminescence has no fossil record,"

The Octopus S. syrtensis's light comes from the 40 or so modified suckers on each arm. 
These grabbers have lost their suctioning abilities, 
but that seems more than made up for by the power to glow, having transformed into full-blown photophores.
The light shines brightly in their dim ocean habitats, 
where they live from 500 to 4,000 meters below the surface of the Northern Atlantic.

[Image: 12f9ca_88c0c91ecf474360970185622b746a47~mv2.webp]




https://aclarke43.wixsite.com/luminescen...er-octopus
Glowing Sucker Octopus
When it comes to changing color, octopuses are the ultimate chameleons. 
In the blink of an eye, they can blend into the background — 
or advertise their presence with bursts of bright color. 
Some even put on light shows with glow-in-the-dark tentacles!

The secret behind their color capability is special skin cells called chromatophores. 
Each chromatophore consists of three bags of pigment. 
By squeezing or expanding the bags, 
octopuses can change the color displayed by each cell, allowing millions of subtle combinations. 
And since each cell is controlled separately, 
they can create remarkably sharp displays. 
In addition, reflective coatings under the cells help enhance the effect.

Octopuses don’t use this ability just to camouflage themselves. 
They also use color to display their mood, researchers believe. 
In many species, for instance, white signals fear, red shows anger, while brown suggests relaxation.

What made the light-producing abilities of the newly discovered octopus, 
Stauroteuthis syrtensis,
 particularly surprising was where the light came from: the suckers. 

The researcher’s first clue that there was something odd about the octopus came when they brought one into a shipboard laboratory during a research cruise in the Gulf of Maine. 
First, they noticed that its suckers weren’t very sucker-like: 
they didn’t stick to anything. 
Even more surprising, when they turned out the lights, 
they discovered bright blue light where the suckers should be. 
Later studies revealed that although the suckers still had sucker-like traits, 
many of the muscles had been replaced by light-producing cells.

These glowing, gelatinous octopuses aren't small. 

Their longest arms are some 35 centimeters, 
much of which is connected via a big web to the other extremities.

[Image: e7b360a157b1485fab7f6d8e2b1aac49.jpg]




Fluorescence in the deep-sea squid Histioteuthis: The case of the green-eyed squid






Bioluminescence on Camera | National Geographic





Cephalopod video: Stauroteuthis syrtensis




bioluminescent jellyfish






vampire squid one mile deep




Jumbo squid caught on camera for Blue Planet II | Our Blue Planet | Earth Unplugged
Reply
#17
...

this octopus is far smarter,
than all the deaf dumb and blind monkeys at NASA involved with: Planetary Protection Guidelines

https://returntonow.net/2019/12/24/octop...gBPkVcP_rg

Octopus Escapes Aquarium Through 160-Foot Drainpipe Into the Sea


Determined to find his way to freedom, 
an octopus named Inky apparently broke out of his tank, 
slithered across an aquarium floor and slid through narrow drain pipe into to the ocean.

The amazing stunt took place in the middle of the night at New Zealand’s national aquarium, 
after an employee apparently left the lid to the octopus’ tank slightly ajar.

Staff believe 
Inky took the opportunity to climb up over the top of his glass enclosure, 
slide down the side of the tank ,
and slither across 8 feet of flooring to a drainpipe ,
that empties into the ocean.

the boneless cephalopod would have had to squeeze his soccer-ball-sized head,
through over 160 feet of pipeline less than 6 inches in diameter.

“Octopuses are fantastic escape artists,” 
Alix Harvey, an aquarist at the Marine Biological Association in England, told The New York Times.

“They are programmed to hunt prey at night and have a natural inclination to move around at night.”

“They have a complex brain, 
have excellent eyesight, 
and research suggests they have an ability to learn and form mental maps.”

Because of octopuses soft bodies they are able to fit into extremely small spaces, 
and have been filmed squeezing through gaps the size of coins  Holycowsmile  

[Image: A35F700C-CC82-4347-8051-FB38FCDCB372.jpeg]


...
Reply
#18
...
voyager images -- Uranus moons
https://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/galleries/i...ok/uranus/
Miranda
[Image: 19bg.jpg]


3D interactive model of Uranus moon Miranda at link:
https://eos.org/articles/do-uranuss-moon...ace-oceans

Do Uranus’s Moons Have Subsurface Oceans?



Quote:Most planetary scientists agree that there’s no reason why not, 
and a team of researchers found that a tried-and-true method,
of confirming the existence of subsurface oceans would work especially well for the moons of Uranus.

“The big question here is, 
Where are habitable environments in the solar system?” said Benjamin Weiss, 
a planetary scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge. 
The discoveries of oceans on Europa and Enceladus, 
“make a lot of us wonder whether there are many moons out there that,
although they’re small, may still be warm.” 
Weiss will be presenting this research on 15 December at AGU’s Fall Meeting 2020.


... the planet’s five largest moons—Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, and Oberon. 
Those images revealed that the moons are made of a roughly 50:50 combination of rock and ices and, 
like most planetary satellites, have many craters. 
However, the moons’ surfaces also display some of the classic signs of cryovolcanism, 
like fresh uncratered material and ridges, valleys, and folds.

“If there’s liquid water there and it’s a little bit salty like ocean water on the Earth, 
then it can be conducting, 
meaning currents can flow in it,” 
Weiss said. 
That flowing current will, in turn, generate its own magnetic field—an induced magnetic field. 

An induced field would look very different from the planet’s magnetic field Whip
and so could be detected by a nearby magnetometer.

Using theoretical models of Uranus’s magnetic field, 
Weiss’s team calculated the strengths of the fields induced on Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, and Oberon. 
The team found that Miranda’s induced magnetic field was the strongest, 
at 300 nanoteslas, 
and Oberon’s was the weakest, at just 3 nanoteslas.

For comparison, the Galileo mission measured an induced magnetic field,
of about 220 nanoteslas at Europa 
and about 40 nanoteslas at Callisto. 

A subsurface ocean on Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, and Titania,
would be well within the measurement capabilities of current spacecraft technology, 
Weiss said, although Oberon’s field might be right on the edge of detectability.

Uranus’s magnetic field, 
like so much about the planet itself, 
is quite odd compared with other solar system planets: 
The field is tilted by 59° from the planet’s spin axis, 
and its center is shifted by about a third of the planet’s radius from the planet’s center.

Magnetic induction confirmed the presence of Europa’s and Callisto’s subsurface oceans, 
but Jupiter’s very symmetric magnetic field,
made it impossible for the Galileo mission to figure out the oceans’ depth, thickness, 
or salinity with its small number of flybys. 
The same is true of Saturn’s magnetic field and Enceladus’s subsurface ocean. 
But measurements of those properties might be possible for moons of Uranus.

“The key is that Uranus’ field is non-spin symmetric, unlike Saturn’s, and it rotates.

subsurface oceans in the Uranus system are likely to be farther beneath the surface
than those in the Jupiter system,
simply because Uranus’s moons are colder and so the icy shell is likely thicker.



large image of Miranda at link
https://cdn.britannica.com/32/78232-050-...4-1986.jpg

[Image: innermost-moons-Miranda-Uranus-mosaic-im...4-1986.jpg]



https://www.thehindu.com/children/pz9j2m...iranda2jpg
[Image: 16istbmiranda2jpg]



very odd. ... How large are those mountains on the right? And then the trough on the left?
...
Reply
#19
Quote:"My laboratory at UCI has for a long time worked to mimic the light-scattering and light-reflecting powers of cephalopods with the goal of inventing new classes of adaptive thermoregulatory fabrics and other everyday technologies," said co-author Alon Gorodetsky, UCI associate professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering. "With this research, we have focused on developing a detailed fundamental understanding of how reflectins function at a molecular level."




DECEMBER 18, 2020
Engineers reveal molecular secrets of cephalopod powers

[Image: engineersrev.jpg]“This research can be viewed as a valuable conceptual framework for using this class of proteins in bioengineering applications,” said Alon Gorodetsky, UCI associate professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering. Credit: Debbie Morales/UCI
Reflectins, the unique structural proteins that give squids and octopuses the ability to change colors and blend in with their surroundings, are thought to have great potential for innovations in areas as diverse as electronics, optics and medicine. Scientists and inventors have been stymied in their attempts to fully utilize the powers of these biomolecules due to their atypical chemical composition and high sensitivity to subtle environmental changes.
In a study published recently in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, University of California, Irvine researchers have revealed the structure of a reflectin variant at the molecular level, and they have demonstrated a method for mechanically controlling the hierarchical assembly and optical properties of the protein. These findings are seen as key steps in exploiting many of the potentially useful attributes of the reflectin family.
"My laboratory at UCI has for a long time worked to mimic the light-scattering and light-reflecting powers of cephalopods with the goal of inventing new classes of adaptive thermoregulatory fabrics and other everyday technologies," said co-author Alon Gorodetsky, UCI associate professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering. "With this research, we have focused on developing a detailed fundamental understanding of how reflectins function at a molecular level."
Gorodetsky said scientists are attracted to reflectins because, similar to other protein-based materials, they offer many advantageous attributes such as controllable self-assembly, stimuli-responsiveness, customizable functionality and compatibility with other biological systems. The model biomaterials have also shown their usefulness for modifying the refractive index of human cells and supporting the growth of neural stem cells.
In their laboratory in UCI's Henry Sameuli School of Engineering, Gorodetsky and his collaborators used bioinformatics predictions to select a reflectin variant, produced the protein in bacteria and developed solution conditions for maintaining it in a stable state.
The researchers then used a variety of tools for analysis of the protein and its solutions, including molecular dynamics simulations, small-angle X-ray scattering, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. They also probed the assembled multimeric protein ensembles with techniques such as atomic force microscopy and three-dimensional holotomographic microscopy. These methods enabled the team to assess a full range of qualities and properties for the reflectin variant.
"Through our synergistic computational and experimental approaches, we were able to elucidate the three-dimensional structure of the reflectin variant, thereby establishing a direct correlation between the protein's structural characteristics and intrinsic optical properties," said Gorodetsky. "This research can be viewed as a valuable conceptual framework for using this class of proteins in bioengineering applications."
Gorodetsky said his team's work will enable new techniques for processing reflectin-based materials and points to new avenues for custom tailoring films of the protein at the nano- and micro-meter scales, which would be beneficial for biophotonic and bioelectronic applications as well as for inspiring the design of polymeric materials with sophisticated light-scattering capabilities. He also said the approach used in this project could help better understand the mechanisms underpinning cephalopods' ability to change color.




Explore further
Scientists engineer human cells with squid-like transparency



[b]More information:[/b] Mehran J. Umerani et al, Structure, self-assembly, and properties of a truncated reflectin variant, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2020). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2009044117
[b]Journal information:[/b] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences


Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#20
...
Not to underestimate other forms of life ... methane lakes on Titan.
however,
what you always and ONLY see from science speculation Whip  by scientists,
who use computer models extrapolating limited data from limited observations,
are models of the simplest microbial life possible.

You see this with the water worlds,
and you see it again in the methane world possibilities.
It's really safe bet for a scientist,
keep the predictable possibilities of life as simple and the least complex as possible.

So when you look at:
The proposed  Sheep "azotosome" ... what I would like to see,
are further extrapolations of complexity in evolution of life in methane lakes.

Recent data processed from old Cassini work shows the lakes at 85 and 100 meters deep,
with one lake possibly a lot more deeper, all fed by rivers and drainage from methane rain.


https://www.popsci.com/heres-what-methan...ould-look/
Here’s What Methane-Based Life On Titan Could Look Like

It's also possible that numerous active volcanoes on Titan burp out methane into the atmosphere, 
creating clouds that precipitate the chemical compound as rain or snow.

A representation of a 9-nanometer azotosome  Ninja  
about the size of a virus, 
with a piece of the membrane cut away to show the hollow interior
[Image: Z2PVDDZVA6DXROQSY2Q3T3YIO4.jpg]




Quote:In a new report, published in Science Advances, 
a team of chemical engineers and astronomers from Cornell University
paints a picture of the types of organisms that may thrive on Titan, 
theorizing the moon could be home to methane-based, 
oxygen-free beings with a completely different type of cell structure.

The research team envisions that Titan residents may also be comprised of cells, 
but instead of an outer shell of lipids, 
their cell membranes would be comprised of compounds based on methane, 
which has a much lower freezing point than water.

This theoretical membrane, dubbed an “azotosome” (or “nitrogen body”) by the researchers,
 would contain nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen molecules—
all of which can be found in Titan’s super cold methane seas. 
The azotosome would be both rigid and flexible like a lipid membrane, 
controlling the transportation of materials into and out of the cell.

To see if such life forms are even possible, 
the researchers screened for potential chemical compounds found in cryogenic methane 
that could assemble themselves into membrane-like structures. 

They stumbled upon acrylonitrile (C3H3N), 
a colorless liquid compound that is present in Titan’s atmosphere. 
As a membrane, acrylonitrile showed good stability and acted as strong barrier to decomposition, 
important qualities for a cellular membrane.

The researchers noted their surprise at finding a membrane model that could work. 
"We didn't come in with any preconceptions about what should be in a membrane and what shouldn't," 
Paulette Clancy, a chemical molecular dynamics expert at Cornell, said in a press release. 
"We just worked with the compounds that we knew were there and asked, 
'If this was your palette, what can you make out of that?'"

Now the researchers just need to figure out how these cells would behave in a methane environment, 

and maybe someday,
a robotic mission to Titan could determine whether they really live there.



https://phys.org/news/2020-09-titan-lake...earth.html
Titan's lakes can stratify like those on Earth



Quote:In spite of its frigid surface temperatures of around 90 Kelvin (-298 degrees Fahrenheit), 
Titan's ability to host rain, 
rivers, and lakes,
naturally draws comparisons with our home planet. 
"Earth is the most Titan-like planet known. 
Like Titan, Earth has dynamic lakes.
 Similar processes are active on both, showing that the complicated behaviors of surface liquids,
can be controlled by a few simple rules and processes," Steckloff said. 


Lakes on Saturn's moon Titan, 
composed of methane, ethane, and nitrogen rather than water, 
experience density driven stratification, 
forming layers similar to lakes on Earth. 
However, whereas lakes on Earth stratify in response to temperature, 
Titan's lakes stratify solely due to the strange chemical interactions between its surface liquids and atmosphere, 
says a paper by Planetary Science Institute Research Scientist Jordan Steckloff.

"Lakes on Titan, are dynamic places that experience complex physical processes. 
They can stratify, overturn, and possibly erupt," said Steckloff, l
ead author of "Stratification Dynamics of Titan's Lakes via Methane Evaporation" 
that appears in The Planetary Science Journal.

Because liquid methane is less dense than liquid ethane, 
it has been long assumed that Titan's methane would generally float atop its liquid ethane. 
However, when methane's affinity for atmospheric nitrogen is accounted for, 
methane can dissolve sufficient nitrogen at low temperatures to become denser than ethane.

Steckloff and his research team,

realized that this behavior would inherently drive lake stratification at temperatures,
only a few degrees cooler than have been typically observed on Titan. 

"We focused on small, shallow lakes that fill following Titan's rain events, 
and found that, if the temperature is low, 
the evaporation of methane from the surface can drive out dissolved nitrogen, 
which is heavy, 
resulting in an ethane-enriched (methane-nitrogen poor) layer floating on top of a methane-rich layer," 
Steckloff said.



https://www.nasa.gov/feature/jpl/cassini...a-on-titan
full jpg
https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files...l_full.jpg
Kraken Mare
[Image: 751568main_pia17031b-full_full.jpg]





...
Reply
#21
Damned  No...Nooo......NOOOOOO !!!

Life as we know it is bound by birth and death,
but you're talking about a cryo-biology possibly devoid of of those limits,
with nervous systems and brains operating like supercomputers.
Reply
#22
(12-27-2020, 08:59 PM)Kalter Rauch Wrote: [quote pid="246667" dateline="1609113597"]
Damned  No...Nooo......NOOOOOO !!!

Life as we know it is bound by birth and death,
but you're talking about a cryo-biology possibly devoid of of those limits,
with nervous systems and brains operating like supercomputers.

Let me re-phrase and elaborate......

Th_93c18967 No...Nooo......NOOOOOO !!!

Life as we know it is bound by birth and death,
but you're talking about a cryo-biology possibly devoid of of those limits
such that it could form out of molecular self assembly.
During growth of the "organism",
the formation of long polymeric chains
would also generate increasing electron transport
enhanced by extremely low temperature,
thus leading to superconducting nervous systems and speedy brains.

Consider an electric eel...... 
[/quote]
Reply
#23
...
Yes, your comment reflects my push here on this thread,
the expanded possibilities of life,
beyond the constraints of NASA politically correct Three Monkey Science,
which limits the interpretations of life possibilities on these moons,
to the lowest common denominator of -- microbial.

How long was this possibility of life ... just microbial?
Microbial life on Europa and Enceladus water oceans,
or Titan's methane lakes,
may have been generated hundreds of millions of years ago.

How long has the methane rain cycle that feeds the rivers that leads to the methane lakes been happening?
How long has microbial life in the Europa or Enceladus ocean been possible?

Here is a recent poke in the eye {insult to intelligence} from NASA science on Enceladus:
This generic NASA propaganda Whip 
is modeled to keep the life as puny and irrelevantly microbial as possible.



Quote:“These results indicate that oxidant production and oxidation chemistry,
could contribute to supporting possible life,
and a metabolically diverse microbial community on Enceladus.”


from this originally:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar...352030573X
Oxidation processes diversify the metabolic menu on Enceladus


http://www.sci-news.com/space/enceladus-...09162.html
Enceladus’ Subsurface Ocean Has Various Energy Sources for Microbial Life, Study Suggests


Quote:In a study published this month in the journal Icarus,
planetary researchers from the United States and Germany
modeled chemical processes in the subsurface ocean of Enceladus, the sixth-largest of Saturn’s moons.

NASA’s Cassini mission to the Saturn system discovered a plume of ice grains,
and water vapor erupting from cracks on the surface of Enceladus.

This small moon has a global subsurface ocean in contact with a rocky core beneath its icy exterior, 
making it a promising location,
to search for evidence of extraterrestrial life in our Solar System.

The previous detection of molecular hydrogen in the plume,
indicates that there is free energy available for methanogenesis,
the metabolic reaction of hydrogen with carbon dioxide to form methane and water.

Additional pathways could also provide sources of energy in Enceladus’ ocean, 
but they require the use of other compounds that have not been detected in the plume.

“The detection of molecular hydrogen in the plume indicated that there is free energy available in the ocean of Enceladus,” said Christine Ray, a researcher in the Space Science and Engineering Division at Southwest Research Institute and a Ph.D. student in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Texas at San Antonio.

“On Earth, aerobic, 
or oxygen-breathing, creatures consume energy in organic matter,
such as glucose and oxygen to create carbon dioxide and water.”

“Anaerobic microbes can metabolize hydrogen to create methane.”

“All life can be distilled to similar chemical reactions associated with disequilibrium,
between oxidant and reductant compounds.”

“This disequilibrium creates a potential energy gradient, 
where redox chemistry transfers electrons between chemical species, 
most often with one species undergoing oxidation while another species undergoes reduction.”

“These processes are vital to many basic functions of life, including photosynthesis and respiration.”

“We wondered if other types of metabolic pathways 
could also provide sources of energy in Enceladus’ ocean,” Ray explained.



Now here is the "poke in the eye" from NASA that I mentioned earlier.
This image is an insult to intelligence.
It is made for morons by morons.
It is made for the mass monkey brain collective,
that the NASA Three Monkeys {see no, hear no, speak no evolved LIFE}  perceive that most readers are.
Check out the goofy retarded cartoon microbes with question marks.

[Image: image_9162e-Enceladus-Energy-Sources.jpg]



The article continues:



Quote:Because that would require a different set of oxidants that we have not yet detected Whip 
in the plume of Enceladus, 
Ray and colleagues performed chemical  Sheep modeling 
to determine if the conditions in the ocean and the rocky core could support these chemical processes.

For example,
they looked at how ionizing radiation from space could create the oxidants oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, 
and how abiotic geochemistry  Naughty
in the ocean and rocky core,
could contribute to chemical disequilibria that might support metabolic processes.  Rofl 

They considered whether these oxidants could accumulate over time,
if reductants are not present in appreciable amounts.

They also considered how aqueous reductants or seafloor minerals,
could convert these oxidants into sulfates and iron oxides.

“We compared our free energy estimates to ecosystems on Earth and determined that, 
overall, 
our values for both aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms,
meet or exceed minimum requirements,” Ray said.               

“These results indicate that oxidant production and oxidation chemistry 
could contribute to supporting possible life and a metabolically diverse microbial community on Enceladus.”

“Now that we’ve identified potential food sources for microbes, 
the next question to ask is 
‘What is the nature of the complex organics that are coming out of the ocean?’” 
said Dr. Hunter Waite, 
also from the Space Science and Engineering Division 
at Southwest Research Institute and the Department of Physics and Astronomy 
at the University of Texas at San Antonio.

“This study is another {slow and piecemeal bullshit} step,

in understanding how a small moon can sustain life in ways, 
that completely exceed our expectations!” 



At least they tossed in "aerobic metabolisms" ... 

but the key in the entire attitude and self imposed constraints they work with,
is in the least sentence ... in the word "expectations"

All their "expectations" begin with their self imposed politically correct constraints on their own science

Let's see some of their -- computer models -- that attempt to predict beyond the simplest microbes Whip
that the Three Monkeys at NASA forecast with each press release.
Let's see an experimental model of possible evolution,
over a hundred million years in the Enceladus ocean.

No ... they want to bore is to death with an image from an seventh grade science class that I had back in 1970,
complete with a cartoon of goofy microbes next to question marks.
This is the ongoing problem.
Flying tic tacs of alien origin on the Pentagon videos,
and cartoon microbes on NASA TV. 

...
Reply
#24
(12-30-2020, 02:28 AM)Vianova Wrote: ...
Yes, your comment reflects my push here on this thread,
the expanded possibilities of life,

DECEMBER 28, 2020
Discovery boosts theory that life on Earth arose from RNA-DNA mix
[Image: rna.jpg]Credit: CC0 Public Domain
Chemists at Scripps Research have made a discovery that supports a surprising new view of how life originated on our planet.

https://phys.org/news/2020-12-discovery-...earth.html

beyond the constraints of NASA politically correct Three Monkey Science,

Howz about Three Smarticle science? >>>


DECEMBER 31, 2020
Spontaneous robot dances highlight a new kind of order in active matter
[Image: 1-spontaneousr.jpg]When a swarm of smarticles is made to interact in a confined space, they form stunningly symmetric dances whose choreography emerges spontaneously from the physics of low rattling. Credit: Thomas A. Berrueta


which limits the interpretations of life possibilities on these moons,


Quote:With a disordered order the snake's tail rattles. -EA



 "low rattling" states.
[Image: 2-spontaneousr.jpg]
When a swarm of smarticles is made to interact in a confined space, they form stunningly symmetric dances whose choreography emerges spontaneously from the physics of low rattling. Credit: Thomas A. Berrueta
"Rattling is when matter takes energy flowing into it and turns it into random motion," England said. "Rattling can be greater either when the motion is more violent, or more random. Conversely, low rattling is either very slight or highly organized—or both. So, the idea is that if your matter and energy source allow for the possibility of a low rattling state, the system will randomly rearrange until it finds that state and then gets stuck there. If you supply energy through forces with a particular pattern, this means the selected state will discover a way for the matter to move that finely matches that pattern."

to the lowest common denominator of -- microbial.

How long was this possibility of life ... just microbial?
Microbial life on Europa and Enceladus water oceans,
or Titan's methane lakes,
may have been generated hundreds of millions of years ago.

How long has the methane rain cycle that feeds the rivers that leads to the methane lakes been happening?
How long has microbial life in the Europa or Enceladus ocean been possible?

Here is a recent poke in the eye {insult to
 intelligence} from NASA science on Enceladus:
[quote pid="246676" dateline="1609306108"]
This generic NASA propaganda  
is modeled to keep the life as puny and irrelevantly microbial as possible.



“These results indicate that oxidant production and oxidation chemistry,
could contribute to supporting possible life,
and a metabolically diverse microbial community on Enceladus.”


from this originally:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar...352030573X
Oxidation processes diversify the metabolic menu on Enceladus


http://www.sci-news.com/space/enceladus-...09162.html
Enceladus’ Subsurface Ocean Has Various Energy Sources for Microbial Life, Study Suggests



Quote:In a study published this month in the journal Icarus,
planetary researchers from the United States and Germany
modeled chemical processes in the subsurface ocean of Enceladus, the sixth-largest of Saturn’s moons.

NASA’s Cassini mission to the Saturn system discovered a plume of ice grains,
and water vapor erupting from cracks on the surface of Enceladus.

This small moon has a global subsurface ocean in contact with a rocky core beneath its icy exterior, 
making it a promising location,
to search for evidence of extraterrestrial life in our Solar System.

The previous detection of molecular hydrogen in the plume,
indicates that there is free energy available for methanogenesis,
the metabolic reaction of hydrogen with carbon dioxide to form methane and water.

Additional pathways could also provide sources of energy in Enceladus’ ocean, 
but they require the use of other compounds that have not been detected in the plume.

“The detection of molecular hydrogen in the plume indicated that there is free energy available in the ocean of Enceladus,” said Christine Ray, a researcher in the Space Science and Engineering Division at Southwest Research Institute and a Ph.D. student in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Texas at San Antonio.

“On Earth, aerobic, 
or oxygen-breathing, creatures consume energy in organic matter,
such as glucose and oxygen to create carbon dioxide and water.”

“Anaerobic microbes can metabolize hydrogen to create methane.”

“All life can be distilled to similar chemical reactions associated with disequilibrium,
between oxidant and reductant compounds.”
DECEMBER 29, 2020

Switching DNA functions on and off with light
[Image: 10-dna.jpg]Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public Domain
DNA is the basis of life on earth. The function of DNA is to store all the genetic information an organism needs to develop, function and reproduce. It is essentially a biological instruction manual found in every cell. Biochemists at the University of Münster have now developed a strategy for controlling the biological functions of DNA with the aid of light. This enables researchers to better understand and control the processes that take place in the cell—for example, epigenetics, the key chemical change and regulatory lever in DNA. The results have been published in the journal Angewandte Chemie.
The cell's functions depend on enzymes. Enzymes are proteins that carry out chemical reactions in the cell. They help to synthesize metabolic products, make copies of the DNA molecules, convert energy for the cell's activities, change DNA epigenetically and break down certain molecules. A team of researchers headed by Prof. Andrea Rentmeister from the Institute of Biochemistry at the University of Münster used a so-called enzymatic cascade reaction to understand and track these functions better. This sequence of successive reaction steps involving different enzymes makes it possible to transfer so-called photocaging groups—chemical groups that can be removed by means of irradiation with light—to DNA. Previously, studies had shown that only small residues (small modifications such as methyl groups) could be transferred selectively to DNA, RNA (ribonucleic acid) or proteins.
"As a result of our work, it is now possible to transfer larger residues or modifications such as the photocaging groups just mentioned," explains Nils Klöcker, one of the lead authors of the study and a Ph.D. student at the Institute of Biochemistry. Working together with structural biologist Prof. Daniel Kümmel, who also works at the Institute of Biochemistry, it was also possible to explain the basis for the changed activity at a molecular level.
Using so-called protein engineering, a method for which a Nobel prize was awarded in 2018, the Münster researchers engineered one enzyme in the cascade, making it possible to switch DNA functions on and off by means of light. With the aid of protein design, it was possible to expand the substrate spectrum of enzymes—in this case, methionine adenosyltransferases (MATs). In their work, the researchers examined two MATs. The modifications carried out offer a starting point for developing other MATs with an expanded substrate spectrum. "Combining these MATs with other enzymes has potential for future cellular applications. This is an important step for implementing in-situ generated, non-natural substances for other enzymes in epigenetic studies," says Andrea Rentmeister.




Explore further
Enzymatic photocaging for the study of gene regulation through DNA methylation



[b]More information:[/b] Freideriki Michailidou et al, Maßgeschneiderte SAM‐Synthetasen zur enzymatischen Herstellung von AdoMet‐Analoga mit Photoschutzgruppen und zur reversiblen DNA‐Modifizierung in Kaskadenreaktionen, Angewandte Chemie (2020). DOI: 10.1002/ange.202012623
[b]Journal information:[/b] Angewandte Chemie


“This disequilibrium creates a potential energy gradient, 
where redox chemistry transfers electrons between chemical species, 
most often with one species undergoing oxidation while another species undergoes reduction.”

“These processes are vital to many basic functions of life, including photosynthesis and respiration.”

“We wondered if other types of metabolic pathways 
could also provide sources of energy in Enceladus’ ocean,” Ray explained.



Now here is the "poke in the eye" from NASA that I mentioned earlier.
This image is an insult to intelligence.
It is made for morons by morons.
It is made for the mass monkey brain collective,
that the NASA Three Monkeys {see no, hear no, speak no evolved LIFE}  perceive that most readers are.
Check out the goofy retarded cartoon microbes with question marks.


[Image: image_9162e-Enceladus-Energy-Sources.jpg]



The article continues:



Quote:Because that would require a different set of oxidants that we have not yet detected  
in the plume of Enceladus, 
Ray and colleagues performed chemical   modeling 
to determine if the conditions in the ocean and the rocky core could support these chemical processes.

For example,
they looked at how ionizing radiation from space could create the oxidants oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, 
and how abiotic geochemistry 
in the ocean and rocky core,
could contribute to chemical disequilibria that might support metabolic processes.   

They considered whether these oxidants could accumulate over time,
if reductants are not present in appreciable amounts.

They also considered how aqueous reductants or seafloor minerals,
could convert these oxidants into sulfates and iron oxides.

“We compared our free energy estimates to ecosystems on Earth and determined that, 
overall, 
our values for both aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms,
meet or exceed minimum requirements,” Ray said.               
DECEMBER 29, 2020

Order and disorder in crystalline ice explained
[Image: 1-ice.jpg]Credit: CC0 Public Domain
A fascinating substance with unique properties, ice has intrigued humans since time immemorial. Unlike most other materials, ice at very low temperature is not as ordered as it could be. A collaboration between the Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA), the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), the Institute of Physics Rosario (IFIR-UNR), with the support of the Istituto Officina dei Materiali of the Italian National Research Council (CNR-IOM), made new theoretical inroads on the reasons why this happens and on the way in which some of the missing order can be recovered. In that ordered state the team of scientists have described a relatively obscure and yet fundamental property of very low temperature ice: ferroelectricity. The results, published in PNAS, are likely to extend to ice surfaces, a possibility that could be relevant to the agglomeration of ice particles in interstellar space.


“These results indicate that oxidant production and oxidation chemistry 
could contribute to supporting possible life and a metabolically diverse microbial community on Enceladus.”

“Now that we’ve identified potential food sources for microbes, 
the next question to ask is 
‘What is the nature of the complex organics that are coming out of the ocean?’” 
said Dr. Hunter Waite, 
also from the Space Science and Engineering Division 
at Southwest Research Institute and the Department of Physics and Astronomy 
at the University of Texas at San Antonio.

“This study is another {slow and piecemeal bullshit} step,

in understanding how a small moon can sustain life in ways, 
that completely exceed our expectations!” 



At least they tossed in "aerobic metabolisms" ... 

but the key in the entire attitude and self imposed constraints they work with,
is in the least sentence ... in the word "expectations"

All their "expectations" begin with their self imposed politically correct constraints on their own science
DECEMBER 28, 2020

New quantum nanodevice can simultaneously act as a heat engine and a refrigerator
by RIKEN
[Image: aquantumnano.jpg]RIKEN researchers have produced a quantum nanodevice that can behave both as an engine and a refrigerator—at the same time. Left: © Martin Steinthaler/Getty; Right: © lilographik/Getty
A multitasking nanomachine that can act as a heat engine and a refrigerator at the same time has been created by RIKEN engineers. The device is one of the first to test how quantum effects, which govern the behavior of particles on the smallest scale, might one day be exploited to enhance the performance of nanotechnologies.
https://phys.org/news/2020-12-quantum-na...rator.html


Let's see some of their -- computer models -- that attempt to predict beyond the simplest microbes
that the Three Monkeys at NASA forecast with each press release.
Let's see an experimental model of possible evolution,
over a hundred million years in the Enceladus ocean.

No ... they want to bore is to death with an image from an seventh grade science class that I had back in 1970,
complete with a cartoon of goofy microbes next to question marks.
DECEMBER 30, 2020

Torpor: a neat survival trick once thought rare in Australian animals is actually widespread
by Chris Wacker, The Conversation
[Image: torporaneats.jpg]Credit: Shutterstock
Life is hard for small animals in the wild, but they have many solutions to the challenges of their environment. One of the most fascinating of these strategies is torpor.

Not, to be confused with sleep or Sunday afternoon lethargy, torpor is a complex response to the costs of living.
https://phys.org/news/2020-12-torpor-nea...-rare.html
https://phys.org/news/2020-12-disorder-c...e-ice.html


This is the ongoing problem.
Flying tic tacs of alien origin on the Pentagon videos,
and cartoon microbes on NASA TV. 


...
[/quote]

True That!
Arrow “These results indicate that oxidant production and oxidation chemistry 

could contribute to supporting possible life and a metabolically diverse microbial community on Enceladus.”
 The Blood Sang Real

DECEMBER 29, 2020
A single gene 'invented' hemoglobin several times
[Image: 1-asinglegenei.jpg]The Platynereis dumerilii vascular system in three segments. Credit: Song et al./BMC Evolutionary Biology
Thanks to the marine worm Platynereis dumerilii, an animal whose genes have evolved very slowly, scientists from CNRS, Université de Paris and Sorbonne Université, in association with others at the University of Saint Petersburg and the University of Rio de Janeiro, have shown that while hemoglobin appeared independently in several species, it actually descends from a single gene transmitted to all by their last common ancestor. These findings were published on 29 December 2020 in BMC Evolutionary Biology.
Having red blood is not peculiar to humans or mammals. This color comes from hemoglobin, a complex protein specialized in transporting the oxygen found in the circulatory system of vertebrates, but also in annelids (a worm family whose most famous members are earthworms), molluscs (especially pond snails) and crustaceans (such as daphnia or 'water fleas'). It was thought that for hemoglobin to have appeared in such diverse species, it must have been 'invented' several times during evolution. But recent research has shown that all of these haemoglobins born 'independently' actually derive from a single ancestral gene.
Researchers from the Institut Jacques Monod (CNRS/Université de Paris), the Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes (CNRS/Université de Paris), the Station Biologique de Roscoff (CNRS/Sorbonne Université), the Universities of Saint Petersburg (Russia) and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), conducted this research on Platynereis dumerilii, a small marine worm with red blood.
It is considered to be an animal that evolved slowly, because its genetic characteristics are close to those of the marine ancestor of most animals, Urbilateria. Studying these worms by comparing them with other species with red blood has helped in tracing back to the origins of haemoglobins.
The research focused on the broad family to which haemoglobins belong: globins, proteins present in almost all living beings that 'store' gases like oxygen and nitric oxide. But globins usually act inside the cells because they do not circulate in the blood like hemoglobin.
This work shows that in all species with red blood, it is the same gene that makes a globin called 'cytoglobin' that independently evolved to become a hemoglobin-encoding gene. This new circulating molecule made oxygen transport more efficient in their ancestors, who became larger and more active.
Scientists now want to change scale and continue this work by studying when and how the different specialized cells of bilaterian vascular systems emerged.




Explore further
What happens to magnetic nanoparticles in cells?



[b]More information:[/b] Solène Song et al, Globins in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii shed new light on hemoglobin evolution in bilaterians, BMC Evolutionary Biology (2020). DOI: 10.1186/s12862-020-01714-4
[b]Journal information:[/b] BMC Evolutionary Biology [/url]

Provided by [url=https://phys.org/partners/cnrs/]Song et al. / BMC Evolutionary Biology
 




With a disordered order the snake's tail rattles. -EA

Provided by Song et al. / BMC Evolutionary Biology  DOI: 10.1186/s12862-020-01714-4
Reply
#25
As per V......

"...the key in the entire attitude and self imposed constraints they work with,
is in the least sentence ... in the word "expectations"

All their "expectations" begin with their self imposed politically correct constraints on their own science."


I think the mental set is even more constrained by religious belief.
The Catholic Church maintains and updates an Index of forbidden books,
philosophies and etc. such that reading or adhering to anything on the list
may have consequences such as Excommunication or even Eternal Torture in Hell.
NASA can't force a scientist-believer to study what is of The Devil according to The Papacy... Devil
Reply
#26
...

Neptune's Triton -- an ocean world out at 30 AU 


Quote:Neptune’s largest moon may have a turbulent ocean under its icy crust, driving geologic activity. 
If so, the mix of liquid water and an ability to cycle nutrients Hi   within it,
hints that Triton has at least some of the ingredients needed to spark life.

Triton is significantly tilted with respect to Neptune, 
so that the planet squeezes and stretches the moon Whip   as it orbits. 
That could be driving turbulence in the ocean, 
producing enough heat to set the ice above it in motion.




[Image: mg22129574.300-1_800.jpg?width=778]




Most of what we know about Triton came from the exploits of Voyager 2. 
Its final target before it spun-off into deep space, 
Voyager 2’s engineers changed the probe’s direction and speed, 
so that it could do a close flyby of Triton. 

As well as revealing geologically young surfaces, 
Voyager 2 saw active geysers spewing material, 
tell-tale signs that Triton is active Dance2  
despite having the coldest surface temperature (-391° Fahrenheit/-235°Celsius) 
of anything visited during Voyager’s “Grand Tour” of the solar system. 

“Voyager spotted dark plumes of material erupting from Triton’s surface, 
which turned at about 8 km,
and were carried downwind for up to 150 km,” 
says Dr. Louise M. Prockter, 
Director of the Lunar and Planetary Institute, 
who’s proposing the Trident mission to Neptune and Triton for launch in 2026. 

“We don’t know if those result from some kind of sublimation of nitrogen ice, 
as was thought when they were first discovered, 
or whether they are cryovolcanic plumes from the interior, 
more like Enceladus’ plumes, 
which were discovered much later.” 
Triton is one of only four bodies in the solar system that has these plumes, 
along with Earth, Io, and Enceladus. 
Europa at Jupiter may also have plumes, but they haven’t been confirmed.


good size image at link
https://cosmosmagazine.com/wp-content/up...n-full.jpg

[Image: 180725-triton-full.jpg]



Only about 40% of Triton’s surface was photographed in useful resolutions. 
“60% of this moon is terra incognita, 
which makes Triton the largest unmapped solid body in the Solar System,” 
says Prockter, 
who is excited at the proposition of seeing a previously unseen surface for the first time. 


“It is an icy moon with an extremely young surface, 
implying that it is active today,” says Prockter. 
“It may be the second youngest surface in the solar system, second only to Io, 
on which volcanoes are erupting constantly.” 

Something else very strange about Triton is its ionosphere, 
a layer of a celestial body’s atmosphere where atoms are ionized by solar and cosmic radiation.

 “It’s an order of magnitude more intense than that of any other body in the solar system,” 
says Prockter. 
That’s very weird because ionospheres are usually driven by the Sun, 
yet Triton is so far away that we would expect its ionosphere to be weaker, not far stronger, 
than the ionospheres of other bodies closer to the Sun. 

“We think Neptune plays a role in this, 
but the only way to find out is to go and measure the ionosphere and local environment,” says Prockter.

[Image: nasa-proposes-mission-to-neptunes-larges...00x630.png]



“If Triton does have an ocean of liquid water, 
this could have significant astrobiological implications, 
since water is an essential ingredient for life,” says Prockter. 

“Understanding how, why, and where ocean worlds form in our solar system 
will also help us understand the potential for life elsewhere in the galaxy, and where to look for it.” 
If an ocean at Triton is confirmed by Trident, 
that effectively means that it’s almost certainly the most distant such world in the solar system.

At a stroke the so-called “habitable zone”–
where liquid water, and therefore life, 
is thought to be possible in any planetary system–
would be extended to a whopping 30 AU. 
That would potentially make life far more prevalent than previously thought.

What will the Trident mission do?

A fast flyby mission similar to New Horizons at Pluto, 

the plutonium-powered Trident spacecraft would launch in 2026 
and visit Jupiter and its moon Io on the way to Triton, 
where it will pass within 500km of the surface, in 2038, 
ostensibly to detect an ocean and sample Triton’s ionosphere.. 
Data will be collected for several days and returned to Earth over the course of a year.

https://www.forbes.com/sites/jamiecarter...313b7a82de
...
Reply
#27
...

Looks like we might have new images and data of Europa by mid to end of 2023  


https://spaceflightnow.com/2021/01/11/na...-20-years/

NASA mission extension enables first flybys of Jupiter’s moons in 20 years

“It really becomes a full system explorer, 
not as focused as the prime mission was,” Bolton said last year. 
We have multiple flybys of Io, Europa and Ganymede.”


Quote:In a pair of mission extensions, 
NASA has cleared the way for more seismic observations on Mars 
with the robotic InSight lander 
and approved plans for the Juno spacecraft to alter its orbit Whip
and perform close flybys of Jupiter’s icy moon Europa, Ganymede, and the volcanic moon Io.



artist concept of Juno craft
[Image: pia16869.jpg]



The Juno mission, in orbit around Jupiter since July 4, 2016, 
has been approved for a four-year extension through September 2025, 
assuming the spacecraft is still operating. 

The Juno orbiter has focused on observations of Jupiter in its first four years at the giant planet, 
but the mission’s task list will grow in the coming years to include flybys and measurements of Jupiter’s rings, 
and three of its largest moons.


Juno’s nine scientific instrumentsm
include a microwave radiometer for atmospheric soundings, 
ultraviolet and infrared spectrometers, 
particle detectors, 
a magnetometer, 
and a radio and plasma waves experiment. 

The Jupiter orbiter also carries a color camera known as JunoCam Applause  
which collects image data for processing and analysis by an army of citizen scientists around the world.


The moon flybys could begin in mid-2021 with an encounter with Ganymede, 
Jupiter’s largest moon, 
at a distance of roughly 600 miles (1,000 kilometers), Bolton said last year.

After a series of distant passes, 
Juno will swoop just 200 miles (320 kilometers) 
above Europa in late 2022 for a high-speed flyby  Naughty
 
Only NASA’s Galileo spacecraft, which ended its mission in 2003, has come closer to Europa.

There are two encounters with Jupiter’s volcanic moon Io 
planned in 2024 at distances of about 900 miles (1,500 kilometers), 
according to the flight plan presented by Bolton last year. 
Juno will be able to look for changes on the surfaces of Jupiter’s moons, 
since they were last seen up close by NASA’s Voyager and Galileo probes.

At Ganymede, Juno will map the moon’s surface composition and investigate the 3D structure of Ganymede’s magnetosphere. Ganymede is the only moon in the solar system known to have its own magnetic field.

The JunoCam imager will take the sharpest pictures of Europa
since the Galileo mission’s last encounter with the icy moon in 2000, 
allowing scientists to search for evidence of plumes erupting from Europa’s surface.

The spacecraft’s other instruments will be tuned to look for particles lofted from Europa in the possible plumes. 
Signs of recurring eruptions from Europa were detected by the Hubble Space Telescope.

During its flybys with Io, 
Juno will look for evidence of a global magma ocean feeding Io’s volcanoes. 
Juno might also be able to observe active volcanoes in Io’s polar regions.

Juno is the second spacecraft to orbit Jupiter after the Galileo mission, 
which intentionally crashed into the giant planet in 2003. 
Galileo’s last close-up flyby of one of Jupiter’s moons, Io, occurred in 2002.


...
Reply
#28
In honuor of Marvel Whiteside Parsons known to JPL as Jack Parsons Lab.
[Image: the-galactic-squid-cameron-knudsen.jpg]
Two creatures use jet propulsion...  butterfly effect is a Squid Squirt heard around the world(s) was.   


JANUARY 20, 2021

Butterflies create jet propulsion with a clap of their wings Holycowsmile
by Kelly MacNamara
[Image: scientistsbe.jpg]Scientists believe butterflies might use the 'clap' to help boost flight at takeoff when they are vulnerable to predators
The whimsical, wafting flight of butterflies may not give the impression of top aerodynamic performance, but research published on Wednesday suggests their large flexible wings could be perfectly designed to give them a burst of jet propulsion.
Scientists at Lund University in Sweden set out to verify a decades-old theory that insects "clap" their wings together, squeezing out the air between with such force that it thrusts them forward.
In their aerodynamic analysis of free-flying butterflies published in the journal Interface, they showed that the clap function does generate a jet of air propulsion.
But they also found that the butterflies perform this move "in a far more advanced way than we ever realised", said co-author Per Henningsson, a professor in the department of biology at Lund University.
At the moment the wings beat together they "were not just two flat surfaces slamming together", he told AFP.
Instead, they form a "pocket" shape believed to trap more air.
When the researchers recreated this using mechanical wings, they found that those with butterfly-like flexibility that form this pocket at the moment of impact were 22 percent more effective in the amount of force created and 28 percent more efficient in the amount of energy used compared with rigid wings.
The team suggested that their findings could have uses for drones that use clapping wing propulsion.

[b]Predator evasion[/b]
Henningsson said the "dramatic improvement" in performance came as a surprise.
"This is the type of finding that is the most exciting for a scientist—the ones you didn't really expect," he said.
Butterfly wings "although conventionally considered aerodynamically inefficient" might be particularly good at forming this pocket shape, he added, suggesting they may have evolved enhance clap propulsion as a way to evade predators that might spot them as they take off.
"To minimise the risk of capture, butterflies typically take off very fast and suddenly and many of them fly in an erratic and unpredictable manner," he said.
"If indeed the clap is improved dramatically by the cupped shape of the wings this would allow a butterfly to take off faster and avoid being captured better, and hence you can imagine a strong selective pressure on this feature."
The study suggested other creatures—like fish or frogs—may also have developed clapping propulsion using cupped wings, fins or feet.
Henningsson said while the theory of the wing clap has been around since the 1970s, studies on butterfly flight had often relied on tethered butterflies or used simulations.
But improvements in technology to measure flow meant the authors were able to observe the creatures in natural flight.




Explore further
Winging it: How do bats out-maneuver their prey?



[b]More information:[/b] L. C. Johansson et al. Butterflies fly using efficient propulsive clap mechanism owing to flexible wings, Journal of The Royal Society Interface (2021). DOI: 10.1098/rsif.2020.0854



https://phys.org/news/2021-01-butterflie...wings.html





Quote:The "cost of transport" is used to compare efficiencies of species across biology, and by this measure the jellyfish is the most efficient animal in nature, easily beating running and flying animals and bony fish.

The new robot was developed at the University of Southampton and is the first submersible to demonstrate the benefits of using resonance for underwater propulsion. Resonance refers to large vibrations that occur when applying a force at the ideal frequency, like pushing a child on a swing. This allows the robot to use very little power but generate large water jets to push itself forward.



Jelly-fish jet-setters propelled in otherworldly under-watery ways...



JANUARY 20, 2021
Squid-inspired robot swims with nature's most efficient marine animals
[Image: 600821fcad2c2.jpg]The squid-inspired pulse-jetting robotic swimmer. Credit: Bujard et al., Sci. Robot. 6, eabd2971 (2021)
Scientists at the University of Southampton and University of Edinburgh have developed a flexible underwater robot that can propel itself through water in the same style as nature's most efficient swimmer—the Aurelia aurita jellyfish.
The findings, published in Science Robotics, demonstrate that the new underwater robot can swim as quickly and efficiently as the squid and jellyfish which inspired its design, potentially unlocking new possibilities for underwater exploration with its lightweight design and soft exterior.
Co-author Dr. Francesco Giorgio-Serchi, Lecturer and Chancellor's Fellow, at the School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, said: "The fascination for organisms such as squid, jellyfish and octopuses has been growing enormously because they are quite unique in that their lack of supportive skeletal structure does not prevent them from outstanding feats of swimming."
The "cost of transport" is used to compare efficiencies of species across biology, and by this measure the jellyfish is the most efficient animal in nature, easily beating running and flying animals and bony fish.
The new robot was developed at the University of Southampton and is the first submersible to demonstrate the benefits of using resonance for underwater propulsion. Resonance refers to large vibrations that occur when applying a force at the ideal frequency, like pushing a child on a swing. This allows the robot to use very little power but generate large water jets to push itself forward.
[color=var(--plyr-video-control-color, #fff)]Play


[/color]
[color=var(--plyr-video-control-color, #fff)]Play[/color]

Dr Gabriel Weymouth from the University of Southampton and Alan Turing Institute explains the design of a new underwater robot that moves with the style and efficiency of natures most efficient swimmers. Credit: University of Southampton
The simple but effective mechanism consists of rubber membrane enclosing eight 3-D-printed flexible ribs, which together form a 'propulsive bell'. A small piston in the top half of the robot taps this bell repeatedly so that it expands and then springs back. This mimics a jellyfish's swimming technique and produced the jets of fluid to propel the robot through the water. When the piston operates at with the correct frequency—the natural resonance for the components—the robot can move at one body length per second and match the efficiency of the Aurella aurita jellyfish.
The latest tests show the new robot is ten to fifty times more efficient than typical small underwater vehicles powered by propellers. This increased efficiency, combined with the additional benefits of the robot's soft, flexible exterior would make it ideal for operating near sensitive environments such as a coral reef, archaeological sites, or even in waters crowded with swimmers.
[color=var(--plyr-video-control-color, #fff)]Play

[/color]
[color=var(--plyr-video-control-color, #fff)]Play[/color]

Raw footage of the Robot swimming Credit: University of Southampton
Co-author Thierry Bujard, a Masters student in Naval Architecture at the University of Southampton, designed and built the robot in a matter of months. Thierry said, "Previous attempts to propel underwater robots with jetting systems have involved pushing water through a rigid tube but we wanted to take it further so we brought in elasticity and resonance to mimic biology. I was really surprised by the results, I was confident that the design would work but the efficiency of the robot was much greater than I expected."

Dr. Gabriel Weymouth, Associate Professor in the University's School of Engineering, who supervised the project added, "The great thing about using resonance is that we can achieve large vibrations of the propulsive bell with a very small amount of power; we just need to poke it out of shape and let the elasticity and inertia do the rest. This has allowed us to unlock the efficiency of propulsion used by sea creatures that use jets to swim.


[Image: 600821862ddba.jpg]A menagerie of bimonitoring. Credit: Bujard et al., Sci. Robot. 6, eabd2971 (2021)
CAD image of robot design. Credit: University of Southampton
[Image: 600821862ddba.jpg]
A menagerie of bioinspired robots for ocean monitoring. Credit: Bujard et al., Sci. Robot. 6, eabd2971 (2021)
[Image: squidinspire.jpg]CAD image of robot design. Credit: University of Southampton"
The last decade has seen a surge in research into flexible and biologically-inspired robots, such as Boston Dynamic's "Big Dog", because they can be much more versatile than standard industry robots. This research demonstrates that these concepts can also be applied to underwater robotics. "There are still many challenges and exciting possibilities to explore with soft underwater robotic technologies. We are now looking to extend the concept behind this robot to a fully manoeuvrable and autonomous underwater vehicle capable of sensing and navigating its environment."

Explore further
This 'squidbot' jets around and takes pics of coral and fish

[b]More information:[/b] T. Bujard el al., "A resonant squid-inspired robot unlocks biological propulsive efficiency," Science Robotics (2021). robotics.sciencemag.org/lookup … /scirobotics.abd2971

"Squid-inspired robots perform swimmingly," Science Robotics (2021). robotics.sciencemag.org/lookup … /scirobotics.abf4301
[b]Journal information:[/b] Science Robotics






Life uses jet propulsion...ergo it uses plasma too... if you follow the improvic illogic.and counter intuitive likelihood that anti-gravity is  as effortless as a fluttering butterfly wing.
Meta-Material / Metaphorically speaking in forked-tongue
Life before in chrysalid can't fly eh? no?

JPL send their jet pro-pulsed mimics out in advance as scouts and probes coldly calculate...
While tardigrades give them tardy bad grades for arriving too early in their conclusive exclusive myopic view.

Don't send a milquetoast soy-boy mission where man woman and child shall go to ground-truth our humanity. Arrow


Boots on ground life will be found. Greet012
Robotic surveys are willfully blind.

Only a close encounter of the Dirt Kind will prove life ubiquity and JPL iniquity.
Along the vines of the Vineyard.
With a forked tongue the snake singsss...
Reply
#29
...
A little news emerges on Enceladus and Europa in the last few weeks.

Forbes magazine is trying to catch up to this post here at HM. -- Feb 1

https://www.forbes.com/sites/jamiecarter...f8f4d32977
Are There ‘Eyeless Creatures’ On Enceladus?
more at the link:

Quote:An underground ocean receives no sunlight,
so how could it possibly support life?
Life doesn’t necessarily need light, it needs energy.
“There is energy aplenty,
partly from the radioactive decay of elements in the moon’s core,
but also from the friction of the tides—
the huge force of the gravity from Saturn pulling the rock and water backwards and forwards,”
writes Kershenbaum.

He thinks that any life on Enceladus likely exists in three places:
the ocean floor
the upper ocean where it meets the ice cap
swims through the ocean

In such a scenario any creatures are likely to exist where the ocean meets the ice  Naughty
suggests Kershenbaum,
possibly burrowing up into the ice for protection.
“On a dark, subterranean world, perhaps like the underground oceans of Enceladus,
vision may be totally absent,
and eyeless creatures Whip
could evolve a perfectly competent and rich communication using sound alone,”
writes Kershenbaum.

A paper published recently suggests that  a varied “metabolic menu”
could support a potentially diverse microbial community.

“The detection of molecular hydrogen in the plume
indicated that there is free energy available in the ocean of Enceladus,”
said lead author Christine Ray, who works part time at SwRI


“These results indicate that oxidant production and oxidation chemistry
could contribute to supporting possible life,
and a metabolically diverse Band
microbial community on Enceladus.”


------------------------------------------------------------------------------

https://eos.org/articles/this-search-for...a-on-earth
This Search for Alien Life Starts with Destroying Bacteria on Earth
Someday, a catalog of molecular fragments
might help scientists identify extraterrestrial life on our solar system’s icy moons.


Quote:... a future spacecraft needs to be able to detect large, complex organics.
NASA’s next mission to the outer solar system,
Europa Clipper,
will study another moon that contains a liquid water ocean,
Jupiter’s satellite Europa.

In a lab at the Imperial College London,
Tara Salter used high temperatures to destroy samples of bacteria and archaea,
leaving behind molecular fragments.
With this pyrolysis process,
Salter was attempting to simulate what might happen to molecules,
that smash into a spacecraft like bugs on a windshield.

Specifically, Salter was simulating a spacecraft flying through the geyser-like plumes,
of the outer solar system’s famous ocean moons.

Scientists have observed plumes spouting from the icy shells,
of both Saturn’s moon Enceladus and Jupiter’s moon Europa—
and they want to send spacecraft through those plumes,
to investigate what kinds of molecules are being ejected from the extraterrestrial oceans below.


[Image: Enceladus-cross-section-395x511.jpg]



Quote:Any molecule colliding with a spacecraft flying at speeds of several kilometers per second,
would be “smashed to smithereens,” Salter said.
Even if microbes are part of plume ejecta,
sampling spacecraft likely won’t be able to observe entire organisms—just bits of them.

“Being able to put back together the organism,
from detecting small parts is the big aim” of her research, Salter said.
She hopes that her smashed-up bacteria samples,
and the molecular fragments they leave behind,
will help future scientists investigate the possibility of life in one of these ocean worlds.

To simulate a spacecraft’s flight through Europa’s plumes,
Salter took specimens of extremophile bacteria
and heated them up in a special chamber to 650°C Whip 
which mimics the destructive force of smashing into a spacecraft.

The heat destroys the molecules to some extent,
and what’s left is a smorgasbord of fragments.
Salter then analyzed these fragments with her own mass spectrometer and created a catalog.

“You can simplify a bacteria into proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids,” among other things, Salter said.
In her analysis, she found fragments of amino acids, 
fatty acid chains that make up lipids, and molecules containing oxygen,
hydrogen, and carbon from the carbohydrates.

After analyzing the fragments,
Salter created a library of molecular signatures
one she hopes to expand and share with fellow scientists.

Salter has more plans for destruction.
She wants to destroy bacteria cells using ultraviolet radiation—
to mimic the surface of Europa
and to heat up the cells in the presence of water,
to see how water affects what molecules get left behind.

From the dust of pulverized bacteria,
scientists hope to compile a complete library of molecular fragments
that can help identify life on another world.
 ...
Reply
#30
...

two articles on the same subject with different images available

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-5625...fJlhOIhONQ

Glow-in-the-dark sharks found off New Zealand coast


Quote:The species were collected from the Chatham Rise - 
an area of ocean floor to the east of New Zealand - in January of last year, according to the study.

One of them, the kitefin shark, 
is now the largest known luminous vertebrate and can reach up to 180cm (5ft 11in).

Bioluminescence was also confirmed in the blackbelly lanternshark and southern lanternshark.


https://ichef.bbci.co.uk/news/976/cpspro...2-g003.jpg
[Image: _117356950_fmars-08-633582-g003.jpg]


Quote:The three species were already known to marine biologists 
but this is the first time that the phenomenon of bioluminescence - organisms emitting light - 
has been identified in them.

While many marine animals - as well as some insects such as fireflies - 
produce their own light, this is the first time it has been found in larger sharks.

The researchers suggest the sharks' glowing underbellies 
may help them hide from predators or other threats beneath them.

They say the bioluminescence is achieved through thousands of photophores 
(light-producing cells) located within the sharks' skin.

The three studied species inhabit a space called the mesopelagic zone,
often called the twilight zone,
which ranges from 200m to 1,000m depth -- 660 to 3300 feet
(the maximum depth reached by sunlight).

The species in question face an environment with no place to hide,
hence the need for counterillumination as a form of camouflage,
the researchers add.

In the study, the scientists from the Université Catholique de Louvain in Belgium
and the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research in New Zealand
explain the importance of bioluminescence for marine creatures:

It "has often been seen as a spectacular yet uncommon event at sea,
but considering the vastness of the deep sea and the occurrence of luminous organisms in this zone,
it is now more and more obvious that producing light at depth
must play an important role structuring the biggest ecosystem on our planet".






Scientists have discovered three species of glowing sharks in the deep ocean near New Zealand, 
reports Elle Hunt for the Guardian. 
One of the species, the kitefin shark, 
can reach lengths of nearly six feet and researchers say,
its cool blue glow makes it the largest known species of luminous vertebrate on Earth.

The three bioluminescent sharks—the kitefin shark,
the blackbelly lanternshark and the southern lanternshark—
were hauled up from the deep during fish surveys of an ocean bottom feature,
called the Chatham Rise off the east coast of New Zealand in January 2020. 
All three sharks inhabit the ocean’s mesopelagic or “twilight” zone, 
which spans depths of 660 to 3,300 feet below the surface.

Bioluminescence is relatively common in the deep sea among fish and squids, 
but its presence has been murkier and less well-studied among sharks, 
reports Elizabeth Claire Alberts for Mongabay. 
A study detailing the discovery, 
published last month in the journal Frontiers in Marine Science, 
confirms the three sharks’ bioluminescence 
but suggests their biochemical mechanism for producing light 
may be different from most sea creatures, per Mongabay.

Most bioluminescence in the deep sea involves a chemical compound called luciferin 
that glows when it interacts with oxygen. 
Researchers tell Mongabay that this trio of sharks appears to produce light some other way.

[Image: fmars-08-633582-g003.jpg]


Researchers aren’t exactly sure what purpose the ability to glow serves for the sharks 
but speculate that their glowing bellies could make them harder to see from below. 
In the darkness of the deep sea, 
the ocean surface is a faintly luminous backdrop against which a glowing shark would disappear 
when viewed from below, concealing it from predators or prey. 
Per the Guardian, the kitefin may also be using its glow to illuminate prey on the seafloor.

“I tend to say they are the MacGyver users of light, 
because they use bioluminescence in many different ways,” 
Jérôme Mallefet, a marine biologist at the Université Catholique de Louvainthe and the study’s lead author, 
tells Mongabay.

Curiously, the kitefin’s dorsal fin also emits light. 
Speaking with the Guardian, Mallefet says 
“we are still very surprised by the glow on the dorsal fin. 
Why? 
For which purpose?”

Mallefet says he hopes he will soon be able to safely travel for his research 
and continue investigating the glowing denizens of the deep. 
“We hope by highlighting something new in the deep sea of New Zealand—glowing sharks—
that maybe people will start thinking we should protect this environment before destroying it,” 
he tells Mongabay.
Reply
#31
...

I am right on the money.
Threads like this at HM are what force NASA science to concede to common sense.
It makes true space men out of the three NASA  Naughty monkeys:

Alan Stern hits the jackpot with a quick pdf.

First this is the media release link,
and then I have copied the short but complete pdf.

https://scitechdaily.com/worlds-with-und...han-earth/
SwRI researcher theorizes worlds with underground oceans  Hi
may be more conducive to life Food-smiley-004
than worlds,
with surface oceans like Earth.

In a report presented at the 52nd annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (LPSC 52) this week,
Southwest Research Institute planetary scientist S. Alan Stern,
writes that the prevalence of interior water ocean worlds (IWOWs) Whip  
in our solar system,
suggests they may be prevalent in other star systems as well,
vastly expanding the conditions for planetary habitability and biological survival over time.


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Stern's short pdf is excellent, highlighted with surprises

https://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2021/pdf/1180.pdf

SOME IMPLICATIONS FOR BOTH LIFE AND CIVILIZATIONS REGARDING INTERIOR WATER
OCEAN WORLDS. S.A. Stern
Southwest Research Institute, Space Science and Engineering Division,
1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302, astern@swri.edu


Quote:Our solar system is replete with worlds possessing Interior water oceans.
Such worlds are likely to be common in extrasolar planetary systems as well.
Here we examine some implications regarding the development of life,
and intelligent civilizations,
in Interior Water Ocean Worlds (IWOWs)  <---
where their presence is cloaked by massive overlying burdens of rock,
and/or ice between the ocean abode and the external Universe.


Why Interior Ocean Worlds
Can Be More Conducive to Life Than Worlds With Surface Ecosystems:

As we now know, in our solar system, Earth is an uncommon type of water ocean world,
because its oceans are on its exterior.
In contrast, an increasing number of worlds in our solar system,
have been shown through gravitational, magnetic, or geological/geophysical evidence,
to indicate that they likely contain interior water oceans.

As a result, water ocean worlds are now thought to be common in our solar system ,
IWOWs appear to be particularly conducive to,
and perhaps at an advantage for the development and maintenance of life.

This is so owing to several key advantages of IWOWs,
over 
External Water Ocean Worlds (EWOWs) like Earth.

These advantages include:
a) Environmental Independence to Stellar Type, Multiplicity, and Distance from Their Host Planet.

Owing to the depth of typical interior oceans below the planetary surface,
and the overlying thermal insulation provided by the planetary lid atop these oceans,
the energy balance, temperature, pressure, and toxicity of IWOWs,
are only weakly coupled,
to their host star’s stellar type, multiplicity, distance, and evolutionary stage.

Thus IWOWs can exist in many stellar environments that EWOWs cannot,
and are (as evidenced in our system by IWOWs as far from the Sun as the Kuiper Belt)
decoupled from the narrow stellar habitable zones that EWOWs require.

Similarly,
IWOWs are largely or completely insensitive,
depending on their depth below the surface, to stellar multiplicity,
host planet orbital eccentricity and spin states.
Indeed, IWOWs can even remain liquid <-----
and therefore be candidate abodes to life on unbound planets that no longer orbit any star at all.

b) Environmental Stability Against External Threats.

Again owing to the overlying thermal, radiation,
and impact insulation provided by the planetary lid atop IWOWs,
they are also protected from numerous kinds of existential threats to life.
These include impacts, space radiation,
surface climate and obliquity cycles,
poisonous atmospheres, and deleterious nearby astrophysical events,
such as novae and supernovae, hazardous stellar flares,
and even phenomena like the Faint Young Sun.

As a result of these factors,
IWOWs require much less of their parent planet, parent star,
and the nearby galactic environment,
to remain viable for life than do EWOWs.

For example,
IWOWs do not require planetary magnetospheres for radiation protection,
nor do they suffer from external threats due to asteroid/comet impacts,
supernovae and novae induced insolation catastrophes,
and obliquity extremes,
and they are also immune to the passage of their host star,
through giant molecular clouds of high opacity.

These factors make IWOWs attractive sites for the potential development and persistence of biology.

On Interior Ocean Worlds <----
Naturally Sequestering Their Intelligent Civilizations    Holycowsmile
From Space Travel
and Interstellar Communications:

Because ecosystems inside IWOWs are, 
by definition,
isolated from their surface environments by thick shells of ice or rock or both,
intelligent life in such abodes cannot communicate,
or be easily detected using most electromagnetic means.
This electromagnetic sequestering,
naturally inhibits revealing the presence of such ecosystems, or civilizations.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


OK, a quick stop in the pdf <---
We get to a key spot here where I totally disagree with Stern.



Quote:Further, it could well be that -- intelligent species --  living in IWOWs <----
might not   
know of the external surface of their worlds,
much less the Universe around it.
And if they do, it is unclear why they would explore, Slap2 
much less inhabit, 
the alien and likely lethal environment at their planet’s surface.


"Intelligent species"  ... how intelligent?
Stern gives little credit to "intelligence" capabilities of water world alien possibilities.
The other side of the coin,
is that the water world alien may be super intelligent and super conscious,
and the very first thing,
such alien intelligence considers is everything inside and outside it's environment.
Why would such an alien NOT want to know what is outside it's planetary shell and beyond?
What would stop an industrious water world alien super intelligent species,
from accomplishing space travel?

Stern continues:


Quote:Such civilizations would also be at a disadvantage to persist there,
or to travel off their home worlds into space,
compared to residents of EWOWs,
since they are likely to be constrained by the need to carry copious water supplies  Rofl 
to live on their world’s surface or in space.


Yea ...  well "copious water {and air} supplies" are needed for all large life forms in spacecraft.
I have no doubt that the advanced alien water world technology can make it happen.
Stern must feel constrained in his imagination ... by NASA political correctness.
You just can't have water world aliens,
flying around the galaxy,
in spacecraft,
but,
NASA can envision the monkey see monkey poo humanity infesting outer space, no problemo.
Complete with terraforming on Mars.
Well excuse me,
but,
maybe,
there are some giant slithery octopussian creature feature sci fi telepathic brainiacs,
OCEAN FORMING Whip 
a planet like Mars ... 
Maybe Cthulhu wants to bask in a bubble bath of undersea vents ...



Quote:Conclusions.
Interior water ocean worlds are habitable --- 
in a wider range of host worlds <---
and stellar and galactic environments,
than do worlds
with exterior water oceans.

As a result, 
interior water ocean worlds may contain life more frequently Dance2 
than exterior water ocean worlds, 
like Earth. 
------------------------------------------


NOTE: Here again below,
Stern oddly opines with NASA 3 Monkey bad science fraught with faulty conclusions.
My comments are in bold print below:


Quote:However, 
for the reasons 52nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 2021 discussed above, 
such intelligent life would be less likely   {just as likely}
to develop an awareness of the Universe
and space travel, 
and therefore may be less likely  {just as likely}  to communicate actively or passively,
(i.e., 
via electromagnetic leakage)   --- {nonsense
than intelligent life on external ocean worlds like Earth.





Don't underestimate the water world aliens.
As Stern states:

"As a result, 
interior water ocean worlds ---> may contain life more frequently Dance2 
than exterior water ocean worlds, 
like Earth. "



That also means that the if :
"ocean water worlds contain life more frequently"
they would then have a higher statistical chance,
of an evolutionary development of super intelligent species, 
across the full evolutionary demographics of a galaxy. 


Aside from that, great work Alan Stern!
https://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2021/pdf/1180.pdf

...
Reply
#32
...

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/20...190249.htm

Ocean currents predicted on Saturn's moon Enceladus
Encased in an icy shell, 
the ocean on Enceladus appears to be churning


Quote:Buried beneath 20 kilometers of ice, 
the subsurface ocean of Enceladus -- one of Saturn's moons -- 
appears to be churning with currents akin to those on Earth.

The theory, derived from the shape of Enceladus's ice shell, 
challenges the current thinking Slap2 

that the moon's global ocean is homogenous, 
apart from some vertical mixing driven by the warmth of the moon's core.

Enceladus, a tiny frozen ball about 500 kilometers in diameter 
(about 1/7th the diameter of Earth's moon), 
is the sixth largest moon of Saturn. 
It is one of the few locations in the solar system with liquid water
(another is Jupiter's moon Europa), 
making it a target of interest for astrobiologists searching for signs of life.

The ocean on Enceladus is almost entirely unlike Earth's. 
Earth's ocean is relatively shallow (an average of 3.6 km deep), 
covers three-quarters of the planet's surface, 
is warmer at the top from the sun's rays and colder in the depths near the seafloor, 
and has currents that are affected by wind; 
Enceladus, meanwhile, 
appears to have a globe-spanning and completely subsurface ocean 
that is at least 30 km deep <---
and is cooled at the top near the ice shell,
and warmed at the bottom by heat from the moon's core.

Caltech graduate student Ana Lobo 
suggests that oceans on Enceladus have currents akin to those on Earth. 
The work builds on measurements by Cassini 
as well as the research of Andrew Thompson, 
professor of environmental science and engineering, 
who has been studying the way that ice and water interact to drive ocean mixing around Antarctica. <---

The oceans of Enceladus and Earth share one important characteristic: they are salty.
 
And as shown by findings published in Nature Geoscience on March 25, 
variations in salinity 
could serve as drivers of the ocean circulation on Enceladus, 
much as they do in Earth's Southern Ocean, which surrounds Antarctica.


Gravitational measurements and heat calculations from Cassini 

had already revealed that the ice shell is thinner at the poles than at the equator. 
Regions of thin ice at the poles 
are likely associated with melting and regions of thick ice at the equator with freezing, 
Thompson says. 
This affects the ocean currents because when salty water freezes, 
it releases the salts <---
and makes the surrounding water heavier, causing it to sink. 
The opposite happens in regions of melt.

Ocean currents predicted on Saturn's moon Enceladus
Encased in an icy shell, the ocean on Enceladus appears to be churning

"Knowing the distribution of ice allows us to place constraints on circulation patterns," 
Lobo explains. 
An idealized computer model, 
based on Thompson's studies of Antarctica, 
suggests that the regions of freezing and melting, 
identified by the ice structure, would be connected by the ocean currents. 

This would create a  pole-to-equator circulation Whip 
 that influences the distribution of heat and nutrients.

"Understanding which regions of the subsurface ocean might be the most hospitable to life as we know it,
could one day inform efforts to search for signs of life," Thompson says.




meanwhile on Titan:


https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2021/03/...radle-life

Titan’s largest crater might be the perfect cradle for life
Quote:Saturn’s frigid moon Titan has long intrigued scientists searching for life in the Solar System. 
Its surface is coated in organic hydrocarbons, 
and its icy crust is thought to cover a watery ocean. 

An asteroid or comet slamming into the moon could theoretically mix these two ingredients, 
according to a new study, 
with the resulting impact craters providing an ideal place for life to get started.

The idea is “very exciting,” says Léa Bonnefoy,
 a planetary scientist and Titan expert at the University of Paris. 
“If you have a lot of liquid water creating a temporary warm pool on the surface, 
then you can have conditions that would be favorable for life,” 
she says. 
And, “If you have organic material cycling from the surface into the ocean, 
then that makes the ocean a bit more habitable.”



artist conception of Titan
[Image: main_titan_1280.jpg?itok=yVx76-0X]




Quote:Scientists have believed an ocean sits about 100 kilometers below Titan’s crust ever since 2012, 
when NASA’s Cassini mission measured sight variations in the moon’s tides. 
Alvaro Penteado Crósta, 
a planetary geologist at the University of Campinas, 
knew the moon was pocked with many large impact craters. 

He wondered whether any of the impacts were big enough, 
to pierce the crust and churn up the surface’s organic material with the water below. 
That may have produced :
“a primordial soup that you would need for life to develop,” Penteado Crósta says.

To find out, 
he and his colleagues modeled the impact for the moon’s largest crater, 
425-kilometer-wide Menrva, 
thought to have formed 1 billion years ago. 
The model suggested the crater resulted from a 34-kilometer-wide space rock, 
hitting the surface Whip  at 7 kilometers per second.

The heat of the impact would have created a lake in the crater, 
according to the model, 
which the team presented this week at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. 
The lake would likely only have existed for 1 million years Jawdrop 
before freezing over in Titan’s frosty temperatures. 

But Penteado Crósta says this may have been enough time for microbes to evolve, 
taking advantage of liquid water, 
organic molecules, 
and heat from the impact. 
“That’s pretty good for bacteria.”

Although the team’s research focused on Menrva, 
Penteado Crósta says it is possible that smaller impacts were sufficient to break through Titan’s ice shell, 
perhaps even at Selk—a 90-kilometer-wide crater about 5000 kilometers away. 

Selk is thought to be much younger than Menrva, 
perhaps just a few hundred million years old, 
which would mean any evidence of life there would be fresher. 
“Selk may have more chance to have some sort of fossilized bacteria preserved in the ice,” 
Penteado Crósta says.

Selk is the planned landing site for NASA’s Dragonfly mission, 
in 2027 and arrive on Titan 2036. 
If the impact did break the ice crust here, the mission could find out.

But Elizabeth Turtle, 
principal investigator for the Dragonfly mission at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 
isn’t so sure it did. 
“There isn’t strong evidence to suggest you actually had puncturing,” she says.

Still, Dragonfly could visit other craters in an extended mission. 
And although Menrva might be too distant, 
it could be an intriguing landing site in future, Penteado Crósta says.

...
Reply
#33
Quote:Scientists have believed an ocean sits about 100 kilometers below Titan’s crust ever since 2012, 
when NASA’s Cassini mission measured sight variations in the moon’s tides. 
Alvaro Penteado Crósta, 
a planetary geologist at the University of Campinas, 
knew the moon was pocked with many large impact craters. 


Such an ocean would have a heated core in order to stay liquid.
Heat would increasingly rise to the surface
and carry with it water from below,
slowly dissolving the rocky strata,
until it reached an organic zone... Coffee2 Bong7bp  ...just think!
Reply


Forum Jump:


Users browsing this thread: 1 Guest(s)